Analytic coherent states for generalized potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto, M.M.; Simmons, L.M. Jr.
1978-01-01
A prescription is given for finding coherent states in generalized potentials. By coherent states is meant states which in time follow the motion that a classical particle would. This prescription is based upon finding those natural classical variables which vary as the sine and the cosine of the classical ω/sub c/t. As an example, the symmetric Rosen--Morse potential is discussed in detail
Classical motion and coherent states for Poeschl-Teller potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz y Cruz, S.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.
2008-01-01
The trigonometric and hyperbolic Poeschl-Teller potentials are dealt with from the point of view of classical and quantum mechanics. We show that there is a natural correspondence between the algebraic structure of these two approaches for both kind of potentials. Then, the coherent states are constructed and the appropriate classical variables are compared with the expected values of their corresponding quantum operators
Nonlinear dynamics of semiclassical coherent states in periodic potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carles, Rémi; Sparber, Christof
2012-01-01
We consider nonlinear Schrödinger equations with either local or nonlocal nonlinearities. In addition, we include periodic potentials as used, for example, in matter wave experiments in optical lattices. By considering the corresponding semiclassical scaling regime, we construct asymptotic solutions, which are concentrated both in space and in frequency around the effective semiclassical phase-space flow induced by Bloch’s spectral problem. The dynamics of these generalized coherent states is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger model with effective mass. In the case of nonlocal nonlinearities, we establish a novel averaging-type result in the critical case. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuhn, Robert
2007-07-01
The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)
Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhn, Robert
2007-01-01
The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)
Reduction of coherence of the human brain electric potentials
Novik, Oleg; Smirnov, Fedor
Plenty of technological processes are known to be damaged by magnetic storms. But technology is controlled by men and their functional systems may be damaged as well. We are going to consider the electro-neurophysiological aspect of the general problem: men surrounded by physical fields including ones of cosmic origination. Magnetic storms’ influence had been observed for a group of 13 students (practically healthy girls and boys from 18 to 23 years old, Moscow). To control the main functional systems of the examinees, their electroencephalograms (EEG) were being registered along with electrocardiograms, respiratory rhythms, arterial blood pressure and other characteristics during a year. All of these characteristics, save for the EEG, were within the normal range for all of the examinees during measurements. According to the EEG investigations by implementation of the computer proof-reading test in absence of magnetic storms, the values of the coherence function of time series of the theta-rhythm oscillations (f = 4 - 7.9 Hz, A = 20 μV) of electric potentials of the frontal-polar and occipital areas of the head belong to the interval [0.3, 0.8] for all of the students under investigation. (As the proof-reading test, it was necessary to choose given symbols from a random sequence of ones demonstrated at a monitor and to enter the number of the symbols discovered in a computer. Everyone was known that the time for determination of symbols is unlimited. On the other hand, nobody was known that the EEG and other registrations mentioned are connected with electromagnetic geophysical researches and geomagnetic storms). Let us formulate the main result: by implementation of the same test during a magnetic storm, 5 ≤ K ≤ 6, or no later then 24 hours after its beginning (different types of moderate magnetic storms occurred, the data of IZMIRAN were used), the values of the theta-rhythm frontal - occipital coherence function of all of the students of the group under
Potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma.
Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas
2018-05-01
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows assessment of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies using OCTA in glaucoma and highlight potential applications of this new technology in the field of glaucoma. OCTA studies have shown that retinal vascular changes may not develop solely as a result of advanced glaucoma damage. OCTA-derived measurements have provided evidence for lower retinal vascular densities at the optic nerve head, peripapillary and macula in preperimetric-glaucoma and early-glaucoma, as well as, in more advanced glaucoma, in comparison to with normal eyes. OCTA is a novel imaging modality that has already started to expand our knowledge base regarding the role of ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Future studies will better elucidate the role of OCTA-derived measurements in clinical practice, research, and clinical trials in glaucoma.
Loss less real-time data compression based on LZO for steady-state Tokamak DAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujara, H.D.; Sharma, Manika
2008-01-01
The evolution of data acquisition system (DAS) for steady-state operation of Tokamak has been technology driven. Steady-state Tokamak demands a data acquisition system which is capable enough to acquire data losslessly from diagnostics. The needs of loss less continuous acquisition have a significant effect on data storage and takes up a greater portion of any data acquisition systems. Another basic need of steady state of nature of operation demands online viewing of data which loads the LAN significantly. So there is strong demand for something that would control the expansion of both these portion by a way of employing compression technique in real time. This paper presents a data acquisition systems employing real-time data compression technique based on LZO. It is a data compression library which is suitable for data compression and decompression in real time. The algorithm used favours speed over compression ratio. The system has been rigged up based on PXI bus and dual buffer mode architecture is implemented for loss less acquisition. The acquired buffer is compressed in real time and streamed to network and hard disk for storage. Observed performance of measure on various data type like binary, integer float, types of different type of wave form as well as compression timing overheads has been presented in the paper. Various software modules for real-time acquiring, online viewing of data on network nodes have been developed in LabWindows/CVI based on client server architecture
The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology
Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth
2010-04-01
Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.
The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, Carrie Hang-Yin; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M; Tonks, Catherine A; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai
2010-01-01
Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment
Calculating properties with the coherent-potential approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faulkner, J.S.; Stocks, G.M.
1980-01-01
It is demonstrated that the expression that has hitherto been used for calculating the Bloch spectral-density function A/sup B/(E,k) in the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation theory of alloys leads to manifestly unphysical results. No manipulation of the expression can eliminate this behavior. We develop an averaged Green's-function formulation and from it derive a new expression for A/sup B/(E,k) which does not contain unphysical features. The earlier expression for A/sup B/(E,k) was suggested as plausible on the basis that it is a spectral decomposition of the Lloyd formula. Expressions for many other properties of alloys have been obtained by manipulations of the Lloyd formula, and it is now clear that all such expressions must be considered suspect. It is shown by numerical and algebraic comparisons that some of the expressions obtained in this way are equivalent to the ones obtained from a Green's function, while others are not. In addition to studying these questions, the averaged Green's-function formulation developed in this paper is shown to furnish an interesting new way to approach many problems in alloy theory. The method is described in such a way that the aspects of the formulation that arise from the single-site approximation can be distinguished from those that depend on a specific choice for the effective scatterer
Generalized coherent states related to the associated Bessel functions and Morse potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mojaveri, B; Amiri Faseghandis, S
2014-01-01
Using the associated Bessel functions, a shape-invariant Lie algebra spanned by ladder operators plus the identity operator, is realized. The Hilbert space of the associated Bessel functions, representing the Lie algebra, are established and two kinds of generalized coherent states as an appropriate superposition of these functions are constructed. By implying appropriate similarity transformation on the constructed coherent states, the generalized coherent states for the Morse potential are obtained. By considering some statistical characteristics, it is revealed that the constructed coherent states indeed possess nonclassical features, such as squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics. (paper)
Construction of the Barut–Girardello quasi coherent states for the Morse potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Popov, Dušan, E-mail: dusan_popov@yahoo.co.uk [“Politehnica” University of Timişoara, Department of Physical Foundations of Engineering, 2 Vasile Pârvan Blvd., 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D. F. 07738 (Mexico); Pop, Nicolina, E-mail: popnico2000@yahoo.com [“Politehnica” University of Timişoara, Department of Physical Foundations of Engineering, 2 Vasile Pârvan Blvd., 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Sajfert, Vjekoslav, E-mail: sajfertv@open.telekom.rs [Technical Faculty “M. Pupin” Zrenjanin, University of Novi Sad, Djure Djakovica bb, 23000 Zrenjanin (Serbia); Şimon, Simona, E-mail: simon_cristina@hotmail.com [“Politehnica” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Communication Sciences, 2A Traian Lalescu St, 300223 Timişoara (Romania)
2013-12-15
The Morse oscillator (MO) potential occupies a privileged place among the anharmonic oscillator potentials due to its applications in quantum mechanics to diatomic or polyatomic molecules, spectroscopy and so on. For this potential some kinds of coherent states (especially of the Klauder–Perelomov and Gazeau–Klauder kinds) have been constructed previously. In this paper we construct the coherent states of the Barut–Girardello kind (BG-CSs) for the MO potential, which have received less attention in the scientific literature. We obtain these CSs and demonstrate that they fulfil all conditions required by the coherent state. The Mandel parameter for the pure BG-CSs and Husimi’s and P-quasi distribution functions (for the mixed-thermal states) are also presented. Finally, we show that all obtained results for the BG-CSs of MO tend, in the harmonic limit, to the corresponding results for the coherent states of the one dimensional harmonic oscillator (CSs for the HO-1D). -- Highlights: •Construct the coherent states of the Barut–Girardello kind (BG-CSs) for the MO potential. •They fulfil all the conditions needed to a coherent state. •Present the Mandel parameter and Husimi’s and P-quasi distribution functions. •All results tend to those for the one dimensional harmonic oscillator in its harmonic limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Kinani, A.H; Daoud, M.
2001-10-01
This article is an illustration of the construction of coherent and generalized intelligent states which has been recently proposed by us for an arbitrary quantum system. We treat the quantum system submitted to the infinite square well potential and the nonlinear oscillators. By means of the analytical representation of the coherent states a la Gazeau-Klauder and those a la Klauder-Perelomov, we derive the generalized intelligent states in analytical ways. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulka, B.R.
1982-04-01
A tight-binding one-dimensional distorted system with impurities is considered and the electron density of states is calculated in the coherent potential approximation. It is shown that two types of impurities, an impurity built in a chain and a domain wall (a soliton), play the essential role and a drastic reduction of the energy gap is observed for a few per cent of impurities. The experimental situation in polyacetylene is also discussed. (author)
Coherent wave packet dynamics in a double-well potential in cavity
Zheng, Li; Li, Gang; Ding, Ming-Song; Wang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Yun-Cui
2018-02-01
We investigate the coherent wave packet dynamics of a two-level atom trapped in a symmetric double-well potential in a near-resonance cavity. Prepared on one side of the double-well potential, the atom wave packet oscillates between the left and right wells, while recoil induced by the emitted photon from the atom entangles the atomic internal and external degrees of freedom. The collapse and revival of the tunneling occurs. Adjusting the width of the wave packets, one can modify the tunneling frequency and suppress the tunneling.
Mohammed, Monzoorul Haque; Dutta, Anirban; Bose, Tungadri; Chadaram, Sudha; Mande, Sharmila S
2012-10-01
An unprecedented quantity of genome sequence data is currently being generated using next-generation sequencing platforms. This has necessitated the development of novel bioinformatics approaches and algorithms that not only facilitate a meaningful analysis of these data but also aid in efficient compression, storage, retrieval and transmission of huge volumes of the generated data. We present a novel compression algorithm (DELIMINATE) that can rapidly compress genomic sequence data in a loss-less fashion. Validation results indicate relatively higher compression efficiency of DELIMINATE when compared with popular general purpose compression algorithms, namely, gzip, bzip2 and lzma. Linux, Windows and Mac implementations (both 32 and 64-bit) of DELIMINATE are freely available for download at: http://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/compression/DELIMINATE. sharmila@atc.tcs.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Madelung energy for random metallic alloys in the coherent potential approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korzhavyi, P. A.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.
1995-01-01
Within the conventional single-site coherent potential approximation (CPA) used to calculate thermodynamic properties of random alloys, the effect of charge transfer is neglected. We discuss a number of recent models based on the same mathematical form but with a different prefactor β which allow...... random alloy, and in this case the screened-CPA method (β=1/2) gives more correct results. It is suggested that a comparison with the results obtained by the Connolly-Williams method may be used to determine an optimal value for β depending on the alloy under consideration....
The quantum potential and ''causal'' trajectories for stationary states and for coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Bozic, M.
1988-07-01
We show for stationary states in a central potential that the quantum action S is only a part of the classical action W and derive an expression for the ''quantum potential'' U Q in terms of the other part. The association of momenta of some ''particles'' in the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics by p-vector=∇S and by dp-vector'/dt=-∇(V+U Q ) gives for stationary states very different orbits which have no relation to classical orbits but express some flow properties of the quantum mechanical current. For coherent states, on the other hand, p-vector and p-vector' as well as the quantum mechanical average p-vector and classical momenta, all four, lead to essentially the same trajectories except for different integration constants. The spinning particle is also considered. (author). 27 refs, 2 figs
New SUSYQM coherent states for Pöschl-Teller potentials: a detailed mathematical analysis
Bergeron, H.; Siegl, P.; Youssef, A.
2012-06-01
In a recent short note (Bergeron et al 2010 Europhys. Lett. 92 60003), we have presented the good properties of a new family of semi-classical states for Pöschl-Teller potentials. These states are built from a supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) approach and the parameters of these ‘coherent’ states are points in the classical phase space. In this paper, we develop all the mathematical aspects that have been left out of the previous paper (proof of the resolution of unity, detailed calculations of the quantized version of classical observables and mathematical study of the resulting operators: problems of domains, self-adjointness or self-adjoint extensions). Some additional questions such as asymptotic behavior are also studied. Moreover, the framework is extended to a larger class of Pöschl-Teller potentials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mookerjee, A.; Prasad, R.
1993-09-01
We present a method for calculating the electronic structure of disordered alloys with short range order (SRO) which guarantees positive density of states for all values of the SRO parameter. The method is based on the generalized augmented space theorem which is valid for alloys with SRO. This theorem is applied to alloys with SRO in the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) framework. This is done by using the augmented space formulation of Mookerjee and cluster coherent potential approximation. As an illustration, the method is applied to a single band mode TB-LMTO Hamiltonian. We find that the SRO can induce substantial changes in the density of states. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs
Coherent-potential approximation for the lattice vibrations of mixed III-V crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleinert, P.
1984-01-01
The coherent-potential approximation (CPA) is applied to the lattice dynamics of some III-V mixed crystals. The calculations are based on an eleven-parameter rigid-ion model (RIM 11). Explicit results are reported for the one-mode system In/sub 1-c/Ga/sub c/P and the two mixed-mode crystals In/sub 1-c/Ga/sub c/Sb and GaSb/sub 1-c/As/sub c/. Both, the reflectivity spectra and the composition dependence of vibrations at the GAMMA and X points are compared with existing experimental data. Force-constant changes are considered by the virtual-crystal approximation (VCA). The CPA theory is uniquely successful for III-V mixed-mode systems, which appear to switch from one-mode to two-mode behaviour. (author)
New SUSYQM coherent states for Pöschl–Teller potentials: a detailed mathematical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergeron, H; Siegl, P; Youssef, A
2012-01-01
In a recent short note (Bergeron et al 2010 Europhys. Lett. 92 60003), we have presented the good properties of a new family of semi-classical states for Pöschl–Teller potentials. These states are built from a supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM) approach and the parameters of these ‘coherent’ states are points in the classical phase space. In this paper, we develop all the mathematical aspects that have been left out of the previous paper (proof of the resolution of unity, detailed calculations of the quantized version of classical observables and mathematical study of the resulting operators: problems of domains, self-adjointness or self-adjoint extensions). Some additional questions such as asymptotic behavior are also studied. Moreover, the framework is extended to a larger class of Pöschl–Teller potentials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation
Pulikkotil, J. J.; Chroneos, A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2011-01-01
The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range
Ab Initio Description of Disordered Sr1−xKxFe2As2 Using the Coherent Potential Approximation
Pulikkotil, J. J.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2010-01-01
The electronic structure of disordered Sr1−xKxFe2As2 is studied by ab initio density functional theory. As no superstructure and/or atomic short range ordering is reported for Sr1−xKxFe2As2, the coherent potential approximation can be used
Zhou, Chenyi; Guo, Hong
2017-01-01
We report a diagrammatic method to solve the general problem of calculating configurationally averaged Green's function correlators that appear in quantum transport theory for nanostructures containing disorder. The theory treats both equilibrium and nonequilibrium quantum statistics on an equal footing. Since random impurity scattering is a problem that cannot be solved exactly in a perturbative approach, we combine our diagrammatic method with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) so that a reliable closed-form solution can be obtained. Our theory not only ensures the internal consistency of the diagrams derived at different levels of the correlators but also satisfies a set of Ward-like identities that corroborate the conserving consistency of transport calculations within the formalism. The theory is applied to calculate the quantum transport properties such as average ac conductance and transmission moments of a disordered tight-binding model, and results are numerically verified to high precision by comparing to the exact solutions obtained from enumerating all possible disorder configurations. Our formalism can be employed to predict transport properties of a wide variety of physical systems where disorder scattering is important.
Gentsch, Kornelia; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R
2014-04-01
Componential theories assume that emotion episodes consist of emergent and dynamic response changes to relevant events in different components, such as appraisal, physiology, motivation, expression, and subjective feeling. In particular, Scherer's Component Process Model hypothesizes that subjective feeling emerges when the synchronization (or coherence) of appraisal-driven changes between emotion components has reached a critical threshold. We examined the prerequisite of this synchronization hypothesis for appraisal-driven response changes in facial expression. The appraisal process was manipulated by using feedback stimuli, presented in a gambling task. Participants' responses to the feedback were investigated in concurrently recorded brain activity related to appraisal (event-related potentials, ERP) and facial muscle activity (electromyography, EMG). Using principal component analysis, the prediction of appraisal-driven response changes in facial EMG was examined. Results support this prediction: early cognitive processes (related to the feedback-related negativity) seem to primarily affect the upper face, whereas processes that modulate P300 amplitudes tend to predominantly drive cheek region responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pauly, N.; Dubus, A.; Roesler, M.
2003-01-01
For incident protons with velocities around 1 a.u., electron capture and loss processes are known to play an important role. In particular, electron emission as well as electronic stopping power are strongly influenced by the charge changing processes. Several different electron capture and loss processes have been identified [Solid State Phys. 43 (1990) 229], i.e. Auger valence band processes, shell processes and resonant coherent processes. In the latter, the incident projectile undergoes a periodic excitation due to the periodic crystalline potential so that an electron can be lost or captured. In the literature, several different choices have been made for the crystalline potential. It is precisely the aim of the present work to review and compare the various potentials used in the literature and to show the influence of this choice on the resonant coherent electron capture and loss cross sections
Diagnostic potential of iris cross-sectional imaging in albinism using optical coherence tomography.
Sheth, Viral; Gottlob, Irene; Mohammad, Sarim; McLean, Rebecca J; Maconachie, Gail D E; Kumar, Anil; Degg, Christopher; Proudlock, Frank A
2013-10-01
To characterize in vivo anatomic abnormalities of the iris in albinism compared with healthy controls using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and to explore the diagnostic potential of this technique for albinism. We also investigated the relationship between iris abnormalities and other phenotypical features of albinism. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 55 individuals with albinism and 45 healthy controls. We acquired 4.37×4.37-mm volumetric scans (743 A-scans, 50 B-scans) of the nasal and temporal iris in both eyes using AS-OCT (3-μm axial resolution). Iris layers were segmented and thicknesses were measured using ImageJ software. Iris transillumination grading was graded using Summers and colleagues' classification. Retinal OCT, eye movement recordings, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), visual evoked potential (VEP), and grading of skin and hair pigmentation were used to quantify other phenotypical features associated with albinism. Iris AS-OCT measurements included (1) total iris thickness, (2) stroma/anterior border (SAB) layer thickness, and (3) posterior epithelial layer (PEL) thickness. Correlation with other phenotypical measurements, including (1) iris transillumination grading, (2) retinal layer measurements at the fovea, (3) nystagmus intensity, (4) BCVA, (5) VEP asymmetry, (6) skin pigmentation, and (7) hair pigmentation (of head hair, lashes, and brows). The mean iris thickness was 10.7% thicker in controls (379.3 ± 44.0 μm) compared with the albinism group (342.5 ± 52.6 μm; P>0.001), SAB layers were 5.8% thicker in controls (315.1 ± 43.8 μm) compared with the albinism group (297.7 ± 50.0 μm; P=0.044), and PEL was 44.0% thicker in controls (64.1 ± 11.7 μm) compared with the albinism group (44.5 ± 13.9 μm; Palbinism. Phenotypic features of albinism, such as skin and hair pigmentation, BCVA, and nystagmus intensity, were significantly correlated to AS-OCT iris thickness measurements. We have
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chithiika Ruby, V.; Senthilvelan, M.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose an algorithm to construct coherent states for an exactly solvable position dependent mass Schroedinger equation. We use point canonical transformation method and obtain ground state eigenfunction of the position dependent mass Schroedinger equation. We fix the ladder operators in the deformed form and obtain explicit expression of the deformed superpotential in terms of mass distribution and its derivative. We also prove that these deformed operators lead to minimum uncertainty relations. Further, we illustrate our algorithm with two examples, in which the coherent states given for the second example are new.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lâle Battal Merlet
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bravo Gonzalo, Ivan; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Bang, Ole
2017-01-01
bandwidths, such sources are characterized by large intensity fluctuations, limiting their performance for applications in imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). An approach to eliminate the influence of noise sensitive effects is to use a so-called all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fiber, in which...... the dispersion is normal for all the wavelengths of interest. Pumping these types of fibers with short enough femtosecond pulses allows to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which is known to be as noisy process as modulation instability (MI), and coherent SC is generated through self-phase modulation...... (SPM) and optical wave breaking (OWB). In this study, we show the importance of the pump laser and fiber parameters in the design of low-noise ANDi based SC sources, for application in OCT. We numerically investigate the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the SC, calculating the relative intensity noise...
Optical coherence tomography: a potential tool to predict premature rupture of fetal membranes.
Micili, Serap C; Valter, Markus; Oflaz, Hakan; Ozogul, Candan; Linder, Peter; Föckler, Nicole; Artmann, Gerhard M; Digel, Ilya; Artmann, Aysegul T
2013-04-01
A fundamental question addressed in this study was the feasibility of preterm birth prediction based on a noncontact investigation of fetal membranes in situ. Although the phenomena of preterm birth and the premature rupture of the fetal membrane are well known, currently, there are no diagnostic tools for their prediction. The aim of this study was to assess whether optical coherence tomography could be used for clinical investigations of high-risk pregnancies. The thickness of fetal membranes was measured in parallel by optical coherence tomography and histological techniques for the following types of birth: normal births, preterm births without premature ruptures and births at full term with premature rupture of membrane. Our study revealed that the membrane thickness correlates with the birth type. Normal births membranes were statistically significantly thicker than those belonging to the other two groups. Thus, in spite of almost equal duration of gestation of the normal births and the births at full term with premature rupture, the corresponding membrane thicknesses differed. This difference is possibly related to previously reported water accumulation in the membranes. The optical coherence tomography results were encouraging, suggesting that this technology could be used in future to predict and distinguish between different kinds of births.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsiao-Lung Chan
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Previous brain electrophysiological research has studied the interregionalconnectivity during the tapping task and found that inter-hemispheric alpha coherence wasmore significant under bimanual task conditions than that under unilateral conditions, butthe interregional connectivity situation in the unilateral tapping condition was not exploredclearly. We have designed a unilateral repetitive finger-tapping task to delineate the anteriorand posterior cortex contributions to unilateral finger movement. Sixteen right handedcollege students participated in this study. Event related potentials (ERPs and the strengthof event related coherence (ERCoh were analyzed to examine the antero-posterodominance of cortical activity in the phase of early visual process (75-120ms, pre-execution(175-260ms, execution (310-420ms and post-execution (420-620ms. Results showed thatthe occipital (Oz, O1 and O2, frontal (Fz, F3, and F4, fronto-central (Fz, Cz, F3 and C3,and parietal regions were the most pronounced in the early visual, pre-execution, execution,and post-execution phases, respectively. Moreover, among four inter-hemispheric pairs onlythe Coh (C3 and C4 was significantly correlated to reaction time (RT of tapping in theexecution phase. In conclusion, the aforementioned variability of electrophysiological data(ERPs and coherence and the change of antero-postero regional dominance with timereflect the relative importance of different mechanisms in different phases. The mechanismsof visual processing, motor planning, motor execution and feedback reward wereoperational, respectively.
Gonzalo, I. B.; Engelsholm, R. D.; Bang, O.
2018-03-01
Commercially available silica-fiber-based and ultra-broadband supercontinuum (SC) sources are typically generated by pumping close to the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF), using high-power picosecond or nanosecond laser pulses. Despite the extremely broad bandwidths, such sources are characterized by large intensity fluctuations, limiting their performance for applications in imaging such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). An approach to eliminate the influence of noise sensitive effects is to use a so-called all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fiber, in which the dispersion is normal for all the wavelengths of interest. Pumping these types of fibers with short enough femtosecond pulses allows to suppress stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), which is known to be as noisy process as modulation instability (MI), and coherent SC is generated through self-phase modulation (SPM) and optical wave breaking (OWB). In this study, we show the importance of the pump laser and fiber parameters in the design of low-noise ANDi based SC sources, for application in OCT. We numerically investigate the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the SC, calculating the relative intensity noise (RIN) as a function of the pump pulse duration and fiber length. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate the role of the fiber length on the RIN of the ANDi SC, validating the results calculated numerically. In the end, we compare the RIN of a commercial SC source based on MI and the ANDi SC source developed here, which shows better noise performance when it is carefully designed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagashima, Y; Itoh, K; Itoh, S-I; Fujisawa, A; Hoshino, K; Takase, Y; Yagi, M; Ejiri, A; Ida, K; Shinohara, K; Uehara, K; Kusama, Y
2006-01-01
This paper presents results of bispectral analysis applied to floating potential fluctuations in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JAERI Fusion Torus-2 Modified (JFT-2M) tokamak. Inside the outermost surface of plasmas, coherent mode fluctuations (CMs) in floating potential were observed around the frequency of the geodesic acoustic mode. The squared bicoherence shows significant nonlinear couplings between the CMs and background fluctuations. The biphase at the frequency of the CMs is localized around π, while that at frequencies of background fluctuations distributes in a wide range. The total bicoherence at the frequency of the CMs is proportional to the squared amplitude of the CMs. These observations are consistent with the theoretical prediction on the drift wave-zonal flow systems. Interpretation of the absolute value of the total bicoherence is also discussed
Potential Measurement Errors Due to Image Enlargement in Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging
Uji, Akihito; Murakami, Tomoaki; Muraoka, Yuki; Hosoda, Yoshikatsu; Yoshitake, Shin; Dodo, Yoko; Arichika, Shigeta; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
2015-01-01
The effect of interpolation and super-resolution (SR) algorithms on quantitative and qualitative assessments of enlarged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images was investigated in this report. Spectral-domain OCT images from 30 eyes in 30 consecutive patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) and 20 healthy eyes in 20 consecutive volunteers were analyzed. Original image (OR) resolution was reduced by a factor of four. Images were then magnified by a factor of four with and without application of one of the following algorithms: bilinear (BL), bicubic (BC), Lanczos3 (LA), and SR. Differences in peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, photoreceptor layer status, and parallelism (reflects the complexity of photoreceptor layer alterations) were analyzed in each image type. The order of PSNRs from highest to lowest was SR > LA > BC > BL > non-processed enlarged images (NONE). The PSNR was statistically different in all groups. The NONE, BC, and LA images resulted in significantly thicker RNFL measurements than the OR image. In eyes with DME, the photoreceptor layer, which was hardly identifiable in NONE images, became detectable with algorithm application. However, OCT photoreceptor parameters were still assessed as more undetectable than in OR images. Parallelism was not statistically different in OR and NONE images, but other image groups had significantly higher parallelism than OR images. Our results indicated that interpolation and SR algorithms increased OCT image resolution. However, qualitative and quantitative assessments were influenced by algorithm use. Additionally, each algorithm affected the assessments differently. PMID:26024236
Zhou, Xin; Oak, Chulho; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Kim, Sung Won; Tang, Shuo
2018-02-01
Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is capable of measuring tissue birefringence. It has been widely applied to access the birefringence in tissues such as skin and cartilage. The vocal cord tissue consists of three anatomical layers from the surface to deep inside, the epithelium that contains almost no collagen, the lamina propria that is composed with abundant collagen, and the vocalis muscle layer. Due to the variation in the organization of collagen fibers, the different tissue layers show different tissue birefringence, which can be evaluated by PS-OCT phase retardation measurement. Furthermore, collagen fibers in healthy connective tissues are usually well organized, which provides relatively high birefringence. When the collagen organization is destroyed by diseases such as tumor, the birefringence of the tissue will decrease. In this study, a rabbit laryngeal tumor model with different stages of tumor progression is investigated ex-vivo by PS-OCT. The PS-OCT images show a gradual decrease in birefringence from normal tissue to severe tumor tissue. A phase retardation slope-based analysis is conducted to distinguish the epithelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers, respectively. The phase retardation slope quantifies the birefringence in different layers. The quantitative study provides a more detailed comparison among different stages of the rabbit laryngeal tumor model. The PS-OCT result is validated by the corresponding histology images of the same samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ojeda-Guillén, D., E-mail: dogphysics@gmail.com [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, C.P. 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Mota, R.D. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Unidad Culhuacán, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Santa Ana No. 1000, Col. San Francisco Culhuacán, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04430, México D.F. (Mexico); Granados, V.D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, C.P. 07738, México D.F. (Mexico)
2014-08-14
We decouple the Dirac's radial equations in D+1 dimensions with Coulomb-type scalar and vector potentials through appropriate transformations. We study each of these uncoupled second-order equations in an algebraic way by using an su(1,1) algebra realization. Based on the theory of irreducible representations, we find the energy spectrum and the radial eigenfunctions. We construct the Perelomov coherent states for the Sturmian basis, which is the basis for the unitary irreducible representation of the su(1,1) Lie algebra. The physical radial coherent states for our problem are obtained by applying the inverse original transformations to the Sturmian coherent states. - Highlights: • We solve the most general Dirac–Kepler–Coulomb problem. • The eigenfunctions and energy spectrum are obtained in a purely algebraic way. • We construct the radial SU(1,1) coherent states for the Kepler–Coulomb problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R.D.; Granados, V.D.
2014-01-01
We decouple the Dirac's radial equations in D+1 dimensions with Coulomb-type scalar and vector potentials through appropriate transformations. We study each of these uncoupled second-order equations in an algebraic way by using an su(1,1) algebra realization. Based on the theory of irreducible representations, we find the energy spectrum and the radial eigenfunctions. We construct the Perelomov coherent states for the Sturmian basis, which is the basis for the unitary irreducible representation of the su(1,1) Lie algebra. The physical radial coherent states for our problem are obtained by applying the inverse original transformations to the Sturmian coherent states. - Highlights: • We solve the most general Dirac–Kepler–Coulomb problem. • The eigenfunctions and energy spectrum are obtained in a purely algebraic way. • We construct the radial SU(1,1) coherent states for the Kepler–Coulomb problem
Ab Initio Description of Disordered Sr1−xKxFe2As2 Using the Coherent Potential Approximation
Pulikkotil, J. J.
2010-04-29
The electronic structure of disordered Sr1−xKxFe2As2 is studied by ab initio density functional theory. As no superstructure and/or atomic short range ordering is reported for Sr1−xKxFe2As2, the coherent potential approximation can be used to describe the effects of chemical disorder. We find clear deviations from the rigid band model characteristics. Nonmagnetic calculations show an enhancement of the density of states at the Fermi energy in the range 0.4≤x≤0.65, which coincides with the region where experiments observe an enhanced superconducting transition temperature, and antiferromagnetic calculations indicate a significant renormalization of states at Fermi energy. Analyzing the distribution of the Fe 3d states over the range 0≤x≤1 we propose an effective three band model.
Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation
Pulikkotil, J. J.
2011-08-09
The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range. The findings are compared to the related Si1−xGex alloys and to experimental results. Interestingly, the deviation from Vegard’s law is quantitatively and qualitatively different between the Sn1−xGex and Si1−xGex alloys. An almost linear dependence of the bulk modulus as a function of composition is found for Si1−xGex, whereas for Sn1−xGex the dependence is strongly nonlinear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmodoro, A; Staunton, J B
2011-01-01
Over the last few years the Non-Local Coherent Potential Approximation (NL-CPA) has been shown to provide an effective way to describe the electronic structure and related properties of disordered systems, where short-range order (SRO) and other local environment effects are important. Here we present its generalization to materials with multi-atom per unit cell lattices. The method is described using a Green function formalism and illustrated by an implementation for a simplified one-dimensional tight-binding model with substitutional disorder. This development paves the way for a natural reimplementation of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) multiple scattering solution of Kohn-Sham equations for ab-initio calculations of real materials.
Adiabatic radio-frequency potentials for the coherent manipulation of matter waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lesanovsky, Igor; Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.
