WorldWideScience

Sample records for cognitively normal aging

  1. Age Effects on Cortical Thickness in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals

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    Sona Hurtz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Atrophy in both grey and white matter is found in normal aging. The prefrontal cortex and the frontal lobe white matter are thought to be the most affected regions. Our aim was to examine the effects of normal aging on cortical grey matter using a 3D quantitative cortical mapping method. Methods: We analyzed 1.5-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 44 cognitively normal elderly subjects using cortical pattern matching and cortical thickness analyses. Linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of age on cortical thickness. 3D map-wide correction for multiple comparisons was conducted with permutation analyses using a threshold of p Results: We found a significant negative association between age and cortical thickness in the right hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.009 and a trend level association in the left hemisphere (pcorrected = 0.081. Age-related changes were greatest in the sensorimotor, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortices, and the right posterior middle and inferior frontal gyri. Age effects greater in the medial than lateral visual association cortices were also seen bilaterally. Conclusion: Our novel method further validates that normal aging results in diffuse cortical thinning that is most pronounced in the frontal and visual association cortices.

  2. Destination memory and cognitive theory of mind in normal ageing.

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    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.

  3. Heterogeneity of cognitive aging in Brazilian normal elderls

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    Maria Paula Foss

    Full Text Available Abstract With aging, several cognitive skills inevitably decline. However, cognitive losses do not occur homogenously in all elderly people, differing in number and severity of affected cognitive functions. These differences could be exacerbated by socioeconomic differences in a developing country like Brazil. Objectives: to characterize the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly subjects whose socioeconomic conditions differ to those of other studies. Methods: 60 elderly subjects with a mean age of 68 years, 43 women and 17 men, and mean schooling of 7.1 years, were studied. The cognitive function of this group was assessed using the following neuropsychological tests: Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS, Stroop Test, Verbal Fluency, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Rey Complex Figure, Vocabulary - Wais - III, Logical Memory (WMS-R, Visual Reproduction (WMS-R, and Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT. The neuropsychological data were submitted to Multivariate cluster analysis using SAS - Proc Cluster software and the complete binding hierarchical method. Results: Variability was found allowing classification of the studied group into 4 clusters of individuals who had above-average (C1, average (C3 and C4 and below average (C2 performance. Schooling determined the results obtained, with less educated subjects showing poorer performance than higher-educated subjects. Conclusions: Significant differences in the process of cognitive aging were detected on neuropsychological tests in this group of healthy elderly from the developing country of Brazil, where socioeconomic differences may exacerbate cognitive differences among older adults.

  4. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment

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    Vermeij, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Heskamp, L.; Simons, E.M.F.; Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21

  5. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

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    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  6. Lower extremity function in normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease

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    Eggermont, L.H.P.; Gavett, B.E.; Volkers, K.M.; Blankevoort, C.G.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Jefferson, A.L.; Steinberg, E.; Nair, A.; Green, R.C.; Stern, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Objective: To examine differences in lower-extremity function in

  7. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia.

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    Hartmans, Carien; Comijs, Hannie; Jonker, Cees

    2014-05-01

    Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the current evidence for the influence of cognitive functioning on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases. The databases were searched for English language papers focusing on human studies published relating cognitive functioning to sexual behavior in the aging population. Keywords included sexual behavior, sexuality, cognitive functioning, healthy elderly, elderly, aging and dementia. Eight studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, five included dementia patients and/or their partners, whereas only three studies included healthy older persons. Although not consistently, results indicated a trend that older people who are not demented and continue to engage in sexual activity have better overall cognitive functioning. Cognitive decline and dementia seem to be associated with diminished sexual behavior in older persons. The association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior in the aging population is understudied. The results found are inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cognitive Change in Elderly Populations: "Normal" Aging, Senile Dementia and Depression.

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    Bach, Paul J.

    Cognitive change in the elderly can be due to several etiological factors which are empirically difficult to separate and clinically problematic to differentiate. Normal aging is accompanied by behavioral slowing. The slowing down of psycho-motor processes results in a lowered intelligence quotient, but cannot be taken as unequivocal evidence for…

  9. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

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    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  10. R2* mapping for brain iron: associations with cognition in normal aging.

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    Ghadery, Christine; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Langkammer, Christian; Petrovic, Katja; Loitfelder, Marisa; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-02-01

    Brain iron accumulates during aging and has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Magnetic resonance (MR)-based R2* mapping enables the in vivo detection of iron content in brain tissue. We investigated if during normal brain aging iron load relates to cognitive impairment in region-specific patterns in a community-dwelling cohort of 336 healthy, middle aged, and older adults from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. MR imaging and R2* mapping in the basal ganglia and neocortex were done at 3T. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing assessed memory, executive function, and psychomotor speed. We found the highest iron concentration in the globus pallidus, and pallidal and putaminal iron was significantly and inversely associated with cognitive performance in all cognitive domains, except memory. These associations were iron load dependent. Vascular brain lesions and brain volume did not mediate the relationship between iron and cognitive performance. We conclude that higher R2*-determined iron in the basal ganglia correlates with cognitive impairment during brain aging independent of concomitant brain abnormalities. The prognostic significance of this finding needs to be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of the Internet as a prevention tool against cognitive decline in normal aging

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    Klimova B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent demographic trends indicate that older people appear to be one of the fastest growing population groups worldwide. In the year 2000, people older than 65 years represented 12.4% of the population. This number is expected to rise to 19% by 2030, particularly in developed countries. Therefore, there is sustained effort at both national and international levels to prolong the active life of these people as long as possible. Since the present older generation at the age of 55 years is already digitally literate, the use of technologies is one of the solutions. The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of the Internet in the prevention of cognitive decline in normal aging. The author examines clinical studies that exploit the use of the Internet, including online training programs, in the prevention of cognitive decline in healthy older individuals. The findings of the clinical studies indicate that the use of the Internet, especially online cognitive training programs, may have a positive effect on the improvement of cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Nevertheless, larger sample longitudinal randomized controlled clinical trials aimed at the prevention of cognitive decline among healthy older adults are needed. Keywords: healthy older individuals, Internet, prevention, cognitive functions, training

  12. A Network Flow-based Analysis of Cognitive Reserve in Normal Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Wook Yoo, Sang; Han, Cheol E; Shin, Joseph S; Won Seo, Sang; Na, Duk L; Kaiser, Marcus; Jeong, Yong; Seong, Joon-Kyung

    2015-05-20

    Cognitive reserve is the ability to sustain cognitive function even with a certain amount of brain damages. Here we investigate the neural compensation mechanism of cognitive reserve from the perspective of structural brain connectivity. Our goal was to show that normal people with high education levels (i.e., cognitive reserve) maintain abundant pathways connecting any two brain regions, providing better compensation or resilience after brain damage. Accordingly, patients with high education levels show more deterioration in structural brain connectivity than those with low education levels before symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) become apparent. To test this hypothesis, we use network flow measuring the number of alternative paths between two brain regions in the brain network. The experimental results show that for normal aging, education strengthens network reliability, as measured through flow values, in a subnetwork centered at the supramarginal gyrus. For AD, a subnetwork centered at the left middle frontal gyrus shows a negative correlation between flow and education, which implies more collapse in structural brain connectivity for highly educated patients. We conclude that cognitive reserve may come from the ability of network reorganization to secure the information flow within the brain network, therefore making it more resistant to disease progress.

  13. Glutamate-glutamine and GABA in brain of normal aged and patients with cognitive impairment.

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    Huang, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Yin, Jianzhong; Qian, Tianyi; Shrestha, Susan; Ni, Hongyan

    2017-07-01

    To explore the changes of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain in normal old age and cognitive impairment using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Seventeen normal young controls (NYC), 15 normal elderly controls (NEC), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 17 with Alzheimer disease (AD) patients were included in this study. Glx and GABA+ levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right hippocampus (rHP) were measured by using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were compared between NYC and NEC and between the three elderly groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); the tissue fractions of voxels were used as covariates. The relationships between metabolite ratios and cognitive performance were analysed using Spearman correlation coefficients. For NEC and NYC groups, Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were lower in NEC in ACC and rHP. For the three elderly groups, Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in ACC compared to NEC and MCI; Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in rHP compared to NEC. There was no significant decrease for GABA+/Cr ratio. Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged, and Glx level decreased predominantly in AD, and it is helpful in the early diagnosis of AD. • Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged. • Glx level may decrease predominantly in Alzheimer disease. • The balance in excitatory-inhibitory systems may be broken in AD. • Decreased Glx level may be helpful in early diagnosis of AD.

  14. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

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    Vermeij, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Heskamp, Linda; Simons, Esther M F; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21 healthy older adults and 14 patients with MCI received five weeks of adaptive computerized working-memory (WM) training. Before and after training, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to assess the hemodynamic response in left and right prefrontal cortex during performance of a verbal n-back task with varying levels of WM load. After training, healthy older adults demonstrated decreased prefrontal activation at high WM load, which may indicate increased processing efficiency. Although MCI patients showed improved behavioral performance at low WM load after training, no evidence was found for training-related changes in prefrontal activation. Whole-group analyses showed that a relatively strong hemodynamic response at low WM load was related to worse behavioral performance, while a relatively strong hemodynamic response at high WM load was related to higher training gain. Therefore, a 'youth-like' prefrontal activation pattern at older age may be associated with better behavioral outcome and cognitive plasticity.

  15. Use of the Internet as a prevention tool against cognitive decline in normal aging.

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    Klimova, Blanka

    Recent demographic trends indicate that older people appear to be one of the fastest growing population groups worldwide. In the year 2000, people older than 65 years represented 12.4% of the population. This number is expected to rise to 19% by 2030, particularly in developed countries. Therefore, there is sustained effort at both national and international levels to prolong the active life of these people as long as possible. Since the present older generation at the age of 55 years is already digitally literate, the use of technologies is one of the solutions. The purpose of this study is to discuss the role of the Internet in the prevention of cognitive decline in normal aging. The author examines clinical studies that exploit the use of the Internet, including online training programs, in the prevention of cognitive decline in healthy older individuals. The findings of the clinical studies indicate that the use of the Internet, especially online cognitive training programs, may have a positive effect on the improvement of cognitive functions in healthy older adults. Nevertheless, larger sample longitudinal randomized controlled clinical trials aimed at the prevention of cognitive decline among healthy older adults are needed.

  16. Cognitive decline in normal aging and its prevention: a review on non-pharmacological lifestyle strategies

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    Klimova B

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blanka Klimova,1,2 Martin Valis,2 Kamil Kuca3,4 1Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, 2Department of Neurology, 3Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the selected non-pharmacological lifestyle activities on the delay of cognitive decline in normal aging. This was done by conducting a literature review in the four acknowledged databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE, and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that physical activities, such as walking and aerobic exercises, music therapy, adherence to Mediterranean diet, or solving crosswords, seem to be very promising lifestyle intervention tools. The results indicate that non-pharmacological lifestyle intervention activities should be intense and possibly done simultaneously in order to be effective in the prevention of cognitive decline. In addition, more longitudinal randomized controlled trials are needed in order to discover the most effective types and the duration of these intervention activities in the prevention of cognitive decline, typical of aging population groups. Keywords: cognitive impairment, healthy older individuals, intervention, benefits

  17. Smart Aging Platform for Evaluating Cognitive Functions in Aging: A Comparison with the MoCA in a Normal Population

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    Sara Bottiroli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smart Aging is a Serious games (SGs platform in a 3D virtual environment in which users perform a set of screening tests that address various cognitive skills. The tests are structured as 5 tasks of activities of daily life in a familiar environment. The main goal of the present study is to compare a cognitive evaluation made with Smart Aging with those of a classic standardized screening test, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA.Methods: One thousand one-hundred thirty-one healthy adults aged between 50 and 80 (M = 64.3 ± 8.3 were enrolled in the study. They received a cognitive evaluation with the MoCA and the Smart Aging platform. Participants were grouped according to their MoCA global and specific cognitive domain (i.e., memory, executive functions, working memory, visual spatial elaboration, language, and orientation scores and we explored differences among these groups in the Smart Aging indices.Results: One thousand eighty-six older adults (M = 64.0 ± 8.0 successfully completed the study and were stratified according to their MoCA score: Group 1 with MoCA < 27 (n = 360; Group 2 with 27 ≥ MoCA < 29 (n = 453; and Group 3 with MoCA ≥ 29 (n = 273. MoCA groups significantly differed in most of the Smart Aging indices considered, in particular as concerns accuracy (ps < 0.001 and time (ps < 0.001 for completing most of the platform tasks. Group 1 was outperformed by the other two Groups and was slower than them in these tasks, which were those supposed to assess memory and executive functions. In addition, significant differences across groups also emerged when considering the single cognitive domains of the MoCA and the corresponding performances in each Smart Aging task. In particular, this platform seems to be a good proxy for assessing memory, executive functions, working memory, and visual spatial processes.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the validity of Smart Aging for assessing cognitive functions in normal

  18. Neural underpinnings of background acoustic noise in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

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    Sinanaj, Indrit; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Herrmann, François; Santini, Francesco; Haller, Sven; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-12-03

    Previous contributions in younger cohorts have revealed that reallocation of cerebral resources, a crucial mechanism for working memory (WM), may be disrupted by parallel demands of background acoustic noise suppression. To date, no study has explored the impact of such disruption on brain activation in elderly individuals with or without subtle cognitive deficits. We performed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study in 23 cases (mean age=75.7 y.o., 16 men) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 elderly healthy controls (HC, mean age=70.1 y.o., three men) using a 2-back WM task, under two distinct MRI background acoustic noise conditions (louder vs. lower noise echo-planar imaging). General linear models were used to assess brain activation as a function of group and noise. In both groups, lower background noise is associated with increased activation of the working memory network (WMN). A decrease of the normally observed deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) is found under louder noise in both groups. Unlike HC, MCI cases also show decreased deactivation of the DMN under both louder and lower background noise. Under louder noise, this decrease is observed in anterior parts of the DMN in HC, and in the posterior cingulate cortex in MCI cases. Our results suggest that background acoustic noise has a differential impact on WMN activation in normal aging as a function of the cognitive status. Only louder noise has a disruptive effect on the usually observed DMN deactivation during WM task performance in HC. In contrast, MCI cases show altered DMN reactivity even in the presence of lower noise. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying cognition and behavior in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

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    Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.

  20. Sleep, Cognition, and Normal Aging: Integrating a Half-Century of Multidisciplinary Research

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    Scullin, Michael K.; Bliwise, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is implicated in cognitive functioning in young adults. With increasing age there are substantial changes to sleep quantity and quality including changes to slow wave sleep, spindle density, and sleep continuity/fragmentation. A provocative question for the field of cognitive aging is whether such changes in sleep physiology affect cognition (e.g., memory consolidation). We review nearly a half-century of research studies across 7 diverse correlational and experimental literature domains, which historically have had little crosstalk. Broadly speaking, sleep and cognitive functions are often related in advancing age, though the prevalence of null effects (including correlations in the unexpected, negative direction) in healthy older adults indicates that age may be an effect modifier of these associations. We interpret the literature as suggesting that maintaining good sleep quality, at least in young adulthood and middle age, promotes better cognitive functioning and serves to protect against age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25620997

  1. The Impact of Memory Change on Daily Life in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Parikh, Preeyam K; Troyer, Angela K; Maione, Andrea M; Murphy, Kelly J

    2016-10-01

    Older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) report mild memory difficulties with everyday problems such as learning new names or remembering past events. Although the type and extent of memory changes in these populations have been well documented, little is known about how memory changes impact their everyday lives. Using a qualitative research design, data were collected from three focus groups of older adults with normal memory changes (n = 23) and two focus groups of older adults with aMCI (n = 14). A thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was used to identify the impacts of memory change on key life domains. Four major themes emerged from the two groups, including changes in feelings and views of the self, changes in relationships and social interactions, changes in work and leisure activities, and deliberate increases in compensatory behaviors. Participants described both positive and negative consequences of memory change, and these were more substantial and generally more adverse for individuals with aMCI than for those with age-normal memory changes. There are similarities and important differences in the impact of mild memory change on the everyday lives of older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with aMCI. Findings underscore the need for clinical interventions that aim to minimize the emotional impact of memory changes and that increase leisure and social activity in individuals with aMCI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) as a marker of cognitive decline in normal ageing: A review.

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    Frater, Julanne; Lie, David; Bartlett, Perry; McGrath, John J

    2018-03-01

    Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and its signaling pathway play a primary role in normal growth and ageing, however serum IGF-1 is known to reduce with advancing age. Recent findings suggest IGF-1 is essential for neurogenesis in the adult brain, and this reduction of IGF-1 with ageing may contribute to age-related cognitive decline. Experimental studies have shown manipulation of the GH/GF-1 axis can slow rates of cognitive decline in animals, making IGF-1 a potential biomarker of cognition, and/or its signaling pathway a possible therapeutic target to prevent or slow age-related cognitive decline. A systematic literature review and qualitative narrative summary of current evidence for IGF-1 as a biomarker of cognitive decline in the ageing brain was undertaken. Results indicate IGF-1 concentrations do not confer additional diagnostic information for those with cognitive decline, and routine clinical measurement of IGF-1 is not currently justified. In cases of established cognitive impairment, it remains unclear whether increasing circulating or brain IGF-1 may reverse or slow down the rate of further decline. Advances in neuroimaging, genetics, neuroscience and the availability of large well characterized biobanks will facilitate research exploring the role of IGF-1 in both normal ageing and age-related cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. n-3 Fatty acids, Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in normal aging: A systematic review.

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    Masana, Maria F; Koyanagi, Ai; Haro, Josep Maria; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-05-01

    Intake of n-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been shown to slow the progression of age-related cognitive decline, but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the effect of n-3 fatty acids and MedDiet on cognitive outcomes in a cognitively healthy aged population. Relevant published studies from January 2000 to May 2015 were identified by searching three electronic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and CINHAL. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. Twenty-four studies were included for the systematic review. n-3 fatty acids were associated with better global cognition and some specific cognitive domains though some results were conflicting. Adherence to the MedDiet was also significantly associated with better cognitive performance and less cognitive decline. Finally, better cognitive performance was observed in men compared to women and mixed results were also found for the influence of APOE4 genotype on the association between n-3 fatty acids or MedDiet and cognition. Studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids in the diet and adherence to the MedDiet are beneficial in slowing age-related cognitive decline. However, more high-quality RCTs would be useful to clarify the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplements on cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tau, APP, NCT and BACE1 in lymphocytes through cognitively normal ageing and neuropathology

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    MARISOL HERRERA-RIVERO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder, a number of peripheral alterations have been found in these patients; however, little is known about how the key genes involved in the pathophysiology express in peripheral cells such as lymphocytes during normal compared to neuropathological ageing. We analysed the expression of tau, of the amyloid precursor protein, of nicastrin and of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme genes by RT-PCR in lymphocytes from a small group of late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients, from aged patients suffering from neuropsychological conditions different from Alzheimer's and from cognitively healthy subjects divided in four groups by age. We also investigated correlations between gene expression and levels of blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides as risk factors for Alzheimer's. Results show no tau expression in lymphocytes, a lack of detection of nicastrin expression in Alzheimer's patients and correlations between the medical conditions studied and gene expression in lymphocytes. We believe nicastrin gene expression in lymphocytes should be considered of interest for further analyses in a wider population to investigate whether it might represent a potential biomarker to differentiate Alzheimer's from other neuropsychological disorders.

  5. The importance of being subtle: small changes in calcium homeostasis control cognitive decline in normal aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toescu, E.C.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2007), s. 267-273 ISSN 1474-9718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Aging * Ca homeostasis * Cognitive decline Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.854, year: 2007

  6. Episodic memory deficits slow down the dynamics of cognitive procedural learning in normal ageing

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    Beaunieux, Hélène; Hubert, Valérie; Pitel, Anne Lise; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive procedural learning is characterized by three phases, each involving distinct processes. Considering the implication of the episodic memory in the first cognitive stage, the impairment of this memory system might be responsible for a slowing down of the cognitive procedural learning dynamics in the course of aging. Performances of massed cognitive procedural learning were evaluated in older and younger participants using the Tower of Toronto task. Nonverbal intelligence and psychomotor abilities were used to analyze procedural dynamics, while episodic memory and working memory were assessed to measure their respective contributions to learning strategies. This experiment showed that older participants did not spontaneously invoke episodic memory and presented a slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning associated with a late involvement of working memory. These findings suggest that the slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning may be linked with the implementation of different learning strategies less involving episodic memory in older subjects. PMID:18654928

  7. Cognitive Decline in Patients with Chronic Hydrocephalus and Normal Aging: ‘Growing into Deficits'

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    Marlijn H. de Beer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: To explore the theory of ‘growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH. Methods: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. Results: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30. Most patients were functioning on a level of mild dementia [Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5 in 8/11 (66.7% patients]. On neuropsychological examination, memory and executive functions, as well as processing speed were most frequently impaired. Conclusion: In our opinion, the theory of ‘growing into deficits' shows a parallel with the clinical course of CH and normal aging when Alzheimer's disease was considered very unlikely, because most of these patients were functioning well for a very large part of their lives. The altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics might make the brain more vulnerable to aging-related changes, leading to a faster cognitive decline in CH patients compared to healthy subjects, especially in case of concomitant brain damage such as traumatic brain injury or meningitis.

  8. Diagnosing dementia and normal aging: clinical relevance of brain ratios and cognitive performance in a Brazilian sample

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    Chaves M.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30 and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40 were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia.

  9. Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event- and time-based prospective memory impairment in normal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneaud, Julie; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Bon, Laetitia; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an action at a specific point in the future. Regarded as multidimensional, PM involves several cognitive functions that are known to be impaired in normal aging. In the present study, we set out to investigate the cognitive correlates of PM impairment in normal aging. Manipulating cognitive load, we assessed event- and time-based PM, as well as several cognitive functions, including executive functions, working memory and retrospective episodic memory, in healthy subjects covering the entire adulthood. We found that normal aging was characterized by PM decline in all conditions and that event-based PM was more sensitive to the effects of aging than time-based PM. Whatever the conditions, PM was linked to inhibition and processing speed. However, while event-based PM was mainly mediated by binding and retrospective memory processes, time-based PM was mainly related to inhibition. The only distinction between high- and low-load PM cognitive correlates lays in an additional, but marginal, correlation between updating and the high-load PM condition. The association of distinct cognitive functions, as well as shared mechanisms with event- and time-based PM confirms that each type of PM relies on a different set of processes. PMID:21678154

  10. Neural implementation of musical expertise and cognitive transfers: Could they be promising in the framework of normal cognitive aging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste eFAUVEL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity allows the central nervous system of a given organism to cope with environmental demands. Therefore, the quality of mental processes relies partly on the interaction between the brain’s physiological maturation and individual daily experiences.In this review, we focus on the neural implementation of musical expertise at both an anatomical and a functional level. We then discuss how this neural implementation can explain transfers from musical learning to a broad range of nonmusical cognitive functions, including language, especially during child development. Finally, given that brain plasticity is still present in aging, we gather arguments to propose that musical practice could be a good environmental enrichment to promote cerebral and cognitive reserves, thereby reducing the deleterious effect of aging on cognitive functions.

  11. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, P.W.; van Boxtel, M.P.J.; Bekers, O.; Ausems, E.E.B.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Method: Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were

  12. Relating Memory To Functional Performance In Normal Aging to Dementia Using Hierarchical Bayesian Cognitive Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, William R.; Pooley, James P.; Steyvers, Mark; Hara, Junko; Mangrola, Tushar; Reisberg, Barry; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD). 280 patients (normal or ADRD) received a total of 1,514 assessments using the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen (MCIS). A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing (HBCP) model was created by embedding a signal detection theory (SDT) model of the MCIS delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The SDT model used latent parameters of discriminability (memory process) and response bias (executive function) to predict, simultaneously, recognition memory performance for each patient and each FAST severity group. The observed recognition memory data did not distinguish the six FAST severity stages, but the latent parameters completely separated them. The latent parameters were also used successfully to transform the ordinal FAST measure into a continuous measure reflecting the underlying continuum of functional severity. HBCP models applied to recognition memory data from clinical practice settings accurately translated a latent measure of cognition to a continuous measure of functional severity for both individuals and FAST groups. Such a translation links two levels of brain information processing, and may enable more accurate correlations with other levels, such as those characterized by biomarkers. PMID:22407225

  13. White matter correlates of cognitive domains in normal aging with diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat eSasson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform complex as well as simple cognitive tasks engages a network of brain regions that is mediated by the white matter fiber bundles connecting them. Different cognitive tasks employ distinctive white matter fiber bundles. The temporal lobe and its projections subserve a variety of key functions known to deteriorate during aging. In a cohort of 52 healthy subjects (ages 25-82 years, we performed voxel-wise regression analysis correlating performance in higher-order cognitive domains (executive function, information processing speed, and memory with white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI fiber tracking in the temporal lobe projections (uncinate fasciculus (UF, fornix, cingulum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF. The fiber tracts were spatially registered and statistical parametric maps were produced to spatially localize the significant correlations. Results showed that performance in the executive function domain is correlated with DTI parameters in the left SLF and right UF; performance in the information processing speed domain is correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA in the left cingulum, left fornix, right and left ILF and SLF; and the memory domain shows significant correlations with DTI parameters in the right fornix, right cingulum, left ILF, left SLF and right UF. These findings suggest that DTI tractography enables anatomical definition of region of interest for correlation of behavioral parameters with diffusion indices, and functionality can be correlated with white matter integrity.

  14. Cognitive function predicts listening effort performance during complex tasks in normally aging adults

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    Jennine Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson III (WCJ-III assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11 who were 41–61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9 who were 63–81 years old (mean = 72.07; SD = 5.11. Participants were administered the WCJ-III Memory for Words, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Matching, and Decision Speed subtests. All participants were tested in each of the following three dual-task experimental conditions, which were varying in complexity: (1 auditory word recognition + visual processing, (2 auditory working memory (word + visual processing, and (3 auditory working memory (sentence + visual processing in noise. Results: A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that task complexity significantly affected the performance measures of auditory accuracy, visual accuracy, and processing speed. Linear regression revealed that the cognitive subtests of the WCJ-III test significantly predicted performance across dependent variable measures. Conclusion: Listening effort is significantly affected by task complexity, regardless of age. Performance on the WCJ-III test may predict listening effort in adults and may assist speech-language pathologist (SLPs to understand challenges faced by participants when subjected to noise.

  15. Cognitive functioning and its influence on sexual behavior in normal aging and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, C.; Comijs, H.; Jonker, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Motivational aspects, emotional factors, and cognition, all of which require intact cognitive functioning may be essential in sexual functioning. However, little is known about the association between cognitive functioning and sexual behavior. The aim of this article is to review the

  16. Normalized Mini-Mental State Examination for assessing cognitive change in population-based brain aging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, Viviane; Amieva, Hélène; Andrieu, Sandrine; Dufouil, Carole; Berr, Claudine; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Proust-Lima, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in population-based longitudinal studies to quantify cognitive change. However, its poor metrological properties, mainly ceiling/floor effects and varying sensitivity to change, have largely restricted its usefulness. We propose a normalizing transformation that corrects these properties, and makes possible the use of standard statistical methods to analyze change in MMSE scores. The normalizing transformation designed to correct at best the metrological properties of MMSE was estimated and validated on two population-based studies (n = 4,889, 20-year follow-up) by cross-validation. The transformation was also validated on two external studies with heterogeneous samples mixing normal and pathological aging, and samples including only demented subjects. The normalizing transformation provided correct inference in contrast with models analyzing the change in crude MMSE that most often lead to biased estimates of risk factors and incorrect conclusions. Cognitive change can be easily and properly assessed with the normalized MMSE using standard statistical methods such as linear (mixed) models. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

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    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  18. Do apolipoprotein E genotype and educational attainment predict the rate of cognitive decline in normal aging? A 12-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Pascal W M; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Ausems, Eleonora E B; Bekers, Otto; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-07-01

    We investigated suspected longitudinal interaction effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and educational attainment on cognitive decline in normal aging. Our sample consisted of 571 healthy, nondemented adults aged between 49 and 82 years. Linear mixed-models analyses were performed with four measurement time points: baseline, 3-year, 6-year, and 12-year follow-up. Covariates included age at baseline, sex, and self-perceived physical and mental health. Dependent measures were global cognitive functioning (Mini-Mental State Examination; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975), Stroop performance (Stroop Color-Word Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006a), set-shifting performance (Concept Shifting Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006b), cognitive speed (Letter-Digit Substitution Test; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2006c), verbal learning (Verbal Learning Test: Sum of five trials; Van der Elst, Van Boxtel, Van Breukelen, & Jolles, 2005), and long-term memory (Verbal Learning Test: Delayed recall). We found only faint evidence that older, high-educated carriers of the APOE-ε4 allele (irrespective of zygosity) show a more pronounced decline than younger, low-educated carriers and noncarriers (irrespective of educational attainment). Moreover, this outcome was confined to concept-shifting performance and was especially observable between 6- and 12-year follow-ups. No protective effects of higher education were found on any of the six cognitive measures. We conclude that the combination of APOE-ε4 allele and high educational attainment may be a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline in older age, as has been reported before, but only to a very limited extent. Moreover, we conclude that, within the cognitive reserve framework, education does not have significant protective power against age-related cognitive decline.

  19. Serial position effects in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging: predictive value for conversion to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Catarina; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo; Santana, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Serial position effects in word list learning have been used to differentiate normal aging and dementia. Prominent recency and diminished primacy have consistently been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in patients with AD, and in normal healthy controls. Additionally, we classified MCI patients into those who progressed to AD (MCI-p) and those who did not (MCI-np). We compared two serial position measures: regional and standard scores. Regional scores, mainly the primacy effect, improved discrimination between MCI and controls and between MCI-np and MCI-p, proving to be more sensitive and specific than the recency effect.

  20. Bistable Perception in Normal Aging: Perceptual Reversibility and its Relation to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Mauro, Samantha; Cao, Bo; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The effects of age on the ability to resolve perceptual ambiguity are unknown, though it depends on fronto-parietal attentional networks known to change with age. We presented the bistable Necker cube to 24 middle-aged and older adults (OA; 56–78 years) and 20 younger adults (YA; 18–24 years) under passive-viewing and volitional control conditions: Hold one cube percept and Switch between cube percepts. During passive viewing, OA had longer dominance durations (time spent on each percept) than YA. In the Hold condition, OA were less able than YA to increase dominance durations. In the Switch condition, OA and YA did not differ in performance. Dominance durations in either condition correlated with performance on tests of executive function mediated by the frontal lobes. Eye movements (fixation deviations) did not differ between groups. These results suggest that OA’s reduced ability to hold a percept may arise from reduced selective attention. The lack of correlation of performance between Hold and executive-function measures suggests at least a partial segregation of underlying mechanisms. PMID:27116194

  1. MRI Volumetry of Hippocampus and Amygdala in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suphaphong, S.; Tritanon, O.; Laothamatas, J.; Sungkarat, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can affect memory and daily living. Non- invasive diagnostic tools such as MRI can be useful to discriminate the patients from normal group.This study aims to compare the relative volumes of hippocampus and amygdala, to suggest the relative normal volumes, and to evaluate MRI automatic volumetry as a diagnostic tool. The MRI images of 130 subjects were retrospectively studied (Turbo field echo (TFE), acquired with a 3-Tesla Philips scanner). The image data were processed with Free Surfer (automatic segmentation and volumetry). The resultant volumes were corrected for brain size differences with intracranial volumes (ICV), and then analysed with SPSS (v. 17.0). There are differences of hippocampus and amygdala relative volumes between normal, MCI, and AD subjects at p < 0.001. The volume reductions of hippocampus in MCI and AD groups compared to normal group are about 8 % and 28 %, while those of amygdala are about 10 % and 34 %, respectively. The relative volumes of hippocampus (compared to ICV) in normal aging are 0.002617 ± 0.000278 (right) and 0.002553 ± 0.000257 (left), while those of amygdala are 0.001231 ± 0.000165 (right) and 0.001096 ± 0.000144 (left). There are no differences of relative volumes affected by gender in normal, MCI, and AD. There is a highly significant difference of relative volume affected by brain side in normal group (p < 0.001) but not in MCI (p = 0.119 and 0.077) and AD (p = 0.713 and 0.250), for hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. These results demonstrate that there are volume losses of hippocampus and amygdala in both diseases. Automatically measured hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as a measure indicating MCI and AD. The abnormal disturbance of volume affected by brain side may indicate the progression of both diseases. The hippocampus and amygdala volumes can be used as one of diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis of MCI or AD. The volume

  2. Transfer and maintenance effects of online working-memory training in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Claassen, J.A.; Dautzenberg, P.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the cognitive functions that is susceptible to ageing-related decline. Interventions that are able to improve WM functioning at older age are thus highly relevant. In this pilot study, we explored the transfer effects of core WM training on the WM domain and other

  3. Interactions of the Salience Network and Its Subsystems with the Default-Mode and the Central-Executive Networks in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ganesh B; Wu, Junjie; Hajjar, Ihab; Qiu, Deqiang

    2017-09-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations suggest that the intrinsically organized large-scale networks and the interaction between them might be crucial for cognitive activities. A triple network model, which consists of the default-mode network, salience network, and central-executive network, has been recently used to understand the connectivity patterns of the cognitively normal brains versus the brains with disorders. This model suggests that the salience network dynamically controls the default-mode and central-executive networks in healthy young individuals. However, the patterns of interactions have remained largely unknown in healthy aging or those with cognitive decline. In this study, we assess the patterns of interactions between the three networks using dynamical causal modeling in resting state fMRI data and compare them between subjects with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In healthy elderly subjects, our analysis showed that the salience network, especially its dorsal subnetwork, modulates the interaction between the default-mode network and the central-executive network (Mann-Whitney U test; p control correlated significantly with lower overall cognitive performance measured by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (r = 0.295; p control, especially the dorsal salience network, over other networks provides a neuronal basis for cognitive decline and may be a candidate neuroimaging biomarker of cognitive impairment.