2006-01-01
Adiabatic dressed state potentials are created when magnetic substates of trapped atoms are coupled by a radio-frequency field. We discuss their theoretical foundations and point out fundamental advantages over potentials purely based on static fields. The enhanced flexibility enables one...... to implement numerous configurations, including double wells, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers which even allows for internal state-dependent atom manipulation. These can be realized using simple and highly integrated wire geometries on atom chips....
New SUSYQM coherent states for Poschl-Teller potentials: a detailed mathematical analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bergeron, H.; Siegl, Petr; Youssef, A.
2012-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 24 (2012), 244028/1-244028/14 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : supersymmetry * Poschi-Teller potential Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.766, year: 2012
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Hamouda, I.
1976-01-01
The potential scattering cross-sections for slow neutrons have been measured for Si, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Zn, Zr, Sb and Ta in order to determine the nuclear potential radius and to investigate the prediction of nuclear optical model. The coherent scattering cross-sections for these elements have been measured from the obtained values of the Bragg cut-offs observed in the behaviour of the total cross-sections at cold neutron energies. The measurements were based on the total neutron cross-sections resulting from transmission experiments performed with the neutron chopper at ET-RR-1 reactor
Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.
2015-02-01
Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, C R; Church, S; Gaier, T; Lai, R; Ruf, C; Wollack, E
2009-01-01
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, C R [M/C 169-327, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Church, S [Room 324 Varian Physics Bldg, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gaier, T [M/C 168-314, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lai, R [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Ruf, C [1533 Space Research Building, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Wollack, E, E-mail: charles.lawrence@jpl.nasa.go [NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2009-03-01
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Rikiya; Kimura, Takashi; Kuramoto, Mayumi; Yu, Jian; Khakurel, Krishna; Nishino, Yoshinori; Yamashige, Hisao; Miura, Masahide; Joti, Yasumasa; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuya
2015-01-01
Recent advances in x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new pathways for contributing to industrial research-and-development activities. In this article, we describe our initiatory attempt at using the SPring-8 Ångström compact free-electron laser (SACLA) for industrial applications. The attempt was conducted by the authors through the industry-academia partnership program initiated by RIKEN, aimed at examining the potential of XFELs for the analysis of car-related nanomaterials. Using the infrastructures developed at SACLA, we performed single-shot coherent diffractive imaging experiments on automotive exhaust catalysts and succeeded in obtaining the reconstructed images. This effort has paved the way for the future use of XFELs in the research-and-development activity of automotive exhaust catalysts. (paper)
Coherence Multiplex System Topologies
Meijerink, Arjan; Taniman, R.O.; Heideman, G.H.L.M.; van Etten, Wim
2007-01-01
Coherence multiplexing is a potentially inexpensive form of optical code-division multiple access, which is particularly suitable for short-range applications with moderate bandwidth requirements, such as access networks, LANs, or interconnects. Various topologies are known for constructing an
Integrated coherent matter wave circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.
2015-01-01
An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry
Coherence and Sense of Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dau, Susanne
2014-01-01
Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question exa...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chicken, J.C.
1988-01-01
This report describes the results of the study that was made, under Contract No ECI-1390-B7221-85D, for the European Atomic Energy Community. The aim of the study was to examine and assess the feasibility of developing coherent and uniform criteria for judging the acceptability of the technical aspects of the risks associated with potentially hazardous installations. The report is arranged in five main parts. First the nature of hazardous installations is considered and this provides the basis for examination of the currently-used technical risk acceptability criteria. Next, the possible forms of criteria are explored and then universally consistent partial and overall technical risk acceptability criteria are proposed. Following this the implications of using the criteria proposed at the design, regulatory and operating levels are examined. Then, by testing the criteria against some real decisions, the practical problems of using the proposed criteria are explored. This leads to consideration of possible alternatives to the proposed criteria. Finally the conclusions that appear to be justified are summarized and the need for further work is identified
Gulmez Sevim, Duygu; Unlu, Metin; Gultekin, Murat; Karaca, Cagatay
2018-02-12
There have been ongoing clinical trials of therapeutic agents in Huntington's disease (HD) which requires development of reliable biomarkers of disease progression. There have been studies in the literature with conflicting results on the involvement of retina in HD, and up to date there is not a study evaluating the single retinal layers in HD. We aimed to evaluate the specific retinal changes in HD and their usability as potential disease progression markers. This cross-sectional study used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with automatic segmentation to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and the thickness and volume of retinal layers in foveal scans of 15 patients with HD and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Genetic testing results, disease duration, HD disease burden scores and Unified HD Rating Scales motor scores were acquired for the patients. Temporal pRNFL, macular RNFL (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer thicknesses and IPL, retinal pigment epithelium and outer macular volume were found lower in HD compared to controls, while outer nuclear layer and outer retinal layer thickness were increased (p layer thicknesses, most significantly with mRNFL and GCL and disease progression markers. The outcomes of this study points out that retinal layers, most significantly mRNFL and GCL, are strongly correlated with the disease progression in HD and could serve as useful biomarkers for disease progression.
Garbrecht, B; Schmidt, M G; Garbrecht, Bjorn; Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.
2004-01-01
We propose a new baryogenesis scenario based on coherent production and mixing of different fermionic species. The mechanism is operative during phase transitions, at which the fermions acquire masses via Yukawa couplings to scalar fields. Baryon production is efficient when the mass matrix is nonadiabatically varying, nonsymmetric and when it violates CP and B-L directly, or some other charges that are eventually converted to B-L. We first consider a toy model, which involves two mixing fermionic species, and then a hybrid inflationary scenario embedded in a supersymmetric Pati-Salam GUT. We show that, quite generically, a baryon excess in accordance with observation can result.
Zhou, Kanheng; Wang, Yan; Feng, Kairui; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Zhihong
2018-02-01
HIFU is a truly noninvasive, acoustic therapeutic technique that utilizes high intensity acoustic field in the focus to kill the targeted tissue for disease treatment purpose. The mechanical properties of targeted tissue changes before and after treatment, and this change can be accurately detected by shear wave elastography. Hence, shear wave elastography is usually used for monitoring HIFU treatment asynchronously. To improve the low spatial resolution in ultrasound shear wave elastography, and to perform diseases diagnosis, treatment and monitoring in the same system, a new setup that combines HIFU and PhS-OCT system was proposed in this study. This proposed setup could do 1) HIFU treatment when the transducer works at high energy level, 2) ultrasound induced shear wave optical coherence elastography for HIFU treatment asynchronous monitoring when the transducer works at low energy level. Ex-vivo bovine liver tissue was treated at the same energy level for different time (0s, 1s, 5s, 9s) in this research. Elastography was performed on the lesion area of the sample after HIFU treatment, and the elastogram was reconstructed by the time of flight time method. The elastogram results clearly show the boundary of HIFU lesion area and surrounding normal tissue, even for 1s treatment time. And the average elasticity of the lesion grows linearly as the treatment time increases. Combined with OCT needle probe, the proposed method has a large potential not only to be used for superficial diseases treatment, but also to be used for high-precision-demanded diseases treatment, e.g. nervous disease treatment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.H.; Allen, P.B.; Nicholson, D.M.; Butler, W.H.
1989-01-01
A supercell procedure for exact evaluation of the one-electron Kubo-Greenwood formula is applied to the resistivity rho of V/sub 1-//sub x/Al/sub x/ alloys and compared with a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation calculation. The results of these calculations agree well, consistent with the observation of delocalized eigenstates, in spite of the very high resistivity, rho≅200 μΩ cm
Operational resource theory of total quantum coherence
Yang, Si-ren; Yu, Chang-shui
2018-01-01
Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics and is an important physical resource in quantum information. Recently, the resource theory of quantum coherence has been established parallel with that of entanglement. In the resource theory, a resource can be well defined if given three ingredients: the free states, the resource, the (restricted) free operations. In this paper, we study the resource theory of coherence in a different light, that is, we consider the total coherence defined by the basis-free coherence maximized among all potential basis. We define the distillable total coherence and the total coherence cost and in both the asymptotic regime and the single-copy regime show the reversible transformation between a state with certain total coherence and the state with the unit reference total coherence. Extensively, we demonstrate that the total coherence can also be completely converted to the total correlation with the equal amount by the free operations. We also provide the alternative understanding of the total coherence, respectively, based on the entanglement and the total correlation in a different way.
Coherent Structures in Numerically Simulated Plasma Turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1989-01-01
Low level electrostatic ion acoustic turbulence generated by the ion-ion beam instability was investigated numerically. The fluctuations in potential were investigated by a conditional statistical analysis revealing propagating coherent structures having the form of negative potential wells which...
Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten
2006-01-01
Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....
Cohering power of quantum operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2017-05-18
Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.
Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaneda, Roman
2003-03-01
A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function. (author)
On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Leif
1979-01-01
It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....
Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states
Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam
2018-03-01
The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.
Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....
Coherent Coupled Qubits for Quantum Annealing
Weber, Steven J.; Samach, Gabriel O.; Hover, David; Gustavsson, Simon; Kim, David K.; Melville, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danna; Sears, Adam P.; Yan, Fei; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.
2017-07-01
Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents Ip. Here, we examine an alternative approach using qubits with smaller Ip and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building block for quantum annealing, between two flux qubits with small (approximately 50-nA) persistent currents. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence.
Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.
2005-10-01
The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleinert, P.
1982-01-01
The vibrational properties of the mixed crystals Ga/sub 1-x/In/sub x/As and Ga/sub 1-x/In/sub x/Sb are investigated using the coherent-potential approximation (CPA). These III-V systems switch from one-mode to two-mode behaviour as the composition is changed. Results are obtained for a one-dimensional model including self-consistently mass defects and force constant changes. The calculated density of states and the dielectric susceptibility are compared with results of the mass CPA. In addition, a three-dimensional CPA Bethe lattice treatment is carried out to calculate the optical properties of these disordered systems showing mixed-mode behaviour. The force-constant change is included by a virtual-crystal interpolation. The theory explains the mode switching behaviour and agrees fairly well with experimental peak positions and line shapes of the response function. (author)
El Naschie's coherence on the subquantum medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agop, M.; Ioannou, P.D.; Nica, P.; Galusca, G.; Stefan, M.
2005-01-01
In the hydrodynamic formulation of the Scale Relativity theory one shows that a stable vortices distribution of bipolaron type induces superconducting pairs by means of the quantum potential. One builds the superconducting fractal by an iterated map and demonstrates that the superconducting pairs results as projections of this fractal. Thus, usual mechanisms (as example the exchange interaction used in the bipolaron theory) are reduced to the coherence on the subquantum medium in a ε (∞) space (El Naschie's coherence)
Zheng, Yanping
2009-01-01
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
Coherent Multistatic ISAR Imaging
Dorp, Ph. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Verzeilberg, J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents methods for Coherent Multistatic Radar Imaging for Non Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) with a network of radar sensors. Coherent Multistatic Radar Imaging is based on an extension of existing monostatic ISAR algorithms to the multistatic environment. The paper describes the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio
2014-01-01
We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly modula...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.
1990-01-01
The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs
Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence
Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli
2017-07-01
Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.
Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy L.; Dabiri, John O.
2017-09-01
We present a method for identifying the coherent structures associated with individual Lagrangian flow trajectories even where only sparse particle trajectory data are available. The method, based on techniques in spectral graph theory, uses the Coherent Structure Coloring vector and associated eigenvectors to analyze the distance in higher-dimensional eigenspace between a selected reference trajectory and other tracer trajectories in the flow. By analyzing this distance metric in a hierarchical clustering, the coherent structure of which the reference particle is a member can be identified. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Additionally, the method is able to assess the relative coherence of the associated structure in comparison to the surrounding flow. Although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems such as neuronal activity, gene expression, or social networks.
Intracoronary optical coherence tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Sotomi, Yohei
2017-01-01
By providing valuable information about the coronary artery wall and lumen, intravascular imaging may aid in optimizing interventional procedure results and thereby could improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT...
Coherence in Industrial Transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær
2003-01-01
The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.
2017-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that is used to peer inside a body noninvasively. Tissue structure defined by tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, and the speed of blood flow, are derived from the characteristics of light remitted by the body. Singly backscattered light...... detected by partial coherence interferometry (PCI) is used to synthesize the tomographic image coded in false colors. A prerequisite of this technique is a low time-coherent but high space-coherent light source, for example, a superluminescent diode or a supercontinuum source. Alternatively, the imaging...... technique can be realized by using ultrafast wavelength scanning light sources. For tissue imaging, the light source wavelengths are restricted to the red and near-infrared (NIR) region from about 600 to 1300 nm, the so-called therapeutic window, where absorption (μa ≈ 0.01 mm−1) is small enough. Transverse...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Duesterer, S; Treusch, R; Barty, A; Benner, W H; Bogan, M J; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S P; Woods, B W; Boutet, S; Cavalleri, A; Hajdu, J; Iwan, B; Seibert, M M; Timneanu, N; Marchesini, S; Sakdinawat, A; Sokolowski-Tinten, K
2009-01-01
We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.
Electron dynamics inside short-coherence systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, Giulio; Bordone, Paolo; Jacoboni, Carlo
2006-01-01
We present theoretical results on electron dynamics inside nanometric systems, where the coherence of the electron ensemble is maintained in a very short region. The contacts are supposed to spoil such a coherence, therefore the interference processes between the carrier wavefunction and the internal potential profile can be affected by the proximity of the contacts. The problem has been analysed by using the Wigner-function formalism. For very short devices, transport properties, such as tunnelling through potential barriers, are significantly influenced by the distance between the contacts
Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.
2018-01-01
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Coherent structures in tokamak plasmas workshop: Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.E.; Craddock, G.G.
1992-08-01
Coherent structures have the potential to impact a variety of theoretical and experimental aspects of tokamak plasma confinement. This includes the basic processes controlling plasma transport, propagation and efficiency of external mechanisms such as wave heating and the accuracy of plasma diagnostics. While the role of coherent structures in fluid dynamics is better understood, this is a new topic for consideration by plasma physicists. This informal workshop arose out of the need to identify the magnitude of structures in tokamaks and in doing so, to bring together for the first time the surprisingly large number of plasma researchers currently involved in work relating to coherent structures. The primary purpose of the workshop, in addition to the dissemination of information, was to develop formal and informal collaborations, set the stage for future formation of a coherent structures working group or focus area under the heading of the Tokamak Transport Task Force, and to evaluate the need for future workshops on coherent structures. The workshop was concentrated in four basic areas with a keynote talk in each area as well as 10 additional presentations. The issues of discussion in each of these areas was as follows: Theory - Develop a definition of structures and coherent as it applies to plasmas. Experiment - Review current experiments looking for structures in tokamaks, discuss experimental procedures for finding structures, discuss new experiments and techniques. Fluids - Determine how best to utilize the resource of information available from the fluids community both on the theoretical and experimental issues pertaining to coherent structures in plasmas. Computation - Discuss computational aspects of studying coherent structures in plasmas as they relate to both experimental detection and theoretical modeling
Stimulated coherent transition radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung-chi Lihn.
1996-03-01
Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed
SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bickel, Douglas Lloyd
2014-01-01
Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.
Optical generation and control of quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures
Slavcheva, Gabriela
2010-01-01
The unprecedented control of coherence that can be exercised in quantum optics of atoms and molecules has stimulated increasing efforts in extending it to solid-state systems. One motivation to exploit the coherent phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm, however many more potential device applications ranging from novel lasers to spintronics are all bound up with issues in coherence. The book focuses on recent advances in the optical control of coherence in excitonic and polaritonic systems as model systems for the complex semiconductor dynamics towards the goal
COHERENT Experiment: current status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimov, D; Belov, V; Bolozdynya, A; Burenkov, A; Albert, J B; Del Valle Coello, M; D’Onofrio, M; Awe, C; Barbeau, P S; Cervantes, M; Becker, B; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Cooper, R L; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J; Eberhardt, A; Dean, D; Dolgolenko, A G
2017-01-01
The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented. (paper)
Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)
2016-02-15
The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.
Maintaining Web Cache Coherency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina
2014-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described as the o......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...
Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev
2011-01-01
This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th
Optical coherence tomography: potentialities in clinical practice
Zagaynova, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Shakhov, Andrey; Terentjeva, Anna; Snopova, Ludmila B.; Kuznetzova, Irina A.; Streltzova, Olga; Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Myakov, Alex
2004-08-01
Clinical studies using OCT involved 2000 patients in various fields of medicine such as gastroenterology, urology, laryngology, gynecology, dermatology, stomatology, etc. Layered high-contrast images were typical for benign epithelial conditions. OCT distinguish in mucosae: epithelium, connective tissue layer, and smooth-muscle layer. Various benign processes occurring in mucosa manifest in OCT images as changes in the epithelial height, scattering properties and the course of the basement membrane. Lack of the layered structural pattern is the main criterion for dysplastic / malignant images. In clinic: OCT data may be critical for choosing a tissue site for excisional biopsy, OCT can detect tumor borders and their linear dimensions, OCT can be used to plan a resection line in operations and to control adequacy of resection, to monitor whether reparative processes are timely and adequate. OCT sensitivity of the uterine cervix, urinary bladder and larynx is 82, 98, 77%, respectively, specificity - 78, 71, 96%, diagnostic accuracy - 81, 85, 87% with significantly good agreement index of clinicians kappa - 0.65, 0.79, 0.83 (confidence intervals: 0.57-0.73; 0.71-0.88; 0.74-0.91). Error in detection of high grade dysplasia and microinvasive cancer is 21.4% in average. Additional modification of OCT (cross-polarisation OCT, OCM), development of the procedure (biotissue compression, application of chemical agents) can improve the specificity and sensitivity of traditional modality.
Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena
2016-01-01
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...
Coherence-Multiplexed Optical RF Feeder Networks
Meijerink, Arjan; Taniman, R.O.; van Etten, Wim
2007-01-01
An optical RF feeding system for wireless access is proposed, in which the radio access points are distinguished by means of coherence multiplexing (CM). CM is a rather unknown and potentially inexpensive optical code division multiple access technique, which is particularly suitable for relatively
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten
2016-01-01
Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care a...
Coherence in quantum estimation
Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele
2018-01-01
The geometry of quantum states provides a unifying framework for estimation processes based on quantum probes, and it establishes the ultimate bounds of the achievable precision. We show a relation between the statistical distance between infinitesimally close quantum states and the second order variation of the coherence of the optimal measurement basis with respect to the state of the probe. In quantum phase estimation protocols, this leads to propose coherence as the relevant resource that one has to engineer and control to optimize the estimation precision. Furthermore, the main object of the theory i.e. the symmetric logarithmic derivative, in many cases allows one to identify a proper factorization of the whole Hilbert space in two subsystems. The factorization allows one to discuss the role of coherence versus correlations in estimation protocols; to show how certain estimation processes can be completely or effectively described within a single-qubit subsystem; and to derive lower bounds for the scaling of the estimation precision with the number of probes used. We illustrate how the framework works for both noiseless and noisy estimation procedures, in particular those based on multi-qubit GHZ-states. Finally we succinctly analyze estimation protocols based on zero-temperature critical behavior. We identify the coherence that is at the heart of their efficiency, and we show how it exhibits the non-analyticities and scaling behavior proper of a large class of quantum phase transitions.
Coherent synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agoh, Tomonori
2006-01-01
This article presents basic properties of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with numerical examples and introduces the reader to important aspects of CSR in future accelerators with short bunches. We show interesting features of the single bunch instability due to CSR in storage rings and discuss the longitudinal CSR field via the impedance representation. (author)
Interference due to coherence swapping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
particle is, its interaction with the beam splitter does not reveal this information .... If one shines a strong linearly polarised monochromatic laser beam, or a quasi .... to be a hindrance to coherence, can be suitably designed to create coherence.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Karlsudd
2008-09-01
Full Text Available This article describes a learning system constructed to facilitate teaching and learning by creating a functional web-based contact between schools and organisations which in cooperation with the school contribute to pupils’/students’ cognitive development. Examples of such organisations include science centres, museums, art and music workshops and teacher education internships. With the support of the “Web Coherence Learning” IT application (abbreviated in Swedish to Webbhang developed by the University of Kalmar, the aim is to reinforce learning processes in the encounter with organisations outside school. In close cooperation with potential users a system was developed which can be described as consisting of three modules. The first module, “the organisation page” supports the organisation in simply setting up a homepage, where overarching information on organisation operations can be published and where functions like calendar, guestbook, registration and newsletter can be included. In the second module, “the activity page” the activities offered by the organisation are described. Here pictures and information may prepare and inspire pupils/students to their own activities before future visits. The third part, “the participant page” is a communication module linked to the activity page enabling school classes to introduce themselves and their work as well as documenting the work and communicating with the educators responsible for external activities. When the project is finished, the work will be available to further school classes, parents and other interested parties. System development and testing have been performed in a small pilot study where two creativity educators at an art museum have worked together with pupils and teachers from a compulsory school class. The system was used to establish, prior to the visit of the class, a deeper contact and to maintain a more qualitative continuous dialogue during and after
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM
2008-08-26
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.
Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice
2015-08-10
Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.
Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics
Mandel, Leonard
1995-01-01
This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Yoshinori; Kimura, Takashi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Joti, Yasumasa; Bessho, Yoshitaka
2017-01-01
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) with femtosecond pulse duration offer an innovative solution to transcend the spatial resolution limitation in conventional X-ray imaging for biological samples and soft matters by clearing up the radiation damage problem using the “diffraction-before-destruction” strategy. Building on this strategy, the authors are developing a method to image solution sample under controlled environment, pulsed coherent X-ray solution scattering (PCXSS), using XFELs and phase retrieval algorithms in coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). This article describes the basics of PCXSS and examples of PCXSS measurement, for a living cell and self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles, performed by the authors using SACLA. An attempt toward the industrial application of PCXSS is also described. (author)
Coherent dynamics in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1998-01-01
enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...
Generalized hypergeometric coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H
2004-01-01
We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions
Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad-211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)
2017-03-18
Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation–which we refer to as additivity relation–between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same. - Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Reciprocity between quantum coherence and mixedness. • Distribution of quantum coherence in multipartite quantum systems. • Additivity relation for distribution of quantum coherence in Dicke and “X” states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polubarinov, I.V.
1975-01-01
A definition of the coherent state representation is given in this paper. In the representation quantum theory equations take the form of classical field theory equations (with causality inherent to the latter) not only in simple cases (free field and interactions with an external current or field), but also in the general case of closed systems of interacting fields. And, conversely, a classical field theory can be transformed into a form of a quantum one
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten
2016-01-01
During the past decade, politicians and health care providers have strived to create a coherent health care system across primary and secondary health care systems in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care and lack ...... both nationally and internationally in preparation of health agreements, implementation of new collaboration forms among health care providers, and in improvement of delegation and transfer of information and assignments across sectors in health care....
Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1996-12-31
This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebastion, R.L.
1995-01-01
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloembergen, N.
1985-01-01
Collision-induced coherence is based on the elimination of phase correlations between coherent Feynman-type pathways which happen to interfere destructively in the absence of damping for certain nonlinear processes. One consequence is the appearance of the extra resonances in four-wave light mixing experiments, for which the intensity increases with increasing buffer gas pressure. These resonances may occur between a pair of initially unpopulated excited states, or between a pair of initially equally populated ground states. The pair of levels may be Zeeman substrates which became degenerate in zero magnetic field. The resulting collision-enhanced Hanle resonances can lead to very sharp variations in the four-wave light mixing signal as the external magnetic field passes through zero. The theoretical description in terms of a coherence grating between Zeeman substrates is equivalent to a description in terms of a spin polarization grating obtained by collision-enhanced transverse optical pumping. The axis of quantization in the former case is taken perpendicular to the direction of the light beams; in the latter case is taken parallel to this direction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)
1995-10-01
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litvinenko,V.
2009-05-04
Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.
Coherent radiation from pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, J.L. Jr.
1979-01-01
Interaction between a relativistic electrom stream and a plasma under conditions believed to exist in pulsar magnetospheres is shown to result in the simultaneous emission of coherent curvature radiation at radio wavelengths and incoherent curvature radiation at X-ray wavelengths from the same spatial volume. It is found that such a stream can propagate through a plasma parallel to a very strong magnetic field only if its length is less than a critical length L/sub asterisk/ic. Charge induced in the plasma by the stream co-moves with the stream and has the same limitation in longitudinal extent. The resultant charge bunching is sufficient to cause the relatively low energy plasma particles to radiate at radio wavelengths coherently while the relatively high energy stream particles radiate at X-ray wavelengths incoherently as the stream-plasma system moves along curved magnetic field lines. The effective number of coherently radiating particles per bunch is estimated to be approx.10 14 --10 15 for a tupical pulsar
Langham, Erika; Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Gainsbury, Sally M
2017-06-01
Understanding why some people experience problems with gambling whilst others are able to restrict gambling to recreational levels is still largely unexplained. One potential explanation is through salutogenesis, which is a health promotion approach of understanding factors which move people towards health rather than disease. An important aspect of salutogenesis is sense of coherence. Individuals with stronger sense of coherence perceive their environment as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. The present study examined the relationship of individuals' sense of coherence on their gambling behaviour and experience of gambling related harm. This exploratory study utilised an archival dataset (n = 1236) from an online, cross sectional survey of people who had experienced negative consequences from gambling. In general, a stronger sense of coherence was related to lower problem gambling severity. When gambling behaviour was controlled for, sense of coherence was significantly related to the experience of individual gambling harms. A strong sense of coherence can be seen as a protective factor against problematic gambling behaviour, and subsequent gambling related harms. These findings support the value of both primary and tertiary prevention strategies that strengthen sense of coherence as a harm minimisation strategy. The present study demonstrates the potential value of, and provides clear direction for, considering sense of coherence in order to understand gambling-related issues.
Understanding photon sideband statistics and correlation for determining phonon coherence
Ding, Ding; Yin, Xiaobo; Li, Baowen
2018-01-01
Generating and detecting coherent high-frequency heat-carrying phonons have been topics of great interest in recent years. Although there have been successful attempts in generating and observing coherent phonons, rigorous techniques to characterize and detect phonon coherence in a crystalline material have been lagging compared to what has been achieved for photons. One main challenge is a lack of detailed understanding of how detection signals for phonons can be related to coherence. The quantum theory of photoelectric detection has greatly advanced the ability to characterize photon coherence in the past century, and a similar theory for phonon detection is necessary. Here, we reexamine the optical sideband fluorescence technique that has been used to detect high-frequency phonons in materials with optically active defects. We propose a quantum theory of phonon detection using the sideband technique and found that there are distinct differences in sideband counting statistics between thermal and coherent phonons. We further propose a second-order correlation function unique to sideband signals that allows for a rigorous distinction between thermal and coherent phonons. Our theory is relevant to a correlation measurement with nontrivial response functions at the quantum level and can potentially bridge the gap of experimentally determining phonon coherence to be on par with that of photons.
Coherent states: a contemporary panorama Coherent states: a contemporary panorama
Twareque Ali, S.; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bagarello, Fabio; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2012-06-01
magnetic field (Hall-Mitchell) a paper on CS for a quantum particle on a Möbius strip (Cirilo-Lombardo) a discussion of quantization on the circle (Chadzitaskos et al); SUSY CS for Pöschl-Teller potentials (Bergeron et al); generalized Bargmann functions and von Neumann lattices (Vourdas et al); partial reconstruction for a finite CS system, using the Fock-Bargmann representation (Calixto et al); phase operators for SU(3) irreps, thus for finite quantum systems (de Guise); semiclassical CS in periodic potentials (Carles-Sparber) complexified CS with non-Hermitian Hamiltonians (Graefe-Schubert) minimal uncertainty states in the context of (semisimple) group representation theory (Oszmaniec); localization operators in the time-frequency domain, i.e., in Gabor analysis (Muzhikyan-Avanesyan) and, finally, two papers about fermionic CS (Daoud-Kibler and Trifonov). This brief description illustrates perfectly the extreme versatility of the CS concept. As already stressed, coherent states constitute nowadays a flourishing research topic, with applications to a wide spectrum of domains. Indeed, CS are everywhere in physics: condensed matter physics, atomic physics, nuclear and particle physics, quantum optics, dynamics—both quantum and classical potentials—quantum gravity, quantization and quantum information theory. On the other hand, CS have grown into a fully-fledged domain in mathematics, incorporating many tools such as group representations, POV measures, frames, holomorphic functions, orthogonal polynomials and so on. Interestingly enough, the majority of contributions to this special issue (22 out of 37) are mathematically minded, demonstrating the widespread interest CS have generated in various areas of mathematics. A third field related to CS (but almost not represented in the present collection) is signal processing. Indeed both Gabor analysis and wavelet analysis derive in the first place from CS theory, namely, CS associated to the Weyl-Heisenberg and the ax
Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji-Rong, Ren; Tao, Zhu; Yi-Shi, Duan
2008-01-01
The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously. The phase singular structures (coherence vortices) of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current, which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously. We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology. The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function
Partially coherent isodiffracting pulsed beams
Koivurova, Matias; Ding, Chaoliang; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan
2018-02-01
We investigate a class of isodiffracting pulsed beams, which are superpositions of transverse modes supported by spherical-mirror laser resonators. By employing modal weights that, for stationary light, produce a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we extend this standard model to pulsed beams. We first construct the two-frequency cross-spectral density function that characterizes the spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain. By assuming a power-exponential spectral profile, we then employ the generalized Wiener-Khintchine theorem for nonstationary light to derive the two-time mutual coherence function that describes the space-time coherence of the ensuing beams. The isodiffracting nature of the laser resonator modes permits all (paraxial-domain) calculations at any propagation distance to be performed analytically. Significant spatiotemporal coupling is revealed in subcycle, single-cycle, and few-cycle domains, where the partial spatial coherence also leads to reduced temporal coherence even though full spectral coherence is assumed.
Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew D Sacchet
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finkelstein, D.
1987-01-01
The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex
Diffraction coherence in optics
Françon, M; Green, L L
2013-01-01
Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dremin, I.M.
1981-01-01
The process of the coherent production of hadrons analogous to Cherenkov radiation of photons is considered. Its appearence and qualitative treatment are possible now because it is known from experiment that the real part of the πp (and pp) forward elastic scattering amplitude is positive at high energies. The threshold behaviour of the process as well as very typical angular and psub(T)-distributions where psub(t)-transverse momentum corresponding to the ring structure of the target diagram at rather large angles and to high-psub(T) jet production are emphasized [ru
Optical coherence refractometry.
Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew
2008-10-01
We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.
Brignon, Arnaud
2013-01-01
Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme
Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi
2012-01-01
To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)
Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi, E-mail: ascedio@gmail.com [Servico de Endoscopia Respiratoria, Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil)
2012-07-01
To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)
Coherent states and rational surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria
2010-01-01
The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.
Inhibitory coherence in a heterogeneous population of subthreshold and suprathreshold type-I neurons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sang-Yoon; Hong, Duk-Geun; Kim, Jean; Lim, Woochang
2012-01-01
We study inhibitory coherence (i.e. collective coherence by synaptic inhibition) in a population of globally coupled type-I neurons, which can fire at arbitrarily low frequency. No inhibitory coherence is observed in a homogeneous population composed of only subthreshold neurons, which exhibit noise-induced firings. In addition to subthreshold neurons, there exist spontaneously firing suprathreshold neurons in a noisy environment of a real brain. To take into consideration the effect of suprathreshold neurons on inhibitory coherence, we consider a heterogeneous population of subthreshold and suprathreshold neurons and investigate the inhibitory coherence by increasing the fraction of suprathreshold neurons P supra . As P supra passes a threshold P* supra , suprathreshold neurons begin to synchronize and play the role of coherent inhibitors for the emergence of inhibitory coherence. Thus, regularly oscillating population-averaged global potential appears for P supra > P* supra . For this coherent case, suprathreshold neurons exhibit sparse spike synchronization (i.e. individual potentials of suprathreshold neurons consist of coherent sparse spikings and coherent subthreshold small-amplitude hoppings). By virtue of their coherent inhibition, sparsely synchronized suprathreshold neurons suppress the noisy activity of subthreshold neurons. Thus, subthreshold neurons exhibit hopping synchronization (i.e. only coherent subthreshold hopping oscillations without spikings appear in the individual potentials of subthreshold neurons). We also characterize the inhibitory coherence in terms of the ‘statistical-mechanical’ spike-based and correlation-based measures, which quantify the average contributions of the microscopic individual spikes and individual potentials to the macroscopic global potential. Finally, the effect of sparse randomness of synaptic connectivity on the inhibitory coherence is briefly discussed. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remick, F.J.