  4. Cognitive Reserve Scale and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.

  5. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (Ptriglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  6. Is "Learning" episodic memory? Distinct cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of immediate recall during learning trials in neurologically normal aging and neurodegenerative cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaletto, K B; Marx, G; Dutt, S; Neuhaus, J; Saloner, R; Kritikos, L; Miller, B; Kramer, J H

    2017-07-28

    Although commonly interpreted as a marker of episodic memory during neuropsychological exams, relatively little is known regarding the neurobehavior of "total learning" immediate recall scores. Medial temporal lobes are clearly associated with delayed recall performances, yet immediate recall may necessitate networks beyond traditional episodic memory. We aimed to operationalize cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of total immediate recall in several aging syndromes. Demographically-matched neurologically normal adults (n=91), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=566), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n=34), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n=97), semantic variant PPA (n=71), or nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (n=39) completed a neurocognitive battery, including the CVLT-Short Form trials 1-4 Total Immediate Recall; a majority subset also completed a brain MRI. Regressions covaried for age and sex, and MMSE in cognitive and total intracranial volume in neuroanatomic models. Neurologically normal adults demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of cognitive associations with total immediate recall (executive, speed, delayed recall), such that no singular cognitive or neuroanatomic correlate uniquely predicted performance. Within the clinical cohorts, there were syndrome-specific cognitive and neural associations with total immediate recall; e.g., semantic processing was the strongest cognitive correlate in svPPA (partial r=0.41), while frontal volumes was the only meaningful neural correlate in bvFTD (partial r=0.20). Medial temporal lobes were not independently associated with total immediate recall in any group (ps>0.05). Multiple neurobehavioral systems are associated with "total learning" immediate recall scores that importantly differ across distinct clinical syndromes. Conventional memory networks may not be sufficient or even importantly contribute to total immediate recall in many syndromes. Interpreting learning scores as

  7. Relevance of the serial position effect in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M E; Sasson, Y; Crivelli, L; Roldán Gerschovich, E; Campos, J A; Calcagno, M L; Leiguarda, R; Sabe, L; Allegri, R F

    2013-05-01

    Serial position effects are observed when a person memorises a series of words exceeding his or her attention span. Cognitively normal individuals recall words at the beginning and end of the list more frequently than those in the middle, which reflects the way that short- and long-term episodic memory works. To study the serial position effect in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) or normal ageing (NA). 30 AD, 25 MCI and 20 NA subjects underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was used to study primacy, middle, and recency effects and delayed recall for each group. The general memory pattern of MCI subjects was very similar to that of AD subjects, and was characterised by reduced learning capacity, rapid forgetfulness and clear recency effect in learning. With regard to delayed recall, however, there were differences in performance; MCI subjects' ability to recall words at the beginning and middle of the list was similar to that of normal subjects, while their memory of words at the end of the list was poor, as in AD subjects. RAVLT is a tool permitting us to distinguish between MCI and NA subjects. The recency index for the delayed recall task is a valid indicator for distinguishing between MCI patients and patients with normal ageing. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive Associations of Vascular Risk and β-Amyloid Burden With Cognitive Decline in Clinically Normal Elderly Individuals: Findings From the Harvard Aging Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A; Kilpatrick, Emily; Klein, Hannah; Buckley, Rachel F; Yang, Hyun-Sik; Properzi, Michael; Rao, Vaishnavi; Kirn, Dylan R; Papp, Kathryn V; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2018-05-21

    Identifying asymptomatic individuals at high risk of impending cognitive decline because of Alzheimer disease is crucial for successful prevention of dementia. Vascular risk and β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology commonly co-occur in older adults and are significant causes of cognitive impairment. To determine whether vascular risk and Aβ burden act additively or synergistically to promote cognitive decline in clinically normal older adults; and, secondarily, to evaluate the unique influence of vascular risk on prospective cognitive decline beyond that of commonly used imaging biomarkers, including Aβ burden, hippocampal volume, fludeoxyglucose F18-labeled (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and white matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebrovascular disease. In this longitudinal observational study, we examined clinically normal older adults from the Harvard Aging Brain Study. Participants were required to have baseline imaging data (FDG-PET, Aβ-PET, and magnetic resonance imaging), baseline medical data to quantify vascular risk, and at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological visit. Data collection began in 2010 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed on data collected between 2010 and 2017. Vascular risk was quantified using the Framingham Heart Study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk score. We measured Aβ burden with Pittsburgh Compound-B PET. Cognition was measured annually with the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite. Models were corrected for baseline age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein E ε4 status. Of the 223 participants, 130 (58.3%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 73.7 (6.0) years, and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 3.7 (1.2) years. Faster cognitive decline was associated with both a higher FHS-CVD risk score (β = -0.064; 95% CI, -0.094 to -0.033; P < .001) and higher Aβ burden (β = -0.058; 95% CI, -0.079 to -0.037; P < .001). The interaction of the FHS-CVD risk score and Aβ burden with time

  9. Normal and abnormal aging in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ardila

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilinguals use two different language systems to mediate not only social communication, but also cognitive processes. Potential differences between bilinguals and monolinguals in task-solving strategies and patterns of cognitive decline during normal and abnormal aging have been suggested. Main contribution: A research review of the area suggests that normal aging is associated with increased interference between the two languages and tendency to retreat to a single language. General cognitive functioning has been found to be higher in demented bilingual patients if communication is carried out in L1 rather than in L2. Recent research has reported that bilingualism can have a protective effect during aging, attenuating the normal cognitive decline associated with aging, and delaying the onset of dementia. Conclusions: Regardless of the significant heterogeneity of bilingualism and the diversity of patterns in language use during life-span, current research suggests that bilingualism is associated with preserved cognitive test performance during aging, and potentially can have some protective effect in dementia.

  10. Effects of level of processing at encoding and types of retrieval task in mild cognitive impairment and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Charlotte; Taconnat, Laurence; Landré, Lionel; Beigneux, Katia; Isingrini, Michel

    2009-04-01

    A total of 16 young (M = 27.25 years), 13 healthy elderly (M = 75.38 years), and 10 older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI; M = 78.6 years) carried out a task under two different encoding conditions (shallow vs. semantic) and two retrieval conditions (free recall vs. recognition). For the shallow condition, participants had to decide whether the first or last letter of each word in a list was "E." For the semantic condition, they had to decide whether each word represented a concrete or abstract entity. The MCI group was only able to benefit from semantic encoding to the same extent as the healthy older adults in the recognition task, whereas the younger and healthy older adults benefited in both retrieval tasks. These results suggest that the MCI group required cognitive support at retrieval to make effective use of semantic processing carried out at encoding. In the discussion, we suggest that adults with MCI engage more in deep processing, using the semantic network, than hitherto thought.

  11. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Bégin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

  12. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP) Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Guillaume T; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Macoir, Joël; Versace, Rémy; Simard, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic) memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE), patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and patients with semantic dementia (SD). The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented). They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background), a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  13. A SEMantic and EPisodic Memory Test (SEMEP Developed within the Embodied Cognition Framework: Application to Normal Aging, Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume T. Vallet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment has highlighted the importance of sensory-motor components in cognition. Perception and memory are thus very tightly bound together, and episodic and semantic memories should rely on the same grounded memory traces. Reduced perception should then directly reduce the ability to encode and retrieve an episodic memory, as in normal aging. Multimodal integration deficits, as in Alzheimer's disease, should lead to more severe episodic memory impairment. The present study introduces a new memory test developed to take into account these assumptions. The SEMEP (SEMantic-Episodic memory test proposes to assess conjointly semantic and episodic knowledge across multiple tasks: semantic matching, naming, free recall, and recognition. The performance of young adults is compared to healthy elderly adults (HE, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, and patients with semantic dementia (SD. The results show specific patterns of performance between the groups. HE commit memory errors only for presented but not to be remembered items. AD patients present the worst episodic memory performance associated with intrusion errors (recall or recognition of items never presented. They were the only group to not benefit from a visual isolation (addition of a yellow background, a method known to increase the distinctiveness of the memory traces. Finally, SD patients suffer from the most severe semantic impairment. To conclude, confusion errors are common across all the elderly groups, whereas AD was the only group to exhibit regular intrusion errors and SD patients to show severe semantic impairment.

  14. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging: Relationship to Atrophy in Brain Regions Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; Wright, Clinton; Sun, Xiaoyan; Alperin, Noam; Crocco, Elzabeth; Czaja, Sara J; Raffo, Arlene; Penate, Ailyn; Melo, Jose; Capp, Kimberly; Gamez, Monica; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between MRI measures and performance on the LASSI-L as well as traditional memory and non-memory cognitive measures was also evaluated in both diagnostic groups. Relative to traditional neuropsychological measures, MCI patients' failure to recover from PSI was associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (rs = 0.48), precuneus (rs = 0.50); rostral middle frontal lobules (rs = 0.54); inferior temporal lobules (rs = 0.49), superior parietal lobules (rs = 0.47), temporal pole (rs = 0.44), and increased dilatation of the inferior lateral ventricle (rs = -0.49). For CN elders, only increased inferior lateral ventricular size was associated with vulnerability to PSI (rs = -0.49), the failure to recover from PSI (rs = -0.57), and delayed recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (rs = -0.48). LASSI-L indices eliciting failure to recover from PSI were more highly associated with more MRI regional biomarkers of AD than other traditional cognitive measures. These results as well as recent amyloid imaging studies with otherwise cognitively normal subjects, suggest that recovery from PSI may be a sensitive marker of preclinical AD and deserves further investigation.

  15. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  16. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  17. Behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling elderly Nigerians with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Fred W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Gureje, Oye; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric status of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment in the developing world despite the fact that current demographic trends suggest an urgent need for such studies. To assess the level of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling individuals with dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia and normal cognition. Subjects were from the Ibadan site of Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project with stable diagnoses of normal cognition, cognitive impairment, no dementia/mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI), and dementia. Informants of subjects made ratings on the neuropsychiatric inventory and blessed dementia scale; subjects were tested with the mini mental state examination. One hundred and eight subjects were included in the analytic sample, 21 were cognitively normal, 34 were demented, and 53 were CIND/MCI. The diagnostic groups did not differ in age, per cent female, or per cent with any formal education. The most frequent symptoms among subjects with CIND/MCI were depression (45.3%), apathy (37.7%), night time behavior (28.3%), appetite change (24.5%), irritability (22.6%), delusions (22.6%), anxiety (18.9%), and agitation (17.0%). Depression was significantly more frequent among the CIND/MCI and dementia (44.1%) groups compared with the normal cognition group (9.5%). Distress scores were highest for the dementia group, lowest for the normal cognition group, and intermediate for the CIND/MCI group. Significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology and distress are present among cognitively impaired persons in this community-based study of older adults in this sub-Saharan African country. Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Semantic error patterns on the Boston Naming Test in normal aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease: is there semantic disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo; Cendes, Fernando; Damasceno, Benito Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Naming difficulty is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the nature of this problem is not well established. The authors investigated the presence of semantic breakdown and the pattern of general and semantic errors in patients with mild AD, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and normal controls by examining their spontaneous answers on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and verifying whether they needed or were benefited by semantic and phonemic cues. The errors in spontaneous answers were classified in four mutually exclusive categories (semantic errors, visual paragnosia, phonological errors, and omission errors), and the semantic errors were further subclassified as coordinate, superordinate, and circumlocutory. Patients with aMCI performed normally on the BNT and needed fewer semantic and phonemic cues than patients with mild AD. After semantic cues, subjects with aMCI and control subjects gave more correct answers than patients with mild AD, but after phonemic cues, there was no difference between the three groups, suggesting that the low performance of patients with AD cannot be completely explained by semantic breakdown. Patterns of spontaneous naming errors and subtypes of semantic errors were similar in the three groups, with decreasing error frequency from coordinate to superordinate to circumlocutory subtypes.

  19. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  20. Regional analysis of FDG and PIB-PET images in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Qilu hospital Shandong University, Jinan (China); HN400 NYU School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina; Naagren, Kjell [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Mosconi, Lisa; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Rusinek, Henry; DeSanti, Susan [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kim, Byeong-Chae [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Neurology, Gwangju (Korea); Tsui, Wai [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); Leon, Mony J. de [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY (United States); HN400 NYU School of Medicine, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic value of regional sampling of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose metabolism (MRglc) using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and amyloid-beta pathology using Pittsburgh Compound-B ([11C]PIB)-PET in the evaluation of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to normal elderly (NL). AD patients, 7NL, 13MCI, and 17, received clinical, neuropsychological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FDG, and PIB-PET exams. Parametric images of PIB uptake and MRglc were sampled using automated regions-of-interest (ROI). AD showed global MRglc reductions, and MCI showed reduced hippocampus (HIP) and inferior parietal lobe (IP) MRglc compared to NL. On PIB, AD patients showed significantly increased uptake in the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and IP (ps<0.05). PIB uptake in MCI subjects was either AD or NL-like. HIP MRglc and MFG PIB uptake were the best discriminators of NL from MCI and NL from AD. These two best measures showed high diagnostic agreement for AD (94%) and poor agreement for MCI (54%). For the NL vs. MCI discrimination, combining the two best measures increased the accuracy for PIB (75%) and for FDG (85%) to 90%. For AD, the pattern of regional involvement for FDG and PIB differ, but both techniques show high diagnostic accuracy and 94% case by case agreement. In the classification of NL and MCI, FDG is superior to PIB, but there is only 54% agreement at a case level. Combining the two modalities improves the diagnostic accuracy for MCI. (orig.)

  1. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project

  2. Cognition and brain functional aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jie LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest population of elderly adults. Meanwhile, it is one of the countries showing fastest aging speed in the world. Aging processing is always companied with a series of brain structural and functional changes, which result in the decline of processing speed, working memory, long-term memory and executive function, etc. The studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI found certain aging effects on brain function activation, spontaneous activity and functional connectivity in old people. However, few studies have explored the brain functional curve during the aging process while most previous studies explored the differences in the brain function between young people and old people. Delineation of the human brain functional aging curve will promote the understanding of brain aging mechanisms and support the normal aging monitoring and early detection of abnormal aging changes. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.005

  3. Loss of Brain Aerobic Glycolysis in Normal Human Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Blazey, Tyler M; Su, Yi; Couture, Lars E; Durbin, Tony J; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L-S; Morris, John C; Raichle, Marcus E

    2017-08-01

    The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly. Brain regions with high AG in young adults show the greatest change, as do regions with prolonged developmental transcriptional features (i.e., neoteny). The normal aging human brain thus undergoes characteristic metabolic changes, largely driven by global loss and topographic changes in brain AG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex volumetric MRI measurements in discrimination between Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Elshafey

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus and entorhinal cortex which aided in discrimination of healthy elderly control subjects from subjects with AD and MCI and predict clinical decline of MCI leading to increase the efficiency of clinical treatments, delay institutionalization and improve cognition and behavioral symptoms.

  5. Cortical Thinning in Network-Associated Regions in Cognitively Normal and Below-Normal Range Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Walter Heinrichs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether cortical thickness across the brain and regionally in terms of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks differentiates schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with normal range or below-normal range cognitive performance. Cognitive normality was defined using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB composite score (T=50 ± 10 and structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to generate cortical thickness data. Whole brain analysis revealed that cognitively normal range controls (n=39 had greater cortical thickness than both cognitively normal (n=17 and below-normal range (n=49 patients. Cognitively normal controls also demonstrated greater thickness than patients in regions associated with the default mode and salience, but not central executive networks. No differences on any thickness measure were found between cognitively normal range and below-normal range controls (n=24 or between cognitively normal and below-normal range patients. In addition, structural covariance between network regions was high and similar across subgroups. Positive and negative symptom severity did not correlate with thickness values. Cortical thinning across the brain and regionally in relation to the default and salience networks may index shared aspects of the psychotic psychopathology that defines schizophrenia with no relation to cognitive impairment.

  6. Cognitive Age: A New Multidimensional Approach to Measuring Age Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Benny

    1987-01-01

    Conducted exploratory field study to examine how age-concepts are experienced and to assess relationship of age identities to each other. Proposes Cognitive Age as a new multidimensional age scale that merges the standard scale, Identity Age, and Personal Age. Study results attest to Cognitive Age scale's reliability and validity. (Author/NB)

  7. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is relatively preserved in dementia, possibly reflecting integrity of semantic relative to episodic memory. We examined recall of specific, consistent autobiographical episodes in Alzheimer's disease (AD in response to cue words. Patients and control subjects drew most memories from the recent 20 years: episode age related to anterograde memory function but not subject age or dementia. Subjects also related a secondary peak of memories from early adulthood; episode age related to subject age and severity of dementia. The results suggest that preferential recall of memories from early adulthood is based on the salience of retrieval cues, altered by age and dementia, superimposed on a temporal gradient of semantic memory. Further, AD shows behavioural similarity to normal ageing.

  8. Magnetization transfer ratio relates to cognitive impairment in normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSeiler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR in gray and white matter and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study (ASPS-Fam aged 38 to 86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, white matter hyperintensities, and normal appearing white matter. Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and normal appearing white matter correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions and cortex volume.Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia.

  9. Functional neuroimaging of normal aging: Declining brain, adapting brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    Early functional neuroimaging research on normal aging brain has been dominated by the interest in cognitive decline. In this framework the age-related compensatory recruitment of prefrontal cortex, in terms of executive system or reduced lateralization, has been established. Further details on these compensatory mechanisms and the findings reflecting cognitive decline, however, remain the matter of intensive investigations. Studies in another framework where age-related neural alteration is considered adaptation to the environmental change are recently burgeoning and appear largely categorized into three domains. The age-related increase in activation of the sensorimotor network may reflect the alteration of the peripheral sensorimotor systems. The increased susceptibility of the network for the mental-state inference to the socioemotional significance may be explained by the age-related motivational shift due to the altered social perception. The age-related change in activation of the self-referential network may be relevant to the focused positive self-concept of elderly driven by a similar motivational shift. Across the domains, the concept of the self and internal model may provide the theoretical bases of this adaptation framework. These two frameworks complement each other to provide a comprehensive view of the normal aging brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Systematic Review for Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Cognitive Reserve Across the Cognitive Aging Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Mia; Lin, Feng

    2017-12-13

    Cognitive reserve has been proposed to explain the discrepancy between clinical symptoms and the effects of aging or Alzheimer's pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help elucidate how neural reserve and compensation delay cognitive decline and identify brain regions associated with cognitive reserve. This systematic review evaluated neural correlates of cognitive reserve via fMRI (resting-state and task-related) studies across the cognitive aging spectrum (i.e., normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease). This review examined published articles up to March 2017. There were 13 cross-sectional observational studies that met the inclusion criteria, including relevance to cognitive reserve, subjects 60 years or older with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and/or Alzheimer's disease, at least one quantitative measure of cognitive reserve, and fMRI as the imaging modality. Quality assessment of included studies was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies. Across the cognitive aging spectrum, medial temporal regions and an anterior or posterior cingulate cortex-seeded default mode network were associated with neural reserve. Frontal regions and the dorsal attentional network were related to neural compensation. Compared to neural reserve, neural compensation was more common in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neural reserve and compensation both support cognitive reserve, with compensation more common in later stages of the cognitive aging spectrum. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to investigate changes between neural reserve and compensation during the transition between clinical stages, and to explore the causal relationship between cognitive reserve and potential neural substrates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Distributive justice and cognitive enhancement in lower, normal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mikael; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as the most important threshold in modern life. The ability to enhance our cognitive capacities offers an exciting opportunity to correct disabling natural variation and inequality in intelligence. Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, such as modafinil and methylphenidate, have been shown to have the capacity to enhance cognition in normal, healthy individuals. Perhaps of most relevance is the presence of an 'inverted U effect' for most pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers, whereby the degree of enhancement increases as intelligence levels deviate further below the mean. Although enhancement, including cognitive enhancement, has been much debated recently, we argue that there are egalitarian reasons to enhance individuals with low but normal intelligence. Under egalitarianism, cognitive enhancement has the potential to reduce opportunity inequality and contribute to relative income and welfare equality in the lower, normal intelligence subgroup. Cognitive enhancement use is justifiable under prioritarianism through various means of distribution; selective access to the lower, normal intelligence subgroup, universal access, or paradoxically through access primarily to the average and above average intelligence subgroups. Similarly, an aggregate increase in social well-being is achieved through similar means of distribution under utilitarianism. In addition, the use of cognitive enhancement within the lower, normal intelligence subgroup negates, or at

  12. Early Alzheimer-type lesions in cognitively normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Hof, Patrick R; Kövari, Enikö; Bouras, Constantin

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid deposits and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, together with neuronal and synaptic loss, are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both proteins are present in the normal brain during aging. However, the temporal sequence of their involvement in the onset of AD pathology remains controversial. To define whether amyloid β protein deposits or tau protein lesions appear first during normal brain aging, we performed an immunohistological study on serial sections from 105 autopsy brains (age range: 40-104 years) from patients free of clinical signs of cognitive decline, using anti-tau (AT8) and anti-amyloid (4G8) antibodies in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal cortex (Brodmann area 20), prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), occipital cortex (Brodmann areas 17 and 18), and in the brainstem. All cases older than 48 years displayed at least a few neurofibrillary tangles, which appeared more frequently in the entorhinal than in the transentorhinal cortex. Tau pathology in these areas preceded tau inclusions in the brainstem. Furthermore, the first site of the apparition of tau pathology is inconsistent, being the entorhinal cortex in most cases, and in fewer cases, the transentorhinal region. There was no case presenting with amyloid deposition in the absence of neurofibrillary tangles, lending evidence to the fact that neurofibrillary tangles appear earlier than amyloid plaques during normal brain aging. However, the role of amyloid in promoting tau deposition cannot be excluded in some cases but may not represent the sole mechanism of disease induction and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way K. W. Lau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III. Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning.

  14. Moderating Effects of Cortisol on Neural-Cognitive Association in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei Kei; Law, Andrew C. K.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner. Cognitive processing speed was assessed by the digit-symbol and symbol search tests, from the Chinese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—third edition (WAIS-III). Serum cortisol levels (sampled in the late morning) were measured by ELISA kits. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that serum cortisol levels positively predicted the white matter volumes (WMV) of the right thalamus, the gray matter volumes (GMV) of the left thalamus and right cerebellar tonsil, and negatively predicted the WMV and GMV of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) in 41 healthy elderly participants. Furthermore, serum cortisol significantly moderated the relationship between the GMV of the left MTG and processing speed, as well as the GMV of the left thalamus and processing speed. This study provided the first piece of evidence supporting serum cortisol levels in moderating the relationship between regional brain volumes and processing speed in healthy elderly subjects. This observation enriches our understanding of the role of cortisol in brain morphology and cognitive functioning. PMID:28596732

  15. Does Bilingualism Influence Cognitive Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Thomas H; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008–2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading. Our results suggest a positive effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition, including in those who acquired their second language in adulthood. PMID:24890334

  16. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing...

  18. Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Thomas H; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008-2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading. Our results suggest a positive effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition, including in those who acquired their second language in adulthood. © 2014 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. Agent-Centered Decision Making in Normal and Abnormal Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg, Elkhonon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Much of human cognition is “agent-centered,” subjective, and in that sense relative, directed at deciding, “What is best for me”. This is very different from “veridical” cognition, directed at finding an objectively correct solution inherent in the task and independent of the agent. The frontal lobes in particular are central to agent-centered decision making. Yet very little is available in the arsenal of cognitive paradigms used in the cognitive neuroscience research and in clinical neuropsychology test design to examine “agent-centered” decision making. Current paradigms and tests used to measure decision making clinically and experimentally are veridical in nature and as such miss the essence of “agent-centered” cognition. The dearth of “agent-centered” cognitive paradigms severely limits our ability to understand fully the function and dysfunction of the frontal lobes. The Cognitive Bias Task (CBT is an agent-centered paradigm designed to fill this gap. CBT has been used as a cognitive activation task in fMRI, SPECT, and EEG, as well as in studies of normal development, addiction, dementia, focal lesions, and schizophrenia. This resulted in a range of findings that eluded more traditional “veridical” paradigms and are reviewed here.

  20. Overweight and obese infants present lower cognitive and motor development scores than normal-weight peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Compare the cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers and investigate the correlation of body weight, body length and body mass index with cognitive and motor development. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 28 overweight/obese infants and 28 normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Both groups were evaluated with cognitive and motor scales of the Bayley-III infant development test. The t-test for independent samples was performed to compare the groups, and the Spearman correlation was used to verify the association between variables. Overweight/obese infants showed lower cognitive and motor composite scores than their normal-weight peers. A significant negative association was found of body weight and body length with cognitive development and of body mass index with motor development. This is the first study that found an effect on both cognitive and motor development in overweight/obese infants when compared with normal-weight peers between 6 and 24 months of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Working Memory-Related Brain Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Cognitive Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; McDonald, Brenna C.; R.Naylor, Magdalena; Pfaff, Ashley C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests may be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50–60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as th...

  2. Human cognitive aging: corriger la fortune?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-10-31

    Human cognitive aging differs between and is malleable within individuals. In the absence of a strong genetic program, it is open to a host of hazards, such as vascular conditions, metabolic syndrome, and chronic stress, but also open to protective and enhancing factors, such as experience-dependent cognitive plasticity. Longitudinal studies suggest that leading an intellectually challenging, physically active, and socially engaged life may mitigate losses and consolidate gains. Interventions help to identify contexts and mechanisms of successful cognitive aging and give science and society a hint about what would be possible if conditions were different. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Change blindness, aging, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, Jondavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P

    2009-02-01

    Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d'). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving.

  4. Memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in normal aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thapliyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concepts of aging-related cognitive changes have appeared to be a major challenge in the society. In this context, the present study was planned to find out the functioning of aging population on different neurocognitive measures. Aims: The aim of the study was to find out the neurocognitive functioning, namely memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition of normal aging population. Materials and Methods: Following purposive sampling technique, a total of 50 healthy subjects (30 males and 20 females in the age range of 60-70 years were recruited from Jaipur city of Rajasthan. Mini-mental state Examination, PGI memory scale, animal names test, and Stroop test were administered. Results: The findings reveal dysfunction in almost all the domains of memory, namely mental balance, attention and concentration, delayed recall, verbal retention for dissimilar pairs, visual retention and recognition, immediate recall, verbal retention for similar pairs, and visual retention. In domain of verbal fluency, all subjects gave low responses on the animal names test. In domain of response inhibition, all the subjects took less time in color test as compared to color word test on the Stroop task. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there are dysfunction in the area of memory, verbal fluency, and response inhibition in persons aged 60-70 years. However, recent and remote memory were found to be intact.

  5. Age 5 cognitive development in England

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kirstine; Jones, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Children’s development in the early years has been shown to be related to their success in later life in a range of areas including education, employment and crime. Determining why some children do better than others in the early years is a key issue for policy and is crucial in attempts to reduce inequalities. This research examines differences in early child development by examining the factors associated with the cognitive ability of children up to age 5 using cognitive assessments adminis...

  6. Brain cortical characteristics of lifetime cognitive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R; Bastin, Mark E; Ritchie, Stuart J; Dickie, David Alexander; Liewald, Dave C; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Redmond, Paul; Royle, Natalie A; Pattie, Alison; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; McIntosh, Andrew M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2018-01-01

    Regional cortical brain volume is the product of surface area and thickness. These measures exhibit partially distinct trajectories of change across the brain's cortex in older age, but it is unclear which cortical characteristics at which loci are sensitive to cognitive ageing differences. We examine associations between change in intelligence from age 11 to 73 years and regional cortical volume, surface area, and thickness measured at age 73 years in 568 community-dwelling older adults, all born in 1936. A relative positive change in intelligence from 11 to 73 was associated with larger volume and surface area in selective frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions (r cognitive ageing and a thinner cortex for any region. Interestingly, thickness and surface area were phenotypically independent across bilateral lateral temporal loci, whose surface area was significantly related to change in intelligence. These findings suggest that associations between regional cortical volume and cognitive ageing differences are predominantly driven by surface area rather than thickness among healthy older adults. Regional brain surface area has been relatively underexplored, and is a potentially informative biomarker for identifying determinants of cognitive ageing differences.

  7. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  8. Safety of disclosing amyloid status in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey M; Johnson, David K; Liebmann, Edward P; Bothwell, Rebecca J; Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D

    2017-09-01

    Disclosing amyloid status to cognitively normal individuals remains controversial given our lack of understanding the test's clinical significance and unknown psychological risk. We assessed the effect of amyloid status disclosure on anxiety and depression before disclosure, at disclosure, and 6 weeks and 6 months postdisclosure and test-related distress after disclosure. Clinicians disclosed amyloid status to 97 cognitively normal older adults (27 had elevated cerebral amyloid). There was no difference in depressive symptoms across groups over time. There was a significant group by time interaction in anxiety, although post hoc analyses revealed no group differences at any time point, suggesting a minimal nonsustained increase in anxiety symptoms immediately postdisclosure in the elevated group. Slight but measureable increases in test-related distress were present after disclosure and were related to greater baseline levels of anxiety and depression. Disclosing amyloid imaging results to cognitively normal adults in the clinical research setting with pre- and postdisclosure counseling has a low risk of psychological harm. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aberrant Intrinsic Activity and Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Deborah L; Shen, Qian; Castillo, Gabriel N; Filoteo, J Vincent; Litvan, Irene; Takahashi, Colleen; French, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances in intrinsic activity during resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but have largely been studied in a priori defined subnetworks. The cognitive significance of abnormal intrinsic activity is also poorly understood, as are abnormalities that precede the onset of mild cognitive impairment. To address these limitations, we leveraged three different analytic approaches to identify disturbances in rsfMRI metrics in 31 cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN) and 30 healthy adults. Subjects were screened for mild cognitive impairment using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force Level II criteria. Whole-brain data-driven analytic approaches first analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure of local connectivity amongst functionally similar regions. We then examined if regional disturbances in these metrics altered functional connectivity with other brain regions. We also investigated if abnormal rsfMRI metrics in PD-CN were related to brain atrophy and executive, visual organization, and episodic memory functioning. The results revealed abnormally increased and decreased ALFF and ReHo in PD-CN patients within the default mode network (posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex), sensorimotor cortex (primary motor, pre/post-central gyrus), basal ganglia (putamen, caudate), and posterior cerebellar lobule VII, which mediates cognition. For default mode network regions, we also observed a compound profile of altered ALFF and ReHo. Most regional disturbances in ALFF and ReHo were associated with strengthened long-range interactions in PD-CN, notably with regions in different networks. Stronger long-range functional connectivity in PD-CN was also partly expanded to connections that were outside the networks of the control group. Abnormally increased activity and functional connectivity appeared to have a pathological

  10. Unmaking old age: political and cognitive formats of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul; Moreira, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Active ageing is a policy tool that dominates the way the ageing society has been constituted during the last decades. The authors argue that active ageing is an attempt at unmaking the concept of old age, by engaging in the plasticity of ageing in various ways. Through a document study...... of the different epistemes, models and forms used in the constitution of active ageing policies, the authors show how active ageing is not one coordinated set of policy instruments, but comes in different formats. In the WHO, active ageing configures individual lifestyle in order to expand the plasticity of ageing......, based on epidemiological and public health conventions. In the EU, active ageing reforms the retirement behaviour of populations in order to integrate the plasticity of ageing into the institutions, based on social gerontological and demographic conventions. These conventional arrangements are cognitive...

  11. Impact of Aging Brain Circuits on Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Rachel D.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain networks that engage the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are central for enabling effective interactions with our environment. Some of the cognitive processes that these structures mediate, such as encoding and retrieving episodic experience, wayfinding, working memory and attention are known to be altered across the lifespan. As illustrated by examples given below, there is remarkable consistency across species in the pattern of age-related neural and cognitive change observed in healthy humans and other animals. These include changes in cognitive operations that are known to be dependent on the hippocampus, as well as those requiring intact prefrontal cortical circuits. Certain cognitive constructs that reflect the function of these areas lend themselves to investigation across species allowing brain mechanisms at different levels of analysis to be studied in greater depth. PMID:23773059

  12. Associations between cognitively stimulating leisure activities, cognitive function and age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nicola; Owen, Adrian; Mohan, Anita; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive

    2015-04-01

    Emerging literature suggests that lifestyle factors may play an important role in reducing age-related cognitive decline. There have, however, been few studies investigating the role of cognitively stimulating leisure activities in maintaining cognitive health. This study sought to identify changes in cognitive performance with age and to investigate associations of cognitive performance with several key cognitively stimulating leisure activities. Over 65,000 participants provided demographic and lifestyle information and completed tests of grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory, verbal working memory and episodic memory. Regression analyses suggested that frequency of engaging in Sudoku or similar puzzles was significantly positively associated with grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory and episodic memory scores. Furthermore, for participants aged under 65 years, frequency of playing non-cognitive training computer games was also positively associated with performance in the same cognitive domains. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory are particularly vulnerable to age-related decline. Further investigation to determine the potential benefits of participating in Sudoku puzzles and non-cognitive computer games is indicated, particularly as they are associated with grammatical reasoning and episodic memory, cognitive domains found to be strongly associated with age-related cognitive decline. Results of this study have implications for developing improved guidance for the public regarding the potential value of cognitively stimulating leisure activities. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory should be targeted in developing appropriate outcome measures to assess efficacy of future interventions, and in developing cognitive training programmes to prevent or delay cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dietary patterns for healthier cognitive ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.

    2017-01-01

    With ageing of our population and the accompanying increase in the number of people living with dementia, it is important to find modifiable risk factors to postpone the onset of cognitive decline. Diet has been proposed such a modifiable risk factor. To date, numerous studies have been conducted

  14. Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: system safety and cognition in a mid-air collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues; Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert Jacob; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2009-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. We present a field study of the en route mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in the clear afternoon Amazon sky in which 154 people lost their lives, that illustrates one response to this challenge. Our focus was on how and why the several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system melted down enabling the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally. We identify strong consistencies and feedbacks regarding factors of system day-to-day functioning that made monitoring and awareness difficult, and the cognitive strategies that operators have developed to deal with overall system behavior. These findings emphasize the active problem-solving behavior needed in air traffic control work, and highlight how the day-to-day functioning of the system can jeopardize such behavior. An immediate consequence is that safety managers and engineers should review their traditional safety approach and accident models based on equipment failure probability, linear combinations of failures, rules and procedures, and human errors, to deal with complex patterns of coincidence possibilities, unexpected links, resonance among system functions and activities, and system cognition.