1992-01-01
As one of the most progressive users of risk assessment in decision making, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in a position to play an important role in influencing the development of standard government wide policies for the application of risk assessment in decision making. The NRC, with the support of the nuclear industry, should use the opportunity provided by its experience with risk assessment to actively encourage the adoption of standard national and international health-based safety goals and at the same time accelerate its own efforts to implement the safety goals it has already developed for itself. There are signs of increased recognition of the need for consistency and coherence in the application of risk assessment in government decision making. The NRC and the nuclear industry have recently taken a great step toward establishing a consistant and coherent risk assessment-based culture in the US nuclear industry. As a result of Generic Letter 88-20, which asks each commercial nuclear power plant licensee to perform an individual plant examination by September 1992, for the first time a risk assessment characterizing initiating events in each plant will exist
Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy; Dabiri, John
2017-11-01
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of techniques that aim to characterize fluid flow kinematics on the basis of Lagrangian trajectories of collections of tracer particles. Most of these techniques depend on presence of tracer particles that are initially closely-spaced, in order to compute local gradients of their trajectories. In many applications, the requirement of close tracer spacing cannot be satisfied, especially when the tracers are naturally occurring and their distribution is dictated by the underlying flow. Moreover, current methods often focus on determination of the boundaries of coherent sets, whereas in practice it is often valuable to identify the complete set of trajectories that are coherent with an individual trajectory of interest. We extend the concept of Coherent Structure Coloring to achieve identification of the coherent set associated with individual Lagrangian trajectories. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Importantly, although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems. This work was supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Optical coherence tomography: Technique and applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jakob Borup; Sander, Birgit; Mogensen, Mette
2009-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging modality providing real-time video rate images in two and three dimensions of biological tissues with micrometer resolution. OCT fills the gap between ultrasound and confocal microscopy, since it has a higher resolution than...... of retinal diseases. The potential of OCT in many other applications is currently being explored, such as in developmental biology, skin cancer diagnostics, vulnerable plaque detection in cardiology, esophageal diagnostics and a number of other applications within oncology....
Ordering states with various coherence measures
Yang, Long-Mei; Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi
2018-04-01
Quantum coherence is one of the most significant theories in quantum physics. Ordering states with various coherence measures is an intriguing task in quantification theory of coherence. In this paper, we study this problem by use of four important coherence measures—the l_1 norm of coherence, the relative entropy of coherence, the geometric measure of coherence and the modified trace distance measure of coherence. We show that each pair of these measures give a different ordering of qudit states when d≥3. However, for single-qubit states, the l_1 norm of coherence and the geometric coherence provide the same ordering. We also show that the relative entropy of coherence and the geometric coherence give a different ordering for single-qubit states. Then we partially answer the open question proposed in Liu et al. (Quantum Inf Process 15:4189, 2016) whether all the coherence measures give a different ordering of states.
Thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion
Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.
2014-09-01
The spatial coherence of solar beam radiation is a key constraint in solar rectenna conversion. Here, we present a derivation of the thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited solar power conversion - an expansion of Landsberg's elegant basic bound, originally limited to incoherent converters at maximum flux concentration. First, we generalize Landsberg's work to arbitrary concentration and angular confinement. Then we derive how the values are further lowered for coherence-limited converters. The results do not depend on a particular conversion strategy. As such, they pertain to systems that span geometric to physical optics, as well as classical to quantum physics. Our findings indicate promising potential for solar rectenna conversion.
Geometry of spin coherent states
Chryssomalakos, C.; Guzmán-González, E.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.
2018-04-01
Spin states of maximal projection along some direction in space are called (spin) coherent, and are, in many respects, the ‘most classical’ available. For any spin s, the spin coherent states form a 2-sphere in the projective Hilbert space \
Damping of Coherent oscillations
Vos, L
1996-01-01
Damping of coherent oscillations by feedback is straightforward in principle. It has been a vital ingredient for the safe operation of accelerators since a long time. The increasing dimensions and beam intensities of the new generation of hadron colliders impose unprecedented demands on the performance of future systems. The arguments leading to the specification of a transverse feedback system for the CERN SPS in its role as LHC injector and the LHC collider itself are developped to illustrate this. The preservation of the transverse emittance is the guiding principle during this exercise keeping in mind the hostile environment which comprises: transverse impedance bent on developping coupled bunch instabilities, injection errors, unwanted transverse excitation, unavoidable tune spreads and noise in the damping loop.
Quantum information and coherence
Öhberg, Patrik
2014-01-01
This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...
Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Guang-Ling; Wang Yi-Ping; Chen Ai-Xi
2015-01-01
We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single Δ-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 or π, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice of π/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phase π/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices. (paper)
Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule
Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin
2018-03-01
We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc'h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B.
2005-01-01
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B
2005-07-01
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.
Longitudinal profile monitors using Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, H.L.; Bakkali Taheri, F.; Barros, J.; Bartolini, R.; Cassinari, L.; Clarke, C.; Le Corre, S.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Fuster-Martinez, N.; Konoplev, I.; Labat, M.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Stevenson, S.; Vieille Grosjean, M.
2014-01-01
Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation has the potential of providing information on the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch. The E-203 experiment at the FACET User Facility measures bunch profiles from the SLAC linac in the hundreds of femtoseconds range and the SPESO collaboration at Synchrotron SOLEIL is planning to make an accurate 2D map of the Coherent Smith–Purcell Radiation emission. - Highlights: • Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation can be used to measure longitudinal profiles in the hundred femtoseconds range. • The current setup used by the E-203 collaboration require integration over several shots and gratings. • Reducing the integration over a single shot and a single grating still yields a meaning full result. • The SPESO experiment at SOLEIL will make a systematic study of Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation
Perturbative coherence in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.
1987-01-01
A general condition for coherent quantization by perturbative methods is given, because the basic field equations of a fild theory are not always derivable from a Lagrangian. It's seen that non-lagrangian models way have well defined vertices, provided they satisfy what they call the 'coherence condition', which is less stringent than the condition for the existence of a Lagrangian. They note that Lagrangian theories are perturbatively coherent, in the sense that they have well defined vertices, and that they satisfy automatically that condition. (G.D.F.) [pt
Models of coherent exciton condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Littlewood, P B; Eastham, P R; Keeling, J M J; Marchetti, F M; Simons, B D; Szymanska, M H
2004-01-01
That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers
Models of coherent exciton condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P R [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Keeling, J M J [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Marchetti, F M [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Simons, B D [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Szymanska, M H [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2004-09-08
That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers.
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.
2017-10-01
Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.
Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography
Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.
2018-01-01
In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perina, J.
1985-01-01
This book puts the theory of coherence of light on a rigorous mathematical footing. It deals with the classical and quantum theories and with their inter-relationships, including many results from the author's own research. Particular attention is paid to the detection of optical fields, using the correlation functions, photocount statistics and coherent state. Radiometry with light fields of arbitrary states of coherence is discussed and the coherent state methods are demonstrated by photon statistics of radiation in random and nonlinear media, using the Heisenberg-Langevin and Fokker-Planck approaches to the interaction of radiation with matter. Many experimental and theoretical results are compared. A full list of references to theoretical and experimental literature is provided. The book is intended for researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of quantum optics, quantum electronics, statistical optics, nonlinear optics, optical communication and optoelectronics. (Auth.)
Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Flatte, Michael E
2006-01-01
... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaidot, A.
1993-01-01
After a brief overview of the experimental status on colour coherence at LEP we will focus on two recent approaches to the subject: the sub-jet multiplicities and the azimuthal correlations between pair of particles. (author)
Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality
Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.
2009-01-01
A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736
Infrared frequency-tunable coherent thermal sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping
2015-01-01
In this work, we numerically demonstrate an infrared (IR) frequency-tunable selective thermal emitter made of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) gratings. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis shows temporally-coherent emission peaks associated with magnetic polariton (MP), whose resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned within the phonon absorption band of SiC by varying graphene chemical potential. An analytical inductor–capacitor circuit model is introduced to quantitatively predict the resonance frequency and further elucidate the mechanism for the tunable emission peak. The effects of grating geometric parameters, such as grating height, groove width and grating period, on the selective emission peak are explored. The direction-independent behavior of MP and associated coherent emission are also demonstrated. Moreover, by depositing four layers of graphene sheets onto the SiC gratings, a large tunability of 8.5% in peak frequency can be obtained to yield the coherent emission covering a broad frequency range from 820 to 890 cm −1 . The novel tunable metamaterial could pave the way to a new class of tunable thermal sources in the IR region. (paper)
Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2013-01-01
We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....
Coherent systems with multistate components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldarola, L.
1980-01-01
The basic rules of the Boolean algebra with restrictions on variables are briefly recalled. This special type of Boolean algebra allows one to handle fault trees of systems made of multistate (two or more than two states) components. Coherent systems are defined in the case of multistate components. This definition is consistent with that originally suggested by Barlow in the case of binary (two states) components. The basic properties of coherence are described and discussed. Coherent Boolean functions are also defined. It is shown that these functions are irredundant, that is they have only one base which is at the same time complete and irredundant. However, irredundant functions are not necessarily coherent. Finally a simplified algorithm for the calculation of the base of a coherent function is described. In the case that the function is not coherent, the algorithm can be used to reduce the size of the normal disjunctive form of the function. This in turn eases the application of the Nelson algorithm to calculate the complete base of the function. The simplified algorithm has been built in the computer program MUSTAFA-1. In a sample case the use of this algorithm caused a reduction of the CPU time by a factor of about 20. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pier Alberto Testoni
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical imaging modality that performs high-resolution, cross-sectional, subsurface tomographic imaging of the microstructure of tissues. The physical principle of OCT is similar to that of B-mode ultrasound imaging, except that it uses infrared light waves rather than acoustic waves. The in vivo resolution is 10–25 times better (about 10 µm than with high-frequency ultrasound imaging, but the depth of penetration is limited to 1–3 mm, depending on tissue structure, depth of focus of the probe used, and pressure applied to the tissue surface. In the last decade, OCT technology has evolved from an experimental laboratory tool to a new diagnostic imaging modality with a wide spectrum of clinical applications in medical practice, including the gastrointestinal tract and pancreatico-biliary ductal system. OCT imaging from the gastrointestinal tract can be done in humans by using narrow-diameter, catheter-based probes that can be inserted through the accessory channel of either a conventional front-view endoscope, for investigating the epithelial structure of the gastrointestinal tract, or a side-view endoscope, inside a standard transparent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter, for investigating the pancreatico-biliary ductal system. The esophagus and esophagogastric junction have been the most widely investigated organs so far; more recently, duodenum, colon, and the pancreatico-biliary ductal system have also been extensively investigated. OCT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall structure is characterized by a multiple-layer architecture that permits an accurate evaluation of the mucosa, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, and part of the submucosa. The technique may therefore be used to identify preneoplastic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's epithelium and dysplasia, and evaluate the depth of penetration of early-stage neoplastic lesions. OCT imaging
Store operations to maintain cache coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin
2017-08-01
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.
Store operations to maintain cache coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin
2017-09-12
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.
Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables
Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.
2007-06-01
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.
Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)
2016-08-08
We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.
Coherent Synchrotron Radiation effect in damping rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raubenheimer, T
2004-01-01
Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) can play an important role by not only increasing the energy spread and emittance of a beam, but also leading to a potential instability. Previous studies of the CSR induced longitudinal instability were carried out for the CSR impedance due to dipole magnets. In this paper, the instability due to the CSR impedance from a wiggler is studied assuming a large wiggler parameter K. The primary consideration is a low frequency microwave-like instability in the damping rings of several linear collider projects. The threshold is determined by the instability with the longest possible wavelength
Coherent states on Hilbert modules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S Twareque; Bhattacharyya, T; Roy, S S
2011-01-01
We generalize the concept of coherent states, traditionally defined as special families of vectors on Hilbert spaces, to Hilbert modules. We show that Hilbert modules over C*-algebras are the natural settings for a generalization of coherent states defined on Hilbert spaces. We consider those Hilbert C*-modules which have a natural left action from another C*-algebra, say A. The coherent states are well defined in this case and they behave well with respect to the left action by A. Certain classical objects like the Cuntz algebra are related to specific examples of coherent states. Finally we show that coherent states on modules give rise to a completely positive definite kernel between two C*-algebras, in complete analogy to the Hilbert space situation. Related to this, there is a dilation result for positive operator-valued measures, in the sense of Naimark. A number of examples are worked out to illustrate the theory. Some possible physical applications are also mentioned.
Progress in coherent laser radar
Vaughan, J. M.
1986-01-01
Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.
Coherent states in quantum physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2009-01-01
This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, W.; Duan, Z.H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2006-01-01
By controlling the irradiance of an extended quasimonochromatic, spatially incoherent source, an optical field is generated that exhibits spatial coherence with phase singularities, called coherence vortices. A simple optical geometry for direct visualization of coherence vortices is proposed, an...
Fielding, Helen; Shapiro, Moshe; Baumert, Thomas
2008-04-01
Quantum mechanics, though a probabilistic theory, gives a 'deterministic' answer to the question of how the present determines the future. In essence, in order to predict future probabilities, we need to (numerically) propagate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation from the present to the future. It is interesting to note that classical mechanics of macroscopic bodies, though reputed to be a deterministic theory, does not allow, due to chaos (which unfortunately is more prevalent than integrability), such clear insights into the future. In contrast, small (e.g., atomic, molecular and photonic) systems which are best understood using the tools of quantum mechanics, do not suffer from chaos, rendering the prediction of the probability-distributions of future events possible. The field of quantum control deals with an important modification of this task, namely, it asks: given a wave function in the present, what dynamics, i.e. what Hamiltonian, guarantees a desired outcome or 'objective' in the future? In practice one may achieve this goal of modifying and finding the desired Hamiltonian by introducing external fields, e.g. laser light. It is then possible to reach the objective in a 'trial-and-error' fashion, performed either numerically or in the laboratory. We can guess or build a Hamiltonian, do an experiment, or propagate the initial wave function to the future, compare the result with the desirable objective, and correct the guess for the Hamiltonian until satisfactory agreement with the objective is reached. A systematic way of executing this procedure is the sub-field called 'optimal control'. The trial-and-error method is often very time consuming and rarely provides mechanistic insight. There are situations where analytical solutions exist, rendering the control strategies more transparent. This is especially so when one can identify quantum interferences as the heart of quantum control, the essence of the field called 'coherent control'. The experience
Cold atoms near superconductors: atomic spin coherence beyond the Johnson noise limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasch, B; Hattermann, H; Cano, D; Judd, T E; Zimmermann, C; Kleiner, R; Koelle, D; Fortagh, J; Scheel, S
2010-01-01
We report on the measurement of atomic spin coherence near the surface of a superconducting niobium wire. As compared to normal conducting metal surfaces, the atomic spin coherence is maintained for time periods beyond the Johnson noise limit. The result provides experimental evidence that magnetic near-field noise near the superconductor is strongly suppressed. Such long atomic spin coherence times near superconductors open the way towards the development of coherently coupled cold atom/solid state hybrid quantum systems with potential applications in quantum information processing and precision force sensing.
The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, Philip; Nottale, Laurent
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new
Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches
Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.
2013-05-01
Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of
Coherent states for quadratic Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez C, David J; Velazquez, Mercedes
2011-01-01
The coherent states for a set of quadratic Hamiltonians in the trap regime are constructed. A matrix technique which allows us to directly identify the creation and annihilation operators will be presented. Then, the coherent states as simultaneous eigenstates of the annihilation operators will be derived, and will be compared with those attained through the displacement operator method. The corresponding wavefunction will be found, and a general procedure for obtaining several mean values involving the canonical operators in these states will be described. The results will be illustrated through the asymmetric Penning trap.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolotti, M.; Sibilia, C.
1985-01-01
In this article the authors discuss a new approach for developing a coherent source of γ-rays. They offer a completely different scheme for development of the source that should overcome most of the problems encountered in ''classical γ-ray lasers,'' and in which the use of inverse Compton scattering of laser radiation onto a relativistic electron beam is made. This kind of interaction has been used to obtain γ-ray photons with good polarization and monochromaticity properties. The authors describe a new geometry of interaction which allows one to obtain coherent emission
Functional optical coherence tomography: principles and progress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jina; Levinson, Howard; Brown, William; Maher, Jason R.; Wax, Adam
2015-01-01
In the past decade, several functional extensions of optical coherence tomography (OCT) have emerged, and this review highlights key advances in instrumentation, theoretical analysis, signal processing and clinical application of these extensions. We review five principal extensions: Doppler OCT (DOCT), polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), optical coherence elastography (OCE), spectroscopic OCT (SOCT), and molecular imaging OCT. The former three have been further developed with studies in both ex vivo and in vivo human tissues. This review emphasizes the newer techniques of SOCT and molecular imaging OCT, which show excellent potential for clinical application but have yet to be well reviewed in the literature. SOCT elucidates tissue characteristics, such as oxygenation and carcinogenesis, by detecting wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering of light in tissues. While SOCT measures endogenous biochemical distributions, molecular imaging OCT detects exogenous molecular contrast agents. These newer advances in functional OCT broaden the potential clinical application of OCT by providing novel ways to understand tissue activity that cannot be accomplished by other current imaging methodologies. (topical review)
Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities
Harrison, Neil [Santa Fe, NM; Singleton, John [Los Alamos, NM; Migliori, Albert [Santa Fe, NM
2008-08-05
A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.
Semi-classical behavior of Poschl-Teller coherent states
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bergeron, H.; Gazeau, J.P.; Siegl, Petr; Youssef, A.
2010-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 6 (2010), s. 60003 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : coherent states * Pöschl-Teller potential * quantization Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.753, year: 2010
Coherent control of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...
Coherent Radiation of Electron Cloud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.
2004-01-01
The electron cloud in positron storage rings is pinched when a bunch passes by. For short bunches, the radiation due to acceleration of electrons of the cloud is coherent. Detection of such radiation can be used to measure the density of the cloud. The estimate of the power and the time structure of the radiated signal is given in this paper
Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.
2010-01-01
By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.
Coherent dynamics of plasma mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thaury, C; George, H; Quere, F; Monot, P; Martin, Ph [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Serv Photons Atomes and Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Loch, R [Univ Twente, Laser Phys and Nonlinear Opt Grp, Fac Sci and Technol, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, (Netherlands); Geindre, J P [Ecole Polytech, Lab Pour Utilisat Lasers Intenses, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France)
2008-07-01
Coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses provide new ways to probe matter and its ultrafast dynamics. One of the promising paths to generate these pulses consists of using a nonlinear interaction with a system to strongly and periodically distort the waveform of intense laser fields, and thus produce high-order harmonics. Such distortions have so far been induced by using the nonlinear polarizability of atoms, leading to the production of atto-second light bursts, short enough to study the dynamics of electrons in matter. Shorter and more intense atto-second pulses, together with higher harmonic orders, are expected by reflecting ultra intense laser pulses on a plasma mirror - a dense (approximate to 10{sup 23} electrons cm{sup -3}) plasma with a steep interface. However, short-wavelength-light sources produced by such plasmas are known to generally be incoherent. In contrast, we demonstrate that like in usual low-intensity reflection, the coherence of the light wave is preserved during harmonic generation on plasma mirrors. We then exploit this coherence for interferometric measurements and thus carry out a first study of the laser-driven coherent dynamics of the plasma electrons. (authors)
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch
2017-01-01
their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.; Keil, E.
1979-06-01
The stability of the coherent beam-beam effect between rigid bunches is studied analytically and numerically for a linear force by evaluating eigenvalues. For a realistic force, the stability is investigated by following the bunches for many revolutions. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs
Optical coherent control in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2001-01-01
of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...
Dialogue Coherence: A Generation Framework
Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van
2007-01-01
This paper presents a framework for the generation of coherent elementary conversational sequences at the speech act level. We will embrace the notion of a cooperative dialogue game in which two players produce speech acts to transfer relevant information with respect to their commitments.
Coherent Structure Phenomena in Drift Wave-Zonal Flow Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyakov, A. I.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M.
2000-01-01
Zonal flows are azimuthally symmetric plasma potential perturbations spontaneously generated from small-scale drift-wave fluctuations via the action of Reynolds stresses. We show that, after initial linear growth, zonal flows can undergo further nonlinear evolution leading to the formation of long-lived coherent structures which consist of self-bound wave packets supporting stationary shear layers. Such coherent zonal flow structures constitute dynamical paradigms for intermittency in drift-wave turbulence that manifests itself by the intermittent distribution of regions with a reduced level of anomalous transport. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Even and odd combinations of nonlinear coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De los Santos-Sanchez, O; Recamier, J
2011-01-01
In this work we present some statistical properties of even and odd combinations of nonlinear coherent states associated with two nonlinear potentials; one supporting a finite number of bound states and the other supporting an infinite number of bound states, within the framework of an f-deformed algebra. We calculate their normalized variance and the temporal evolution of their dispersion relations using nonlinear coherent states defined as (a) eigensates of the deformed annihilation operator and (b) those states created by the application of a deformed displacement operator upon the ground state of the oscillator.
Coherence for vectorial waves and majorization
Luis, Alfredo
2016-01-01
We show that majorization provides a powerful approach to the coherence conveyed by partially polarized transversal electromagnetic waves. Here we present the formalism, provide some examples and compare with standard measures of polarization and coherence of vectorial waves.
Electron beam instrumentation techniques using coherent radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D.X.
1997-01-01
Much progress has been made on coherent radiation research since coherent synchrotron radiation was first observed in 1989. The use of coherent radiation as a bunch length diagnostic tool has been studied by several groups. In this paper, brief introductions to coherent radiation and far-infrared measurement are given, the progress and status of their beam diagnostic application are reviewed, different techniques are described, and their advantages and limitations are discussed
On P-coherent endomorphism rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...
Atmospheric free-space coherent optical communications with adaptive optics
Ting, Chueh; Zhang, Chengyu; Yang, Zikai
2017-02-01
Free-space coherent optical communications have a potential application to offer last mile bottleneck solution in future local area networks (LAN) because of their information carrier, information security and license-free status. Coherent optical communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation are successfully demonstrated in a long-haul tens Giga bits via optical fiber, but they are not yet available in free space due to atmospheric turbulence-induced channel fading. Adaptive optics is recognized as a promising technology to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence in free-space optics. In this paper, a free-space coherent optical communication system using an OFDM digital modulation scheme and adaptive optics (FSO OFDM AO) is proposed, a Gamma-Gamma distribution statistical channel fading model for the FSO OFDM AO system is examined, and FSO OFDM AO system performance is evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus various propagation distances.
Coherent light squeezing states within a modified microring system
Ali, J.; Pornsuwancharoen, N.; Youplao, P.; Aziz, M. S.; Amiri, I. S.; Chaiwong, K.; Chiangga, S.; Singh, G.; Yupapin, P.
2018-06-01
We have proposed the simple method of the squeezed light generation in the modified microring resonator, which is known as the microring conjugate mirror (MCM). When the monochromatic light is input into the MCM, the general form of the squeezed coherent states for a quantum harmonic oscillator can be generated by controlling the additional two side rings, which are the phase modulators. By using the graphical method called the Optiwave program, the coherent squeezed states of coherent light within an MCM can be obtained and interpreted as the amplitude, phase, quadrature and photon number-squeezed states. This method has shown potentials for microring related device design, which can be used before practical applications.
Coherent light squeezing states within a modified microring system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ali
2018-06-01
Full Text Available We have proposed the simple method of the squeezed light generation in the modified microring resonator, which is known as the microring conjugate mirror (MCM. When the monochromatic light is input into the MCM, the general form of the squeezed coherent states for a quantum harmonic oscillator can be generated by controlling the additional two side rings, which are the phase modulators. By using the graphical method called the Optiwave program, the coherent squeezed states of coherent light within an MCM can be obtained and interpreted as the amplitude, phase, quadrature and photon number-squeezed states. This method has shown potentials for microring related device design, which can be used before practical applications.
Coherence and incoherence collective behavior in financial market
Zhao, Shangmei; Xie, Qiuchao; Lu, Qing; Jiang, Xin; Chen, Wei
2015-10-01
Financial markets have been extensively studied as highly complex evolving systems. In this paper, we quantify financial price fluctuations through a coupled dynamical system composed of phase oscillators. We find that a Financial Coherence and Incoherence (FCI) coexistence collective behavior emerges as the system evolves into the stable state, in which the stocks split into two groups: one is represented by coherent, phase-locked oscillators, the other is composed of incoherent, drifting oscillators. It is demonstrated that the size of the coherent stock groups fluctuates during the economic periods according to real-world financial instabilities or shocks. Further, we introduce the coherent characteristic matrix to characterize the involvement dynamics of stocks in the coherent groups. Clustering results on the matrix provides a novel manifestation of the correlations among stocks in the economic periods. Our analysis for components of the groups is consistent with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) classification and can also figure out features for newly developed industries. These results can provide potentially implications on characterizing the inner dynamical structure of financial markets and making optimal investment into tragedies.
Sevoflurane Induces Coherent Slow-Delta Oscillations in Rats
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer A. Guidera
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Although general anesthetics are routinely administered to surgical patients to induce loss of consciousness, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness are not fully understood. In rats, we characterized changes in the extradural EEG and intracranial local field potentials (LFPs within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, parietal cortex (PC, and central thalamus (CT in response to progressively higher doses of the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane. During induction with a low dose of sevoflurane, beta/low gamma (12–40 Hz power increased in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs, and PFC–CT and PFC–PFC LFP beta/low gamma coherence increased. Loss of movement (LOM coincided with an abrupt decrease in beta/low gamma PFC–CT LFP coherence. Following LOM, cortically coherent slow-delta (0.1–4 Hz oscillations were observed in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. At higher doses of sevoflurane sufficient to induce loss of the righting reflex, coherent slow-delta oscillations were dominant in the frontal EEG and PFC, PC and CT LFPs. Dynamics similar to those observed during induction were observed as animals emerged from sevoflurane anesthesia. We conclude that the rat is a useful animal model for sevoflurane-induced EEG oscillations in humans, and that coherent slow-delta oscillations are a correlate of sevoflurane-induced behavioral arrest and loss of righting in rats.
Coupled Qubits for Next Generation Quantum Annealing: Improving Coherence
Weber, Steven; Samach, Gabriel; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Yoder, Jonilyn; Kim, David K.; Kerman, Andrew; Oliver, William D.
Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times, limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents. Here, we examine an alternative approach, using flux qubits with smaller persistent currents and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building-block for quantum annealing, between two such qubits. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.
Coherent normalization of finger strontium XRF measurements: feasibility and limitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamburlini, M; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4K1 (Canada)
2008-08-07
A non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method of measuring bone strontium concentrations has previously been reported as a potential diagnostic tool able to detect strontium concentration in the finger and ankle bones. The feasibility of coherent normalization for {sup 125}I-source-based finger bone strontium x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements is assessed here by theoretical considerations and Monte Carlo simulations. Normalization would have several advantages, among which are the correction for the signal attenuation by the overlying soft tissue, and intersubject variability in the bone size and shape. The coherent normalization of bone strontium XRF measurements presents several challenges dictated by the behaviour of the coherent cross section and mass attenuation coefficient at the energies involved. It was found that the coherent normalization alone with either 22.1 keV or 35.5 keV photons was not successful in correcting for the overlying soft tissue attenuation. However, it was found that the coherent peak at 35.5 keV was able to correct effectively for variability in the finger bone size between people. Thus, it is suggested that, if the overlying soft tissue thickness can be obtained by means of an independent measurement, the 35.5 keV peak can be used to correct for the bone size, with an overall accuracy of the normalization process of better than 10%. (note)
On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.
Some remarks on quantum coherence theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burzynski, A.
1982-01-01
This paper is devoted to the basic topics connected with coherence in quantum mechanics and quantum theory of radiation. In particular the formalism of the normal ordered coherence functions in cases of one and many degrees of freedom is described in detail. A few examples illustrate the analysis of the coherence properties of the various quantum states of the field of radiation. (author)
Coherence-driven argumentation to norm consensus
Joseph, S.; Prakken, H.
2009-01-01
In this paper coherence-based models are proposed as an alternative to logic-based BDI and argumentation models for the reasoning of normative agents. A model is provided for how two coherence-based agents can deliberate on how to regulate a domain of interest. First a deductive coherence model
Coherent states for polynomial su(2) algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadiq, Muhammad; Inomata, Akira
2007-01-01
A class of generalized coherent states is constructed for a polynomial su(2) algebra in a group-free manner. As a special case, the coherent states for the cubic su(2) algebra are discussed. The states so constructed reduce to the usual SU(2) coherent states in the linear limit
Search and Coherence-Building in Intuition and Insight Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Öllinger
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Coherence-building is a key concept for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight problem solving. There are several accounts that address certain aspects of coherence-building. However, there is still no proper framework defining the general principles of coherence-building. We propose a four-stage model of coherence-building. The first stage starts with spreading activation restricted by constraints. This dynamic is a well-defined rule based process. The second stage is characterized by detecting a coherent state. We adopted a fluency account assuming that the ease of information processing indicates the realization of a coherent state. The third stage is designated to evaluate the result of the coherence-building process and assess whether the given problem is solved or not. If the coherent state does not fit the requirements of the task, the process re-enters at stage 1. These three stages characterize intuition. For insight problem solving a fourth stage is necessary, which restructures the given representation after repeated failure, so that a new search space results. The new search space enables new coherent states. We provide a review of the most important findings, outline our model, present a large number of examples, deduce potential new paradigms and measures that might help to decipher the underlying cognitive processes.
Complex space source theory of partially coherent light wave.
Seshadri, S R
2010-07-01
The complex space source theory is used to derive a general integral expression for the vector potential that generates the extended full Gaussian wave in terms of the input value of the vector potential of the corresponding paraxial beam. The vector potential and the fields are assumed to fluctuate on a time scale that is large compared to the wave period. The Poynting vector in the propagation direction averaged over a wave period is expressed in terms of the cross-spectral density of the fluctuating vector potential across the input plane. The Schell model is assumed for the cross-spectral density. The radiation intensity distribution and the power radiated are determined. The effect of spatial coherence on the radiation intensity distribution and the radiated power are investigated for different values of the physical parameters. Illustrative numerical results are provided to bring out the effect of spatial coherence on the propagation characteristics of the fluctuating light wave.
Temperature dependence of coherence in transmon qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schloer, Steffen; Braumueller, Jochen; Lukashenko, Oleksandr; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-07-01
Superconducting qubits are a promising field of research, not only with respect to quantum computing but also as highly sensitive detectors and due to the possibility of using them to study fundamental implications of quantum mechanics. The requirements for qubits that can be used as building blocks in a potential quantum computer are challenging. Modern superconducting qubits like the transmon are strong candidates for achieving these goals. The main challenge here is to increase the coherence of prepared quantum states. Here, we experimentally investigate the influence of temperature variation on relaxation and dephasing of a transmon qubit. Our goal is to understand decoherence mechanisms in material optimized circuits. Aiming at longer coherence, in this case peaking over 50 μs for T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, our samples are fabricated at NIST using two different materials. Low-loss TiN was used for the shunt capacitance as well as the resonator, combined with shadow evaporated ultra-small Al-AlO{sub x}-Al Josephson junctions. We will present temperature-dependent data on qubit relaxation and dephasing times as well as power spectra. Our data will be compared to previously obtained temperature dependent data for other types of qubits.
Optical coherence tomography of the newborn airway.
Ridgway, James M; Su, Jianping; Wright, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Kim, David C; Barretto, Roberto; Ahuja, Gurpreet; Sepehr, Ali; Perez, Jorge; Sills, Jack H; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F
2008-05-01
Acquired subglottic stenosis in a newborn is often associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. This condition is generally diagnosed during operative endoscopy after airway injury has occurred. Unfortunately, endoscopy is unable to characterize the submucosal changes observed in such airway injuries. Other modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, do not possess the necessary level of resolution to differentiate scar, neocartilage, and edema. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that produces high-resolution, cross-sectional images of living tissue (8 to 20 microm). We examined the ability of this noninvasive technique to characterize the newborn airway in a prospective clinical trial. Twelve newborn patients who required ventilatory support underwent OCT airway imaging. Comparative analysis of intubated and non-intubated states was performed. Imaging of the supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and trachea was performed in 12 patients, revealing unique tissue characteristics as related to turbidity, signal backscattering, and architecture. Multiple structures were identified, including the vocal folds, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, ducts, glands, and vessels. Optical coherence tomography clearly identifies in vivo tissue layers and regional architecture while offering detailed information concerning tissue microstructures. The diagnostic potential of this technology makes OCT a promising modality in the study and surveillance of the neonatal airway.
Coherence in electron energy loss spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schattschneider, P.; Werner, W.S.M.