  15. [Cognitive neuroscience of aging. Contributions and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Fernando; Pereiro, Arturo X

    The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a young discipline that has emerged as a result of the combination of: A) the theoretical and explanatory frameworks proposed by the cognitive psychology perspective throughout the second half of the twentieth century; B) the designs and methodological procedures arising from experimental psychology and the need to test the hypotheses proposed from the cognitive psychology perspective; C) the contributions of the computer sciences to the explanation of brain functions; and D) the development and use of neuroimaging techniques that have enabled the recording of brain activity in humans while tasks that test some cognitive process or function are performed. An analysis on the impact of research conducted from this perspective over the last 3decades has been carried out, including its shortcomings, as well as the potential directions and usefulness that will advantageously continue to drive this discipline in its description and explanation of the process es of cerebral and cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka

    2016-01-01

    At present there is a rapid growth of aging population groups worldwide, which brings about serious economic and social problems. Thus, there is considerable effort to prolong the active life of these older people and keep them independent. The purpose of this mini review is to explore available clinical studies implementing computer-based cognitive training programs as intervention tools in the prevention and delay of cognitive decline in aging, with a special focus on their effectiveness. This was done by conducting a literature search in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and Springer, and consequently by evaluating the findings of the relevant studies. The findings show that computerized cognitive training can lead to the improvement of cognitive functions such as working memory and reasoning skills in particular. However, this training should be performed over a longer time span since a short-term cognitive training mainly has an impact on short-term memory with temporary effects. In addition, the training must be intense to become effective. Furthermore, the results indicate that it is important to pay close attention to the methodological standards in future clinical studies.

  17. Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Aging: The Role of Reserve and Lifestyle Factors Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J.; Smyth, Kathleen A.; Lerner, Alan J.; Friedland, Robert P.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: According to the "reserve perspective" on cognitive aging, individuals are born with or can develop resources that help them resist normal and disease-related cognitive changes that occur in aging. The reserve perspective is becoming more sophisticated, but gaps in knowledge persist. In the present research, we considered three…

  18. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain with Neocortical Amyloid-β Load and Cognitive Performance in Cognitively Normal Elderly Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Goozee, Kathryn; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kaikai; Shah, Tejal; Asih, Prita R; Dave, Preeti; ManYan, Candice; Taddei, Kevin; Chung, Roger; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Martins, Ralph N

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of neurofilament, an axonal cytoskeletal protein, in neurodegenerative conditions may result in neuronal damage and its release into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurofilament light chain (NFL), a neurofilament subunit, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Investigate the association of plasma NFL with preclinical-AD features, such as high neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL) and subjective memory complaints, and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Plasma NFL concentrations were measured employing the single molecule array platform in participants from the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health cohort, aged 65- 90 years. Participants underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive performance and were categorized as low NAL (NAL-, n = 65) and high NAL (NAL+, n = 35) assessed via PET, and further stratified into subjective memory complainers (SMC; nNAL- = 51, nNAL+ = 25) and non-SMC (nNAL- = 14, nNAL+ = 10) based on the Memory Assessment Clinic- Questionnaire. Plasma NFL inversely correlated with cognitive performance. No significant difference in NFL was observed between NAL+ and NAL- participants; however, within APOEɛ4 non-carriers, higher NAL was observed in individuals with NFL concentrations within quartiles 3 and 4 (versus quartile 1). Additionally, within the NAL+ participants, SMC had a trend of higher NFL compared to non-SMC. Plasma NFL is inversely associated with cognitive performance in elderly individuals. While plasma NFL may not reflect NAL in individuals with normal global cognition, the current observations indicate that onset of axonal injury, reflected by increased plasma NFL, within the preclinical phase of AD may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  19. Activity participation and cognitive aging from age 50 to 80 in the glostrup 1914 cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Mortensen, Erik L; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    To examine the cognitively protective effect of leisure and physical activities while accounting for prior cognitive ability, a rarely considered confounder of the previously reported associations between activity and cognitive aging.......To examine the cognitively protective effect of leisure and physical activities while accounting for prior cognitive ability, a rarely considered confounder of the previously reported associations between activity and cognitive aging....

  20. A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew K; Sullivan, Debra K; Swerdlow, Russell H; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about the relation between dietary intake and cerebral amyloid accumulation in aging. Objective: We assessed the association of dietary glycemic measures with cerebral amyloid burden and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Design: We performed cross-sectional analyses relating dietary glycemic measures [adherence to a high-glycemic-load diet (HGLDiet) pattern, intakes of sugar and carbohydrates, and glycemic load] with cerebral amyloid burden (measured by florbetapir F-18 positron emission tomography) and cognitive performance in 128 cognitively normal older adults who provided eligibility screening data for the University of Kansas's Alzheimer's Prevention through Exercise (APEX) Study. The study began in November 2013 and is currently ongoing. Results: Amyloid was elevated in 26% ( n = 33) of participants. HGLDiet pattern adherence ( P = 0.01), sugar intake ( P = 0.03), and carbohydrate intake ( P = 0.05) were significantly higher in participants with elevated amyloid burden. The HGLDiet pattern was positively associated with amyloid burden both globally and in all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and education (all P ≤ 0.001). Individual dietary glycemic measures (sugar intake, carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load) were also positively associated with global amyloid load and nearly all regions of interest independently of age, sex, and educational level ( P ≤ 0.05). Cognitive performance was associated only with daily sugar intake, with higher sugar consumption associated with poorer global cognitive performance (global composite measure and Mini-Mental State Examination) and performance on subtests of Digit Symbol, Trail Making Test B, and Block Design, controlling for age, sex, and education. Conclusion: A high-glycemic diet was associated with greater cerebral amyloid burden, which suggests diet as a potential modifiable behavior for cerebral amyloid accumulation and subsequent Alzheimer

  1. The effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien F Bangma

    Full Text Available Financial decision-making (FDM is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related to normal aging, may lead to a stable or even improved age-related performance in some other aspects of FDM. Therefore, the present explorative study examines the effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of FDM.One-hundred and eighty participants (range 18-87 years were assessed with eight FDM tests and several standard neuropsychological tests. Age effects were evaluated using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The validity of the prediction models was examined by internal validation (i.e. bootstrap resampling procedure as well as external validation on another, independent, sample of participants (n = 124. Multiple regression and correlation analyses were applied to investigate the mediation effect of standard measures of cognition on the observed effects of age on FDM.On a relatively basic level of FDM (e.g., paying bills or using FDM styles no significant effects of aging were found. However more complex FDM, such as making decisions in accordance with specific rules, becomes more difficult with advancing age. Furthermore, an older age was found to be related to a decreased sensitivity for impulsive buying. These results were confirmed by the internal and external validation analyses. Mediation effects of numeracy and planning were found to explain parts of the association between one aspect of FDM (i.e. Competence in decision rules and age; however, these cognitive domains were not able to completely explain the relation between age and FDM.Normal aging has a negative influence on a complex aspect of FDM, however, other aspects appear to be unaffected by normal aging or improve.

  2. The effects of normal aging on multiple aspects of financial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangma, Dorien F.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Financial decision-making (FDM) is crucial for independent living. Due to cognitive decline that accompanies normal aging, older adults might have difficulties in some aspects of FDM. However, an improved knowledge, personal experience and affective decision-making, which are also related

  3. Timed Up and Go test, atrophy of medial temporal areas and cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Yujiro; Ikenaga, Masahiro; Yamada, Yosuke; Morimura, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Noriko; Ouma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Kimura, Misaka; Kiyonaga, Akira; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B). Bilateral, right- and left-side medial temporal area atrophy as well as whole gray and white matter indices were determined with the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease. We divided participants into three groups based on TUG performance: "better" (≤6.9s); "normal" (7-10s); and "poor" (≥10.1s). Worse TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed significant independent associations with worse TUG performance (Pareas were significantly independently associated with worse TUG performance (Parea atrophy in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical utility of spatially normalized PET and SPECT to evaluate patients with memory and cognitive impairments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Ayumi; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Soeda, Akio; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Shinoda, Jun; Iwama, Toru

    2004-01-01

    We assessed cerebral metabolism and blood flow in patients with memory and other cognitive impairment using the easy Z score imaging system (eZIS) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of FDG-PET and SPECT scans. Twenty patients with dementia (12 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 3 diffuse Lewy body disease (DLB), and 2 frontotemporal dementia (FTD)) and twenty with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and cognitive impairments were studied with FDG-PET and ECD-SPECT. All images were analyzed using eZIS with the same processing procedures, including smoothing, normalization, and z-transformation, and compared to a database of normals. Z score maps were super-imposed on 3D MRI brain images. Group analyses were performed using SPM. Age-related declines in cerebral metabolism and blood flow were observed in the anterior cingulate association area. In contrast, reductions in these cerebral functions correlated best with severity of AD in the posterior cingulate association areas. In DLB and FTD, eZIS analysis of PET and SPECT revealed reductions of cerebral functions in specific areas. DAI showed low metabolism and blood flow in mesiofrontal cortex including the anterior cingulate association area. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate association area in DAI, which resembled age-related cognitive decline, may be responsible for cognitive impairments. Overall, PET and SPECT scans showed significant correlations according to the type of dementia. Spatially normalized maps contributed to PET and SPECT image interpretation for patients with memory and cognitive impairments because better 3D visualization allowed more objective and systematic investigations. (author)

  5. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  6. Estrogen-cholinergic interactions: Implications for cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Paul; Dumas, Julie

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". While many studies in humans have investigated the effects of estrogen and hormone therapy on cognition, potential neurobiological correlates of these effects have been less well studied. An important site of action for estrogen in the brain is the cholinergic system. Several decades of research support the critical role of CNS cholinergic systems in cognition in humans, particularly in learning and memory formation and attention. In humans, the cholinergic system has been implicated in many aspects of cognition including the partitioning of attentional resources, working memory, inhibition of irrelevant information, and improved performance on effort-demanding tasks. Studies support the hypothesis that estradiol helps to maintain aspects of attention and verbal and visual memory. Such cognitive domains are exactly those modulated by cholinergic systems and extensive basic and preclinical work over the past several decades has clearly shown that basal forebrain cholinergic systems are dependent on estradiol support for adequate functioning. This paper will review recent human studies from our laboratories and others that have extended preclinical research examining estrogen-cholinergic interactions to humans. Studies examined include estradiol and cholinergic antagonist reversal studies in normal older women, examinations of the neural representations of estrogen-cholinergic interactions using functional brain imaging, and studies of the ability of selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen to interact with cholinergic-mediated cognitive performance. We also discuss the implications of these studies for the underlying hypotheses of cholinergic-estrogen interactions and cognitive aging, and indications for prophylactic and therapeutic potential that may exploit these effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  8. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  9. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  10. Mathematical analysis of the normal anatomy of the aging fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Brooke; Gupta, Akash; Strange, Taylor; Schaal, Yuval; Schaal, Shlomit

    2014-08-28

    To mathematically analyze anatomical changes that occur in the normal fovea during aging. A total of 2912 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) normal foveal scans were analyzed. Subjects were healthy individuals, aged 13 to 97 years, with visual acuity ≥20/40 and without evidence of foveal pathology. Using automated symbolic regression software Eureqa (version 0.98), foveal thickness maps of 390 eyes were analyzed using several measurements: parafoveal retinal thickness at 50 μm consecutive intervals, parafoveal maximum retinal thickness at two points lateral to central foveal depression, distance between two points of maximum retinal thickness, maximal foveal slope at two intervals lateral to central foveal depression, and central length of foveal depression. A unique mathematical equation representing the mathematical analog of foveal anatomy was derived for every decade, between 10 and 100 years. The mathematical regression function for normal fovea followed first order sine curve of level 10 complexity for the second decade of life. The mathematical regression function became more complex with normal aging, up to level 43 complexity (0.085 fit; P < 0.05). Young foveas had higher symmetry (0.92 ± 0.10) along midline, whereas aged foveas had significantly less symmetry (0.76 ± 0.27, P < 0.01) along midline and steeper maximal slopes (29 ± 32°, P < 0.01). Normal foveal anatomical configuration changes with age. Normal aged foveas are less symmetric along midline with steeper slopes. Differentiating between normal aging and pathologic changes using SD-OCT scans may allow early diagnosis, follow-up, and better management of the aging population. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Cognitive functions in methamphetamine induced psychosis compared to schizophrenia and normal subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ezzatpanah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the cognitive functions in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MIP in comparison with schizophrenia patients and normal subjects.This was a cross-sectional study, 30 patients with MIP, 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 normal individuals were selected via convenient sampling and were matched on age, sex and education. Wisconsin Cards Sorting, Stroop, Visual Search and Attention and Wechsler Memory Tests were used to assess the subjects.The study showed that patients with MIP and schizophrenia have more deficits in executive functions, selective attention, sustained attention and memory than normal subjects. There were no significant differences in cognitive functions between patients with MIP and schizophrenia except for visual search and attention that showed more impairment in patients with schizophrenia.Although, cognitive dysfunctions of patients with MIP are mostly similar to patients with schizophrenia, some differences seem to exist, especially in those functions that are not primarily dependent on frontal lobe.

  12. Association of structural global brain network properties with intelligence in normal aging.

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    Florian U Fischer

    Full Text Available Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60-85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience.

  13. Association of Structural Global Brain Network Properties with Intelligence in Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian U.; Wolf, Dominik; Scheurich, Armin; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Higher general intelligence attenuates age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. Thus, intelligence has been associated with cognitive reserve or resilience in normal aging. Neurophysiologically, intelligence is considered as a complex capacity that is dependent on a global cognitive network rather than isolated brain areas. An association of structural as well as functional brain network characteristics with intelligence has already been reported in young adults. We investigated the relationship between global structural brain network properties, general intelligence and age in a group of 43 cognitively healthy elderly, age 60–85 years. Individuals were assessed cross-sectionally using Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and diffusion-tensor imaging. Structural brain networks were reconstructed individually using deterministic tractography, global network properties (global efficiency, mean shortest path length, and clustering coefficient) were determined by graph theory and correlated to intelligence scores within both age groups. Network properties were significantly correlated to age, whereas no significant correlation to WAIS-R was observed. However, in a subgroup of 15 individuals aged 75 and above, the network properties were significantly correlated to WAIS-R. Our findings suggest that general intelligence and global properties of structural brain networks may not be generally associated in cognitively healthy elderly. However, we provide first evidence of an association between global structural brain network properties and general intelligence in advanced elderly. Intelligence might be affected by age-associated network deterioration only if a certain threshold of structural degeneration is exceeded. Thus, age-associated brain structural changes seem to be partially compensated by the network and the range of this compensation might be a surrogate of cognitive reserve or brain resilience. PMID:24465994

  14. Cognition in anxious children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a comparison with clinical and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition in children with anxiety disorders (ANX and comorbid Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD has received little attention, potentially impacting clinical and academic interventions in this highly disabled group. This study examined several cognitive features relative to children with either pure condition and to normal controls. Methods One hundred and eight children ages 8–12 and parents were diagnosed by semi-structured parent interview and teacher report as having: ANX (any anxiety disorder except OCD or PTSD; n = 52, ADHD (n = 21, or ANX + ADHD (n = 35. All completed measures of academic ability, emotional perception, and working memory. Clinical subjects were compared to 35 normal controls from local schools. Results Groups did not differ significantly on age, gender, or estimated IQ. On analyses of variance, groups differed on academic functioning (Wide Range Achievement Test, p Conclusion Though requiring replication, findings suggest that ANX + ADHD relates to greater cognitive and academic vulnerability than ANX, but may relate to reduced perception of anger.

  15. Normal Aging and Decision Making: The Role of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depping, Miriam K.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    The main argument of this review is that motivational development associated with normal aging affects decision making. With increasing age, the ratio of gains to losses becomes more and more unfavorable. Reflecting the increasing losses in resources, goal orientation changes from a predominant orientation towards gains in young adulthood to an…

  16. Exploring the Factor Structure of Financial Capacity in Cognitively Normal and Impaired Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Triebel, Kristen; Eakin, Amanda; Martin, Roy; Marson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the factor structure of financial capacity using a direct-performance measure of financial skills (The Financial Capacity Instrument [FCI]) as a proxy for the financial capacity construct. The study sample was composed of 440 older adults who represented the cognitive spectrum from normal cognitive aging to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to mild dementia: 179 healthy older adults, 149 participants with MCI, and 112 participants with mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Both Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test and Horn's parallel analysis supported a four-factor solution which accounted for 46% of variance. The four extracted factors were interpreted as: (1) Basic Monetary Knowledge and Calculation Skills, (2) Financial Judgment, (3) Financial Conceptual Knowledge, and (4) Financial Procedural Knowledge. The study findings represent an important first step in empirically articulating the financial capacity construct in aging. The four identified factors can guide both clinical practice and future instrument utilization and development. Cognitively impaired older adults with MCI and mild AD dementia are likely to show financial changes in one or more of the four identified financial factors. Clinicians working with older adults should routinely examine for potential changes in these four areas of financial function.