2005-01-01
Coherence effects in electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and in energy filtering are largely neglected although they occur frequently due to Bragg scattering in crystals. We discuss how coherence in the inelastically scattered wave field can be described by the mixed dynamic form factor (MDFF), and how it relates to the density matrix of the scattered electrons. Among the many aspects of 'inelastic coherence' are filtered high-resolution images, dipole-forbidden transitions, coherence in plasma excitations, errors in chemical microanalysis, coherent double plasmons, and circular dichroism
Characterisation of dispersive systems using a coherer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolić Pantelija M.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The possibility of characterization of aluminium powders using a horizontal coherer has been considered. Al powders of known dimension were treated with a high frequency electromagnetic field or with a DC electric field, which were increased until a dielectric breakdown occurred. Using a multifunctional card PC-428 Electronic Design and a suitable interface between the coherer and PC, the activation time of the coherer was measured as a function of powder dimension and the distance between the coherer electrodes. It was also shown that the average dimension of powders of unknown size could be determined using the coherer.
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Theory of coherent resonance energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Seogjoo; Cheng, Y.-C.; Reichman, David R.; Eaves, Joel D.
2008-01-01
A theory of coherent resonance energy transfer is developed combining the polaron transformation and a time-local quantum master equation formulation, which is valid for arbitrary spectral densities including common modes. The theory contains inhomogeneous terms accounting for nonequilibrium initial preparation effects and elucidates how quantum coherence and nonequilibrium effects manifest themselves in the coherent energy transfer dynamics beyond the weak resonance coupling limit of the Foerster and Dexter (FD) theory. Numerical tests show that quantum coherence can cause significant changes in steady state donor/acceptor populations from those predicted by the FD theory and illustrate delicate cooperation of nonequilibrium and quantum coherence effects on the transient population dynamics.
The global coherence initiative: creating a coherent planetary standing wave.
McCraty, Rollin; Deyhle, Annette; Childre, Doc
2012-03-01
The much anticipated year of 2012 is now here. Amidst the predictions and cosmic alignments that many are aware of, one thing is for sure: it will be an interesting and exciting year as the speed of change continues to increase, bringing both chaos and great opportunity. One benchmark of these times is a shift in many people from a paradigm of competition to one of greater cooperation. All across the planet, increasing numbers of people are practicing heart-based living, and more groups are forming activities that support positive change and creative solutions for manifesting a better world. The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) is a science-based, co-creative project to unite people in heart-focused care and intention. GCI is working in concert with other initiatives to realize the increased power of collective intention and consciousness. The convergence of several independent lines of evidence provides strong support for the existence of a global information field that connects all living systems and consciousness. Every cell in our bodies is bathed in an external and internal environment of fluctuating invisible magnetic forces that can affect virtually every cell and circuit in biological systems. Therefore, it should not be surprising that numerous physiological rhythms in humans and global collective behaviors are not only synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity, but disruptions in these fields can create adverse effects on human health and behavior. The most likely mechanism for explaining how solar and geomagnetic influences affect human health and behavior are a coupling between the human nervous system and resonating geomagnetic frequencies, called Schumann resonances, which occur in the earth-ionosphere resonant cavity and Alfvén waves. It is well established that these resonant frequencies directly overlap with those of the human brain and cardiovascular system. If all living systems are indeed interconnected and communicate with each other
Mechanisms of Very Late Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Zaugg, Serge
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms underlying very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) are incompletely understood. Using optical coherence tomography, we investigated potential causes of this adverse event. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2010 and Decemb...
Stochasticity induced by coherent wavepackets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, V.; Krapchev, V.; Ram, A.; Bers, A.
1983-02-01
We consider the momentum transfer and diffusion of electrons periodically interacting with a coherent longitudinal wavepacket. Such a problem arises, for example, in lower-hybrid current drive. We establish the stochastic threshold, the stochastic region δv/sub stoch/ in velocity space, the associated momentum transfer j, and the diffusion coefficient D. We concentrate principally on the weak-field regime, tau/sub autocorrelation/ < tau/sub bounce/
Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence
Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon
2010-03-01
/Pd multilayer films K A Seu, R Su, S Roy, D Parks, E Shipton, E E Fullerton and S D Kevan Holographic and diffractive x-ray imaging using waveguides as quasi-point sources K Giewekemeyer, H Neubauer, S Kalbfleisch, S P Krüger and T Salditt Mapping the conformations of biological assemblies P Schwander, R Fung, G N Phillips Jr and A Ourmazd Imaging the displacement field within epitaxial nanostructures by coherent diffraction: a feasibility study Ana Diaz, Virginie Chamard, Cristian Mocuta, Rogerio Magalhães-Paniago, Julian Stangl, Dina Carbone, Till H Metzger and Günther Bauer The potential for two-dimensional crystallography of membrane proteins at future x-ray free-electron laser sources Cameron M Kewish, Pierre Thibault, Oliver Bunk and Franz Pfeiffer Coherence properties of hard x-ray synchrotron sources and x-ray free-electron lasers I A Vartanyants and A Singer Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH A P Mancuso, Th Gorniak, F Staier, O M Yefanov, R Barth, C Christophis, B Reime, J Gulden, A Singer, M E Pettit, Th Nisius, Th Wilhein, C Gutt, G Grübel, N Guerassimova, R Treusch, J Feldhaus, S Eisebitt, E Weckert, M Grunze, A Rosenhahn and I A Vartanyants
Entropic cohering power in quantum operations
Xi, Zhengjun; Hu, Ming-Liang; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2018-02-01
Coherence is a basic feature of quantum systems and a common necessary condition for quantum correlations. It is also an important physical resource in quantum information processing. In this paper, using relative entropy, we consider a more general definition of the cohering power of quantum operations. First, we calculate the cohering power of unitary quantum operations and show that the amount of distributed coherence caused by non-unitary quantum operations cannot exceed the quantum-incoherent relative entropy between system of interest and its environment. We then find that the difference between the distributed coherence and the cohering power is larger than the quantum-incoherent relative entropy. As an application, we consider the distributed coherence caused by purification.
Quantum learning of coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)
2015-12-15
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Coherent lattice vibrations in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadin, Alan M.
2008-01-01
A recent analysis has shown that the pair wavefunction within the BCS theory may be represented in real-space as a spherical electronic orbital (on the scale of the coherence length ξ 0 ) coupled to a standing-wave lattice vibration with wavevector 2k F and a near-resonant phonon frequency. The present paper extends this picture to a coherent pattern of phonon standing-waves on the macroscopic scale, with electrons forming Bloch waves and an energy gap much like those in the classic band theory of crystals. These parallel planes form a diffractive waveguide permitting electron waves to traveling parallel to the planes, corresponding to lossless supercurrent. A similar picture may be extended to unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, with an array of standing spin waves rather than phonons. Such coherent lattice vibrations should be universal indicators of the superconducting state, and should be observable below T c using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Further implications of this picture are discussed
Quantum learning of coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sentis, Gael; Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-01-01
We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)
Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.
2011-01-01
Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.
Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids
Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.
2011-04-01
Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.
Vacuum electron acceleration by coherent dipole radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Hartemann, F.V.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Li, K.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Hartemann, F.V.; Unterberg, Z.A.; Kerman, A.K.
1999-01-01
The validity of the concept of laser-driven vacuum acceleration has been questioned, based on an extrapolation of the well-known Lawson-Woodward theorem, which stipulates that plane electromagnetic waves cannot accelerate charged particles in vacuum. To formally demonstrate that electrons can indeed be accelerated in vacuum by focusing or diffracting electromagnetic waves, the interaction between a point charge and coherent dipole radiation is studied in detail. The corresponding four-potential exactly satisfies both Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz gauge condition everywhere, and is analytically tractable. It is found that in the far-field region, where the field distribution closely approximates that of a plane wave, we recover the Lawson-Woodward result, while net acceleration is obtained in the near-field region. The scaling of the energy gain with wave-front curvature and wave amplitude is studied systematically. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Estimations of Coherent Instabilities for JLEIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2017-05-01
JLEIC is the medium energy electron-ion collider currently under active design at Jefferson Lab*. The design goals of JLEIC are both high luminosity (1033-1034 cm-2ses-1) and high polarization (>70%) for the electron and light ion beams, for a wide range of electron and ion beam energies and for a wide spectrum of ion species. The unprecedented luminosity goal for this electron-ion collider sets strong requirements for the understanding and management of potential collective effects in JLEIC. In this paper, we present preliminary estimations of single and coupled bunch coherent instabilities for the electron and proton beams at collision energies for the JLEIC design. Further improvement of the estimations and mitigation methods are discussed.
Coherent vortex structures in fluids and plasmas
Tur, Anatoli
2017-01-01
This monograph introduces readers to the hydrodynamics of vortex formation, and reviews the last decade of active research in the field, offering a unique focus on research topics at the crossroads of traditional fluids and plasmas. Vortices are responsible for the process of macroscopic transport of momentum, energy and mass, and are formed as the result of spontaneous self-organization. Playing an important role in nature and technology, localized, coherent vortices are regularly observed in shear flows, submerged jets, afterbody flows and in atmospheric boundary layers, sometimes taking on the form of vortex streets. In addition, the book addresses a number of open issues, including but not limited to: which singularities are permitted in a 2D Euler equation besides point vortices? Which other, even more complex, localized vortices could be contained in the Euler equation? How do point vortices interact with potential waves?
Coherent interference effects in SIEM and CBED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, J.M.
1981-01-01
The coherent convergent incident beam produced by the field emission gun of a STEM instrument allows the observation of a number of unusual interference effects in the shadow images (SIEM) and convergent beam diffraction (CBED) patterns visible on the detector plane. Shadow images of thin crystals display the electron Ronchigrams having a form sensitive to the defocus and aberrations of the objective lens. For large crystal lattice spacings the Ronchigrams show characteristic ellipses of low contrast. CBED patterns of thin crystal show symmetries and intensities which vary with the position of the incident beam within the unit cell. Discontinuities in the specimen such as the edges of crystals show striking Fresnel diffraction effects in SIEM. In CBED patterns they give rise to the splitting of diffraction spots. If the incident beam is parallel to a smooth face of a small crystal the potential field outside the crystal gives rise to strong refraction effects. (orig.)
LDRD final report on theory and exploration of quantum-dot optical nonlinearities and coherences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, Weng Wah
2008-01-01
A microscopic theory for investigating quantum-dot optical properties was developed. The theory incorporated advances on various aspects of quantum-dot physics developed at Sandia and elsewhere. Important components are a non-Markovian treatment of polarization dephasing due to carrier-carrier scattering (developed at Sandia) and a nonperturbative treatment within a polaron picture of the scattering of carriers by longitudinal-optical phonons (developed at Bremen University). A computer code was also developed that provides a detailed accounting of electronic structure influences and a consistent treatment of many-body effects, the latter via the incorporation of results from the microscopic theory. This code was used to explore quantum coherence physics in a quantum-dot system. The investigation furthers the understanding of the underlying differences between atomic quantum coherence and semiconductor quantum coherence, and helps improve the potential of using quantum coherences in quantum computing, coherent control and high-resolution spectroscopy
From quantum coherence to quantum correlations
Sun, Yuan; Mao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Shunlong
2017-06-01
In quantum mechanics, quantum coherence of a state relative to a quantum measurement can be identified with the quantumness that has to be destroyed by the measurement. In particular, quantum coherence of a bipartite state relative to a local quantum measurement encodes quantum correlations in the state. If one takes minimization with respect to the local measurements, then one is led to quantifiers which capture quantum correlations from the perspective of coherence. In this vein, quantum discord, which quantifies the minimal correlations that have to be destroyed by quantum measurements, can be identified as the minimal coherence, with the coherence measured by the relative entropy of coherence. To advocate and formulate this idea in a general context, we first review coherence relative to Lüders measurements which extends the notion of coherence relative to von Neumann measurements (or equivalently, orthonomal bases), and highlight the observation that quantum discord arises as minimal coherence through two prototypical examples. Then, we introduce some novel measures of quantum correlations in terms of coherence, illustrate them through examples, investigate their fundamental properties and implications, and indicate their applications to quantum metrology.
Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence
Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob; Hansen, Per; Angelou, Nikolas; Svardal, Benny
2016-12-01
Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis on the root-coherence and the co-coherence of turbulence. A four-parameter decaying exponential function has been fitted to the measured co-coherence, and a good agreement is observed between data obtained by the sonic anemometers and the lidars. The root-coherence of turbulence is compared to theoretical models. The analytical predictions agree rather well with the measured coherence for the along-wind component. For increasing wavenumbers, larger discrepancies are, however, noticeable between the measured coherence and the theoretical predictions. The WindScanners are observed to slightly overestimate the integral length scales, which could not be explained by the laser beam averaging effect alone. On the other hand, the spatial averaging effect does not seem to have any significant effect on the coherence.
Coherent structures and dynamical systems
Jimenez, Javier
1987-01-01
Any flow of a viscous fluid has a finite number of degrees of freedom, and can therefore be seen as a dynamical system. A coherent structure can be thought of as a lower dimensional manifold in whose neighborhood the dynamical system spends a substantial fraction of its time. If such a manifold exists, and if its dimensionality is substantially lower that that of the full flow, it is conceivable that the flow could be described in terms of the reduced set of degrees of freedom, and that such a description would be simpler than one in which the existence of structure was not recognized. Several examples are briefly summarized.
Coherent defects in superconducting circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, Clemens
2011-01-01
The interaction of superconducting circuits with additional quantum systems is a topic that has found extensive study in the recent past. In the limit where the added system are incoherent, this is the standard field of decoherence and the system dynamics can be described by a simple master equation. In the other limit however, when the additional parts are coherent, the resulting time-evolution can become more complicated. In this thesis we have investigated the interaction of superconducting circuits with coherent and incoherent two-level defects. We have shown theoretical calculations characterizing this interaction for all relevant parameter regimes. In the weak coupling limit, the interaction can be described in an effective bath picture, where the TLS act as parts of a large, decohering environment. For strong coupling, however, the coherent dynamics of the full coupled system has to be considered. We show the calculations of the coupled time-evolution and again characterize the interaction by an effective decoherence rate. We also used experimental data to characterize the microscopic origin of the defects and the details of their interaction with the circuits. The results obtained by analyzing spectroscopic data allow us to place strong constraint on several microscopic models for the observed TLS. However, these calculations are not yet fully conclusive as to the physical nature of the TLS. We propose additional experiments to fully characterize the interaction part of the Hamiltonian, thus providing the answer to the question of the physical origin of the coupling. Additionally we have developed a method to directly drive individual defect states via virtual excitation of the qubit. This method allows one to directly probe the properties of single TLS and possibly make use of their superior coherence times for quantum information purposes. The last part of this thesis provided a way for a possible implementation of geometric quantum computation in
Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.
1979-01-01
A new class of superconducting materials, Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structures (LUCS) are described. These materials are produced by sequentially depositing ultrathin layers of materials using high rate magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. Strong evidence is presented that layers as thin as 10 A can be prepared in this fashion. Resistivity data indicates that the mean free path is layer thickness limited. A strong disagreement is found between the experimentally measured transition temperatures T/sub c/ and the T/sub c/'s calculated using the Cooper limit approximation. This is interpreted as a change in the band structure or the phonon structure of the material due to layering or to surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.
1992-01-01
There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)
Coherence effects in radiative scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, J.; Lenk, R.
1993-03-01
The bremsstrahl-production of photons in dense matter is reinvestigated using the example of an exactly solvable quantum mechanical model in one space dimension. Coherence phenomena between successive radiative scatterings among the constituents lead to a modification of the production cross section in the medium relative to the incoherent quasi-free prescription used in kinetic models. Analytic expressions for the correction factor have been derived comparing the quantum rates with the corresponding incoherent quasi-free rates. The result has implications for the kinetic description of all kinds of radiative processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions, both on the level of hadron and parton dynamics. (orig.)
Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer
Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alu, Andrea
2017-01-01
Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load, which is not easily implemented in near-field WPT. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced wireless power transfer. We show that a principle similar to the on...
Experimental coherent control of lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, R.; Ramsay, A.J.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Heberle, A.P.
2002-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate coherent control of a laser. A resonant 100-fs optical pulse is injected into a vertical cavity surface emitting laser to introduce a field component with well-defined phase and thereby excite beating oscillations between the transverse lasing modes. By changing the relative phase between two injected pulses, we can enhance or destroy the beating oscillations and select which lasing modes are excited. We discuss resonant pulse injection into lasers and show how mode competition improves controllability by suppressing the phase-sensitive effects of the carriers
Coherent amplification and pulsar phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casperson, L.W.
1977-01-01
A modification of the rotating-star model has been developed to interpret the periodic energy bursts from pulsars. This new configuration involves theta-directed oscillation modes in the stellar atmosphere or magnetosphere, and most aspects of the typical pulse characteristics are well accounted for. Gain is provided by resonant interactions with particles trapped in the stellar magnetic field. The most significant feature is the fact that highly directional beaming of the output energy results as a natural consequence of coherence between the radiation fields emerging from various locations about the pulsar; and a localized radiation origin is not required. (Auth.)
Coherent control of plasma dynamics
He, Zhaohan
2014-10-01
The concept of coherent control - precise measurement or determination of a process through control of the phase of an applied oscillating field - has been applied to numerous systems with great success. Here, we demonstrate the use of coherent control on plasma dynamics in a laser wakefield electron acceleration experiment. A tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse (10 mJ, 35 fs) was used to generate electron beams by plasma wakefield acceleration in the density down ramp. The technique is based on optimization of the electron beam using a deformable mirror adaptive optical system with an iterative evolutionary genetic algorithm. The image of the electrons on a scintillator screen was processed and used in a fitness function as direct feedback for the optimization algorithm. This coherent manipulation of the laser wavefront leads to orders of magnitude improvement to the electron beam properties such as the peak charge and beam divergence. The laser beam optimized to generate the best electron beam was not the one with the ``best'' focal spot. When a particular wavefront of laser light interacts with plasma, it can affect the plasma wave structures and trapping conditions of the electrons in a complex way. For example, Raman forward scattering, envelope self-modulation, relativistic self-focusing, and relativistic self-phase modulation and many other nonlinear interactions modify both the pulse envelope and phase as the pulse propagates, in a way that cannot be easily predicted and that subsequently dictates the formation of plasma waves. The optimal wavefront could be successfully determined via the heuristic search under laser-plasma conditions that were not known a priori. Control and shaping of the electron energy distribution was found to be less effective, but was still possible. Particle-in-cell simulations were performed to show that the mode structure of the laser beam can affect the plasma wave structure and trapping conditions of electrons, which
Multidimensional coherent spectroscopy made easy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gundogdu, Kenan; Stone, Katherine W.; Turner, Daniel B. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Mass Ave. 6-026 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Mass Ave. 6-026 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: kanelson@mit.edu
2007-11-15
We have demonstrated a highly efficient fully coherent 2D spectrometer based on 2D pulse shaping and Fourier beam shaping. The versatility of the design allows one to measure different 2D spectral surfaces consecutively. Easy alignment, inherent phase stability, rotating wave frame detection, and arbitrary waveform generation in all of the beams are important features of this design. We have demonstrated the functionality of the 2D spectrometer by measuring a 2D spectral surface of a GaAs quantum well.
Multidimensional coherent spectroscopy made easy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gundogdu, Kenan; Stone, Katherine W.; Turner, Daniel B.; Nelson, Keith A.
2007-01-01
We have demonstrated a highly efficient fully coherent 2D spectrometer based on 2D pulse shaping and Fourier beam shaping. The versatility of the design allows one to measure different 2D spectral surfaces consecutively. Easy alignment, inherent phase stability, rotating wave frame detection, and arbitrary waveform generation in all of the beams are important features of this design. We have demonstrated the functionality of the 2D spectrometer by measuring a 2D spectral surface of a GaAs quantum well
Coherent states in quaternionic quantum mechanics
Adler, Stephen L.; Millard, Andrew C.
1997-05-01
We develop Perelomov's coherent states formalism to include the case of a quaternionic Hilbert space. We find that, because of the closure requirement, an attempted quaternionic generalization of the special nilpotent or Weyl group reduces to the normal complex case. For the case of the compact group SU(2), however, coherent states can be formulated using the quaternionic half-integer spin matrices of Finkelstein, Jauch, and Speiser, giving a nontrivial quaternionic analog of coherent states.
Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2014-01-01
, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition......Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first...
Laser diode technology for coherent communications
Channin, D. J.; Palfrey, S. L.; Toda, M.
1989-01-01
The effect of diode laser characteristics on the overall performance capabilities of coherent communication systems is discussed. In particular, attention is given to optical performance issues for diode lasers in coherent systems, measurements of key performance parameters, and optical requirements for coherent single-channel and multichannel communication systems. The discussion also covers limitations imposed by diode laser optical performance on multichannel system capabilities and implications for future developments.
MESI Cache Coherence Simulator for Teaching Purposes
Gómez Luna, Juan; Herruzo Gómez, Ezequiel; Benavides Benítez, José Ignacio
2009-01-01
Nowadays, the computational systems (multi and uniprocessors) need to avoid the cache coherence problem. There are some techniques to solve this problem. The MESI cache coherence protocol is one of them. This paper presents a simulator of the MESI protocol which is used for teaching the cache memory coherence on the computer systems with hierarchical memory system and for explaining the process of the cache memory location in multilevel cache memory systems. The paper shows a d...
Generalization of fewest-switches surface hopping for coherences
Tempelaar, Roel; Reichman, David R.
2018-03-01
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is perhaps the most widely used mixed quantum-classical approach for the modeling of non-adiabatic processes, but its original formulation is restricted to (adiabatic) population terms of the quantum density matrix, leaving its implementations with an inconsistency in the treatment of populations and coherences. In this article, we propose a generalization of FSSH that treats both coherence and population terms on equal footing and which formally reduces to the conventional FSSH algorithm for the case of populations. This approach, coherent fewest-switches surface hopping (C-FSSH), employs a decoupling of population relaxation and pure dephasing and involves two replicas of the classical trajectories interacting with two active surfaces. Through extensive benchmark calculations of a spin-boson model involving a Debye spectral density, we demonstrate the potential of C-FSSH to deliver highly accurate results for a large region of parameter space. Its uniform description of populations and coherences is found to resolve incorrect behavior observed for conventional FSSH in various cases, in particular at low temperature, while the parameter space regions where it breaks down are shown to be quite limited. Its computational expenses are virtually identical to conventional FSSH.
Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.
Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P
2016-07-12
Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.
Design of coherent receiver optical front end for unamplified applications.
Zhang, Bo; Malouin, Christian; Schmidt, Theodore J
2012-01-30
Advanced modulation schemes together with coherent detection and digital signal processing has enabled the next generation high-bandwidth optical communication systems. One of the key advantages of coherent detection is its superior receiver sensitivity compared to direct detection receivers due to the gain provided by the local oscillator (LO). In unamplified applications, such as metro and edge networks, the ultimate receiver sensitivity is dictated by the amount of shot noise, thermal noise, and the residual beating of the local oscillator with relative intensity noise (LO-RIN). We show that the best sensitivity is achieved when the thermal noise is balanced with the residual LO-RIN beat noise, which results in an optimum LO power. The impact of thermal noise from the transimpedance amplifier (TIA), the RIN from the LO, and the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) from a balanced photodiode are individually analyzed via analytical models and compared to numerical simulations. The analytical model results match well with those of the numerical simulations, providing a simplified method to quantify the impact of receiver design tradeoffs. For a practical 100 Gb/s integrated coherent receiver with 7% FEC overhead, we show that an optimum receiver sensitivity of -33 dBm can be achieved at GFEC cliff of 8.55E-5 if the LO power is optimized at 11 dBm. We also discuss a potential method to monitor the imperfections of a balanced and integrated coherent receiver.
Action–angle variables, ladder operators and coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Gadella, M.; Kuru, Ş.; Negro, J.
2012-01-01
This Letter is devoted to the building of coherent states from arguments based on classical action–angle variables. First, we show how these classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators and a structure known as spectrum generating algebra. All this allows to generate coherent states and thereby the correspondence of classical–quantum properties by means of the aforementioned underlying structure. This approach is illustrated with the example of the one-dimensional Pöschl–Teller potential system. -- Highlights: ► We study the building of coherent states from classical action–angle variables arguments. ► The classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. ► In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators. ► All this allows to formulate coherent states and the correspondence of classical–quantum properties.
Tracking coherent structures in massively-separated and turbulent flows
Rockwood, Matthew; Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2018-01-01
Coherent vortex structures are tracked in simulations of massively-separated and turbulent flows. Topological Lagrangian saddle points are found using intersections of the positive and negative finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges, and these points are then followed in order to track individual coherent structure motion both in a complex interacting three-dimensional flow (turbulent channel) and during vortex formation (two-dimensional bluff body shedding). For a simulation of wall-bounded turbulence in a channel flow, tracking Lagrangian saddles shows that the average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a previously published result based on velocity and pressure correlations, giving validity to the method. When this tracking method is applied in a study of a circular cylinder in cross-flow it shows that Lagrangian saddles rapidly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. This saddle behavior is compared with the time-resolved static pressure distribution on the circular cylinder, yielding locations on a cylinder surface where common sensors could detect this phenomenon, which is not available from force measurements or vortex circulation calculations. The current method of tracking coherent structures yields insight into the behavior of the coherent structures in both of the diverse flows presented, highlighting the breadth of its potential application.
Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.F. de; Ferreira, K. de Araujo [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Vaidya, A.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2001-11-01
The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping
2016-05-18
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun
2016-01-01
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Intrinsic pinning in superconductors with extremely small coherence lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schimmele, L.; Kronmueller, H.; Teichler, H.
1988-01-01
By means of a Ginsburg-Landau-type theory which takes into account the discrete lattice structure the variation of the energy ('Peierls potential') of an isolated flux line is calculated when shifted relatively to the crystal lattice. In particular, a primitive cubic lattice is considered with a straight flux line, aligned parallel to a cubic axis. The resulting Peierls potential may lead to intrinsic pinning if the coherence length is smaller than about two nearest neighbour distances. The coherence lengths at low temperatures determined for the recently discovered high T c superconductors of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 class come very close to this value so that intrinsic pinning might possibly be relevant for these superconductors. (author)
Coherence in Magnetic Quantum Tunneling
Fernandez, Julio F.
2001-03-01
Crystals of single molecule magnets such as Mn_12 and Fe8 behave at low temperatures as a collection of independent spins. Magnetic anisotropy barriers slow down spin-flip processes. Their rate Γ becomes temperature independent at sufficiently low temperature. Quantum tunneling (QT) accounts for this behavior. Currently, spin QT in Mn_12 and Fe8 is assumed to proceed as an incoherent sum of small probability increments that occur whenever a bias field h(t) (arising from hyperfine interactions with nuclear spins) that varies with time t becomes sufficiently small, as in Landau-Zener transitions. Within a two-state model, we study the behavior of a suitably defined coherence time τ_φ and compare it with the correlation time τh for h(t). It turns out that τ_φ >τ_h, when τ_hδ h < hbar, where δ h is the rms deviation of h. We show what effect such coherence has on Γ. Its dependence on a static longitudinal applied field Hz is drastically affected. There is however no effect if the field is swept through resonance.
Enhanced delegated computing using coherence
Barz, Stefanie; Dunjko, Vedran; Schlederer, Florian; Moore, Merritt; Kashefi, Elham; Walmsley, Ian A.
2016-03-01
A longstanding question is whether it is possible to delegate computational tasks securely—such that neither the computation nor the data is revealed to the server. Recently, both a classical and a quantum solution to this problem were found [C. Gentry, in Proceedings of the 41st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2009), pp. 167-178; A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 2009), pp. 517-526]. Here, we study the first step towards the interplay between classical and quantum approaches and show how coherence can be used as a tool for secure delegated classical computation. We show that a client with limited computational capacity—restricted to an XOR gate—can perform universal classical computation by manipulating information carriers that may occupy superpositions of two states. Using single photonic qubits or coherent light, we experimentally implement secure delegated classical computations between an independent client and a server, which are installed in two different laboratories and separated by 50 m . The server has access to the light sources and measurement devices, whereas the client may use only a restricted set of passive optical devices to manipulate the information-carrying light beams. Thus, our work highlights how minimal quantum and classical resources can be combined and exploited for classical computing.
Coherently Enhanced Wireless Power Transfer
Krasnok, Alex; Baranov, Denis G.; Generalov, Andrey; Li, Sergey; Alù, Andrea
2018-04-01
Extraction of electromagnetic energy by an antenna from impinging external radiation is at the basis of wireless communications and wireless power transfer (WPT). The maximum of transferred energy is ensured when the antenna is conjugately matched, i.e., when it is resonant and it has an equal coupling with free space and its load. This condition, however, can be easily affected by changes in the environment, preventing optimal operation of a WPT system. Here, we introduce the concept of coherently enhanced WPT that allows us to bypass this difficulty and achieve dynamic control of power transfer. The approach relies on coherent excitation of the waveguide connected to the antenna load with a backward propagating signal of specific amplitude and phase. This signal creates a suitable interference pattern at the load resulting in a modification of the local wave impedance, which in turn enables conjugate matching and a largely increased amount of extracted energy. We develop a simple theoretical model describing this concept, demonstrate it with full-wave numerical simulations for the canonical example of a dipole antenna, and verify experimentally in both near-field and far-field regimes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloiber, Karin; Fischer, Michael; Ledolter, Karin; Nagl, Michael; Schmid, Walther; Konrat, Robert
2007-01-01
The usefulness of selective isotope labelling patterns is demonstrated using the C-terminal SH2 domain of PLC-γ1 selectively 13 C labelled at methionine methyl groups. We demonstrate the generation and relaxation of coherences that are second rank in protons and first rank in carbons that derive from quadrupolar order in protons. The decay rates of second rank double quantum proton coherences are measured. These terms exhibit fewer channels for cross-correlated relaxation compared to single quantum coherences. Our results indicate the potential application of the measurement of high order proton coherences to the analysis of dynamics in methyl-bearing side chains
Synchrotron light science: from flux to brightness to coherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margaritondo, G.
1998-01-01
One century after their discovery and first application to radiology, X-rays are finally achieving coherence. The potential impact on radiological imaging is extremely important, with significant social repercussions. These exciting developments are the final product of a revolution initiated in the late 1960's by Gianfranco Chiarotti and a few other pioneers, who first dreamed of using electron accelerators as superior X-rays sources, and then transformed this dream into reality
Precision spectral manipulation: A demonstration using a coherent optical memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparkes, B. M.; Cairns, C.; Hosseini, M.; Higginbottom, D.; Campbell, G. T.; Lam, P. K.; Buchler, B. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)
2014-12-04
The ability to coherently spectrally manipulate quantum information has the potential to improve qubit rates across quantum channels and find applications in optical quantum computing. Here we present experiments that use a multi-element solenoid combined with the three-level gradient echo memory scheme to perform precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses. If applied in a quantum information network, these operations would enable frequency-based multiplexing of qubits.
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-01-01
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Quantum coherence in the reflection of above barrier wavepackets
Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli
2018-02-01
region before exiting. A classical Wigner approximation, using classical trajectories which upon reaching an edge of the barrier are reflected or transmitted as if the edge was a step potential, is quantitative in the incoherent regime. The implications of the coherence observed on resonance reactive scattering are discussed.
Effects of quantum coherence on work statistics
Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Guo, Li-Sha; Kong, Xiang-Mu
2018-05-01
In the conventional two-point measurement scheme of quantum thermodynamics, quantum coherence is destroyed by the first measurement. But as we know the coherence really plays an important role in the quantum thermodynamics process, and how to describe the work statistics for a quantum coherent process is still an open question. In this paper, we use the full counting statistics method to investigate the effects of quantum coherence on work statistics. First, we give a general discussion and show that for a quantum coherent process, work statistics is very different from that of the two-point measurement scheme, specifically the average work is increased or decreased and the work fluctuation can be decreased by quantum coherence, which strongly depends on the relative phase, the energy level structure, and the external protocol. Then, we concretely consider a quenched one-dimensional transverse Ising model and show that quantum coherence has a more significant influence on work statistics in the ferromagnetism regime compared with that in the paramagnetism regime, so that due to the presence of quantum coherence the work statistics can exhibit the critical phenomenon even at high temperature.
Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...
Coherent acceptability measures in multiperiod models
Roorda, Berend; Schumacher, Hans; Engwerda, Jacob
2005-01-01
The framework of coherent risk measures has been introduced by Artzner et al. (1999; Math. Finance 9, 203–228) in a single-period setting. Here, we investigate a similar framework in a multiperiod context. We add an axiom of dynamic consistency to the standard coherence axioms, and obtain a
Quantum Processes Which Do Not Use Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Yadin
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence, the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory of quantum coherence allows the formalization of incoherent operations—those operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these operations can always be constructed by the system interacting, in an incoherent way, with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the incoherent operations; thus, our results lead to a physically well-motivated resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two quantities in the operations that we study and suggest implications for the theory of quantum discord by relating these operations to those which cannot create discord.
Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E
2012-01-01
To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....
Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Akhoury, SS
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...
Complete destructive interference of partially coherent fields
Gbur, G.J.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.
2004-01-01
A three-point source model is used to study the interference of wavefields which are mutually partially coherent. It is shown that complete destructive interference of the fields is possible in such a "three-pinhole interferometer" even if the sources are not fully coherent with respect to each
Martingale characterizations of coherent acceptability measures
Roorda, Berend
2002-01-01
The coherent risk framework is linked to martingale valuation by adding hedgeinvariance as a fifth axiom, motivated by the concept of consistent hedging. The resulting subclass, called coherent pre-hedge (CoPr) measures, is characterized by a martingale condition on the test set that underlies a
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases.
Chalam, K V; Sambhav, Kumar
2016-01-01
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.
Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography detection method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colston, B W; DaSilva, L B; Everett, M J; Featherstone, J D B; Fried, D; Ragadio, J N; Sathyam, U S.
1999-01-01
This study demonstrates the potential of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for non-invasive in vivo detection and characterization of early, incipient caries lesions. PS-OCT generates cross-sectional images of biological tissue while measuring the effect of the tissue on the polarization state of incident light. Clear discrimination between regions of normal and demineralized enamel is first shown in PS-OCT images of bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. High-resolution, cross-sectional images of extracted human teeth are then generated that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions on both the smooth and occlusal surfaces. Regions of the teeth that appeared to be demineralized in the PS-OCT images were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light microscopy. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the polarization state of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. Demineralization of enamel increases the scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions
Optical coherence tomography in dermatology
Sattler, Elke; Kästle, Raphaela; Welzel, Julia
2013-06-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic method that offers a view into the superficial layers of the skin in vivo in real-time. An infrared broadband light source allows the investigation of skin architecture and changes up to a depth of 1 to 2 mm with a resolution between 15 and 3 μm, depending on the system used. Thus OCT enables evaluation of skin lesions, especially nonmelanoma skin cancers and inflammatory diseases, quantification of skin changes, visualization of parasitic infestations, and examination of other indications such as the investigation of nails. OCT provides a quick and useful diagnostic imaging technique for a number of clinical questions and is a valuable addition or complement to other noninvasive imaging tools such as dermoscopy, high-frequency ultrasound, and confocal laser scan microscopy.
Coherent Radiation in Atomic Systems
Sutherland, Robert Tyler
Over the last century, quantum mechanics has dramatically altered our understanding of light and matter. Impressively, exploring the relationship between the two continues to provide important insights into the physics of many-body systems. In this thesis, we add to this still growing field of study. Specifically, we discuss superradiant line-broadening and cooperative dipole-dipole interactions for cold atom clouds in the linear-optics regime. We then discuss how coherent radiation changes both the photon scattering properties and the excitation distribution of atomic arrays. After that, we explore the nature of superradiance in initially inverted clouds of multi-level atoms. Finally, we explore the physics of clouds with degenerate Zeeman ground states, and show that this creates quantum effects that fundamentally change the photon scattering of atomic ensembles.
Geometry of generalized coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bacry, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Grossmann, A.; Zak, J.
1975-09-01
Various attempts have been made to generalize the concept of coherent states (c.s.). One of them, due to Perelomov, seems to be very promising but no restrictive enough. The Perelomov c.s. are briefly reviewed. One shows how his definition gives rise to Radcliffe's c.s. Relationship between the usual and Radcliffe's c.s. can be investigated either from group contraction point of view (Arecchi et al.) or from a physical point of view (with the aid of the Poincare sphere of elliptic polarizations of electromagnetic plane waves). The question of finding complete subsets of c.s. is revisited and an attempt is made to restrict the Perelomov definition [fr
Nuclear structure with coherent states
Raduta, Apolodor Aristotel
2015-01-01
This book covers the essential features of a large variety of nuclear structure properties, both collective and microscopic in nature. Most of results are given in an analytical form thus giving deep insight into the relevant phenomena. Using coherent states as variational states, which allows a description in the classical phase space, or provides the generating function for a boson basis, is an efficient tool to account, in a realistic fashion, for many complex properties. A detailed comparison with all existing nuclear structure models provides readers with a proper framework and, at the same time, demonstrates the prospects for new developments. The topics addressed are very much of current concern in the field. The book will appeal to practicing researchers and, due to its self-contained account, can also be successfully read and used by new graduate students.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curci, G [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Greco, M; Srivastava, Y [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati
1979-11-19
A recently proposed approach to the problem of infrared and mass singularities in QCD based on the formalism of coherent states, is extended to discuss massless quark and gluon jets. The present results include all leading (ln delta) terms as well as finite terms in the energy loss epsilon, in addition to the usual ln epsilon associated with ln delta. The formulae agree with explicit perturbative calculations, whenever available. Explicit expressions for the total Ksub(T) distributions are given which take into account transverse-momentum conservation. Predictions are also made for the Q/sup 2/ dependence of the mean Ksub(T)/sup 2/ for quark and gluon jets. The jet ksub(T) distributions are extrapolated for low ksub(T) and shown to describe with good accuracy the data for eanti e..-->..qanti q..-->.. hadrons. Numerical predictions are also presented for the forthcoming PETRA, PEP and LEP machines.
Loss-Less planar waveguide 1:4 power splitter at 1550 nm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sckerl, Mads W.; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Laurent-Lund, Christian
1999-01-01
By a unique desposition/etching technique an erbuim-doped planar silica waveguide with intergrated splitter on a silicon substrate was produced and is demonstrated to show net gain at 1550 nm and good saturation and noise characteristics....
BIND – An algorithm for loss-less compression of nucleotide ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
constituting the FNA data set. Supplementary table 2. Original and compressed file sizes (obtained using various compression algorithms) for 2679 files constituting the FFN data set. Supplementary table 3. Original and compressed file sizes (obtained using various compression algorithms) for 25 files constituting the ...
BIND – An algorithm for loss-less compression of nucleotide ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-08-13
Aug 13, 2012 ... Genome sequence data is typically stored as flat (text) files, 'fasta' being the ... (b) The position and type of non-ATGC characters and lowercase character .... processor with 2 GB RAM was used for all evaluation experiments.
Loss-less Nano-fractionator for High Sensitivity, High Coverage Proteomics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulak, Nils A; Geyer, Philipp E; Mann, Matthias
2017-01-01
automated and in-depth characterization of 12 different human cell lines to a median depth of 11,472 different proteins, which revealed differences recapitulating their developmental origin and differentiation status. The fractionation technology described here is flexible, easy to use, and facilitates...
Coherent Diffractive Imaging at LCLS
Schulz, Joachim
2010-03-01
Soft x-ray FEL light sources produce ultrafast x-ray pulses with outstanding high peak brilliance. This might enable the structure determination of proteins that cannot be crystallized. The deposited energy would destroy the molecules completely, but owing to the short pulses the destruction will ideally only happen after the termination of the pulse. In order to address the many challenges that we face in attempting molecular diffraction, we have carried out experiments in coherent diffraction from protein nanocrystals at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. The periodicity of these objects gives us much higher scattering signals than uncrystallized proteins would. The crystals are filtered to sizes less than 2 micron, and delivered to the pulsed X-ray beam in a liquid jet. The effects of pulse duration and fluence on the high-resolution structure of the crystals have been studied. Diffraction patterns are recorded at a repetition rate of 30 Hz with pnCCD detectors. This allows us to take 108,000 images per hour. With 2-mega-pixel-detectors this gives a data-rate of more than 400 GB per hour. The automated sorting and evaluation of hundreds of thousands images is another challenge of this kind of experiments. Preliminary results will be presented on our first LCLS experiments. This work was carried out as part of a collaboration, for which Henry Chapman is the spokesperson. The collaboration consists of CFEL DESY, Arizona State University, SLAC, Uppsala University, LLNL, The University of Melbourne, LBNL, the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, and the Max Planck Advanced Study Group (ASG) at the CFEL. The experiments were carried out using the CAMP apparatus, which was designed and built by the Max Planck ASG at CFEL. The LCLS is operated by Stanford University on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
Coherent State Quantization and Moment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Gazeau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Berezin-Klauder-Toeplitz (“anti-Wick” or “coherent state” quantization of the complex plane, viewed as the phase space of a particle moving on the line, is derived from the resolution of the unity provided by the standard (or gaussian coherent states. The construction of these states and their attractive properties are essentially based on the energy spectrum of the harmonic oscillator, that is on natural numbers. We follow in this work the same path by considering sequences of non-negative numbers and their associated “non-linear” coherent states. We illustrate our approach with the 2-d motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. By solving the involved Stieltjes moment problem we construct a family of coherent states for this model. We then proceed with the corresponding coherent state quantization and we show that this procedure takes into account the circle topology of the classical motion.
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light–matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable. (paper)
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.
2015-11-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya
2001-01-01
X-ray lasers generated by an ultra short pulse laser have advantages such as monochromatic, short pulse duration, small beam divergence, high intensity, and coherence. Spatial coherence is most important for applications, we have investigated the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme x-ray laser lasing from Ne-like titanium (31.6 nm), Ne-like silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm). However, the spatial coherence was not so good with this scheme. We have been studying to improve the spatial coherence of the x-ray laser and have proposed to use coherent seed light tuned to the x-ray laser wavelength generated from higher harmonics generation (HHG), which is introduced to the x-ray laser medium (Ne-like titanium, Ni-like silver plasmas). We present about the theoretical study of the coupling efficiency HHG light with x-ray laser medium. (author)
Potential coherent structures in nonuniform streaming dusty magnetoplasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vranjes, Jovo [Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Shukla, Padma Kant [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Bochum (Germany)
2001-07-01
In this paper we study linear and nonlinear behaviour of modified convective cells and vortices in nonuniform dusty magnetoplasmas with perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field plasma flows, and in basically two different physical systems, with stationary (corresponding to the case of ShuklaVarma mode) and nonstationary (i.e. taking part in perturbations) dust particles. For the case of stationary dust, by choosing some specific profiles for the sheared plasma flow and the dust density, we analyze the eigenvalue equation in order to deduce the growth rate. A threshold is also obtained for the wavenumber separating spatially damped and convective modes (growing in space) due to its interaction with the sheared plasma flow. In the nonlinear regime, for both stationary and nonstationary dust particles, and in the presence of various plasma flows perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field lines, a variety of possible nonlinear solutions, driven by the nonuniform shear flow and dust density is presented, i.e., single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, and tripolar and global vortices. (author)
Influence of HeartMath quick coherence technique on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... of high psychophysiological coherence, decreased feelings of sadness and increased feelings of peacefulness. Psychophysiological and emotional state findings are discussed in relation to health and sport psychology, theory and practice. Keywords: Biofeedback, physiological coherence, Quick Coherence Technique, ...
Aligning the talent pathway: exploring the role and mechanisms of coherence in development.
Webb, Vincent; Collins, Dave; Cruickshank, Andrew
2016-10-01
Although our understanding of psychological and social factors in talent development continues to expand, knowledge of the broader system that underpins the entire talent pathways is relatively limited. Indeed, little work has moved beyond the recognition that coherence in this system is important to consider how this may be achieved; particularly in relation to coherent coaching. As such, the aim of this article was to address gaps in talent development and coaching literature and explore principles and potential mechanisms of coherent coaching in sport organisations' talent pathways. After defining and contextualising coherence in whole talent pathways, including barriers to attainment, we discuss how an understanding of coach epistemology can provide a basis for integrating personal and collective coach coherence and therefore a coherent performer experience. With epistemology as our focal point, we then consider how coherent coaching may be supported through the strategic recruitment and placement of coaches, complimentary coach education and development and the use of change agents who can set and shape the coaching milieu, facilitate cross-level communication and enable epistemology-focused reflection and evaluation. Finally, we conclude with some brief recommendations for advancing practically-meaningful knowledge in this important area.
Engineering of Nanoscale Contrast Agents for Optical Coherence Tomography.
Gordon, Andrew Y; Jayagopal, Ashwath
2014-01-30
Optical coherence tomography has emerged as valuable imaging modalityin ophthalmology and other fields by enabling high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of tissue. In this paper, we review recent progress in the field of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT). We discuss exogenous and endogenous sources of OCT contrast, focusing on their use with standard OCT systems as well as emerging OCT-based imaging modalities. We include advances in the processing of OCT data that generate improved tissue contrast, including spectroscopic OCT (SOCT), as well as work utilizing secondary light sources and/or detection mechanisms to create and detect enhanced contrast, including photothermal OCT (PTOCT) and photoacoustic OCT (PAOCT). Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the translational potential of these developments as well as barriers to their clinical use.
[INVITED] Coherent perfect absorption of electromagnetic wave in subwavelength structures
Yan, Chao; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Jun; Huang, Yijia; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang
2018-05-01
Electromagnetic (EM) absorption is a common process by which the EM energy is transformed into other kinds of energy in the absorber, for example heat. Perfect absorption of EM with structures at subwavelength scale is important for many practical applications, such as stealth technology, thermal control and sensing. Coherent perfect absorption arises from the interplay of interference and absorption, which can be interpreted as a time-reversed process of lasing or EM emitting. It provides a promising way for complete absorption in both nanophotonics and electromagnetics. In this review, we discuss basic principles and properties of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA). Various subwavelength structures including thin films, metamaterials and waveguide-based structures to realize CPAs are compared. We also discuss the potential applications of CPAs.
Coherent patterning of matter waves with subwavelength localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.; Birkl, G.
2009-01-01
We propose the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage (SLAP) technique to coherently achieve state-selective patterning of matter waves well beyond the diffraction limit. The SLAP technique consists in coupling two partially overlapping and spatially structured laser fields to three internal levels of the matter wave yielding state-selective localization at those positions where the adiabatic passage process does not occur. We show that by means of this technique matter wave localization down to the single nanometer scale can be achieved. We analyze in detail the potential implementation of the SLAP technique for nanolithography with an atomic beam of metastable Ne* and for coherent patterning of a two-component 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate.
CIRCE, the Coherent Infrared Center at the ALS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrd, John M.; De Santis, Stefano; Jung, Jin-Young; Li, Derun; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, W.; Munson, Dawn; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Robin, David S.; Sannibale, Fernando; Schlueter, Ross; Venturini, Marco; Wan, Weishi; Zolotorev, Max
2004-01-01
CIRCE (Coherent InfraRed CEnter) is a proposal for a new electron storage ring to be built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The ring design is optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. Among others, CIRCE operation includes three interesting CSR modes: ultra stable, femtosecond laser slicing and broadband bursting. CSR allows CIRCE to generate an extremely high flux in the terahertz frequency region. The many orders of magnitude increase in the intensity over that presently achievable by conventional sources, has the potential to enable new science experiments. The characteristics of CIRCE and of the different modes of operation are described in this paper
Parametric imaging of viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography
Wijesinghe, Philip; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.
2015-03-01
We demonstrate imaging of soft tissue viscoelasticity using optical coherence elastography. Viscoelastic creep deformation is induced in tissue using step-like compressive loading and the resulting time-varying deformation is measured using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography. From a series of co-located B-scans, we estimate the local strain rate as a function of time, and parameterize it using a four-parameter Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic creep. The estimated viscoelastic strain and time constant are used to visualize viscoelastic creep in 2D, dual-parameter viscoelastograms. We demonstrate our technique on six silicone tissue-simulating phantoms spanning a range of viscoelastic parameters. As an example in soft tissue, we report viscoelastic contrast between muscle and connective tissue in fresh, ex vivo rat gastrocnemius muscle and mouse abdominal transection. Imaging viscoelastic creep deformation has the potential to provide complementary contrast to existing imaging modalities, and may provide greater insight into disease pathology.
Refinements to longitudinal, single bunch, coherent instability theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koscielniak, S R
1995-06-01
For the case of a bunched beam confined to a quadratic potential well, we demonstrate the necessity for considering mode-coupling to correctly obtain the threshold current for the d.c. instability. Further we find the effect upon growth rate and coherent tune shift of evaluating the impedance at a complex frequency. For the case of a bunched beam confined to a cosine potential well, we give an exact analytic expression for the dispersion integral, and calculate (with no approximations), the stability diagram for the Robinson instability taking into account Landau damping. This paper comprises extracts from a lengthy internal report. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs.
Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction
Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary
2018-01-01
Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.
Long-lived coherence in carotenoids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A, E-mail: jdavis@swin.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2010-08-15
We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S{sub 2}|S{sub 0}) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baird, S.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C.; Pellegrini, C.
1991-01-01
This paper explores the use of a large-circumference, high-energy, electron-positron collider such as PEP to drive a free-electron laser (FEL), producing high levels of coherent power at short wavelengths. The author consider Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE), in which electron bunches with low emittance, high peak current and small energy spread radiate coherently in a single passthrough a long undulator. As the electron beam passes down the undulator, its interaction with the increasingly intense spontaneous radiation causes a bunch density modulation at the optical wavelength, resulting in stimulated emissional growth of coherent power in a single pass. The need for optical-cavity mirrors, which place a lower limit on the wavelength of a conventional FEL oscillator, is avoided. The authors explore various combinations of electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs and optical klystrons (OK), to reach high average or peak coherent power at wavelengths around 40 angstrom by achieving significant exponential gain or full saturation. Examples are presented for devices that achieve high peak coherent power (up to about 400 MW) with lower average coherent power (about 20 mW) and other devices which produce a few watts of average coherent power
Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney.
Andrews, Peter M; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Falola, Reuben; Chen, Yu
2016-12-01
The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. In this investigation, we used Munich-Wistar rats to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect histopathologic changes associated with aging. Optical coherence tomography observations were correlated with renal function and conventional light microscopic evaluation of these same kidneys. With the onset of severe proteinuria at 10 to 12 months of age, optical coherence tomography revealed tubular necrosis/atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilation, and glomerulosclerosis. With a further deterioration in kidney function at 16 to 18 months of age (as indicated by rising creatinine levels), optical coherence tomography revealed more extensive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, increased tubular dilation with cyst formation and more sclerotic glomeruli. The foregoing observations suggest that optical coherence tomography can be used to detect the histopathology of progressive nephropathy associated with aging.
Exergy of partially coherent thermal radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi
2012-01-01
Exergy of electromagnetic radiation has been studied by a number of researchers for well over four decades in order to estimate the maximum conversion efficiencies of thermal radiation. As these researchers primarily dealt with solar and blackbody radiation, which have a low degree of coherence, they did not consider the partial coherence properties of thermal radiation. With the recent development of surface structures, which can emit radiation with high degree of coherence, the importance of considering the partial coherent properties in exergy calculation has become a necessity as the coherence properties directly influence the entropy of the wave field. Here in this paper we derive an expression for the exergy of quasi-monochromatic radiation using statistical thermodynamics and show that it is identical with the expressions derived using classical thermodynamics. We also present a method to calculate the entropy, thereby the exergy of partially coherent radiation using statistical thermodynamics and a method called matrix treatment of wave field. -- Highlights: ► Considered partial coherence of radiation for the first time to calculate exergy. ► The importance of this method is emphasized with energy conversion examples. ► Derived an expression for the exergy of radiation using statistical thermodynamics. ► Adopted a method to calculate intensity of statistically independent principle wave.
Coherence and correspondence in engineering design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos
2009-03-01
Full Text Available I show how the coherence/correspondence distinction can inform the conversation about decision methods for engineering design. Some engineers argue for the application of multi-attribute utility theory while others argue for what they call heuristics. To clarify the differences among methods, I first ask whether each method aims at achieving coherence or correspondence. By analyzing statements in the design literature, I argue that utility theory aims at achieving coherence and heuristics aim at achieving correspondence. Second, I ask if achieving coherence always implies achieving correspondence. It is important to provide an answer because while in design the objective is correspondence, it is difficult to assess it, and coherence that is easier to assess is used as a surrogate. I argue that coherence does not always imply correspondence in design and that this is also the case in problems studied in judgment and decision-making research. Uncovering the conditions under which coherence implies, or does not imply, correspondence is a topic where engineering design and judgment and decision-making research might connect.
Long-lived coherence in carotenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P; Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A
2010-01-01
We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S 2 |S 0 ) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.
Luo, Shunlong; Sun, Yuan
2017-08-01
Quantifications of coherence are intensively studied in the context of completely decoherent operations (i.e., von Neuamnn measurements, or equivalently, orthonormal bases) in recent years. Here we investigate partial coherence (i.e., coherence in the context of partially decoherent operations such as Lüders measurements). A bona fide measure of partial coherence is introduced. As an application, we address the monotonicity problem of K -coherence (a quantifier for coherence in terms of Wigner-Yanase skew information) [Girolami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.170401], which is introduced to realize a measure of coherence as axiomatized by Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401]. Since K -coherence fails to meet the necessary requirement of monotonicity under incoherent operations, it is desirable to remedy this monotonicity problem. We show that if we modify the original measure by taking skew information with respect to the spectral decomposition of an observable, rather than the observable itself, as a measure of coherence, then the problem disappears, and the resultant coherence measure satisfies the monotonicity. Some concrete examples are discussed and related open issues are indicated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Räber, Lorenz; Heo, Jung Ho; Radu, Maria D
2012-01-01
To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images.......To demonstrate the feasibility and potential usefulness of an offline fusion of matched optical coherence tomography (OCT) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)/virtual histology (IVUS-VH) images....
Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.
Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H
2009-02-13
When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.
Characterization of dynamic physiology of the bladder by optical coherence tomography
Yuan, Zhijia; Keng, Kerri; Pan, Rubin; Ren, Hugang; Du, Congwu; Kim, Jason; Pan, Yingtian
2012-03-01
Because of its high spatial resolution and noninvasive imaging capabilities, optical coherence tomography has been used to characterize the morphological details of various biological tissues including urinary bladder and to diagnose their alternations (e.g., cancers). In addition to static morphology, the dynamic features of tissue morphology can provide important information that can be used to diagnose the physiological and functional characteristics of biological tissues. Here, we present the imaging studies based on optical coherence tomography to characterize motion related physiology and functions of rat bladder detrusor muscles and compared the results with traditional biomechanical measurements. Our results suggest that optical coherence tomography is capable of providing quantitative evaluation of contractile functions of intact bladder (without removing bladder epithelium and connective tissue), which is potentially of more clinical relevance for future clinical diagnosis - if incorporated with cystoscopic optical coherence tomography.
Coherent and squeezed states in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jannussis, A.; Bartzis, V.; Vlahos, E.
1990-01-01
In the present paper, the coherent and the squeezed states in phase space have been studied. From the wave functions of the coherent and the squeezed state, their corresponding Wigner distribution functions are calculated. Especially the calculation of the corresponding Wigner functions for the above states permits the determination of the mean values of position and momentum and thus the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. In fact, from the related results, it is concluded that the uncertainty relation of the coherent and associated squeezed states is the same
Coherence and extensions of stochastic matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Gilio
1995-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper a review of some general results on coherence of conditional probability assessments is given. Then, a necessary and sufficient condition on coherence of two finite families of discrete conditianal probability distributions, represented by two stochastic matrices P and Q, is obtained. Moreover, the possible extensions of the assessment (P,Q to the marginal distributions are examined and explicit formulas for them are given in some special case. Finally, a general algorithm to check coherence of (P,Q and to derive its extensions is proposed.
Coherent states in quaternionic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.; Millard, A.C.
1997-01-01
We develop Perelomov close-quote s coherent states formalism to include the case of a quaternionic Hilbert space. We find that, because of the closure requirement, an attempted quaternionic generalization of the special nilpotent or Weyl group reduces to the normal complex case. For the case of the compact group SU(2), however, coherent states can be formulated using the quaternionic half-integer spin matrices of Finkelstein, Jauch, and Speiser, giving a nontrivial quaternionic analog of coherent states. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Coherent Lagrangian swirls among submesoscale motions.
Beron-Vera, F J; Hadjighasem, A; Xia, Q; Olascoaga, M J; Haller, G
2018-03-05
The emergence of coherent Lagrangian swirls (CLSs) among submesoscale motions in the ocean is illustrated. This is done by applying recent nonlinear dynamics tools for Lagrangian coherence detection on a surface flow realization produced by a data-assimilative submesoscale-permitting ocean general circulation model simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Both mesoscale and submesoscale CLSs are extracted. These extractions prove the relevance of coherent Lagrangian eddies detected in satellite-altimetry-based geostrophic flow data for the arguably more realistic ageostrophic multiscale flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maurice Mohr
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The vasti muscles have to work in concert to control knee joint motion during movements like walking, running, or squatting. Coherence analysis between surface electromyography (EMG signals is a common technique to study muscle synchronization during such movements and gain insight into strategies of the central nervous system to optimize neuromuscular performance. However, different assessment methods related to EMG data acquisition, e.g., different electrode configurations or amplifier technologies, have produced inconsistent observations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of different EMG acquisition techniques (monopolar vs. bipolar electrode configuration, potential vs. current amplifier on the magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity of intermuscular coherence between two vasti muscles during stable and unstable squatting exercises.Methods: Surface EMG signals from vastus lateralis (VL and medialis (VM were obtained from eighteen adults while performing series of stable und unstable bipedal squats. The EMG signals were acquired using three different recording techniques: (1 Bipolar with a potential amplifier, (2 monopolar with a potential amplifier, and (3 monopolar electrodes with a current amplifier. VL-VM coherence between the respective raw EMG signals was determined during two trials of stable squatting and one trial of unstable squatting to compare the coherence magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity between EMG recording techniques.Results: VL-VM coherence was about twice as high for monopolar recordings compared to bipolar recordings for all squatting exercises while coherence was similar between monopolar potential and current recordings. Reliability measures were comparable between recording systems while the sensitivity to an increase in intermuscular coherence during unstable vs. stable squatting was lowest for the monopolar potential system.Discussion and Conclusion: The choice of
Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology.
Ulrich, Martina; Themstrup, Lotte; de Carvalho, Nathalie; Manfredi, Marco; Grana, Costantino; Ciardo, Silvana; Kästle, Raphaela; Holmes, Jon; Whitehead, Richard; Jemec, Gregor B E; Pellacani, Giovanni; Welzel, Julia
2016-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a non-invasive imaging technology, which may be applied to the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and which has recently been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of basal cell carcinoma. Technical developments of OCT continue to expand the applicability of OCT for different neoplastic and inflammatory skin diseases. Of these, dynamic OCT (D-OCT) based on speckle variance OCT is of special interest as it allows the in vivo evaluation of blood vessels and their distribution within specific lesions, providing additional functional information and consequently greater density of data. In an effort to assess the potential of D-OCT for future scientific and clinical studies, we have therefore reviewed the literature and preliminary unpublished data on the visualization of the microvasculature using D-OCT. Information on D-OCT in skin cancers including melanoma, as well as in a variety of other skin diseases, is presented in an atlas. Possible diagnostic features are suggested, although these require additional validation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals
Chong, C.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, C.
2017-10-01
The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices. In this topical review, we focus on recent experimental, computational, and theoretical results on nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals. Such structures—which include traveling solitary waves, dispersive shock waves, and discrete breathers—have fascinating dynamics, including a diversity of both transient features and robust, long-lived patterns that emerge from broad classes of initial data. In our review, we primarily discuss phenomena in one-dimensional crystals, as most research to date has focused on such scenarios, but we also present some extensions to two-dimensional settings. Throughout the review, we highlight open problems and discuss a variety of potential engineering applications that arise from the rich dynamic response of granular crystals.
Wavelet Coherence Analysis of Change Blindness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irfan Ali Memon
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials. The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory, the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness.
Wavelet coherence analysis of change blindness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, I.; Kalhoro, M.S.
2013-01-01
Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic) based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence) function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials). The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory), the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness. (author)
Coherence effects in parton showers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pettersson, U.
1988-10-01
A model for gluon emission based on the colour dipole approximation is presented. Gluons are radiated from dipoles that are stretched from one colour charge to the corresponding anti-charge, with probability distribution given by generalizations of the Altarelli-Parisi equations. The model agrees very well with experimental data on e + e - annihilation. For the reaction e + e - -> W + W - -> qq ' QQ ' it is pointed out how to extract information about the QCD vacuum and the confinement mechanism by varying the CM energy. Finally the model is applied to deep inelastic lepton scattering. When a quark is kicked out in the lepton-proton interaction, separation of the colour charges leads to gluon emission. Since the proton remnant is not a pointlike object, coherence conditions lead to an asymmetry between gluons emitted in the forward and in the backward region. The asymmetry is controlled by the energy distribution in the force field. Experimental data are reproduced with a linear energy distribution, which is consistent with the proton behaving as a vortex line in a type II superconductor. (author)
Coherence properties in superconducting flux qubits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spilla, Samuele
2015-02-16
The research work discussed in this thesis deals with the study of superconducting Josephson qubits. Superconducting qubits are solid-state artificial atoms which are based on lithographically defined Josephson tunnel junctions properties. When sufficiently cooled, these superconducting devices exhibit quantized states of charge, flux or junction phase depending on their design parameters. This allows to observe coherent evolutions of their states. The results presented can be divided into two parts. In a first part we investigate operations of superconducting qubits based on the quantum coherence in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). We explain experimental data which has been observed in a SQUID subjected to fast, large-amplitude modifications of its effective potential shape. The motivations for this work come from the fact that in the past few years there have been attempts to interpret the supposed quantum behavior of physical systems, such as Josephson devices, within a classical framework. Moreover, we analyze the possibility of generating GHZ states, namely maximally entangled states, in a quantum system made out of three Josephson qubits. In particular, we investigate the possible limitations of the GHZ state generation due to coupling to bosonic baths. In the second part of the thesis we address a particular cause of decoherence of flux qubits which has been disregarded until now: thermal gradients, which can arise due to accidental non equilibrium quasiparticle distributions. The reason for these detrimental effects is that heat currents flowing through Josephson tunnel junctions in response to a temperature gradient are periodic functions of the phase difference between the electrodes. The phase dependence of the heat current comes from Andreev reflection, namely an interplay between the quasiparticles which carry heat and the superconducting condensate which is sensitive to the superconducting phase difference. Generally speaking
Ptychotomography at DLS Coherence Beamline I13
Kuppili, V. S. C.; Sala, S.; Chalkidis, S.; Wise, A. M.; Parsons, A. D.; Zanette, I.; Rau, C.; Thibault, P.
2017-06-01
We describe the implementation and execution of ptychotomography at I13-1, the coherence branchline at Diamond Light Source. The data collection and image reconstruction protocol is demonstrated with the three dimensional reconstruction of a nanoporous gold sample.
Ptychotomography at DLS Coherence Beamline I13
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuppili, V.S.C.; Sala, S.; Chalkidis, S.; Wise, A.M.; Parsons, A.D.; Zanette, I.; Rau, C.; Thibault, P.
2017-01-01
We describe the implementation and execution of ptychotomography at I13-1, the coherence branchline at Diamond Light Source. The data collection and image reconstruction protocol is demonstrated with the three dimensional reconstruction of a nanoporous gold sample. (paper)
Managing coherence via put/get windows
Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY
2011-01-11
A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.
Reaction mechanisms in coherent nuclear photoproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazard, C.
Nuclear coherent pion photoproduction is studied. Pion rescattering and propagation effects inside nucleus and mesic exchange current effects are discussed. Influence of nuclear wave functions and Fermi motion is presented [fr
Power system coherency and model reduction
Chow, Joe H
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive treatment for understanding interarea modes in large power systems and obtaining reduced-order models using the coherency concept and selective modal analysis method.
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Chromatic Dispersion Estimation in Digital Coherent Receivers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soriano, Ruben Andres; Hauske, Fabian N.; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil
2011-01-01
Polarization-diverse coherent demodulation allows to compensate large values of accumulated linear distortion by digital signal processing. In particular, in uncompensated links without optical dispersion compensation, the parameter of the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) is vital to set...
Coherence properties of the radiation from FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.
2015-02-01
FLASH is the first free electron laser user facility operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength range. Many user experiments require knowledge of the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the radiation. In this paper we present an analysis of the coherence properties of the radiation for the fundamental and for the higher odd frequency harmonics. We show that temporal and spatial coherence reach maximum close to the FEL saturation but may degrade significantly in the post-saturation regime. We also find that the pointing stability of short FEL pulses is limited due to the fact that non-azimuthal FEL eigenmodes are not sufficiently suppressed. We discuss possible ways for improving the degree of transverse coherence and the pointing stability.