  17. Comprehensive identification of age-related lipidome changes in rat amygdala during normal aging.

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    Roman Šmidák

    Full Text Available Brain lipids are integral components of brain structure and function. However, only recent advancements of chromatographic techniques together with mass spectrometry allow comprehensive identification of lipid species in complex brain tissue. Lipid composition varies between the individual areas and the majority of previous reports was focusing on individual lipids rather than a lipidome. Herein, a mass spectrometry-based approach was used to evaluate age-related changes in the lipidome of the rat amygdala obtained from young (3 months and old (20 months males of the Sprague-Dawley rat strain. A total number of 70 lipid species with significantly changed levels between the two animal groups were identified spanning four main lipid classes, i.e. glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterol lipids. These included phospholipids with pleiotropic brain function, such as derivatives of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The analysis also revealed significant level changes of phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin and ceramide that directly represent lipid signaling and affect amygdala neuronal activity. The amygdala is a crucial brain region for cognitive functions and former studies on rats and humans showed that this region changes its activity during normal aging. As the information on amygdala lipidome is very limited the results obtained in the present study represent a significant novelty and may contribute to further studies on the role of lipid molecules in age-associated changes of amygdala function.

  18. What is ''normal aging brain for his/her age'' ? The first report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Goto, Ryoi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the correlations between the gray matter volume, white matter volume and age, and determined normal aging brain for his/her age in every decade. We analyzed magnetic resonance images of the brain from 828 normal Japanese subjects. Significant negative correlation between the gray matter ratio (ratio of the gray matter volume in intracranial volume) and age was shown. From these results, we determined ''normal aging brain for his/her age'' and ''atrophied brain for his/her age'' in every decade. (author)

  19. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within

  1. Grey-matter network disintegration as predictor of cognitive and motor function with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koini, Marisa; Duering, Marco; Gesierich, Benno G; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Ropele, Stefan; Wagner, Fabian; Enzinger, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2018-06-01

    Loss of grey-matter volume with advancing age affects the entire cortex. It has been suggested that atrophy occurs in a network-dependent manner with advancing age rather than in independent brain areas. The relationship between networks of structural covariance (SCN) disintegration and cognitive functioning during normal aging is not fully explored. We, therefore, aimed to (1) identify networks that lose GM integrity with advancing age, (2) investigate if age-related impairment of integrity in GM networks associates with cognitive function and decreasing fine motor skills (FMS), and (3) examine if GM disintegration is a mediator between age and cognition and FMS. T1-weighted scans of n = 257 participants (age range: 20-87) were used to identify GM networks using independent component analysis. Random forest analysis was implemented to examine the importance of network integrity as predictors of memory, executive functions, and FMS. The associations between GM disintegration, age and cognitive performance, and FMS were assessed using mediation analyses. Advancing age was associated with decreasing cognitive performance and FMS. Fourteen of 20 GM networks showed integrity changes with advancing age. Next to age and education, eight networks (fronto-parietal, fronto-occipital, temporal, limbic, secondary somatosensory, cuneal, sensorimotor network, and a cerebellar network) showed an association with cognition and FMS (up to 15.08%). GM networks partially mediated the effect between age and cognition and age and FMS. We confirm an age-related decline in cognitive functioning and FMS in non-demented community-dwelling subjects and showed that aging selectively affects the integrity of GM networks. The negative effect of age on cognition and FMS is associated with distinct GM networks and is partly mediated by their disintegration.

  2. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  3. The venous manifestations of pulse wave encephalopathy: windkessel dysfunction in normal aging and senile dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Grant A. [Locked Bag 1, Newcastle Region Mail Center, Department of Medical Imaging, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Levi, Christopher R.; Wang, Yang; Lovett, Elizabeth C. [Hunter Medical Research Institute, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Newcastle (Australia); Schofield, Peter [James Fletcher Hospital, Neuropsychiatry Unit, Newcastle (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Cerebral arterial, venous and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations are closely coupled and this produces pulsation dampening or the windkessel effect. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a manifestation of the breakdown of this windkessel effect with altered CSF and venous pulsations being noted. The aim of this study was to show that dysfunction of the windkessel mechanism is also a component of normal aging and senile dementia. The study group comprised 24 patients classified as either early senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) or vascular dementia (VaD). The patients with dementia were compared with 12 age-matched non-cognitively impaired subjects, and 12 normal young individuals were compared with the normal aging group. MRI flow quantification was used to measure the nonpulsatile and pulsatile components of blood flow as well as the pulsation at the tentorial incisura. With normal aging blood flow decreased but arterial pulsations increased in volume by 49% (P = 0.003). The CSF vented via the tentorial incisura does not change significantly with age and therefore increased venous pulsation is necessary. In patients with VaD the arterial pulse volume was higher by 24% and the straight sinus pulsation was higher by 57% than in normal aging subjects (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively). In patients with SDAT the total venous pulsation volumes were similar to those in normal aging subjects but there was less basal sinus pulsation. Normal aging, SDAT and VaD are associated with alterations in venous pulsation due to a breakdown of the windkessel effect. (orig.)

  4. Cognitive deterioration in adult epilepsy : does accelerated cognitive ageing exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, L.E.M.; Boon, P.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Mess, W.H.; Besseling, R.M.H.; de Louw, A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Zinger, S.; Bernas, A.; Klooster, D.C.W.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This

  5. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  6. Revisiting nicotine's role in the ageing brain and cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majdi, Alireza; Kamari, Farzin; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi

    2017-01-01

    Brain ageing is a complex process which in its pathologic form is associated with learning and memory dysfunction or cognitive impairment. During ageing, changes in cholinergic innervations and reduced acetylcholinergic tonus may trigger a series of molecular pathways participating in oxidative...... in optimum therapeutic effects without imparting abuse potential or toxicity. Overall, this review aims to compile the previous and most recent data on nicotine and its effects on cognition-related mechanisms and age-related cognitive impairment....

  7. Normal aging and decision making: The role of motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Depping, Miriam K; Freund, Alexandra M

    2011-01-01

    The main argument of this review is that motivational development associated with normal aging affects decision making. With increasing age, the ratio of gains to losses becomes more and more unfavorable. Reflecting the increasing losses in resources, goal orientation changes from a predominant orientation towards gains in young adulthood to an increasingly stronger orientation towards the prevention of loss in older adulthood. As goals serve as reference points for the evaluation of decision...

  8. Meditation and successful aging: can meditative practices counteract age-related cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Blondé, Philippe; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-06-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives. Meditation could be a promising intervention in contrasting the negative effects of aging. Indeed, it has been shown to enhance cognitive efficiency in several domains, such as attention and executive functions in young adults. Nevertheless, whether these effects extend to old participants is still a matter of debate. Few studies have directly investigated this issue, reporting encouraging results in a large panel of cognitive functions, such as: attention, executive functions and memory. However, a final conclusion about the causal role of meditation and the generalization of these results is made difficult due to several methodological limitations. We propose a roadmap for future studies to pass these limitations with the hope that the present work would contribute to the development of the young research field of meditation in gerontology.

  9. Cerebral Blood Flow and Amyloid-β Interact to Affect Memory Performance in Cognitively Normal Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Bangen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow (CBF alterations and amyloid-β (Aβ accumulation have been independently linked to cognitive deficits in older adults at risk for dementia. Less is known about how CBF and Aβ may interact to affect cognition in cognitively normal older adults. Therefore, we examined potential statistical interactions between CBF and Aβ status in regions typically affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD within a sample of older adults from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study. Sixty-two cognitively normal participants (mean age = 72 years underwent neuroimaging and memory testing. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify CBF and florbetapir PET amyloid imaging was used to measure Aβ deposition. Aβ status (i.e., positivity versus negativity was determined based on established cutoffs (Landau et al., 2013. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess memory. Linear regression models adjusted for age, education, and sex, demonstrated significant interactions between CBF and Aβ status on memory performance. Among Aβ positive older adults, there were significant negative associations between higher CBF in hippocampus, posterior cingulate, and precuneus and poorer memory performance. In contrast, among Aβ negative older adults, there were no significant associations between CBF and cognition. Our findings extend previous CBF studies of dementia risk by reporting interactions between Aβ status and CBF on memory performance in a sample of well-characterized, cognitively normal older adults. Results suggest that differential CBF-cognition associations can be identified in healthy, asymptomatic Aβ positive older adults relative to Aβ negative individuals. Associations between higherCBF and poorer memory among Aβ positive older adults may reflect a cellular and/or vascular compensatory response to pathologic processes whereby higher CBF is needed to maintain normal memory

  10. Stress-Related Cognitive Interference Predicts Cognitive Function in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; University, Syracuse

    2006-01-01

    Both subjective distress and cognitive interference have been proposed as mechanisms underlying the negative effects of stress on cognition. Studies of aging have shown that distress is associated with lower cognitive performance, but none have examined the effects of cognitive interference. One hundred eleven older adults (Mage = 80) completed measures of working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory as well as self-report measures of subjective distress and cognitive interference. C...

  11. Normal aging modulates the neurotoxicity of mutant huntingtin.

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    Elsa Diguet

    Full Text Available Aging likely plays a role in neurodegenerative disorders. In Huntington's disease (HD, a disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (Htt, the role of aging is unclear. For a given tract length, the probability of disease onset increases with age. There are mainly two hypotheses that could explain adult onset in HD: Either mutant Htt progressively produces cumulative defects over time or "normal" aging renders neurons more vulnerable to mutant Htt toxicity. In the present study, we directly explored whether aging affected the toxicity of mutant Htt in vivo. We studied the impact of aging on the effects produced by overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant Htt, of wild-type Htt or of a beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal reporter gene in the rat striatum. Stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors were performed simultaneously in young (3 week and old (15 month rats. Histological evaluation at different time points after infection demonstrated that the expression of mutant Htt led to pathological changes that were more severe in old rats, including an increase in the number of small Htt-containing aggregates in the neuropil, a greater loss of DARPP-32 immunoreactivity and striatal neurons as assessed by unbiased stereological counts.The present results support the hypothesis that "normal" aging is involved in HD pathogenesis, and suggest that age-related cellular defects might constitute potential therapeutic targets for HD.

  12. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  13. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  14. Chronic Glucocorticoid Hypersecretion in Cushing's Syndrome Exacerbates Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Kathy; Forget, Helene; Cohen, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to glucocorticoid hormones (GC) over the lifespan has been associated with cognitive impairment and may contribute to physical and cognitive degeneration in aging. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the pattern of cognitive deficits in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS), a disorder characterized by…

  15. Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos

    Full Text Available The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is an inexpensive, fast and easily administered measure of cognitive function, especially in the elderly. This instrument is a popular clinical tool widely used in screening for cognitive disorders and dementia. The CDT can be applied in different ways and scoring procedures also vary. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of elderly on the CDT and evaluate inter-rater reliability of the CDT scored by using a specific algorithm method adapted from Sunderland et al. (1989. METHODS: We analyzed the CDT of 100 cognitively normal elderly aged 60 years or older. The CDT ("free-drawn" and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were administered to all participants. Six independent examiners scored the CDT of 30 participants to evaluate inter-rater reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A score of 5 on the proposed algorithm ("Numbers in reverse order or concentrated", equivalent to 5 points on the original Sunderland scale, was the most frequent (53.5%. The CDT specific algorithm method used had high inter-rater reliability (p<0.01, and mean score ranged from 5.06 to 5.96. The high frequency of an overall score of 5 points may suggest the need to create more nuanced evaluation criteria, which are sensitive to differences in levels of impairment in visuoconstructive and executive abilities during aging.

  16. Age Specifics of Cognitive Activity Development in Preschool Age

    OpenAIRE

    Klopotova E.E.; Samkova I.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper present results of the research on the specifics of cognitive activity development in preschool children. The hypothesis tested was that content and dynamic components of cognitive activity reveal themselves in a different way depending on the stage of preschool childhood. The authors reviewed the diagnostic tools suitable for studying cognitive activity in preschoolers and selected the techniques. The research proved that content and dynamic components of cognitive activity have t...

  17. Thalamic structures and associated cognitive functions: Relations with age and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940

  18. Phenotype of normal spirometry in an aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; McAvay, Gail; Van Ness, Peter H; Casaburi, Richard; Jensen, Robert L; MacIntyre, Neil; Gill, Thomas M; Yaggi, H Klar; Concato, John

    2015-10-01

    In aging populations, the commonly used Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) may misclassify normal spirometry as respiratory impairment (airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern), including the presumption of respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). To evaluate the phenotype of normal spirometry as defined by a new approach from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI), overall and across GOLD spirometric categories. Using data from COPDGene (n = 10,131; ages 45-81; smoking history, ≥10 pack-years), we evaluated spirometry and multiple phenotypes, including dyspnea severity (Modified Medical Research Council grade 0-4), health-related quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score), 6-minute-walk distance, bronchodilator reversibility (FEV1 % change), computed tomography-measured percentage of lung with emphysema (% emphysema) and gas trapping (% gas trapping), and small airway dimensions (square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm). Among 5,100 participants with GLI-defined normal spirometry, GOLD identified respiratory impairment in 1,146 (22.5%), including a restrictive pattern in 464 (9.1%), mild COPD in 380 (7.5%), moderate COPD in 302 (5.9%), and severe COPD in none. Overall, the phenotype of GLI-defined normal spirometry included normal adjusted mean values for dyspnea grade (0.8), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (15.9), 6-minute-walk distance (1,424 ft [434 m]), bronchodilator reversibility (2.7%), % emphysema (0.9%), % gas trapping (10.7%), and square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (3.65 mm); corresponding 95% confidence intervals were similarly normal. These phenotypes remained normal for GLI-defined normal spirometry across GOLD spirometric categories. GLI-defined normal spirometry, even when classified as respiratory impairment by GOLD, included adjusted mean values in the

  19. On the specificity of face cognition compared with general cognitive functioning across adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver; Schmiedek, Florian; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner

    2011-09-01

    Face cognition is considered a specific human ability, clearly differentiable from general cognitive functioning. Its specificity is primarily supported by cognitive-experimental and neuroimaging research, but recently also from an individual differences perspective. However, no comprehensive behavioral data are available, which would allow estimating lifespan changes of the covariance structure of face-cognition abilities and general cognitive functioning as well as age-differences in face cognition after accounting for interindividual variability in general cognition. The present study aimed to fill this gap. In an age-heterogeneous (18-82 years) sample of 448 adults, we found no factorial dedifferentiation between face cognition and general cognition. Age-related differences in face memory were still salient after taking into account changes in general cognitive functioning. Face cognition thus remains a specific human ability compared with general cognition, even until old age. We discuss implications for models of cognitive aging and suggest that it is necessary to include more explicitly special social abilities in those models.

  20. Self-rated driving habits among older adults with clinically-defined mild cognitive impairment, clinically-defined dementia, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Edwards, Jerri D; Bannon, Yvonne

    2013-12-01

    Older adults with clinically-defined dementia may report reducing their driving more than cognitively normal controls. However, it is unclear how these groups compare to individuals with clinically-defined mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in terms of driving behaviors. The current study investigated self-reported driving habits among adults age 60 and older with clinical MCI (n=41), clinical mild dementia (n=40), and normal cognition (n=43). Participants reported their driving status, driving frequency (days per week), and how often they avoided accessing the community, making left turns, driving at night, driving in unfamiliar areas, driving on high-traffic roads, and driving in bad weather. After adjusting for education, a MANCOVA revealed that participants with MCI and dementia avoided unfamiliar areas and high-traffic roads significantly more than normal participants. Participants with dementia also avoided left turns and accessing the community more than those with normal cognition and MCI (pdriving variables did not significantly differ between groups. Thus, older adults with clinically-defined MCI, as well as those with dementia, avoided some complex driving situations more than cognitively intact adults. However, all diagnostic groups had similar rates of driving cessation and frequency. Future research should examine the safety implications of such findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational Characteristics and Cognitive Aging in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives.The effect of occupational characteristics on cognitive change over 20 years was examined.Method.Occupational characteristics-intellectual challenge, physical hazards, and psychological demands-were assessed in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort when aged 60 years, and cognitive ability...... was assessed by 4 cognitive ability tests at ages 60, 70, and 80. RESULTS: Individuals in more intellectually challenging occupations had higher cognitive ability (r = .27-.38, p occupations performed more poorly (r = -.12 and -.13 at ages 50 and 60, p ..., the one in the more intellectually challenging occupation had lower subsequent cognitive ability. The association of physical hazards with lower cognitive ability level did not remain after adjustment for the basic demographics, and none of the occupational characteristics were associated with cognitive...

  2. Systematic changes in position sense accompany normal aging across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2014-03-25

    Development of clinical neurological assessments aimed at separating normal from abnormal capabilities requires a comprehensive understanding of how basic neurological functions change (or do not change) with increasing age across adulthood. In the case of proprioception, the research literature has failed to conclusively determine whether or not position sense in the upper limb deteriorates in elderly individuals. The present study was conducted a) to quantify whether upper limb position sense deteriorates with increasing age, and b) to generate a set of normative data that can be used for future comparisons with clinical populations. We examined position sense in 209 healthy males and females between the ages of 18 and 90 using a robotic arm position-matching task that is both objective and reliable. In this task, the robot moved an arm to one of nine positions and subjects attempted to mirror-match that position with the opposite limb. Measures of position sense were recorded by the robotic apparatus in hand-and joint-based coordinates, and linear regressions were used to quantify age-related changes and percentile boundaries of normal behaviour. For clinical comparisons, we also examined influences of sex (male versus female) and test-hand (dominant versus non-dominant) on all measures of position sense. Analyses of hand-based parameters identified several measures of position sense (Variability, Shift, Spatial Contraction, Absolute Error) with significant effects of age, sex, and test-hand. Joint-based parameters at the shoulder (Absolute Error) and elbow (Variability, Shift, Absolute Error) also exhibited significant effects of age and test-hand. The present study provides strong evidence that several measures of upper extremity position sense exhibit declines with age. Furthermore, this data provides a basis for quantifying when changes in position sense are related to normal aging or alternatively, pathology.

  3. Social resources and cognitive ageing across 30 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Background: to examine associations between social resources and cognitive ageing over 30 years. Methods: participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a year of birth sample, completed a standardarised battery of cognitive ability tests every 10 years from age 50 to 80, summarised as general cognitive...... a negative association. Marital status (at ages 50 and 60) and loneliness at age 70 were the only social resources associated with cognitive change; married individuals and those not feeling lonely experienced less cognitive decline. When the social resources showing significant associations were considered...... ability. Participants also provided information concerning a range of social resources, including marital status and living arrangements from age 50, and from age 70, details regarding social support, social contact and loneliness. Results: across the follow-up, participants were less likely to be married...

  4. Association of Higher Cortical Amyloid Burden With Loneliness in Cognitively Normal Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Nancy J; Okereke, Olivia I; Vannini, Patrizia; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Rentz, Dorene M; Marshall, Gad A; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2016-12-01

    Emotional and behavioral symptoms in cognitively normal older people may be direct manifestations of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology at the preclinical stage, prior to the onset of mild cognitive impairment. Loneliness is a perceived state of social and emotional isolation that has been associated with cognitive and functional decline and an increased risk of incident AD dementia. We hypothesized that loneliness might occur in association with elevated cortical amyloid burden, an in vivo research biomarker of AD. To determine whether cortical amyloid burden is associated with greater loneliness in cognitively normal older adults. Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Harvard Aging Brain Study of 79 cognitively normal, community-dwelling participants. A continuous, aggregate measure of cortical amyloid burden, determined by Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), was examined in association with loneliness in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOEε4), socioeconomic status, depression, anxiety, and social network (without and with the interaction of amyloid and APOEε4). We also quantified the association of high amyloid burden (amyloid-positive group) to loneliness (lonely group) using logistic regression, controlling for the same covariates, with the amyloid-positive group and the lonely group, each composing 32% of the sample (n = 25). Loneliness, as determined by the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible range, 3-12, with higher score indicating greater loneliness). The 79 participants included 43 women and 36 men with a mean (SD) age of 76.4 (6.2) years. Mean (SD) cortical amyloid burden via PiB-PET was 1.230 (0.209), and the mean (SD) UCLA-3 loneliness score was 5.3 (1.8). Twenty-two (28%) had positive APOEε4 carrier status, and 25 (32%) were in the amyloid-positive group with cortical PiB distribution volume ratio greater than 1.2. Controlling for age, sex, APOEε4, socioeconomic

  5. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders versus normalization of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Brodin, U; Zandian, M

    2017-05-15

    We examine the science and evidence supporting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Recent trials focusing on the abnormal cognitive and emotional aspects of bulimia have reported a remission rate of about 45%, and a relapse rate of about 30% within one year. However, an early CBT trial that emphasized the normalization of eating behavior had a better outcome than treatment that focused on cognitive intervention. In support of this finding, another treatment, that restores a normal eating behavior using mealtime feedback, has an estimated remission rate of about 75% and a relapse rate of about 10% over five years. Moreover, when eating behavior was normalized, cognitive and emotional abnormalities were resolved at remission without cognitive therapy. The critical aspect of the CBT treatment of bulimia nervosa therefore may actually have been the normalization of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing Cognitive Aging in Humans with Links to Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene E Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline.

  7. How age affects memory task performance in clinically normal hearing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Charlotte; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)). Young participants perform significantly better than middle-aged participants, while middle-aged and older participants perform similarly on the three memory tasks. Our data show that older clinically normal hearing persons perform equally well on the memory tasks as middle-aged persons. However, even under optimal conditions of preserved sensory processing, changes in memory performance occur. Based on our data, these changes set in before middle age.

  8. Comparison of Age of Thelarche between Obese and Normal Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunitasari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity has become a major concern in recent years. The increasing childhood obesity prevalence may occur as the result of food consumption with high content of calories, fat, cholesterol and the lack of physical activity. Obesity in children will also affect their pubertal development. Puberty is a period in which maturation of the reproductive function is achieved.In girls, the initial sign of puberty is thelarche, defined as the appearance of breast bud underneath the areola.The onset of puberty depends on many factors, one of them is nutritional status especially obesity. This study was conducted to compare the age of thelarche between obese and normal girls. Methods: An analytical study using cross sectional method was conducted. This study was held in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, during the period of SeptemberOctober 2013. Data were obtained from 3 elementary schools, selected by multistage random sampling.The total subject was 46. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square test. Results: Thelarche occurred at age 9 years 4 months in the obese group compared to 11 years 2 months in the normal group. The analysis using Mann-Whitney test showed the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Based on age group, 42% obese girls attained thelarche between ages 89 years, while 63% girls in the normal group attained thelarche between ages 1112 years. The analysis using chi- square test showed that the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusions: Thelarche occurs earlier in obese girls compared to normal girls.

  9. Association between age associated cognitive decline and health related quality of life among Iranian older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Leila; Foroughan, Mahshid; Nejati, Vahid; Shati, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    Age associated cognitive decline or normal cognitive aging is related with lower levels of functioning in real life, and may interfere with maintaining independence and health related quality of life (HRQL). In this study, health related quality of life and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults were evaluated with the aim of exploring the association between them by adjusting for potential confounders. This cross-sectional study, was implemented on 425 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 and over, between August 2016 and October 2016 in health centers of the municipality of Tehran, Iran, using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to assess cognitive function and Short Form-36 scales (SF-36) to assess HRQL. The relation between HRQL and cognitive function was evaluated by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the impact of cognitive function on HRQL adjusted for potential confounders was estimated by linear regression model. All analyses were done using SPSS, version 22.0. A positive significant correlation between cognitive function and quality of life (r=0.434; pcognitive function was associated with HRQL in older adults with age associated cognitive function. Two variables of educational level and depression can affect the relation between cognitive decline and HRQL.

  10. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Perez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1 to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2 to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3 to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  11. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L D; Venza, Erin E; Chapman, Sandra B

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28-79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  12. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M.; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L. D.; Venza, Erin E.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations. PMID:29867641

  13. HIGHER PREVALENCE OF TDP-43 PROTEINOPATHY IN COGNITIVELY NORMAL ASIANS: A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON A MULTIETHNIC SAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Camila; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Di Lorenzo Alho, Ana Tereza; Leite, Renata P.; Farfel, Jose Marcelo; Pasqualucci, Carlos Alberto; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Grinberg, Lea T.

    2015-01-01

    Transactive response DNA binding-protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy is the major hallmark of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It is also present in a subset of Alzheimer’s disease cases. Recently, few reports showed TDP-43 changes in cognitively normal elderly. In Caucasians, TDP-43 proteinopathy independently correlate with cognitive decline. However, it is challenging to establish direct links between cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms and protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases because individual cognitive reserves modify the threshold for clinical disease expression. Cognitive reserve is influenced by demographic, environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the relationships between demographic, clinical, and neuropathological variables and TDP-43 proteinopathy in a large multiethnic sample of cognitively normal elderly. TDP-43 proteinopathy were identified in 10.5%, independently associated with older age (p = 0.03) and Asian ethnicity (p = 0.002). Asians showed a higher prevalence of TDP-43 proteinopathy than Caucasians, even after adjustment for sex, age, Braak stage, and schooling (odds ratio = 3.50, confidence interval 1.41–8.69, p = 0.007). These findings suggested Asians older adults may be protected from the clinical manifestation of brain TDP-43 proteinopathy. Future studies are needed to identify possible race-related protective factors against clinical expression of TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:26260327

  14. Picture superiority in free recall: the effects of normal aging and primary degenerative dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissenberg, M; Glanzer, M

    1986-01-01

    A key factor in the decline of memory with age may be a breakdown of communication in the information network involved in memory and cognitive processing. A special case of this communication is assumed to underlie the picture superiority effect in recall. From this hypothesis it follows that the picture superiority effect should lessen with age. In Experiment 1, three groups of adults (young, old normal, and old memory-impaired) were tested in free recall of pictures and word lists. As predicted, the picture superiority effect declined with age. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and showed, moreover, that the picture superiority effect can be reestablished in normal old adults by instructing them to verbalize overtly during item presentation.

  15. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  16. Differences in knowledge of dementia among older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: A representative nationwide sample of Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Soowon; Kim, Ki Woong; Kwon, Ji Eyon; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about a disease could impede early diagnosis and may lead to delays in seeking appropriate medical care. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge of dementia (KOD) and to find the determinants of KOD among three groups: older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A representative nationwide sample of 6141 Korean elders aged 65 years or older participated in face-to-face interviews and answered 14 questions pertaining to general information, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of dementia. Stepwise multiple regressions and path analyses probed the relationships between various sociodemographic variables and KOD. The percentage of correct responses was only 62%. The item 'A person who remembers things that happened in the past does not have dementia' was answered correctly (false) by only 24.8-27% of the respondents in all groups. Older adults with normal cognition had higher KOD scores than those with MCI or dementia. In the normal-cognition group, KOD scores were higher among highly educated, younger, and literate women with no depression and a family history of dementia. In contrast with the determinants in the normal-cognition group, only the ability to read and write predicted KOD scores in the dementia group. Efforts to enhance KOD in elder adults are needed. Public education regarding the differences between dementia and healthy aging may increase KOD among normal elders and those with MCI. Among elders with dementia, educational materials that do not require literacy may be more helpful in increasing KOD with the aim of preventing treatment delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Three families with mild PMM2-CDG and normal cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vals, Mari-Anne; Morava, Eva; Teeäär, Kai; Zordania, Riina; Pajusalu, Sander; Lefeber, Dirk J; Õunap, Katrin

    2017-06-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are caused by defective glycosylation of proteins and lipids. PMM2-CDG is the most common subtype among the CDG. The severity of PMM2-CDG is variable. Patients often have a recognizable phenotype with neurological and multisystem symptoms that might cause early death. We report six patients from three families who are diagnosed with a clinically mild PMM2-CDG and have normal cognitive development. All these patients had delayed gross motor skills with mild-to-moderate neurological findings. Cerebellar hypoplasia was detected in all siblings for whom brain MRI was performed. In 5/6 children the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) showed normal cognitive development with full scale IQ scores ranging from borderline to average. Four patients were diagnosed with PMM2-CDG at the age of 8 years or later as their neurological symptoms were quite mild and they had been able to participate in regular school programs. We report patients with p.Val231Met/p.Arg239Trp and p.Ile120Thr/p.Gly228Cys genotypes which may cause milder variants of PMM2-CDG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Practice of contemporary dance improves cognitive flexibility in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As society ages and frequency of dementia increases exponentially, counteracting cognitive aging decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have suggested that physical fitness based on cardiovascular and strength training helps to improve attentional control in normal aging. However, how motor activity based on motor-skill learning can also benefit attentional control with age has been hitherto a neglected issue. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD improvisation on attentional control of older adults, as compared to two other motor training programs, fall prevention and Tai Chi Chuan. Participants performed setting, suppressing, and switching attention tasks before and after 5.7-month training in either CD or fall prevention or Tai Chi Chuan. Results indicated that CD improved switching but not setting or suppressing attention. In contrast, neither fall prevention nor Tai Chi Chuan showed any effect. We suggest that CD improvisation works as a training for change, inducing plasticity in flexible attention.

  19. High energy reactions in normal metabolism and ageing of animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonina, E.N.; Nesmeyanov, N.

    1983-01-01

    Processes involving reactions on highly excited states are thought to be of great importance for normal metabolism and aging. Excess energy of the organism is transferred to result in the formation of highly excited states of macromolecules. UV, visible light or ionizing radiation created partially by the organism itself can change metabolic process rates. According to the authors, aging is associated with the defects of macromolecules owing to high energy processes. Gerontological changes in biological materials result from the elimination of low molecular weight molecules and from the formation of unsaturated compounds. Crosslinking of the compounds, accumulation of collagen and connective tissues, the energetic overload of the organism are listed as important features of aging. (V.N.)

  20. Down with retirement: implications of embodied cognition for healthy aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive and neurocognitive approaches to human healthy aging attribute age-related decline to the biologically-caused loss of cognitive-control functions. However, an embodied-cognition approach to aging implies a more interactive view according to which cognitive control emerges from, and relies on a person’s active encounters with his or her physical and social environment. We argue that the availability of cognitive-control resources does not only rely on biological processes but also on the degree of active maintenance, that is, on the systematic use of the available control resources. Unfortunately, there is evidence that the degree of actual use might systematically underestimate resource availability, which implies that elderly individuals do not fully exploit their cognitive potential. We discuss evidence for this possibility from three aging-related issues: the reduction of dopaminergic supply, loneliness, and the loss of body strength. All three phenomena point to a downward spiral, in which losses of cognitive-control resources do not only directly impair performance but also more indirectly discourage individuals from making use of them, which in turn suggests underuse and a lack of maintenance—leading to further loss. On the positive side, the possibility of underuse points to not yet fully exploited reservoirs of cognitive control, which calls for more systematic theorizing and experimentation on how cognitive control can be enhanced, as well as for reconsiderations of societal practices that are likely to undermine the active maintenance of control resources—such as retirement laws.

  1. Determinants of iron accumulation in the normal aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2016-07-01

    In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  3. Cognition of normal pattern of myocardial polar map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Yasuo; Sasaki, Jiro; Kashima, Kenji; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When we diagnose the presence of ischemic heart disease by the diagrams of computer-generated polar map of exercised thallium images, the estimation of the presence of the deficit is not sufficient, because many normal subjects are considered as abnormal. The mean+2SD of defect severity index (DSI) of 118 normal subjects was 120, and we defined the patients with DSI≤120 as normal. But in 139 patients with their DSI≤120, 28 patients had significant coronary stenosis (>75%) and this means that false negative was 20%. We estimated the pattern of the deficit and found that in 109 of 111 subjects with normal coronary arteries, and 16 of 28 patients with ischemic heart disease, the patterns of the diagrams of polar map were patchy. This means that the diagram of the polar map show patchy pattern more frequently in normal subjects. In 125 patients whose diagrams of polar map were patchy, 16 patients with ischemic heart disease were included (false negative was 13%). We conclude that the estimation of DSI and the pattern of the diagram of polar map should be simultaneously considered and this makes the more accurate diagnosis possible. (author)

  4. The relation between instrumental musical activity and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; MacKay, Alicia

    2011-05-01

    Intensive repetitive musical practice can lead to bilateral cortical reorganization. However, whether musical sensorimotor and cognitive abilities transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities that are maintained throughout the life span is unclear. In an attempt to identify modifiable lifestyle factors that may potentially enhance successful aging, we evaluated the association between musical instrumental participation and cognitive aging. Seventy older healthy adults (ages 60-83) varying in musical activity completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The groups (nonmusicians, low and high activity musicians) were matched on age, education, history of physical exercise, while musicians were matched on age of instrumental acquisition and formal years of musical training. Musicians were classified in the low (1-9 years) or high (>10 years) activity group based on years of musical experience throughout their life span. The results of this preliminary study revealed that participants with at least 10 years of musical experience (high activity musicians) had better performance in nonverbal memory (η2 = .106), naming (η2 = .103), and executive processes (η2 = .131) in advanced age relative to nonmusicians. Several regression analyses evaluated how years of musical activity, age of acquisition, type of musical training, and other variables predicted cognitive performance. These correlational results suggest a strong predictive effect of high musical activity throughout the life span on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. A discussion of how musical participation may enhance cognitive aging is provided along with other alternative explanations.

  5. Association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects over 90 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyun; Dong, Birong; Hao, Qiu Kui; Ding, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Eating habits may have a key influence on cognitive function, however, the relationship between dietary intake and cognitive impairment in the elderly Chinese population has not been explored. The present study investigated the association between cognitive impairment and eating habits in elderly Chinese subjects >90 years of age. This study comprised data from subjects included in the 2005 Project of Longevity and Ageing in Dujiangyan, China. Subjects were divided into two groups: cognitive impairment group and normal group. Sociodemographic and dietary habit data were collected and cognitive function was assessed in all subjects using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 763 subjects (249 men, 514 women) were included. There was no statistically significant difference in eating habits between the two groups. Education level in the cognitive impairment group was significantly lower than in the normal group. Significant between-group differences were detected in factors relating to subjects' professions. Eating habits were not related to cognitive impairment in elderly Chinese people >90 years of age.