Programmable and coherent crystallization of semiconductors
Yu, Liyang; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Li, Ruipeng; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Munir, Rahim; Balawi, Ahmed H.; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Amassian, Aram
2017-01-01
and incoherent nucleation events, limiting the ability to control or pattern the microstructure, texture, and functional properties of polycrystalline materials. We present a universal approach that can program the microstructure of materials through the coherent
Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christos E. Kountzakis
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.
Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators
Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.
2004-01-01
We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.
Coherence and chaos in condensed matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, A.R.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the following topics: nonlinearity in condensed matter; coherence and chaos in spatially extended condensed matter systems; nonlinearity and magnetism; and solitons and conducting polymers. 52 refs., 7 figs
Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects
Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin
2013-12-01
For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.
Managing coherence via put/get windows
Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY
2012-02-21
A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.
Relaxation Mechanisms, Structure and Properties of Semi-Coherent Interfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuai Shao
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, using the Cu–Ni (111 semi-coherent interface as a model system, we combine atomistic simulations and defect theory to reveal the relaxation mechanisms, structure, and properties of semi-coherent interfaces. By calculating the generalized stacking fault energy (GSFE profile of the interface, two stable structures and a high-energy structure are located. During the relaxation, the regions that possess the stable structures expand and develop into coherent regions; the regions with high-energy structure shrink into the intersection of misfit dislocations (nodes. This process reduces the interface excess potential energy but increases the core energy of the misfit dislocations and nodes. The core width is dependent on the GSFE of the interface. The high-energy structure relaxes by relative rotation and dilatation between the crystals. The relative rotation is responsible for the spiral pattern at nodes. The relative dilatation is responsible for the creation of free volume at nodes, which facilitates the nodes’ structural transformation. Several node structures have been observed and analyzed. The various structures have significant impact on the plastic deformation in terms of lattice dislocation nucleation, as well as the point defect formation energies.
Coherent ambient infrasound recorded by the global IMS network
Matoza, R. S.; Landes, M.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Brown, D.
2011-12-01
The International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a global network of infrasound arrays, which is designed to detect atmospheric nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet. The infrasound network also has potential application in detection of natural hazards such as large volcanic explosions and severe weather. Ambient noise recorded by the network includes incoherent wind noise and coherent infrasound. We present a statistical analysis of coherent infrasound recorded by the IMS network. We have applied broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing systematically to the multi-year IMS historical dataset (2005-present) using an implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm in log-frequency space. We show that IMS arrays consistently record coherent ambient infrasound across the broad frequency range from 0.01 to 5 Hz when wind-noise levels permit. Multi-year averaging of PMCC detection bulletins emphasizes continuous signals such as oceanic microbaroms, as well as persistent transient signals such as repetitive volcanic, surf, or anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining or industrial activity). While many of these continuous or repetitive signals are of interest in their own right, they may dominate IMS array detection bulletins and obscure or complicate detection of specific signals of interest. The new PMCC detection bulletins have numerous further applications, including in volcano and microbarom studies, and in IMS data quality assessment.
Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms
Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...
Coherent states approach to Penning trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, David J; Velazquez, Mercedes
2009-01-01
By using a matrix technique, which allows us to identify directly the ladder operators, the Penning trap coherent states are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. These states are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator. The associated wavefunctions and mean values for some relevant operators in these states are also evaluated. It turns out that the Penning trap coherent states minimize the Heisenberg uncertainty relation
Using nonlocal coherence to quantify quantum correlation
Pei, Pei; Wang, Wei; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan
2010-01-01
We reexamine quantum correlation from the fundamental perspective of its consanguineous quantum property, the coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. A measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states using nonlocal coherence is proposed, and it can be easily generalized to the multipartite case. The quantification of non-entangled component within quantum correlati...
Evidence for color coherence in jet events
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CDF Collaboration
1994-06-01
Color coherence effects in p{bar p} collisions are observed and studied with CDF, the Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We demonstrate these effects by measuring spatial correlations between soft and leading jets in multi jet events. Variables sensitive to interference are identified by comparing the data to the predictions of various shower Monte Carlos that are substantially different with respect to the implementation of coherence.
Coherent states, pseudodifferential analysis and arithmetic
Unterberger, André
2012-06-01
Basic questions regarding families of coherent states include describing some constructions of such and the way they can be applied to operator theory or partial differential equations. In both questions, pseudodifferential analysis is important. Recent developments indicate that they can contribute to methods in arithmetic, especially modular form theory. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Teleportation of a Coherent Superposition State Via a nonmaximally Entangled Coherent Xhannel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
@@ We investigate the problemm of teleportation of a superposition coherent state with nonmaximally entangled coherent channel. Two strategies are considered to complete the task. The first one uses entanglement concentration to purify the channel to a maximally entangled one. The second one teleports the state through the nonmaximally entangled coherent channel directly. We find that the probabilities of successful teleportations for the two strategies are depend on the amplitudes of the coherent states and the mean fidelity of teleportation using the first strategy is always less than that of the second strategy.
Linear algebraic theory of partial coherence: discrete fields and measures of partial coherence.
Ozaktas, Haldun M; Yüksel, Serdar; Kutay, M Alper
2002-08-01
A linear algebraic theory of partial coherence is presented that allows precise mathematical definitions of concepts such as coherence and incoherence. This not only provides new perspectives and insights but also allows us to employ the conceptual and algebraic tools of linear algebra in applications. We define several scalar measures of the degree of partial coherence of an optical field that are zero for full incoherence and unity for full coherence. The mathematical definitions are related to our physical understanding of the corresponding concepts by considering them in the context of Young's experiment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.
2014-01-01
A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)
2014-11-15
A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.
Polarization Sensitive Coherent Raman Measurements of DCVJ
Anderson, Josiah; Cooper, Nathan; Lawhead, Carlos; Shiver, Tegan; Ujj, Laszlo
2014-03-01
Coherent Raman spectroscopy which recently developed into coherent Raman microscopy has been used to produce label free imaging of thin layers of material and find the spatial distributions of certain chemicals within samples, e.g. cancer cells.(1) Not all aspects of coherent scattering have been used for imaging. Among those for example are special polarization sensitive measurements. Therefore we have investigated the properties of polarization sensitive CARS spectra of a highly fluorescent molecule, DCVJ.(2) Spectra has been recorded by using parallel polarized and perpendicular polarized excitations. A special polarization arrangement was developed to suppress the non-resonant background scattering from the sample. These results can be used to improve the imaging properties of a coherent Raman microscope in the future. This is the first time coherent Raman polarization sensitive measurements have been used to characterize the vibrational modes of DCVJ. 1: K. I. Gutkowski, et al., ``Fluorescence of dicyanovinyl julolidine in a room temperature ionic liquid '' Chemical Physics Letters 426 (2006) 329 - 333 2: Fouad El-Diasty, ``Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: Spectroscopy and microscopy'' Vibrational Spectroscopy 55 (2011) 1-37
Evaluating Extensions to Coherent Mortality Forecasting Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syazreen Shair
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Coherent models were developed recently to forecast the mortality of two or more sub-populations simultaneously and to ensure long-term non-divergent mortality forecasts of sub-populations. This paper evaluates the forecast accuracy of two recently-published coherent mortality models, the Poisson common factor and the product-ratio functional models. These models are compared to each other and the corresponding independent models, as well as the original Lee–Carter model. All models are applied to age-gender-speciﬁc mortality data for Australia and Malaysia and age-gender-ethnicity-speciﬁc data for Malaysia. The out-of-sample forecast error of log death rates, male-to-female death rate ratios and life expectancy at birth from each model are compared and examined across groups. The results show that, in terms of overall accuracy, the forecasts of both coherent models are consistently more accurate than those of the independent models for Australia and for Malaysia, but the relative performance differs by forecast horizon. Although the product-ratio functional model outperforms the Poisson common factor model for Australia, the Poisson common factor is more accurate for Malaysia. For the ethnic groups application, ethnic-coherence gives better results than gender-coherence. The results provide evidence that coherent models are preferable to independent models for forecasting sub-populations’ mortality.
Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk
Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.
2013-01-01
We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk are special cases of φ-coherent and φ-convex measures of risk. Contrary to the classical use of coherent and convex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevendaal, U. van; Schlomka, J.-P.; Harding, A.; Grass, M.
2003-01-01
Coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) is a reconstructive x-ray imaging technique that yields the spatially resolved coherent-scatter form factor of the investigated object. Reconstruction from coherently scattered x-rays is commonly done using algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART). In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on filtered back-projection. For the first time, a three-dimensional (3D) filtered back-projection technique using curved 3D back-projection lines is applied to two-dimensional coherent scatter projection data. The proposed algorithm is tested with simulated projection data as well as with projection data acquired with a demonstrator setup similar to a multi-line CT scanner geometry. While yielding comparable image quality as ART reconstruction, the modified 3D filtered back-projection algorithm is about two orders of magnitude faster. In contrast to iterative reconstruction schemes, it has the advantage that subfield-of-view reconstruction becomes feasible. This allows a selective reconstruction of the coherent-scatter form factor for a region of interest. The proposed modified 3D filtered back-projection algorithm is a powerful reconstruction technique to be implemented in a CSCT scanning system. This method gives coherent scatter CT the potential of becoming a competitive modality for medical imaging or nondestructive testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fenghua Tian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cerebral autoregulation represents the physiological mechanisms that keep brain perfusion relatively constant in the face of changes in blood pressure and thus plays an essential role in normal brain function. This study assessed cerebral autoregulation in nine newborns with moderate-to-severe hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. These neonates received hypothermic therapy during the first 72 h of life while mean arterial pressure (MAP and cerebral tissue oxygenation saturation (SctO2 were continuously recorded. Wavelet coherence analysis, which is a time-frequency domain approach, was used to characterize the dynamic relationship between spontaneous oscillations in MAP and SctO2. Wavelet-based metrics of phase, coherence and gain were derived for quantitative evaluation of cerebral autoregulation. We found cerebral autoregulation in neonates with HIE was time-scale-dependent in nature. Specifically, the spontaneous changes in MAP and SctO2 had in-phase coherence at time scales of less than 80 min (<0.0002 Hz in frequency, whereas they showed anti-phase coherence at time scales of around 2.5 h (~0.0001 Hz in frequency. Both the in-phase and anti-phase coherence appeared to be related to worse clinical outcomes. These findings suggest the potential clinical use of wavelet coherence analysis to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation in neonatal HIE during hypothermia.
Optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration: The game changer.
Lupidi, Marco; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Chhablani, Jay; Fiore, Tito; Singh, Sumit Randhir; Cardillo Piccolino, Felice; Corbucci, Roberta; Coscas, Florence; Coscas, Gabriel; Cagini, Carlo
2018-04-01
Optical coherence tomography angiography is one of the biggest advances in ophthalmic imaging. It enables a depth-resolved assessment of the retinal and choroidal blood flow, far exceeding the levels of detail commonly obtained with dye angiographies. One of the first applications of optical coherence tomography angiography was in detecting the presence of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration and establishing its position in relation to the retinal pigmented epithelium and Bruch's membrane, and thereby classifying the CNV as type 1, type 2, type 3, or mixed lesions. Optical coherence tomography angiograms, due to the longer wavelength used by optical coherence tomography, showed a more distinct choroidal neovascularization vascular pattern than fluorescein angiography, since there is less suffering from light scattering or is less obscured by overlying subretinal hemorrhages or exudation. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of optical coherence tomography angiography findings in exudative and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration have been largely investigated within the past 3 years both in clinical and experimental settings. This review constitutes an up-to-date of all the potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in age-related macular degeneration in order to better understand how to translate its theoretical usefulness into the current clinical practice.
Nano structured materials studied by coherent X-ray diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulden, Johannes
2013-03-01
following chapter focuses on experiments carried out at synchrotron sources showing the potential of applying SAB-CDI to colloidal crystals. An experiment on GaAs nanowires proves the prospects of this method for other nano structured materials. To investigate dynamics, especially on the ultrafast time scale, FEL sources are needed. The next chapter therefore presents two experiments performed at the FLASH facility in Hamburg, showing that SAB-CDI can also be applied at FELs on an artificial crystal and an experiment performed on colloidal crystals to investigate the ultra fast dynamics with a pump-probe experiment. The technical advances in synchrotron radiation creation have opened the field to applications with the coherent part of the X-rays. The combination of iterative phase retrieval methods with crystallographic methods yields the unique opportunity to measure the internal structure of nano structured samples. This thesis gives an introduction into this exciting new field.
Nano structured materials studied by coherent X-ray diffraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gulden, Johannes
2013-03-15
following chapter focuses on experiments carried out at synchrotron sources showing the potential of applying SAB-CDI to colloidal crystals. An experiment on GaAs nanowires proves the prospects of this method for other nano structured materials. To investigate dynamics, especially on the ultrafast time scale, FEL sources are needed. The next chapter therefore presents two experiments performed at the FLASH facility in Hamburg, showing that SAB-CDI can also be applied at FELs on an artificial crystal and an experiment performed on colloidal crystals to investigate the ultra fast dynamics with a pump-probe experiment. The technical advances in synchrotron radiation creation have opened the field to applications with the coherent part of the X-rays. The combination of iterative phase retrieval methods with crystallographic methods yields the unique opportunity to measure the internal structure of nano structured samples. This thesis gives an introduction into this exciting new field.
Coherent states and related quantizations for unbounded motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V G; Gazeau, J-P; Gitman, D M; Levin, A D
2012-01-01
We discuss the construction of coherent states (CS) for systems with continuous spectra. First, we propose to adopt the Malkin–Manko approach, developed for systems with discrete spectra, to the case under consideration. Following this approach, we consider two examples, a free particle and a particle in a linear potential. Second, we generalize the approach of action-angle CS to systems with continuous spectra. In the first approach we start with a well-defined quantum formulation (canonical quantization) of a physical system and the construction of CS follows from such a quantization. In the second approach, the quantization procedure is inherent to the CS construction itself. (paper)
Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood
Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor
2015-08-01
In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.
Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini
2009-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studi...... technical solutions are being pursued to further improve the quality of the images and the data provided, and OCT is being integrated in multimodal imaging devices that would potentially be able to provide a quantum leap to the imaging of skin in vivo....
Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review
Shu, Xiao; Beckmann, Lisa; Zhang, Hao F.
2017-12-01
Visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) is an emerging imaging modality, providing new capabilities in both anatomical and functional imaging of biological tissue. It relies on visible light illumination, whereas most commercial and investigational OCTs use near-infrared light. As a result, vis-OCT requires different considerations in engineering design and implementation but brings unique potential benefits to both fundamental research and clinical care of several diseases. Here, we intend to provide a summary of the development of vis-OCT and its demonstrated applications. We also provide perspectives on future technology improvement and applications.
Detection of bladder tumors using optical coherence tomography
Pan, Yingtian; Xie, Tuqiang; Wang, Zhenguo
2004-07-01
This paper summarizes the engineering development of our lab for endoscopic optical coherence tomography toward the ultimate goal to image bladder micro architecture and to diagnose bladder cancers. To test the utility and potential limitations of OCT setups for bladder tumor diagnosis, we used a rat bladder cancer model to track the morphological changes following tumor growth. Image results are presented, suggesting that OCT is able to differentiate cancerous lesions from inflammatory lesions based on OCT characterizations of epithelial thickness and backscattering changes of bladder tissue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetz, E; Riles, K
2016-01-01
We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors. (paper)
Determination of scattering structures from spatial coherence measurements.
Zarubin, A M
1996-03-01
A new method of structure determination and microscopic imaging with short-wavelength radiations (charged particles, X-rays, neutrons), based on measurements of the modulus and the phase of the degree of spatial coherence of the scattered radiation, is developed. The underlying principle of the method--transfer of structural information about the scattering potential via spatial coherence of the secondary (scattering) source of radiation formed by this potential--is expressed by the generalization of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem to wave and particle scattering [A.M. Zarubin, Opt. Commun. 100 (1993) 491; Opt. Commun. 102 (1993) 543]. Shearing interferometric techniques are proposed for implementing the above measurements; the limits of spatial resolution attainable by reconstruction of the absolute square of a 3D scattering potential and its 2D projections from the measurements are analyzed. It is shown theoretically that 3D imaging with atomic resolution can be realized in a "synthetic aperture" electron or ion microscope and that a 3D resolution of about 6 nm can be obtained with a "synthetic aperture" X-ray microscope. A proof-of-principle optical experiment is presented.
Studying dense plasmas with coherent XUV pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stabile, H.
2006-12-01
The investigation of dense plasma dynamic requires the development of diagnostics able to ensure the measurement of electronic density with micro-metric space resolution and sub-nanosecond, or even subpicosecond, time resolution (indeed this must be at least comparable with the characteristic tune scale of plasma evolution). In contrast with low-density plasmas, dense plasmas cannot be studied using optical probes in the visible domain, the density range accessible being limited to the critical density (N c equals 1.1*10 21 λ -2 (μm) ∼ 10 21 cm -3 for infrared). In addition, light is reflected even at smaller densities if the medium exhibits sharp density gradients. Hence probing of dense plasmas, for instance those produced by laser irradiation of solids, requires using shorter wavelength radiation. Thanks to their physical properties, high order harmonics generated in rare gases are particularly adapted to the study of dense plasmas. Indeed, they can naturally be synchronized with the generating laser and their pulse duration is very short, which makes it possible to use them in pump-probe experiments. Moreover, they exhibit good spatial and temporal coherencies. Two types of diagnostics were developed during this thesis. The first one was used to study the instantaneous creation of hot-solid-density plasma generated by focusing a femtosecond high-contrast laser on an ultra-thin foil (100 nm) in the 10 18 W/cm 2 intensity regime. The use of high order harmonics, providing a probe beam of sufficiently short wavelengths to penetrate such a medium, enables the study of its dynamics on the 100 fs time scale. The second one uses the harmonics beam as probe beam (λ equals 32 nm) within an interferometric device. This diagnostic was designed to ensure a micro-metric spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the femtosecond range. The first results in presence of plasma created by irradiation of an aluminum target underline the potentialities of this new
Coherence resonance in low-density jets
Zhu, Yuanhang; Gupta, Vikrant; Li, Larry K. B.
2017-11-01
Coherence resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a stable nonlinear system to noise exhibits a peak in coherence at an intermediate noise amplitude. We report the first experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a purely hydrodynamic system, a low-density jet whose variants can be found in many natural and engineering systems. This evidence comprises four parts: (i) the jet's response amplitude increases as the Reynolds number approaches the instability boundary under a constant noise amplitude; (ii) as the noise amplitude increases, the amplitude distribution of the jet response first becomes unimodal, then bimodal, and finally unimodal again; (iii) a distinct peak emerges in the coherence factor at an intermediate noise amplitude; and (iv) for a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate of the autocorrelation function exhibits a maximum at an intermediate noise amplitude, but for a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate decreases monotonically with increasing noise amplitude. It is clear that coherence resonance can provide valuable information about a system's nonlinearity even in the unconditionally stable regime, opening up new possibilities for its use in system identification and flow control. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).
Mismatch removal via coherent spatial relations
Chen, Jun; Ma, Jiayi; Yang, Changcai; Tian, Jinwen
2014-07-01
We propose a method for removing mismatches from the given putative point correspondences in image pairs based on "coherent spatial relations." Under the Bayesian framework, we formulate our approach as a maximum likelihood problem and solve a coherent spatial relation between the putative point correspondences using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Our approach associates each point correspondence with a latent variable indicating it as being either an inlier or an outlier, and alternatively estimates the inlier set and recovers the coherent spatial relation. It can handle not only the case of image pairs with rigid motions but also the case of image pairs with nonrigid motions. To parameterize the coherent spatial relation, we choose two-view geometry and thin-plate spline as models for rigid and nonrigid cases, respectively. The mismatches could be successfully removed via the coherent spatial relations after the EM algorithm converges. The quantitative results on various experimental data demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art methods, it is not affected by low initial correct match percentages, and is robust to most geometric transformations including a large viewing angle, image rotation, and affine transformation.
Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2002-01-01
The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.
Coherence characteristics of light-emitting diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Dalip Singh; Saxena, Kanchan; Dubey, Satish Kumar; Shakher, Chandra
2010-01-01
We report the measurement of coherence characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Experiments were performed using red and green color LEDs directly illuminating the Young's double slit kept in the far-zone. Fourier transform fringe analysis technique was used for the measurement of the visibility of interference fringes from which the modulus of degree of spectral coherence was determined. Low degree of spectral coherence, typically 0.4 for red and 0.2 for green LED with double-slit separation of 400 μm was observed. A variable slit was then kept in front of the LEDs and the double slit was illuminated with the light coming out of the slit. Experiments were performed with various slit sizes and the visibility of the interference fringes was observed. It was found that visibility of the interference fringes changes drastically in presence of variable slit kept in front of LEDs and a high degree of spectral coherence, typically 0.85 for red and 0.8 for green LED with double-slit separation of 400 μm and rectangular slit opening of 500 μm was observed. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical counterparts. Coherence lengths of both the LEDs were also determined and it was obtained 5.8±2 and 24±4 μm for green and red LEDs, respectively.
A heating mechanism of ions due to large amplitude coherent ion acoustic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajima, Nobuo; Kawai, Yoshinobu; Kogiso, Ken.
1978-05-01
Ion heating mechanism in a plasma with a coherent ion acoustic wave is studied experimentally and numerically. Ions are accelerated periodically in the electrostatic potential of the coherent wave and their oscillation energy is converted into the thermal energy of ions through the collision with the neutral atoms in plasma. The Monte Carlo calculation is applied to obtain the ion temperature. The amplitude of the electrostatic potential, the mean number of collisions and the mean life time of ions are treated as parameters in the calculation. The numerical results are compared with the experiments and both of them agree well. It is found that the ion temperature increases as the amplitude of the coherent wave increases and the high energy tail in the distribution function of ions are observed for the case of large wave-amplitude. (author)
Coherence method of identifying signal noise model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vavrin, J.
1981-01-01
The noise analysis method is discussed in identifying perturbance models and their parameters by a stochastic analysis of the noise model of variables measured on a reactor. The analysis of correlations is made in the frequency region using coherence analysis methods. In identifying an actual specific perturbance, its model should be determined and recognized in a compound model of the perturbance system using the results of observation. The determination of the optimum estimate of the perturbance system model is based on estimates of related spectral densities which are determined from the spectral density matrix of the measured variables. Partial and multiple coherence, partial transfers, the power spectral densities of the input and output variables of the noise model are determined from the related spectral densities. The possibilities of applying the coherence identification methods were tested on a simple case of a simulated stochastic system. Good agreement was found of the initial analytic frequency filters and the transfers identified. (B.S.)
Color coherence in W + jet events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, B.
1997-11-01
We report on preliminary studies of color coherence effects in p anti p collisions, based on data collected by the D0 detector during the 1994-1995 run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider, at a center of mass energy √s = 1.8 TeV. Color interference effects are studied by examining particle distribution patterns in W + Jet events. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and to a recent analytic Modified-Leading-Log perturbative calculation based on the Local Parton-Hadron Duality hypothesis. Soft particle radiation is enhanced in the event plane relative to the transverse plane, in agreement with calculations in which the effects of color coherence are fully included
Store-operate-coherence-on-value
Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard
2014-11-18
A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.; Stovicek, P.; CTU, Prague
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A l , B l , C l and D l . The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Stovicek, P. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics]|[CTU, Prague (Czech Republic). Doppler Inst.
1996-12-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A{sub l}, B{sub l}, C{sub l} and D{sub l}. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Jurco, B
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}
Phase coherence induced by correlated disorder.
Hong, Hyunsuk; O'Keeffe, Kevin P; Strogatz, Steven H
2016-02-01
We consider a mean-field model of coupled phase oscillators with quenched disorder in the coupling strengths and natural frequencies. When these two kinds of disorder are uncorrelated (and when the positive and negative couplings are equal in number and strength), it is known that phase coherence cannot occur and synchronization is absent. Here we explore the effects of correlating the disorder. Specifically, we assume that any given oscillator either attracts or repels all the others, and that the sign of the interaction is deterministically correlated with the given oscillator's natural frequency. For symmetrically correlated disorder with zero mean, we find that the system spontaneously synchronizes, once the width of the frequency distribution falls below a critical value. For asymmetrically correlated disorder, the model displays coherent traveling waves: the complex order parameter becomes nonzero and rotates with constant frequency different from the system's mean natural frequency. Thus, in both cases, correlated disorder can trigger phase coherence.
Coherent active polarization control without loss
Ye, Yuqian; Hay, Darrick; Shi, Zhimin
2017-11-01
We propose a lossless active polarization control mechanism utilizing an anisotropic dielectric medium with two coherent inputs. Using scattering matrix analysis, we derive analytically the required optical properties of the anisotropic medium that can behave as a switchable polarizing beam splitter. We also show that such a designed anisotropic medium can produce linearly polarized light at any azimuthal direction through coherent control of two inputs with a specific polarization state. Furthermore, we present a straightforward design-on-demand procedure of a subwavelength-thick metastructure that can possess the desired optical anisotropy at a flexible working wavelength. Our lossless coherent polarization control technique may lead to fast, broadband and integrated polarization control elements for applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and telecommunication.
Coherent active polarization control without loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuqian Ye
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a lossless active polarization control mechanism utilizing an anisotropic dielectric medium with two coherent inputs. Using scattering matrix analysis, we derive analytically the required optical properties of the anisotropic medium that can behave as a switchable polarizing beam splitter. We also show that such a designed anisotropic medium can produce linearly polarized light at any azimuthal direction through coherent control of two inputs with a specific polarization state. Furthermore, we present a straightforward design-on-demand procedure of a subwavelength-thick metastructure that can possess the desired optical anisotropy at a flexible working wavelength. Our lossless coherent polarization control technique may lead to fast, broadband and integrated polarization control elements for applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and telecommunication.
Affine coherent states and Toeplitz operators
Hutníková, Mária; Hutník, Ondrej
2012-06-01
We study a parameterized family of Toeplitz operators in the context of affine coherent states based on the Calderón reproducing formula (= resolution of unity on L_2( {R})) and the specific admissible wavelets (= affine coherent states in L_2( {R})) related to Laguerre functions. Symbols of such Calderón-Toeplitz operators as individual coordinates of the affine group (= upper half-plane with the hyperbolic geometry) are considered. In this case, a certain class of pseudo-differential operators, their properties and their operator algebras are investigated. As a result of this study, the Fredholm symbol algebras of the Calderón-Toeplitz operator algebras for these particular cases of symbols are described. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Long coherence times for edge spins
Kemp, Jack; Yao, Norman Y.; Laumann, Christopher R.; Fendley, Paul
2017-06-01
We show that in certain one-dimensional spin chains with open boundary conditions, the edge spins retain memory of their initial state for very long times, even at infinite temperature. The long coherence times do not require disorder, only an ordered phase. In the integrable Ising and XYZ chains, the presence of a strong zero mode means the coherence time is infinite. When Ising is perturbed by interactions breaking the integrability, the coherence time remains exponentially long in the perturbing couplings. We show that this is a consequence of an edge ‘almost’ strong zero mode that almost commutes with the Hamiltonian. We compute this operator explicitly, allowing us to estimate accurately the plateau value of edge spin autocorrelator.
von Neumann's hypothesis concerning coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zak, J
2003-01-01
An orthonormal basis of modified coherent states is constructed. Each member of the basis is an infinite sum of coherent states on a von Neumann lattice. A single state is assigned to each unit cell of area h (Planck constant) in the phase plane. The uncertainties of the coordinate x and the square of the momentum p 2 for these states are shown to be similar to those for the usual coherent states. Expansions in the newly established set are discussed and it is shown that any function in the kq-representation can be written as a sum of two fixed kq-functions. Approximate commuting operators for x and p 2 are defined on a lattice in phase plane according to von Neumann's prescription. (leeter to the editor)
Controlling Casimir force via coherent driving field
Ahmad, Rashid; Abbas, Muqaddar; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid
2016-04-01
A four level atom-field configuration is used to investigate the coherent control of Casimir force between two identical plates made up of chiral atomic media and separated by vacuum of width d. The electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction is obtained via atomic coherence. The behavior of Casimir force is investigated using Casimir-Lifshitz formula. It is noticed that Casimir force can be switched from repulsive to attractive and vice versa via coherent control of the driving field. This switching feature provides new possibilities of using the repulsive Casimir force in the development of new emerging technologies, such as, micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electro-mechanical systems, i.e., MEMS and NEMS, respectively.
Growth of transverse coherence in SASE FELs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Vinit; Krishnagopal, Srinivas
2000-01-01
We introduce the correlation function between the electric field at two different points in the transverse plane as a parameter to quantify the degree of transverse coherence. We also propose a more realistic model for the initialization of the radiation in computer codes used to study SASE FELs. We make these modifications in the code TDA and use it to study the growth of transverse coherence as a function of electron beam size, beam current and transverse emittance. Our results show explicitly that the onset of full transverse coherence in SASE takes place much before the power saturates. With the more realistic model the onset of the exponential growth regime is delayed, and to get a given power from the FEL one needs a longer undulator than would be predicted by the original TDA code
Coherence in the Danish Healthcare System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Jesper; Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
2017-01-01
In this article, we investigate ‘coherence in healthcare’ as a strategy of welfare policy. We conduct our investigation within the theoretical and methodological framework of Scandinavian praxeology, and we construct our empirical data from Danish administrative documents. The tools and terms...... of this tradition are used to generate data from discourse as representations of institutional logics. The aim is to uncover how coherence in healthcare emerges as different strategies in healthcare governance in relation to different institutions seen as positions. Hence, our findings suggest that, although...... the stated aim in policy is to improve coherence in healthcare for the benefit of the patients, various ambiguities within the institutions producing policy tend to maintain a certain order rather than introducing changes. Furthermore, we discuss how this section of the welfare state, examined in relation...
Coherent Bichromatic Force Deflection of Molecules
Kozyryev, Ivan; Baum, Louis; Aldridge, Leland; Yu, Phelan; Eyler, Edward E.; Doyle, John M.
2018-02-01
We demonstrate the effect of the coherent optical bichromatic force on a molecule, the polar free radical strontium monohydroxide (SrOH). A dual-frequency retroreflected laser beam addressing the X˜2Σ+↔A˜2Π1 /2 electronic transition coherently imparts momentum onto a cryogenic beam of SrOH. This directional photon exchange creates a bichromatic force that transversely deflects the molecules. By adjusting the relative phase between the forward and counterpropagating laser beams we reverse the direction of the applied force. A momentum transfer of 70 ℏk is achieved with minimal loss of molecules to dark states. Modeling of the bichromatic force is performed via direct numerical solution of the time-dependent density matrix and is compared with experimental observations. Our results open the door to further coherent manipulation of molecular motion, including the efficient optical deceleration of diatomic and polyatomic molecules with complex level structures.
Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novokhatski, Alexander
2012-01-01
The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum
Coherent diffractive imaging methods for semiconductor manufacturing
Helfenstein, Patrick; Mochi, Iacopo; Rajeev, Rajendran; Fernandez, Sara; Ekinci, Yasin
2017-12-01
The paradigm shift of the semiconductor industry moving from deep ultraviolet to extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) brought about new challenges in the fabrication of illumination and projection optics, which constitute one of the core sources of cost of ownership for many of the metrology tools needed in the lithography process. For this reason, lensless imaging techniques based on coherent diffractive imaging started to raise interest in the EUVL community. This paper presents an overview of currently on-going research endeavors that use a number of methods based on lensless imaging with coherent light.
Coherence protection in coupled quantum systems
Cammack, H. M.; Kirton, P.; Stace, T. M.; Eastham, P. R.; Keeling, J.; Lovett, B. W.
2018-02-01
The interaction of a quantum system with its environment causes decoherence, setting a fundamental limit on its suitability for quantum information processing. However, we show that if the system consists of coupled parts with different internal energy scales then the interaction of one part with a thermal bath need not lead to loss of coherence from the other. Remarkably, we find that the protected part can remain coherent for longer when the coupling to the bath becomes stronger or the temperature is raised. Our theory will enable the design of decoherence-resistant hybrid quantum computers.
Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography
Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.
2009-05-01
We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.
Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D
2009-01-01
We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.
Topological Coherent Modes in Trapped Bose Gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yukalov, V.I.; Marzlin, K.-P.; Yukalova, E.P.; Bagnato, V.S.
2005-01-01
The report reviews the problem of topological coherent modes, which are nonlinear collective states of Bose-condensed atoms. Such modes can be generated by means of alternating external fields, whose frequencies are in resonance with the transition frequencies between the related modes. The Bose gas with generated topological coherent modes is a collective nonlinear analog of a resonant atom. Such systems exhibit a variety of nontrivial effects, e.g. interference fringes, interference current, mode locking, dynamic transitions, critical phenomena, chaotic motion, harmonic generation, parametric conversion, atomic squeezing, and entanglement production
Connecting coherent structures and strange attractors
Keefe, Laurence R.
1990-01-01
A concept of turbulence derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory suggests that turbulent solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations are restricted to strange attractors, and, by implication, that turbulent phenomenology must find some expression or source in the structure of these mathematical objects. Examples and discussions are presented to link coherent structures to some of the commonly known characteristics of strange attractors. Basic to this link is a geometric interpretation of conditional sampling techniques employed to educe coherent structures that offers an explanation for their appearance in measurements as well as their size.
Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venturini, Marco
2002-01-01
We take a detour from the main theme of this volume and present a discussion of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the context of storage rings rather than single-pass systems. Interest in this topic has been revived by a series of measurements carried out at several light source facilities. There is strong evidence that the observed coherent signal is accompanied by a beam instability, possibly driven by CSR itself. In this paper we review a ''self-consistent'' model of longitudinal beam dynamics in which CSR is the only agent of collective forces. The model yields numerical solutions that appear to reproduce the main features of the observations
Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Everett, Matthew J. (Livermore, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Sathyam, Ujwal S. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Pleasanton, CA)
2001-01-01
A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.
Hilbert W*-modules and coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, T; Roy, S Shyam
2012-01-01
Hilbert C*-module valued coherent states was introduced earlier by Ali, Bhattacharyya and Shyam Roy. We consider the case when the underlying C*-algebra is a W*-algebra. The construction is similar with a substantial gain. The associated reproducing kernel is now algebra valued, rather than taking values in the space of bounded linear operators between two C*-algebras. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Coherent reflectivity using white synchrotron radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panzner, Tobias; Sant, Tushar; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen (Germany). Festkoerperphysik
2008-07-01
Using coherent white synchrotron radiation in the hard X-ray region for reflectivity experiments one have access to sample properties on a nanometer scale in principle. To extract the wanted information from the performed measurements so called phase retrieval algorithms are necessary. The authors developed a straight forward simulation program based on a spatial limited atomic flat surface to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the coherent scattered signal in the detector plane. These simulations can explain some interesting features of the measurements and shows unexpected results for the influence of the so called illumination function.
Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jorg M.; Dau, Torsten
2013-01-01
A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled...... of the proposed algorithm was objectively and subjectively evaluated in terms of its impacts on the amount of reverberation and overall quality. A binaural spectral subtraction method based on Lebart et al. [Acta Acust. Acust. 87, 359-366 (2001)] and a binaural version of the original method of Allen et al. were...
Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.
1995-10-01
The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well
Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg
This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... was interdisciplinary and involved more than 20 researchers from 7 different university departments or research institutions in Denmark. Moreover, the project was supported by an international advisory panel. The results include further development and integration of existing tools and methodologies into coherent...
Patchwork diagnoses: the production of coherence, uncertainty, and manageable bodies.
Gardner, John; Dew, Kevin; Stubbe, Maria; Dowell, Tony; Macdonald, Lindsay
2011-09-01
Using a material semiotics methodology, this paper explores the link between diagnostic practices, patient awareness of the body, and biopolitical governance. We collected video and audio recordings of a patient with chest pain involved in three medical interactions (a general practitioner [GP] consultation, an electrocardiogram stress test and a consultation with a cardiologist) in Wellington, New Zealand. Following the work of Annemarie Mol, we argue that each of these diagnostics interactions bring together a range of material and non-material entities that enact the body and disease. Consequently, we note how the diagnostic practices associated with cardiovascular medicine enable and prompt an awareness of the body based on uncertainty, and thus promotes the self-management of cardiac health and risk. This paper illustrates that a material semiotics methodology makes important contributions to the sociology of diagnosis. Firstly, it draws attention to the relationship between humans and material entities in rendering the body intelligible. Secondly, it illustrates that different diagnostic procedures can produce multiple, potentially conflicting, forms of self-awareness. Alongside these practices generating multiplicity, however, are those that presuppose and produce singularity and coherence. We illustrate how the cardiologist "patches" two potentially conflicting diagnoses together in order to provide a sense of coherence to the interactions. Thirdly, material semiotics illustrates how various diagnostic practices can reify risk, and produce bodies that lend themselves to particular forms of governance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Optical biopsy of lymph node morphology using optical coherence tomography.
Luo, Wei; Nguyen, Freddy T; Zysk, Adam M; Ralston, Tyler S; Brockenbrough, John; Marks, Daniel L; Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A
2005-10-01
Optical diagnostic imaging techniques are increasingly being used in the clinical environment, allowing for improved screening and diagnosis while minimizing the number of invasive procedures. Diffuse optical tomography, for example, is capable of whole-breast imaging and is being developed as an alternative to traditional X-ray mammography. While this may eventually be a very effective screening method, other optical techniques are better suited for imaging on the cellular and molecular scale. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), for instance, is capable of high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue morphology. In a manner analogous to ultrasound imaging except using optics, pulses of near-infrared light are sent into the tissue while coherence-gated reflections are measured interferometrically to form a cross-sectional image of tissue. In this paper we apply OCT techniques for the high-resolution three-dimensional visualization of lymph node morphology. We present the first reported OCT images showing detailed morphological structure and corresponding histological features of lymph nodes from a carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumor model, as well as from a human lymph node containing late stage metastatic disease. The results illustrate the potential for OCT to visualize detailed lymph node structures on the scale of micrometastases and the potential for the detection of metastatic nodal disease intraoperatively.
Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Power, J.
1998-01-01
There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Kaho; Ohshima, Masashi; Nomura, Takanori
2014-01-01
The simultaneous measurement method of a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution using low-coherence digital holography with a vertical scanning is proposed. The proposed method consists of a combination of digital holography and low-coherence interferometry. The introduction of a datum plane enables the measurement of both a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution. By the optical experiment, the potential of the proposed method is confirmed. (paper)
Usefulness of intermuscular coherence and cumulant analysis in the diagnosis of postural tremor
van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Conway, B. A.; Elting, J. W.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Maurits, N. M.
Objective: To investigate the potential value of two advanced EMG measures as additional diagnostic measures in the polymyographic assessment of postural upper-limb tremor. Methods: We investigated coherence as a measure of dependency between two EMG signals, and cumulant analysis to reveal patterns
Near-infrared optical coherence tomography for the inspection of fiber composites
Liu, P.; Yao, L.; Groves, R.M.
2015-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging method, which allows the econstruction of three dimensional depth-resolved images with microscale resolution. Originally developed for biomedical diagnostics, nowadays it also shows a high potential for applications in the field of
Clinical experiences with optical coherence tomography in epithelial (pre)malignancies
Wessels, R.
2015-01-01
This thesis describes the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to differentiate between normal tissue and (pre)malignant tissue in epithelial cancers. It can be divided in research performed in the genital area and the field of melanoma. Chapter 2 describes the principles of the
Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography in Dermatology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulrich, Martina; Themstrup, Lotte; De Carvalho, Nathalie
2016-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a non-invasive imaging technology, which may be applied to the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and which has recently been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of basal cell carcinoma. Technical developments of OCT continue to expand the app...
Coherence energies in pre-equilibrium emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Rosa, A.; Inglima, C.; Perillo, E.; Rosato, E.; Sandoli, M.; Spadaccini, G.
1979-01-01
A method, based on the spectral density analysis, has been developped in order to evaluate coherence of statistical fluctuations. It is specially suitable for reactions showing the contemporary presence of different emission mechanism (e.g. preequilibrium and evaporation - like mechanism)
Optical coherence tomography as a diagnostic tool
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Singh, A
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has been used in biomedical applications as a method to non-invasively detect changes occurring in tissue such as the detection of skin cancer. The effect of skin tone on detection of skin cancer has however...
Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzgern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B.
2016-01-01
Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment...
Summary of recent color coherence results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varelas, N.
1998-08-01
Recent experimental results on color coherence phenomena from e + e - , ep, and p anti p collisions are presented. The data are compared to analytic perturbative QCD calculations based on the modified leading logarithm approximation and the local parton hadron duality hypothesis
Coherent π0 production in neutrino reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rein, D.; Sehgal, L.M.
1983-01-01
We have calculated the cross section and angular distribution of the neutral current process ν+K -> ν+K+π 0 involving the coherent interaction of a neutrino with a complex nucleus. A contrast is made to incoherent production ν+n -> ν+n+π 0 on a single nucleon. The results are compared with observations from some recent experiments. (orig.)
Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, Bernhard W.
2004-01-01
The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given
Summary of recent color coherence results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varelas, N., University of Chicago
1998-08-01
Recent experimental results on color coherence phenomena from e{sup +}e{sup -}, ep, and p{anti p} collisions are presented. The data are compared to analytic perturbative QCD calculations based on the modified leading logarithm approximation and the local parton hadron duality hypothesis.
Connections, Coherence, and Cognition in Composition.
Goldstein, Elizabeth; Perfetti, Charles
In a study conducted to show the importance of sentence connections as a way of looking at a writer's cognitive processes, three devices used to achieve coherence in written discourse were compared and proved to be unequally effective. The devices were cohesion (use of a textual reference in a sentence that has an antecedent in a preceding…
Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.
Feng, X N; Wei, L F
2017-11-14
Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.
Optical coherence tomography of the rat cochlea
Wong, B. J. F.; de Boer, JF; Park, B.H.; Chen, ZP; Nelson, JS
2000-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to image the internal structure of a rat cochlea (ex vivo). Immediately following sacrifice, the temporal bone of a Sprague-Dawley rat was harvested. Axial OCT cross sectional images lover regions of interest, 1x1 mm-2x8 mm) were obtained with a spatial
Metaphor Coherence in the Book of Job
Hawley, Lance R.
2016-01-01
Within the book of Job, the interlocutors (Job, the friends, and Yahweh) seem to largely ignore one another's arguments within their dialogical discourse. This observation leads some to propose that the dialogue lacks conceptual coherence. I argue that the interlocutors tangentially attend to previously stated points-of-view and attempt to…
Coherence effects in deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Loennblad, L.; Pettersson, U.
1988-09-01
We present a framework for deep inelastic scattering, with bound state properties in accordance with a QCD force field acting like a vortex line in a colour superconducting vacuum, which implies some simple coherence effects. Within this scheme one may describe the results of present energies very well, but one obtains an appreciable depletion of gluon radiation in the HERA energy regime. (authors)
Multiscale coherent structures in tokamak plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Zhang, W.; Yang, Q. W.; Wang, L.; Wen, Y. Z.
2006-01-01
A 12-tip poloidal probe array is used on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak [Li, Wan, and Mao, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 42, 135 (2000)] to measure plasma turbulence in the edge region. Some statistical analysis techniques are used to characterize the turbulence structures. It is found that the plasma turbulence is composed of multiscale coherent structures, i.e., turbulent eddies and there is self-similarity in a relative short scale range. The presence of the self-similarity is found due to the structural similarity of these eddies between different scales. These turbulent eddies constitute the basic convection cells, so the self-similar range is just the dominant scale range relevant to transport. The experimental results also indicate that the plasma turbulence is dominated by low-frequency and long-wavelength fluctuation components and its dispersion relation shows typical electron-drift-wave characteristics. Some large-scale coherent structures intermittently burst out and exhibit a very long poloidal extent, even longer than 6 cm. It is found that these large-scale coherent structures are mainly contributed by the low-frequency and long-wavelength fluctuating components and their presence is responsible for the observations of long-range correlations, i.e., the correlation in the scale range much longer than the turbulence decorrelation scale. These experimental observations suggest that the coexistence of multiscale coherent structures results in the self-similar turbulent state
Optical Coherence Tomography for Material Characterization
Liu, P.
2014-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, contactless and high resolution imaging method, which allows the reconstruction of two or three dimensional depth-resolved images in turbid media. In the past 20 years, OCT has been extensively developed in the field of biomedical diagnostics,
Spectral coherent combination of ultrashort pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ursescu, D.; Banici, R.; Ionel, L.; Rusen, L.; Sandel, S.; Blanaru, C.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The coherent beam combination was chosen in several laser systems, including ELI, as a solution to increase the final attainable intensity. However, the coherent beam combination it is also a difficult technique while it has to combine coherently in space and in time several beams amplified in different laser chains. That means in particular that the beams should be in phase in every point of the amplified beam so the spatial beam profiling techniques have to be mastered with high accuracy for all the combined beams. Here it is proposed an alternative coherent beam combination than the use of identical ultrashort pulses. The idea is to spectrally combine laser pulses with complementary spectra. Collinear and non-collinear approaches have been modelled. Ongoing experimental development, including the demonstration of the rephasing for two spectrally complementary ultrashort pulses will be presented. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (LASERLAB-EUROPE, grant agreement no. 228334).
Coherent states in the fermionic Fock space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oeckl, Robert
2015-01-01
We construct the coherent states in the sense of Gilmore and Perelomov for the fermionic Fock space. Our treatment is from the outset adapted to the infinite-dimensional case. The fermionic Fock space becomes in this way a reproducing kernel Hilbert space of continuous holomorphic functions. (paper)
Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine
2014-01-01
We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC...... which exhibit non-Gaussian behavior. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...
Coherent control in simple quantum systems
Prants, Sergey V.
1995-01-01
Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, J.M.
1986-12-01
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)
Selective Coherent Excitation of Charged Density Waves
Tsvetkov, A.A.; Sagar, D.M.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Marel, D. van der
2003-01-01
Real time femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study collective and single particle excitations in the charge density wave state of the quasi-1D metal, blue bronze. Along with the previously observed collective amplitudon excitation, the spectra show several additional coherent features.
Coherent transform, quantization, and Poisson geometry
Novikova, E; Itskov, V; Karasev, M V
1998-01-01
This volume contains three extensive articles written by Karasev and his pupils. Topics covered include the following: coherent states and irreducible representations for algebras with non-Lie permutation relations, Hamilton dynamics and quantization over stable isotropic submanifolds, and infinitesimal tensor complexes over degenerate symplectic leaves in Poisson manifolds. The articles contain many examples (including from physics) and complete proofs.
Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert
2014-01-01
. In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.M.
1986-12-01
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered
Testing nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paternostro, Mauro; Jeong, Hyunseok
2010-01-01
We investigate the violation of nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states (ECSs) under nonlinear operations and homodyne measurements. We address recently proposed Leggett-type inequalities, including a class of optimized incompatibility inequalities proposed by Branciard et al. [Nature Phys. 4, 681 (2008)], and thoroughly assess the effects of detection inefficiency.
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Structure Transformation and Coherent Interface in Large Lattice-Mismatched Nanoscale Multilayers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Y. Xie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Nanoscale Al/W multilayers were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. Despite the large lattice mismatch and significantly different lattice structures between Al and W, a structural transition from face-centered cubic to body-centered cubic in Al layers was observed when the individual layer thickness was reduced from 5 nm to 1 nm, forming coherent Al/W interfaces. For potential mechanisms underlying the observed structure transition and forming of coherent interfaces, it was suggested that the reduction of interfacial energy and high stresses induced by large lattice-mismatch play a crucial role.
Rothman, Adam L; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Chen, Xi; Toth, Cynthia A
2016-01-01
Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside. Optical coherence tomography has increased understanding of normal eye development and has identified several potential biomarkers of brain abnormalities and poorer neurodevelopment. PMID:28539807
Frequency dependence of coherently amplified two-photon emission from hydrogen molecules
Hara, Hideaki; Miyamoto, Yuki; Hiraki, Takahiro; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshimura, Motohiko
2017-12-01
We investigate how the efficiency of coherently amplified two-photon emission depends on the frequency of one of the two emitted photons, namely the signal photon. This is done over the wavelength range of 5.048-10.21 μ m by using the vibrational transition of parahydrogen. The efficiency increases with the frequency of the signal photon. Considering experimental errors, our results are consistent with the theoretical prediction for the present experimental conditions. This study is an experimental demonstration of the frequency dependence of coherently amplified two-photon emission, and also presents its potential as a light source.
Observation and control of coherent torsional dynamics in a quinquethiophene molecule.
Cirmi, Giovanni; Brida, Daniele; Gambetta, Alessio; Piacenza, Manuel; Della Sala, Fabio; Favaretto, Laura; Cerullo, Giulio; Lanzani, Guglielmo
2010-07-28
By applying femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to a substituted quinquethiophene molecule in solution, we observe in the time domain the coherent torsional dynamics that drives planarization of the excited state. Our interpretation is based on numerical modeling of the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces and simulation of wavepacket dynamics, which reveals two symmetric excited state deactivation pathways per oscillation period. We use the acquired knowledge on torsional dynamics to coherently control the excited state population with a pump-dump scheme, exploiting the non-stationary Franck-Condon overlap between ground and excited states.
Contribution of optical coherence tomography imaging in management of iatrogenic coronary dissection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas, E-mail: nbarber-chamoux@chu-clermontferrand.fr [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Souteyrand, Géraud; Combaret, Nicolas [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); ISIT, CaVITI, CNRS (UMR-6284), Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Ouedraogo, Edgar; Lusson, Jean René [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Motreff, Pascal [Department of Cardiology, Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand (France); ISIT, CaVITI, CNRS (UMR-6284), Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand (France)
2016-03-15
Iatrogenic coronary dissection is a rare but potentially serious complication of coronary angiography and angioplasty. Treatment with angioplasty guided only by angiography is often difficult. Optical coherence tomography imaging seems to be an interesting technique to lead the management of iatrogenic coronary dissection. Diagnosis can be made by optical coherence tomography; it can also eliminate differential diagnosis. Furthermore, this technique can guide safely the endovascular treatment. - Highlights: • Iatrogenic coronary dissection remains a challenging problem in angiography. • Endocoronary imaging is helpful for the diagnosis of iatrogenic coronary dissection. • OCT is a safe option to manage the endovascular treatment of coronary dissection.
Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Ying; Dubois, Arnaud; Qin Xiangpei; Li Jian; Haj, Alicia El; Wang, Ruikang K
2006-01-01
Monitoring cell profiles in 3D porous scaffolds presents a major challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigate optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an imaging modality to monitor non-invasively both structures and cells in engineered tissue constructs. We employ time-domain OCT to visualize macro-structural morphology, and whole-field optical coherence microscopy to delineate the morphology of cells and constructs in a developing in vitro engineered bone tissue. The results show great potential for the use of OCT in non-invasive monitoring of cellular activities in 3D developing engineered tissues
Coherent methods in X-ray scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorobtsov, Oleg
2017-05-01
X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity
Coherent methods in X-ray scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorobtsov, Oleg
2017-05-15
X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity
Coherent beam combining architectures for high power tapered laser arrays
Schimmel, G.; Janicot, S.; Hanna, M.; Decker, J.; Crump, P.; Erbert, G.; Witte, U.; Traub, M.; Georges, P.; Lucas-Leclin, G.
2017-02-01
Coherent beam combining (CBC) aims at increasing the spatial brightness of lasers. It consists in maintaining a constant phase relationship between different emitters, in order to combine them constructively in one single beam. We have investigated the CBC of an array of five individually-addressable high-power tapered laser diodes at λ = 976 nm, in two architectures: the first one utilizes the self-organization of the lasers in an interferometric extended-cavity, which ensures their mutual coherence; the second one relies on the injection of the emitters by a single-frequency laser diode. In both cases, the coherent combining of the phase-locked beams is ensured on the front side of the array by a transmission diffractive grating with 98% efficiency. The passive phase-locking of the laser bar is obtained up to 5 A (per emitter). An optimization algorithm is implemented to find the proper currents in the five ridge sections that ensured the maximum combined power on the front side. Under these conditions we achieve a maximum combined power of 7.5 W. In the active MOPA configuration, we can increase the currents in the tapered sections up to 6 A and get a combined power of 11.5 W, corresponding to a combining efficiency of 76%. It is limited by the beam quality of the tapered emitters and by fast phase fluctuations between emitters. Still, these results confirm the potential of CBC approaches with tapered lasers to provide a high-power and high-brightness beam, and compare with the current state-of-the-art with laser diodes.
Coherence between coastal and river flooding along the California coast
Odigie, Kingsley O.; Warrick, Jonathan
2018-01-01
Water levels around river mouths are intrinsically determined by sea level and river discharge. If storm-associated coastal water-level anomalies coincide with extreme river discharge, landscapes near river mouths will be flooded by the hydrodynamic interactions of these two water masses. Unfortunately, the temporal relationships between ocean and river water masses are not well understood. The coherence between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels at six California river mouths across different climatic and geographic regions was examined. Data from river gauges, wave buoys, and tide gauges from 2007 to 2014 were integrated to investigate the relationships between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels near the mouths of the Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Ventura, Arroyo Trabuco, and San Diego rivers. Results indicate that mean and extreme coastal water levels during extreme river discharge are significantly higher compared with background conditions. Elevated coastal water levels result from the combination of nontidal residuals (NTRs) and wave setups. Mean and extreme (>99th percentile of observations) NTRs are 3–20 cm and ∼30 cm higher during extreme river discharge conditions, respectively. Mean and extreme wave setups are up to 40 cm and ∼20–90 cm higher during extreme river discharge than typical conditions, respectively. These water-level anomalies were generally greatest for the northern rivers and least for the southern rivers. Time-series comparisons suggest that increases in NTRs are largely coherent with extreme river discharge, owing to the low atmospheric pressure systems associated with storms. The potential flooding risks of the concurrent timing of these water masses are tempered by the mixed, semidiurnal tides of the region that have amplitudes of 2–2.5 m. In summary, flooding hazard assessments for floodplains near California river mouths for current or future conditions with sea-level rise should include the temporal
Horizontal Coherence of Wave Forces on Vertical Wall Breakwaters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto; Martinelli, Luca
2001-01-01
Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest.......Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest....
Coherent inflation for large quantum superpositions of levitated microspheres
Romero-Isart, Oriol
2017-12-01
We show that coherent inflation (CI), namely quantum dynamics generated by inverted conservative potentials acting on the center of mass of a massive object, is an enabling tool to prepare large spatial quantum superpositions in a double-slit experiment. Combined with cryogenic, extreme high vacuum, and low-vibration environments, we argue that it is experimentally feasible to exploit CI to prepare the center of mass of a micrometer-sized object in a spatial quantum superposition comparable to its size. In such a hitherto unexplored parameter regime gravitationally-induced decoherence could be unambiguously falsified. We present a protocol to implement CI in a double-slit experiment by letting a levitated microsphere traverse a static potential landscape. Such a protocol could be experimentally implemented with an all-magnetic scheme using superconducting microspheres.
Multiple symbol partially coherent detection of MPSK
Simon, M. K.; Divsalar, D.
1992-01-01
It is shown that by using the known (or estimated) value of carrier tracking loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the decision metric, it is possible to improve the error probability performance of a partially coherent multiple phase-shift-keying (MPSK) system relative to that corresponding to the commonly used ideal coherent decision rule. Using a maximum-likeihood approach, an optimum decision metric is derived and shown to take the form of a weighted sum of the ideal coherent decision metric (i.e., correlation) and the noncoherent decision metric which is optimum for differential detection of MPSK. The performance of a receiver based on this optimum decision rule is derived and shown to provide continued improvement with increasing length of observation interval (data symbol sequence length). Unfortunately, increasing the observation length does not eliminate the error floor associated with the finite loop SNR. Nevertheless, in the limit of infinite observation length, the average error probability performance approaches the algebraic sum of the error floor and the performance of ideal coherent detection, i.e., at any error probability above the error floor, there is no degradation due to the partial coherence. It is shown that this limiting behavior is virtually achievable with practical size observation lengths. Furthermore, the performance is quite insensitive to mismatch between the estimate of loop SNR (e.g., obtained from measurement) fed to the decision metric and its true value. These results may be of use in low-cost Earth-orbiting or deep-space missions employing coded modulations.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics; Estados coerentes em mecanica quantica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
A highly unscientific guide to civil-military coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zartsdahl, Peter Horne
2017-01-01
Coordinating external instruments is easy. In this EU-CIVCAP newsletter editorial, we provide a highly unscientific guide to succesful civil-military coherence. A User's Guide to Coherence; and extensive collection of buzzwords.......Coordinating external instruments is easy. In this EU-CIVCAP newsletter editorial, we provide a highly unscientific guide to succesful civil-military coherence. A User's Guide to Coherence; and extensive collection of buzzwords....
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Extreme sub-wavelength atom localization via coherent population trapping
Agarwal, Girish S.; Kapale, Kishore T.
2005-01-01
We demonstrate an atom localization scheme based on monitoring of the atomic coherences. We consider atomic transitions in a Lambda configuration where the control field is a standing wave field. The probe field and the control field produce coherence between the two ground states. We show that this coherence has the same fringe pattern as produced by a Fabry-Perot interferometer and thus measurement of the atomic coherence would localize the atom. Interestingly enough the role of the cavity ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiang, J.-T.; Lee, D.-S.
2006-01-01
The influence of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in the presence of the perfectly conducting plate on electrons is studied with an interference experiment. The evolution of the reduced density matrix of the electron is derived by the method of influence functional. We find that the plate boundary anisotropically modifies vacuum fluctuations that in turn affect the electron coherence. The path plane of the interference is chosen either parallel or normal to the plate. In the vicinity of the plate, we show that the coherence between electrons due to the boundary is enhanced in the parallel configuration, but reduced in the normal case. The presence of the second parallel plate is found to boost these effects. The potential relation between the amplitude change and phase shift of interference fringes is pointed out. The finite conductivity effect on electron coherence is discussed
Geometric and dynamic perspectives on phase-coherent and noncoherent chaos.
Zou, Yong; Donner, Reik V; Kurths, Jürgen
2012-03-01
Statistically distinguishing between phase-coherent and noncoherent chaotic dynamics from time series is a contemporary problem in nonlinear sciences. In this work, we propose different measures based on recurrence properties of recorded trajectories, which characterize the underlying systems from both geometric and dynamic viewpoints. The potentials of the individual measures for discriminating phase-coherent and noncoherent chaotic oscillations are discussed. A detailed numerical analysis is performed for the chaotic Rössler system, which displays both types of chaos as one control parameter is varied, and the Mackey-Glass system as an example of a time-delay system with noncoherent chaos. Our results demonstrate that especially geometric measures from recurrence network analysis are well suited for tracing transitions between spiral- and screw-type chaos, a common route from phase-coherent to noncoherent chaos also found in other nonlinear oscillators. A detailed explanation of the observed behavior in terms of attractor geometry is given.
Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope.
Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus
2015-05-14
Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven 'quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers.
Cortico-muscular coherence on artifact corrected EEG-EMG data recorded with a MRI scanner.
Muthuraman, M; Galka, A; Hong, V N; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J
2013-01-01
Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides great potential for studying human brain activity with high temporal and spatial resolution. But, due to the MRI, the recorded signals are contaminated with artifacts. The correction of these artifacts is important to use these signals for further spectral analysis. The coherence can reveal the cortical representation of peripheral muscle signal in particular motor tasks, e.g. finger movements. The artifact correction of these signals was done by two different algorithms the Brain vision analyzer (BVA) and the Matlab FMRIB plug-in for EEGLAB. The Welch periodogram method was used for estimating the cortico-muscular coherence. Our analysis revealed coherence with a frequency of 5Hz in the contralateral side of the brain. The entropy is estimated for the calculated coherence to get the distribution of coherence in the scalp. The significance of the paper is to identify the optimal algorithm to rectify the MR artifacts and as a first step to use both these signals EEG and EMG in conjunction with MRI for further studies.
Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shikuan; Zhou, Jiahuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing
2018-04-01
We investigate the dynamics of charge-state coherence in a degenerate double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometer with finite inter-dot Coulomb interactions. The quantum coherence of the charge states is found to be sensitive to the transport setup configurations, involving both the single-electron impurity channels and the Coulomb-assisted ones. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of a complete coherence between the two charge states, with the relative phase being continuously controllable through the magnetic flux. Interestingly, a fully coherent charge qubit arises at the double-dots electron pair tunneling resonance condition, where the chemical potential of one electrode is tuned at the center between a single-electron impurity channel and the related Coulomb-assisted channel. This pure quantum state of charge qubit could be experimentally realized at the current–voltage characteristic turnover position, where differential conductance sign changes. We further elaborate the underlying mechanism for both the real-time and the stationary charge-states coherence in the double-dot systems of study.
Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique O; Díaz, José-Luis; Barrios, Fernando A; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Corsi-Cabrera, María; Del Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique O
2009-01-01
Potential sex differences in EEG coherent activity during pleasant and unpleasant musical emotions were investigated. Musical excerpts by Mahler, Bach, and Prodromidès were played to seven men and seven women and their subjective emotions were evaluated in relation to alpha band intracortical coherence. Different brain links in specific frequencies were associated to pleasant and unpleasant emotions. Pleasant emotions (Mahler, Bach) increased upper alpha couplings linking left anterior and posterior regions. Unpleasant emotions (Prodromidès) were sustained by posterior midline coherence exclusively in the right hemisphere in men and bilateral in women. Combined music induced bilateral oscillations among posterior sensory and predominantly left association areas in women. Consistent with their greater positive attributions to music, the coherent network is larger in women, both for musical emotion and for unspecific musical effects. Musical emotion entails specific coupling among cortical regions and involves coherent upper alpha activity between posterior association areas and frontal regions probably mediating emotional and perceptual integration. Linked regions by combined music suggest more working memory contribution in women and attention in men.
Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography Capillaroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ring, Hans Christian; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina Alette
2016-01-01
loops. OBJECTIVE To explore the potential for OCT capillaroscopy of the nailfolds using D-OCT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this case series study of 4 participants, the nailfolds in 2 patients with systemic sclerosis, 1 patient with dermatomyositis, and a healthy volunteer were scanned using D...... of distinct dermo-epidermal junction and more compact dermis with loss of adnexal structures. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Compared with conventional capillaroscopy, D-OCT offers second-to-none information on nailfold capillary morphology, overall skin architecture, as well as quantitative data on vascular......IMPORTANCE Vasculopathy characterized by functional and structural abnormalities of the microcirculation plays an important role in systemic sclerosis and dermatomyositis. Although there are several advantages in using capillaroscopy, the method does not offer insight on the skin architecture, flow...
A semiclassical study of optical potentials - potential resonances -
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.; Marty, C.
1977-01-01
A semiclassical method is used to analyze resonances produced by complex potentials. The absorption plays a central role: when it is not too great, resonances manifest themselves by enhancement of cross sections near π. The reverse is not necessarily true, for instance the anomalous large angle scattering for α-Ca is due to a coherent superposition of many partial waves
Coherent Forecasts of Mortality with Compositional Data Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergeron-Boucher, Marie-Pier; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Oeppen, Jim
2017-01-01
Data Analysis (CoDa) of the life table distribution of deaths. We adapt existing coherent and non–coherent forecasting models to CoDa and compare their results. Results We apply our coherent method to the female mortality of 15 Western European countries and show that our proposed strategy would have...
Coherent radiation in an undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chin, Yong Ho.
1990-12-01
This paper is concerned with the synchrotron radiation from an undulating electron beam in a rectangular waveguide. The analysis is based on the dyadic Green's function approach to solve Maxwell's equations in terms of the vector potential. It is shown analytically and numerically that the radiated energy spectrum may differ significantly from the free space results when the undulator length divided by the Lorentz factor of the electron beam is larger than the transverse size of the waveguide. Then, the appearance of the spectrum is changed into a small number of sharp peaks, each corresponding to an excited waveguide mode. The undulator radiation is identified with the wake field in beam instabilities. The concepts of wake function and impedance are introduced to formulate the present problem in the same manner as the beam instability problem, so that the accumulated techniques of the latter can be applied. It is shown that the obtained impedances satisfy the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem and other properties inevitable for wake fields. 4 refs., 2 figs
Advances in optical coherence tomography in dermatology-a review
Olsen, Jonas; Holmes, Jon; Jemec, Gregor B. E.
2018-04-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was introduced as an imaging system, but like ultrasonography, other measures, such as blood perfusion and polarization of light, have enabled the technology to approach clinical utility. This review aims at providing an overview of the advances in clinical research based on the improving technical aspects. OCT provides cross-sectional and en face images down to skin depths of 0.4 to 2.00 mm with optical resolution of 3 to 15 μm. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) enables the visualization of cutaneous microvasculature via detection of rapid changes in the interferometric signal of blood flow. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most comprehensively investigated topic, resulting in improved descriptions of morphological features and diagnostic criteria. A refined scoring system for diagnosing NMSC, taking findings from conventional and D-OCT into account, is warranted. OCT diagnosis of melanoma is hampered by the resolution and the optical properties of melanin. D-OCT may be of value in diseases characterized with dynamic changes in the vasculature of the skin and the addition of functional measures is strongly encouraged. In conclusion, OCT in dermatology is still an emerging technology that has great potential for improving further in the future.