  6. Normal function of immunologic stem cells from aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.E.; Doubleday, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Marrow or spleen grafts from aged donor mice produced antibody-forming cells as effectively as did grafts from younger controls in recipients tested 3 to 10 months after the transplantation. All recipients were lethally irradiated, and the T6 chromosome marker was used to demonstrate that they were populated by donor cell lines. Recipients of aged or younger control grafts gave similar responses when stimulated with varying doses of antigen and when tested at different times after the transplantation except in two cases. Recipients of aged spleen grafts gave significantly lower responses than younger controls for the first few weeks after the transplantation. If recipients had been thymectomized before lethal irradiation, aged cell lines (pooled marrow and spleen cells) gave only 37 percent of the responses of younger controls. Given sufficient time and intact young recipients, immunologic stem cell lines from old donors populated recipients with cells having normal immune responses. These results suggest that age-related immunologic defects are not intrinsically timed in the precursor cell lines that populate the immune system. (U.S.)

  7. Volunteering in the Community: Potential Benefits for Cognitive Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Hayley; Machado, Liana

    2018-03-02

    This review aims to advance understanding of the potential benefits of volunteering in the community for older adults' cognitive functioning by taking an in-depth look at the relevant evidence to date. This review describes the main pathways through which volunteering could plausibly benefit cognitive functioning and critically examines research that has specifically investigated links between volunteering and cognition. Fifteen articles that assessed in adults aged ≥ 55 years the relationship between volunteering (predictor) and cognitive functioning (outcome) were identified via literature database searches. On balance, evidence from the small number of relevant studies to date supports the idea that volunteering can protect against cognitive aging with respect to global functioning and at least some specific cognitive domains. Studies that used robust designs and assessed domain-specific cognitive functioning produced the largest effect sizes. To help advance the field, this review puts forward recommendations for future research, with an emphasis on the need for robust study designs and specific investigations into the nature and extent of the cognitive benefits of volunteering. Through that work, researchers can determine how a simple and accessible activity like volunteering can best be used to help reduce the burden of age-related cognitive decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging

  9. Effect of simvastatin on CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers in cognitively normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Mayer, Cynthia L; Morelli, Daniel; Millard, Steven P; Raskind, Wendy H; Petrie, Eric C; Cherrier, Monique; Fagan, Anne M; Raskind, Murray A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2017-09-19

    To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group). Simvastatin was titrated to 40 mg/d. CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 were measured at baseline and after 12 months of treatment using the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay. We used analysis of covariance to assess differences in biomarker change from baseline between treatment groups, adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ε4 status. Changes from baseline did not differ significantly between treatment groups for any CSF biomarker, with p values of 0.53, 0.36, and 0.25 for CSF Aβ 42 , total tau, and p-tau 181 , respectively. There was no significant modifying effect of sex, APOE ε4, or baseline high-density lipoprotein or triglycerides on treatment group for any of the biomarkers (all p > 0.18). However, a significant interaction between treatment group and baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was observed for p-tau 181 ( p = 0.003), where greater decreases from baseline in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations were associated with higher baseline LDL level for the simvastatin group. Simvastatin-related reductions in CSF p-tau 181 concentrations may be modulated by LDL cholesterol. The potential disease-modifying effects of simvastatin on CSF phospho-tau should be further investigated in persons with hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Early life physical activity and cognition at old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Miranda; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein; Jonker, Cees

    Physical activity has shown to be inversely associated with cognitive decline in older people. Whether this association is already present in early life has not been investigated previously. The association between early life physical activity and cognition was studied in 1,241 subjects aged 62-85

  11. Effects of normal aging and Alzheimer's disease on emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Brierley, Barbara; Medford, Nick; Growdon, John H; Corkin, Suzanne

    2002-06-01

    Recall is typically better for emotional than for neutral stimuli. This enhancement is believed to rely on limbic regions. Memory is also better for neutral stimuli embedded in an emotional context. The neural substrate supporting this effect has not been thoroughly investigated but may include frontal lobe, as well as limbic circuits. Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in atrophy of limbic structures, whereas normal aging relatively spares limbic regions but affects prefrontal areas. The authors hypothesized that AD would reduce all enhancement effects, whereas aging would disproportionately affect enhancement based on emotional context. The results confirmed the authors' hypotheses: Young and older adults, but not AD patients, showed better memory for emotional versus neutral pictures and words. Older adults and AD patients showed no benefit from emotional context, whereas young adults remembered more items embedded in an emotional versus neutral context.

  12. Obesity and Aging: Consequences for Cognition, Brain Structure, and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Gérard N; Park, Denise C

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and aging and how these interact to affect cognitive function. The topics covered are guided by the Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC [Park and Reuter-Lorenz. Annu Rev Psychol 2009;60:173-96]-a conceptual model designed to relate brain structure and function to one's level of cognitive ability. The initial literature search was focused on normal aging and was guided by the key words, "aging, cognition, and obesity" in PubMed. In a second search, we added key words related to neuropathology including words "Alzheimer's disease," "vascular dementia," and "mild cognitive impairment." The data suggest that being overweight or obese in midlife may be more detrimental to subsequent age-related cognitive decline than being overweight or obese at later stages of the life span. These effects are likely mediated by the accelerated effects obesity has on the integrity of neural structures, including both gray and white matter. Further epidemiological studies have provided evidence that obesity in midlife is linked to an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, most likely via an increased accumulation of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Although it is clear that obesity negatively affects cognition, more work is needed to better understand how aging plays a role and how brain structure and brain function might mediate the relationship of obesity and age on cognition. Guided by the STAC and the STAC-R models, we provide a roadmap for future investigations of the role of obesity on cognition across the life span.

  13. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (pintelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (pincrease in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  14. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horwitz

    Full Text Available Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR in the alpha (8Hz and gamma (36Hz bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years. Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01. Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05. In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01. Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  15. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction in middle-aged patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.; Monk, T.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Abildstrom, H.; Houx, P.J.; Korttila, K.; Kuipers, H.M.; Hanning, C.D.; Siersma, V.D.; Kristensen, D.; Canet, J.; Ibanaz, M.T.; Moller, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after noncardiac surgery is strongly associated with increasing age in elderly patients; middle-aged patients (aged 40-60 yr) may be expected to have a lower incidence, although subjective complaints are frequent. Methods: The authors compared

  16. The Impact of Obesity and Exercise on Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Payne, V. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major concern in the aging population and degrades health, motor functions and cognition in older adults. The effects of obesity are pervasive and challenging to health-care systems, making this a widespread and critically important public health dilemma. In this review, we examine the relationship between obesity, cognitive aging, and related dysfunctions. Potential neural mechanisms underlying such relationship are described. We propose that cost-effective exercises can be empl...

  17. Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex

    2017-08-01

    Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Y. Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n=109 and the Active Control Group (n=100. Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  19. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Tam, Helena M K; Chu, Leung W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Felix; Lam, Linda C W; Woo, Jean; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n = 109) and the Active Control Group (n = 100). Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  20. Potential factors that may promote successful cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance DE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available David E VanceCenter for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, Edward R Roybal Center for Translational Research in Aging and Mobility, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: With the unprecedented number of older adults worldwide, it is important to consider ways of facilitating successful cognitive aging. One way to think of this is by augmenting or bolstering cognitive reserve. Loosely defined, cognitive reserve is considered a neurological reservoir that can be depleted by physiological insults (eg, white matter hyperintensities, oxidative stress to the brain but yet maintain optimal cognitive functioning. Cognitive reserve is built up or depleted by processes of positive and negative neuroplasticity, respectively. Lifestyle factors such as physical exercise (+, mental stimulation (+, good sleep hygiene (+, substance abuse (-, sedentary lifestyle (-, chronic stress and depression (-, social isolation (-, and poor health (- can either promote or discourage positive and negative neuroplasticity, which in turn impacts cognitive reserve. Nurses are encouraged to understand these processes so they can help facilitate successful cognitive aging in their patients.Keywords: cognitive reserve, Alzheimer's disease, neuroplasticity

  1. Effects of sex and normal aging on regional brain activation during verbal memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A.; Byne, William; Brickman, Adam M.; Mitsis, Effie M.; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Knatz, Danielle T.; Chen, Amy D.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using 18FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20–87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left cingulate gyrus than men (BAs 25, 24, 23, 31, 29). Both groups showed a decline in the anterior cingulate—a neuroanatomical structure that mediates effective cognitive-emotional interactions (BAs 32, 24, 25), while the other frontal regions did not show substantial decline. No sex differences in rGMR were identified within temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Sex differences were observed for rGMR within subcomponents of the cingulate gyrus with men higher in BA25 and BA29, but lower in BA24 and BA 23 compared to women. For men, better memory performance was associated with greater rGMR in BA24, whereas in women better performance was associated with orbitofrontal-BA12. These results suggest that both age-related metabolic decline and sex differences within frontal regions are more marked in medial frontal and cingulate areas, consistent with some age-related patterns of affective and cognitive change. PMID:19027195

  2. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects...... reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals....... In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation...

  3. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we...... examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power...

  4. The Impact of Obesity and Exercise on Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S.Y. eChan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major concern in the aging population and degrades health, motor functions and cognition in older adults. The effects of obesity are pervasive and challenging to health-care systems, making this a widespread and critically important public health dilemma. In this review, we examine the relationship between obesity, cognitive aging, and related dysfunctions. Potential neural mechanisms underlying such relationship are described. We propose that cost-effective exercises can be employed to cope with obesity and cognitive declines in older adults. Finally, we discuss implications and future research directions.

  5. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho; Xu, Songfan; Weiner, Micheal W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Schuff, Norbert; Park, Seungjoon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  6. Shift work and cognitive aging: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The few studies of shift work and late life cognitive functioning have yielded mixed findings. The aim of the present study is to estimate the association between shift-work experience and change in cognitive performance before and after retirement age among older adults who were gainfully employed. Methods Five hundred and ninety five participants with no dementia were followed up for a mean of 17.6 standard deviation (SD) 8.8 years from a Swedish population-based sample. Participants had self-reported information on any type of shift-work experience (ever/never) in 1984 and measures of cognitive performance (verbal, spatial, memory, processing speed, and general cognitive ability) from up to 9 waves of cognitive assessments during 1986-2012. Night work history (ever/never) from 1998-2002 was available from a subsample (N=320). Early adult cognitive test scores were available for 77 men. Results In latent growth curve modeling, there were no main effects of "any-type" or night shift work on the mean scores or rate of change in any of the cognitive domains. An interaction effect between any-type shift work and education on cognitive performance at retirement was noted. Lower-educated shift workers performed better on cognitive tests than lower-educated day workers at retirement. Sensitivity analyses, however, indicated that the interactions appeared to be driven by selection effects. Lower-educated day workers demonstrated poorer cognitive ability in early adulthood than lower-educated shift workers, who may have selected jobs entailing higher cognitive demand. Conclusion There was no difference in late-life cognitive aging between individuals with a history of working shifts compared to those who had typical day work schedules during midlife.

  7. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  8. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Angela; Dennis, Nancy A.; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In recent years bilingualism has been linked to both advantages in executive control and positive impacts on aging. Such positive cognitive effects of bilingualism have been attributed to the increased need for language control during bilingual processing and increased cognitive reserve, respectively. However, a mechanistic explanation of how bilingual experience contributes to cognitive reserve is still lacking. The current paper proposes a new focus on bilingual memory as an avenue to explo...

  9. A velhice, entre o normal e o patológico Old age, normality versus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Groisman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com a ascensão do envelhecimento da população brasileira ao posto de 'problema social', assistimos a um crescimento cada vez maior do número de especialistas dedicados a este 'grupo etário': os geriatras e gerontólogos, que ocupam papel de destaque na formulação das novas formas de gestão da velhice. No entanto, a gerontologia parece ter problemas internos na sua formulação como campo de saber, que parecem comprometer sua consolidação como profissão e seu reconhecimento como disciplina científica. No presente artigo, procuramos chamar atenção para as dificuldades que a gerontologia encontra para delimitar seu campo e definir seu objeto. Sustentamos que tais dificuldades parecem derivar de uma questão central, que é a impossibilidade de serem delimitadas as fronteiras entre o normal e o patológico, na velhice. Por fim, analisamos a questão sob um ponto de vista histórico, à luz do processo de constituição do saber médico sobre o envelhecimento.Since life expectancy of Brazilian population increased and aging was considered a "social problem", there has been a boom of specialists in old age. Gerontologists and geriatricians are now playing a relevant role in setting new trends to the management of issues related to old age. However, gerontology as a field of knowledge seems to have internal questions that apparently hinder its professional consolidation and its scientific recognition. In this article, the author focus the difficulties gerontology has in order to delimitate its field of action and to define the object of its studies. The author argues that such difficulties derive from a central point: the impossibility to delimitate the frontiers between what is normal and what is pathological in old age. He also analyzes the constitution of medical knowledge on aging in a historical perspective.

  10. [The effects of video games on cognitive aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Pauline; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Advancing age is associated with cognitive decline, which, however, remains a very heterogeneous phenomenon. Indeed, several extrinsic factors seem to modulate the effect of aging on cognition. Recently, several studies have provided evidence that the practice of video games could engender many benefits by favoring the maintenance of cognitive vitality in the elderly. This review of the literature aims to establish a precise inventory of the relations between the various types of video games and cognitive aging, including both sedentary video games (i.e., classics as well as brain training) and active video games (i.e., exergames). The largest benefits seem to be provided by exergames which combine game play with significant physical exercise. This article also tries to define the determinants of the training programs which could be responsible for the observed improvements.

  11. Relations of age and personality dimensions to cognitive ability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R

    1976-11-01

    The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.

  12. Effects of Gait and Cognitive Task Difficulty on Cognitive-Motor Interference in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Plummer-D'Amato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.

  13. Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:584-8. Objective: To examine differences

  14. Investigating the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in children: a subtle effect of the normal allele range on the normal ability range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loat, C S; Craig, G; Plomin, R; Craig, I W

    2006-09-01

    The FMR1 gene contains a trinucleotide repeat tract which can expand from a normal size of around 30 repeats to over 200 repeats, causing mental retardation (Fragile X Syndrome). Evidence suggests that premutation males (55-200 repeats) are susceptible to a late-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome and females to premature ovarian failure, and that intermediate alleles ( approximately 41-55 repeats) and premutations may be in excess in samples with special educational needs. We explored the relationship between FMR1 allele length and cognitive ability in 621 low ability and control children assessed at 4 and 7 years, as well as 122 students with high IQ. The low and high ability and control samples showed no between-group differences in incidence of longer alleles. In males there was a significant negative correlation between allele length and non-verbal ability at 4 years (p = 0.048), academic achievement in maths (p = 0.003) and English (p = 0.011) at 7 years, and IQ in the high ability group (p = 0.018). There was a significant negative correlation between allele length and a standardised score for IQ and general cognitive ability at age 7 in the entire male sample (p = 0.002). This suggests that, within the normal spectrum of allele length, increased repeat numbers may have a limiting influence on cognitive performance.

  15. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Alterations in Normal Aging Revealed by Cortical Brain Network Constructed Using IBASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Yang, Chunlan; Shi, Feng; Wang, Qun; Wu, Shuicai; Lu, Wangsheng; Li, Shaowu; Nie, Yingnan; Zhang, Xin

    2018-04-16

    Normal aging has been linked with the decline of cognitive functions, such as memory and executive skills. One of the prominent approaches to investigate the age-related alterations in the brain is by examining the cortical brain connectome. IBASPM is a toolkit to realize individual atlas-based volume measurement. Hence, this study seeks to determine what further alterations can be revealed by cortical brain networks formed by IBASPM-extracted regional gray matter volumes. We found the reduced strength of connections between the superior temporal pole and middle temporal pole in the right hemisphere, global hubs as the left fusiform gyrus and right Rolandic operculum in the young and aging groups, respectively, and significantly reduced inter-module connection of one module in the aging group. These new findings are consistent with the phenomenon of normal aging mentioned in previous studies and suggest that brain network built with the IBASPM could provide supplementary information to some extent. The individualization of morphometric features extraction deserved to be given more attention in future cortical brain network research.

  17. Glucose hypometabolism is highly localized, but lower cortical thickness and brain atrophy are widespread in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Scott; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Goffaux, Philippe; Whittingstall, Kevin; Lepage, Martin; Paquet, Nancy; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that glucose hypometabolism may be present in specific brain regions in cognitively normal older adults and could contribute to the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. However, certain methodological shortcomings, including a lack of partial volume effect (PVE) correction or insufficient cognitive testing, confound the interpretation of most studies on this topic. We combined [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantify cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRg) as well as cortical volume and thickness in 43 anatomically defined brain regions from a group of cognitively normal younger (25 ± 3 yr old; n = 25) and older adults (71 ± 9 yr old; n = 31). After correcting for PVE, we observed 11-17% lower CMRg in three specific brain regions of the