Coherent pair creation from beam-beam interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Pisin.
1989-09-01
It has recently been recognized that in future linear colliders, there is a finite probability that the beamstrahlung photons will turn into e + e - pairs induced by the same beam-beam field, and this would potentially cause background problems. In this paper, we first review the probability of such a coherent pair creation process. It is seen that the constraint on the beamstrahlung parameter, Υ, is tight of these coherent pairs to be totally suppressed. We then point out that there exists a minimum energy for the pair-created particles, which scales as ∼1/5Υ. When combining this condition with the deflection angle for the low-energy particles, the constraint on the allowable Υ value is much relaxed. Finally, we calculate the effective cross section for producing the weak bosons by the low-energy e + e - pairs. It is shown that these cross sections are substantial for Υ > 1. We suggest that this effect can help to autoscan the particle spectrum in the high energy frontier. 10 refs., 2 figs
Central coherence in adolescents with bulimia nervosa spectrum eating disorders.
Darcy, Alison M; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Manasse, Stephanie M; Datta, Nandini; Klabunde, Megan; Colborn, Danielle; Aspen, Vandana; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Labuschagne, Zandre; Le Grange, Daniel; Lock, James
2015-07-01
Weak central coherence-a tendency to process details at the expense of the gestalt-has been observed among adults with bulimia nervosa (BN) and is a potential candidate endophenotype for eating disorders (EDs). However, as BN behaviors typically onset during adolescence it is important to assess central coherence in this younger age group to determine whether the findings in adults are likely a result of BN or present earlier in the evolution of the disorder. This study examines whether the detail-oriented and fragmented cognitive inefficiency observed among adults with BN is observable among adolescents with shorter illness duration, relative to healthy controls. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to a total of 47 adolescents with DSM5 BN, 42 with purging disorder (PD), and 25 healthy controls (HC). Performance on this measure was compared across the three groups. Those with BN and PD demonstrated significantly worse accuracy scores compared to controls in the copy and delayed recall condition with a moderate effect size. These findings were exacerbated when symptoms of BN increased. Poorer accuracy scores reflect a fragmented and piecemeal strategy that interferes with visual-spatial integration in BN spectrum disorders. This cognitive inefficiency likely contributes to broad difficulties in executive functioning in this population especially in the context of worsening bulimic symptoms. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that poor global integration may constitute a cognitive endophenotype for BN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane
Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund
2011-06-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.
The application of optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases.
Sambhav, Kumar; Grover, Sandeep; Chalam, Kakarla V
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, noninvasive imaging technique that generates real-time volumetric data on chorioretinal vasculature and its flow pattern. With the advent of high-speed optical coherence tomography, established enface chorioretinal segmentation, and efficient algorithms, OCTA generates images that resemble an angiogram. The principle of OCTA involves determining the change in backscattering between consecutive B-scans and then attributing the differences to the flow of erythrocytes through retinal blood vessels. OCTA has shown promise in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal vascular occlusions. It quantifies vascular compromise reflecting the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA detects the presence of choroidal neovascularization in exudative age-related macular degeneration and maps loss of choriocapillaris in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration. We describe principles of OCTA and findings in common and some uncommon retinal pathologies. Finally, we summarize its potential future applications. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and a tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTAs utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer its utility in decreasing morbidity through early detection and guide therapeutic interventions in retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arbitrarily shaped high-coherence electron bunches from cold atoms
McCulloch, A. J.; Sheludko, D. V.; Saliba, S. D.; Bell, S. C.; Junker, M.; Nugent, K. A.; Scholten, R. E.
2011-10-01
Ultrafast electron diffractive imaging of nanoscale objects such as biological molecules and defects in solid-state devices provides crucial information on structure and dynamic processes: for example, determination of the form and function of membrane proteins, vital for many key goals in modern biological science, including rational drug design. High brightness and high coherence are required to achieve the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, but have been limited by the thermal nature of conventional electron sources and by divergence due to repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that, if the electrons are shaped into ellipsoidal bunches with uniform density, the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics, to deliver the maximum possible brightness at the target. Here we demonstrate arbitrary and real-time control of the shape of cold electron bunches extracted from laser-cooled atoms. The ability to dynamically shape the electron source itself and to observe this shape in the propagated electron bunch provides a remarkable experimental demonstration of the intrinsically high spatial coherence of a cold-atom electron source, and the potential for alleviation of electron-source brightness limitations due to Coulomb explosion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang
2003-01-01
The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly
Twareque Ali, Syed; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bagarello, Fabio; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2011-07-01
This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to coherent states. The motivation behind this special issue is to gather in a single comprehensive volume the main aspects (past and present), latest developments, different viewpoints and directions being followed in this multidisciplinary field. Given the impressive development of the field in the past two decades, the topicality of such a volume can hardly be overemphasized. We strongly believe that such a special issue could become a particularly valuable reference for the broad scientific community working in mathematical and theoretical physics, as well as in signal processing and mathematics. Editorial policy The Guest Editors for this issue will be Syed Twareque Ali, Jean-Pierre Antoine, Fabio Bagarello and Jean-Pierre Gazeau. Potential topics include, but are not limited to, developments in the theory and applications of coherent states in: quantum optics, optomechanics, Bose-Einstein condensates quantum information, quantum measurement signal processing quantum gravity pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics supersymmetric quantum mechanics non-commutative quantum mechanics quantization theory harmonic and functional analysis operator theory Berezin-Toeplitz operators, PT-symmetric operators holomorphic representation theory, reproducing kernel spaces generalization of coherent states All contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. Papers should report original and significant research that has not already been published. Guidelines for preparation of contributions The deadline for contributed papers will be 31 October 2011. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear before the end of May 2012 There is a nominal page limit of 15 printed pages per contribution (invited review papers can be longer). For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a
Representations of coherent states in non-orthogonal bases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S Twareque; Roknizadeh, R; Tavassoly, M K
2004-01-01
Starting with the canonical coherent states, we demonstrate that all the so-called nonlinear coherent states, used in the physical literature, as well as large classes of other generalized coherent states, can be obtained by changes of bases in the underlying Hilbert space. This observation leads to an interesting duality between pairs of generalized coherent states, bringing into play a Gelfand triple of (rigged) Hilbert spaces. Moreover, it is shown that in each dual pair of families of nonlinear coherent states, at least one family is related to a (generally) non-unitary projective representation of the Weyl-Heisenberg group, which can then be thought of as characterizing the dual pair
Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence
Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis
2017-10-01
Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.
Coherent resonance stop bands in alternating gradient beam transport
Ito, K.; Okamoto, H.; Tokashiki, Y.; Fukushima, K.
2017-06-01
An extensive experimental study is performed to confirm fundamental resonance bands of an intense hadron beam propagating through an alternating gradient linear transport channel. The present work focuses on the most common lattice geometry called "FODO" or "doublet" that consists of two quadrupoles of opposite polarities. The tabletop ion-trap system "S-POD" (Simulator of Particle Orbit Dynamics) developed at Hiroshima University is employed to clarify the parameter-dependence of coherent beam instability. S-POD can provide a non-neutral plasma physically equivalent to a charged-particle beam in a periodic focusing potential. In contrast with conventional experimental approaches relying on large-scale machines, it is straightforward in S-POD to control the doublet geometry characterized by the quadrupole filling factor and drift-space ratio. We verify that the resonance feature does not essentially change depending on these geometric factors. A few clear stop bands of low-order resonances always appear in the same pattern as previously found with the sinusoidal focusing model. All stop bands become widened and shift to the higher-tune side as the beam density is increased. In the space-charge-dominated regime, the most dangerous stop band is located at the bare betatron phase advance slightly above 90 degrees. Experimental data from S-POD suggest that this severe resonance is driven mainly by the linear self-field potential rather than by nonlinear external imperfections and, therefore, unavoidable at high beam density. The instability of the third-order coherent mode generates relatively weak but noticeable stop bands near the phase advances of 60 and 120 degrees. The latter sextupole stop band is considerably enhanced by lattice imperfections. In a strongly asymmetric focusing channel, extra attention may have to be paid to some coupling resonance lines induced by the Coulomb potential. Our interpretations of experimental data are supported by theoretical
Posbist fault tree analysis of coherent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H.-Z.; Tong Xin; Zuo, Ming J.
2004-01-01
When the failure probability of a system is extremely small or necessary statistical data from the system is scarce, it is very difficult or impossible to evaluate its reliability and safety with conventional fault tree analysis (FTA) techniques. New techniques are needed to predict and diagnose such a system's failures and evaluate its reliability and safety. In this paper, we first provide a concise overview of FTA. Then, based on the posbist reliability theory, event failure behavior is characterized in the context of possibility measures and the structure function of the posbist fault tree of a coherent system is defined. In addition, we define the AND operator and the OR operator based on the minimal cut of a posbist fault tree. Finally, a model of posbist fault tree analysis (posbist FTA) of coherent systems is presented. The use of the model for quantitative analysis is demonstrated with a real-life safety system
Multiparty Session Types as Coherence Proofs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten
2015-01-01
We propose a Curry-Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof...... normalisation to executing communications. Our key contribution is generalising duality, from CLL, to a new notion of n-ary compatibility, called coherence. Building on coherence as a principle of compositionality, we generalise the cut rule of CLL to a new rule for composing many processes communicating...... in a multiparty session. We prove the soundness of our model by showing the admissibility of our new rule, which entails deadlock-freedom via our correspondence....
Coherent synchrotron radiation experiments for the LCLS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsten, B.E.; Russell, S.J.
1998-01-01
The authors describe a coherent synchrotron radiation experiment planned at Los Alamos to support the design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL. Preliminary simulations of the LCLS compressors show that a clever tuning strategy can be used to minimize the electron's beam emittance growth due to noninertial space-charge forces by employing a delicate cancellation of these forces. The purpose of the Los Alamos experiment, using a sub-picosecond chicane compressor, is to benchmark these simulations tools. In this paper, the authors present detailed numerical simulations of the experiment, and point out unique signatures of this effect that are measurable. As predicted previously, the largest emittance growths and induced energy spreads result from the nonradiative components of this space-charge force
Color coherence in multijet events at CDF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meschi, E.
1992-11-01
Results of a search for an evidence of color coherence in CDF bar pp → 3jet + X data from the 1988--89 run high statistics inclusive jet sample (4.2pb -1 of integrated luminosity) are presented. We study the geometric correlation between the third jet (regarded as the product of ''soft' branchings in the Leading Log Approximation) and the second one, in comparison to Isajet and Herwig shower Monte Carlos predictions. A geometric variable for this correlation is found which is sensitive to interference: the qualitative agreement of Herwig (with coherent shower development) to the data distribution, contrasted to the disagreement of Isajet (independent development) is consistent with the observation of a color interference effect. Further evidence for this interpretation comes from ''switching off'' interference in Herwig by means of a proper event selection, which yields a distribution much similar to the Isajet one
Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing
Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2011-01-01
"Coherent Control of Four-Wave Mixing" discusses the frequency, temporal and spatial domain interplays of four-wave mixing (FWM) processes induced by atomic coherence in multi-level atomic systems. It covers topics in five major areas: the ultrafast FWM polarization beats due to interactions between multi-color laser beams and multi-level media; coexisting Raman-Rayleigh-Brillouin-enhanced polarization beats due to color-locking noisy field correlations; FWM processes with different kinds of dual-dressed schemes in ultra-thin, micrometer and long atomic cells; temporal and spatial interference between FWM and six-wave mixing (SWM) signals in multi-level electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) media; spatial displacements and splitting of the probe and generated FWM beams, as well as the observations of gap soliton trains, vortex solitons, and stable multicomponent vector solitons in the FWM signals. The book is intended for scientists, researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Nonlin...
Mesoscopic non-coherence as phase diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milman, Perola; Davidovich, Luiz; Castin, Yvan
1997-01-01
In this work, we approach to the question whether it is possible to describe the process of non-coherence in terms of phase diffusion ψ. We will show that this can be done, for an electromagnetic field mode in a cavity interacting with a continuum of modes outside the cavity, for any value of α, where |α> is an eigenstate of the lowering operator for the harmonic oscillator. The description in terms of phase diffusion will occurs however in context of continuous observation of the field exiting the cavity. In this sense, the non-coherence process description as a quantum phase diffusion corresponds to an realization of the evolution described by the master equation, in terms of a stochastic Schroedinger equation. We will demonstrate that the average on many realizations corresponds exactly to the result obtained from the master equation
A compact, coherent light source system architecture
Biedron, S. G.; Dattoli, G.; DiPalma, E.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S. V.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, J. V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I. P.; van der Slot, P. J. M.
2016-09-01
Our team has been examining several architectures for short-wavelength, coherent light sources. We are presently exploring the use and role of advanced, high-peak power lasers for both accelerating the electrons and generating a compact light source with the same laser. Our overall goal is to devise light sources that are more accessible by industry and in smaller laboratory settings. Although we cannot and do not want to compete directly with sources such as third-generation light sources or that of national-laboratory-based free-electron lasers, we have several interesting schemes that could bring useful and more coherent, short-wavelength light source to more researchers. Here, we present and discuss several results of recent simulations and our future steps for such dissemination.
The Coherent Structure of Hafez's Ghazals (Sonnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Teimour Malmir
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Hafez's poetry, despite its structural coherence, appears to be incoherent and fragmented. Some opponents, then, based on this surface appearance have criticized Hafez since each line of his ghazals contains an independent point; some have also used this quality as a pretext to invalidate his main themes; or they have separated the lines to diminish and neutralize the stinging bitterness of his critical comments. However, today, regardless of such controversial views, this independence of the lines has been considered as Hafez's craft and art. The present article, after discussing the roots of emergence of such diverse criticism, has dealt with the vital structural coherence of Hafez' ghazals interpretively posing one example from each of his mystic, witty love ghazals and clarifying the co-relationship among those lines.
Coherent transmutation of electrons into fractionalized anyons.
Barkeshli, Maissam; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven
2014-11-07
Electrons have three quantized properties-charge, spin, and Fermi statistics-that are directly responsible for a vast array of phenomena. Here we show how these properties can be coherently and dynamically stripped from the electron as it enters a certain exotic state of matter known as a quantum spin liquid (QSL). In a QSL, electron spins collectively form a highly entangled quantum state that gives rise to the fractionalization of spin, charge, and statistics. We show that certain QSLs host distinct, topologically robust boundary types, some of which allow the electron to coherently enter the QSL as a fractionalized quasi-particle, leaving its spin, charge, or statistics behind. We use these ideas to propose a number of universal, conclusive experimental signatures that would establish fractionalization in QSLs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Simulation of coherent interactions between Rydberg atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robicheaux, F.; Hernandez, J.V.; Topcu, T.; Noordam, L.D.
2004-01-01
The results of a theoretical investigation of the coherent interaction between many Rydberg atoms are reported. The atoms are assumed to move very little during the time range we investigate. We describe the basic interaction between atoms and show that (contrary to previous theoretical studies) the interaction between the atoms can be coherent. The band structure for a perfect lattice of atoms and the density of states for an amorphous distribution of atoms are presented. We also give results for when the atoms are roughly positioned in a lattice. Finally, we performed detailed calculations to understand when the Rydberg interactions are too strong for an essential states type of approximation. The relevance of our results to previous measurements in a Rydberg gas and to possible future experiments is discussed
Coherence effects in atomic impact processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, K.
1980-01-01
The author considers excitation of target atoms by projectile particles and the coincident detection of the scattered projectiles and the photons emitted in the subsequent decay by the target atoms. The observation is restricted to radiation emitted by those atoms only which 'scattered' the projectiles with a given energy in a given direction defined by the particle detector. Thus, a certain subensemble of atoms is selected in the experiment. The author reviews the theoretical scheme used for the description of the excited subensemble with the emphasis on the coherence properties. The author reviews developments of the Fano-Macek theory concerning the description of coherently excited states with different angular momenta and parities. A comprehensive expression for the angular distribution of the emitted radiation, including all possible interference terms is given. (Auth.)
Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits
Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.
2017-07-01
Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.
Coherent states associated to the Jacobi group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berceanu, S.
2007-01-01
.The coherent states (CS) offer a useful connection between classical and quantum mechanics. In several previous works we have constructed CS attached to the Jacobi group. It is well known that the Jacobi group appears in Quantum Mechanics, Geometric Quantization, Optics. The mathematicians have given the name 'Jacobi group' to the semidirect product of the Heisenberg-Weyl group and the symplectic group. The same group is known to physicists under other names, as the Schroedinger group. Also the name 'Weyl-symplectic' group is used for the same semi-direct product of the Heisenberg-Weyl group and the symplectic group. In this paper we review and discuss some properties of the coherent states associated to the Jacobi group. (author)
The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustavson, D.B.
1990-01-01
IEEE P1596, the scalable coherent interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960--1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics
High-definition optical coherence tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boone, Marc; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor
2013-01-01
to those described for reflectance confocal microscopy but with the advantages not only to visualize individual cells up to a depth of 570 μm but also in both slice and en face mode. An adapted algorithmic method for pattern analysis of common inflammatory skin diseases could be proposed. This new......High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) is a non-invasive technique for morphological investigation of tissue with cellular resolution filling the imaging gap between reflectance confocal microscopy and conventional optical coherence tomography. The aim of this study is first...... dermatitis. Additional studies to test the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed algorithm for pattern analysis are essential. The other categories of Ackerman's pattern recognition need to be evaluated. This study provides a set of morphological features generated by HD-OCT imaging very similar...
COHERENT enlightenment of the neutrino dark side
Coloma, Pilar; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas
2017-12-01
In the presence of nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI), oscillation data are affected by a degeneracy which allows the solar mixing angle to be in the second octant (also known as the dark side) and implies a sign flip of the atmospheric mass-squared difference. This leads to an ambiguity in the determination of the ordering of neutrino masses, one of the main goals of the current and future experimental neutrino program. We show that the recent observation of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by the COHERENT experiment, in combination with global oscillation data, excludes the NSI degeneracy at the 3.1 σ (3.6 σ ) C.L. for NSI with up (down) quarks.
Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain
Galvanauskas, Almantas
2018-01-09
A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.
Coherent combination of ultrafast fiber amplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanna, Marc; Guichard, Florent; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick; Zaouter, Yoann; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N
2016-01-01
We review recent progress in coherent combining of femtosecond pulses amplified in optical fibers as a way to scale the peak and average power of ultrafast sources. Different methods of achieving coherent pulse addition in space (beam combining) and time (divided pulse amplification) domains are described. These architectures can be widely classified into active methods, where the relative phases between pulses are subject to a servomechanism, and passive methods, where phase matching is inherent to the geometry. Other experiments that combine pulses with different spectral contents, pulses that have been nonlinearly broadened or successive pulses from a mode-locked laser oscillator, are then presented. All these techniques allow access to unprecedented parameter range for fiber ultrafast sources. (topical review)
Superconducting coherence in a vortex line liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, T.; Teitel, S.
1995-01-01
We carry out simulations of the anisotropic uniformly frustrated 3d XY model, as a model for vortex line fluctuations in high T c superconductors. We compute the phase diagram as a function of temperature and anisotropy, for a fixed applied magnetic field B. We find two distinct phase transitions. Upon heating, there is first a lower T c perpendicular where the vortex line lattice melts and super-conducting coherence perpendicular to the applied magnetic field vanishes. At a higher T cz , within the vortex line liquid, superconducting coherence parallel to the applied magnetic field vanishes. For finite anisotropy, both T c perpendicular and T cz lie well below the crossover from the vortex line liquid to the normal state
Subwavelength atom localization via coherent population trapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, G S; Kapale, K T
2006-01-01
We present an atom localization scheme based on coherent population trapping. We consider atomic transitions in a Lambda configuration where the control field is a standing-wave field. The probe field and the control field produce coherence between the two ground states and prepare the atom in a pure state. We show that the population in one of the ground states has the same fringe pattern as produced by a Fabry-Perot interferometer and thus measurement of this population would localize the atom. Interestingly enough the role of the cavity finesse is played by the ratio of the intensities of the pump and probe. This is in fact the reason for obtaining extreme subwavelength localization
Revisiting the simplicity constraints and coherent intertwiners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupuis, Maite; Livine, Etera R
2011-01-01
In the context of loop quantum gravity and spinfoam models, the simplicity constraints are essential in that they allow one to write general relativity as a constrained topological BF theory. In this work, we apply the recently developed U(N) framework for SU(2) intertwiners to the issue of imposing the simplicity constraints to spin network states. More particularly, we focus on solving on individual intertwiners in the 4D Euclidean theory. We review the standard way of solving the simplicity constraints using coherent intertwiners and we explain how these fit within the U(N) framework. Then we show how these constraints can be written as a closed u(N) algebra and we propose a set of U(N) coherent states that solves all the simplicity constraints weakly for an arbitrary Immirzi parameter.
Functional swept source optical coherence tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blatter, C.
2013-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality capable of providing information about a sample structure along the three spatial dimensions with micrometer scale resolution. A new chapter opened with the development of functional OCT that provides additional information to the standard structural imaging. Among those extensions is Doppler OCT (D-OCT) that yields knowledge about the motion of the sample and/or its substructure. Its main application in biomedical imaging is the assessment of blood flow. D-OCT is therefore often associated with blood velocity measurement and recently with the visualization of the vascular network. Blood flow and vasculature are important markers of tissue health. Their assessment provides crucial information for diagnostics, treatment planning and monitoring. OCT is in a good position, as a non-invasive technique, to become an alternative to current fluorescence based techniques, allowing thereby also more frequent examination and broader screenings and, as a high resolution modality, to give insight into potential changes at the capillary level. An important challenge of in vivo imaging is patient motion that decreases the quality of acquisitions. One solution to that issue is high-speed imaging. Recently swept source OCT (SSOCT) revealed to be an efficient technology to achieve high-speed. This thesis investigates the use of swept sources for qualitative and quantitative vasculature imaging. It is presented via five journal papers that form its backbone. Prior to that, main concepts of FDOCT, D-OCT and SS systems are presented. The first paper reports a SSOCT system for skin imaging. In standard OCT systems, improving the lateral resolution comes at a cost of reduced depth of focus. This should be avoided in order to be able to assess different vascular beds in depth while keeping the speed advantage of FDOCT. Employing a Bessel beam for illumination of the sample allows circumventing this issue. The image
Selectivity and coherence for photoexcitation of atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai Changjian
1995-01-01
The results of both analytic and numerical treatments of the four-level Schroedinger equation are displayed. Transition Probabilities to various states for the cases of on-resonance and off-resonance are calculated. Dependences of probability on time and on characteristics of laser fields are investigated. Selectivity and coherence of the interaction between monochromatic laser fields and isotopic atom are examined. The conditions under which the population inversion takes place derived from the analytic solutions are confirmed
Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography
Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Li, Jiawen; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping
2013-01-01
We report on a resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) technique that uses mechanical resonant frequency to characterize and identify tissues of different types. The linear dependency of the resonant frequency on the square root of Young's modulus was validated on silicone phantoms. Both the frequency response spectrum and the 3D imaging results from the agar phantoms with hard inclusions confirmed the feasibility of deploying the resonant frequency as a mec...
Nonlinear Coherent Structures, Microbursts and Turbulence
Lakhina, G. S.
2015-12-01
Nonlinear waves are found everywhere, in fluids, atmosphere, laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. The interplay of nonlinear effects, dispersion and dissipation in the medium can lead to a variety of nonlinear waves and turbulence. Two cases of coherent nonlinear waves: chorus and electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and their impact on modifying the plasma medium are discussed. Chorus is a right-hand, circularly-polarized electromagnetic plane wave. Dayside chorus is a bursty emission composed of rising frequency "elements" with duration of ~0.1 to 1.0 s. Each element is composed of coherent subelements with durations of ~1 to 100 ms or more. The cyclotron resonant interaction between energetic electrons and the coherent chorus waves is studied. An expression for the pitch angle transport due to this interaction is derived considering a Gaussian distribution for the time duration of the chorus elements. The rapid pitch scattering can provide an explanation for the ionospheric microbursts of ~0.1 to 0.5 s in bremsstrahlung x-rays formed by ~10-100 keV precipitating electrons. On the other hand, the ESWs are observed in the electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field, and are usually bipolar or tripolar. Generation of coherent ESWs has been explained in terms of nonlinear fluid models of ion- and electron-acoustic solitons and double layers (DLs) based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. Fast Fourier transform of electron- and ion-acoustic solitons/DLs produces broadband wave spectra which can explain the properties of the electrostatic turbulence observed in the magnetosheath and plasma sheet boundary layer, and in the solar wind, respectively.
Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob
1997-01-01
A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robles-Perez, S.; Hassouni, Y.; Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F.
2010-01-01
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robles-Perez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain); Hassouni, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte des Sciences-Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah, Avenue Ibn Batouta B.P: 1014, Agdal Rabat (Morocco); Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)
2010-01-11
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.
Practical applications of coherent transition radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moran, M.J.
1987-01-01
The predictable nature of transition radiation (TR) emissions has been demonstrated under a wide variety of experimental conditions. The reliable character of TR allows the design of specific practical applications that use emissions from the optical to the x-ray spectral regions. Applications often can be enhanced by the spatial coherence of TR, and some have become highly developed. New applications may be developed through the use of other related radiation mechanisms. 20 refs., 3 figs
Coherence and chaos in extended dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, A.R.
1994-01-01
Coherence, chaos, and pattern formation are characteristic elements of the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics controlling mesoscopic order and disorder in many-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamical systems. Competing length scales and/or time scales are the underlying microscopic driving forces for many of these aspects of ''complexity.'' We illustrate the basic concepts with some model examples of classical and quantum, ordered and disordered, nonlinear systems
Long range coherence in free electron lasers
Colson, W. B.
1984-01-01
The simple free electron laser (FEL) design uses a static, periodic, transverse magnetic field to undulate relativistic electrons traveling along its axis. This allows coupling to a co-propagating optical wave and results in bunching to produce coherent radiation. The advantages of the FEL are continuous tunability, operation at wavelengths ranging from centimeters to angstroms, and high efficiency resulting from the fact that the interaction region only contains light, relativistic electrons, and a magnetic field. Theoretical concepts and operational principles are discussed.
Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Jiménez, Javier
2018-05-01
This article discusses the description of wall-bounded turbulence as a deterministic high-dimensional dynamical system of interacting coherent structures, defined as eddies with enough internal dynamics to behave relatively autonomously from any remaining incoherent part of the flow. The guiding principle is that randomness is not a property, but a methodological choice of what to ignore in the flow, and that a complete understanding of turbulence, including the possibility of control, requires that it be kept to a minimum. After briefly reviewing the underlying low-order statistics of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers, the article examines what two-point statistics imply for the decomposition of the flow into individual eddies. Intense eddies are examined next, including their temporal evolution, and shown to satisfy many of the properties required for coherence. In particular, it is shown that coherent structures larger than the Corrsin scale are a natural consequence of the shear. In wall-bounded turbulence, they can be classified into coherent dispersive waves and transient bursts. The former are found in the viscous layer near the wall and as very-large structures spanning the boundary layer thickness. Although they are shear-driven, these waves have enough internal structure to maintain a uniform advection velocity. Conversely, bursts exist at all scales, are characteristic of the logarithmic layer, and interact almost linearly with the shear. While the waves require a wall to determine their length scale, the bursts are essentially independent from it. The article concludes with a brief review of our present theoretical understanding of turbulent structures, and with a list of open problems and future perspectives.
Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A. (Lebedev Physical Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))
1992-01-01
MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p{sub t} and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.).
Colour coherence in deep inelastic Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, A.I.; Vazdik, J.A.
1992-01-01
MC simulation of Deep Inelastic Compton on proton - both QED and QCD - was performed on the basis of LUCIFER program for HERA energies. Charged hadron flow was calculated for string and independent fragmentation with different cuts on p t and x. It is shown that interjet colour coherence leads in the case of QCD Compton to the drag effects diminishing the hadron flow in the direction between quark jet and proton remnant jet. (orig.)
Coherent beam combination via microparticle plasma modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogovin, D.; Shen, T.P.
1988-01-01
Recently, there have been interesting observations and calculations on phase conjugation via degenerate four-wave mixing in gold colloids. The generation of phase conjugate radiation in these media arises from and reflects the creation of static index grating imposed on the electronic wave functions within the microparticles. These encouraging findings motivate us to consider the possibility of generating moving index gratings in these media with possible applications to coherent beam combination
Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goswami, Debabrata
2003-01-01
The last part of the twentieth century has experienced a huge resurge of activity in the field of coherent light-matter interaction, more so in attempting to exert control over such interactions. Birth of coherent control was originally spurred by the theoretical understanding of the quantum interferences that lead to energy randomization and experimental developments in ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The theoretical predictions on control of reaction channels or energy randomization processes are still more dramatic than the experimental demonstrations, though this gap between the two is consistently reducing over the recent years with realistic theoretical models and technological developments. Experimental demonstrations of arbitrary optical pulse shaping have made some of the previously impracticable theoretical predictions possible to implement. Starting with the simple laser modulation schemes to provide proof-of-the-principle demonstrations, feedback loop pulse shaping systems have been developed that can actively manipulate some atomic and molecular processes. This tremendous experimental boost of optical pulse shaping developments has prospects and implications into many more new directions, such as quantum computing and terabit/sec data communications. This review captures certain aspects and impacts of optical pulse shaping into the fast developing areas of coherent control and other related fields. Currently available reviews focus on one or the other detailed aspects of coherent control, and the reader will be referred to such details as and when necessary for issues that are dealt in brief here. We will focus on the current issues including control of intramolecular dynamics and make connections to the future concepts, such as, quantum computation, biomedical applications, etc
Coherent betatron instability in the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogacz, S.A.; Harrison, M.; Ng, K.Y.
1988-01-01
The coherent betatron instability was first observed during the recent 1987-88 Tevatron fixed target run. In this operating mode 1000 consecutive bunches are loaded into the machine at 150 GeV with a bunch spacing of 18.8 /times/ 10 -9 sec (53 MHz). The normalized transverse emittance is typically 15 π /times/ 10 -6 m rad in each plane with a longitudinal emittance of about 1.5 eV-sec. The beam is accelerated to 800 GeV in 13 sec. and then it is resonantly extracted during a 23 sec flat top. As the run progressed the bunch intensities were increased until at about 1.4 /times/ 10 10 ppb (protons per bunch) we experienced the onset of a coherent horizontal oscillation taking place in the later stages of the acceleration cycle (>600 GeV). This rapidly developing coherent instability results in a significant emittance growth, which limits machine performance and in a catastrophic scenario it even prevents extraction of the beam. In this paper we will present a simple analytic description of the observed instability. We will show that a combination of a resistive wall coupled bunch effect and a single bunch slow head-tail instability is consistent with the above observations. Finally, a systematic numerical analysis of our model (growth-time vs chromaticity plots) points to the existence of the ≥1 slow head-tail modes as a plausible mechanism for the observed coherent instability. This last claim, as mentioned before, does not have conclusive experimental evidence, although it is based on a very good agreement between the measured values of the instability growth-time and the ones calculated on the basis of our model. 4 refs., 3 figs
Coherence-generating power of quantum dephasing processes
Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2018-03-01
We provide a quantification of the capability of various quantum dephasing processes to generate coherence out of incoherent states. The measures defined, admitting computable expressions for any finite Hilbert-space dimension, are based on probabilistic averages and arise naturally from the viewpoint of coherence as a resource. We investigate how the capability of a dephasing process (e.g., a nonselective orthogonal measurement) to generate coherence depends on the relevant bases of the Hilbert space over which coherence is quantified and the dephasing process occurs, respectively. We extend our analysis to include those Lindblad time evolutions which, in the infinite-time limit, dephase the system under consideration and calculate their coherence-generating power as a function of time. We further identify specific families of such time evolutions that, although dephasing, have optimal (over all quantum processes) coherence-generating power for some intermediate time. Finally, we investigate the coherence-generating capability of random dephasing channels.
Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F
2011-01-01
When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)
Optics for coherent X-ray applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yabashi, Makina, E-mail: yabashi@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mimura, Hidekazu [The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)
2014-08-27
Developments of optics for coherent X-ray applications and their role in diffraction-limited storage rings are described. Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed.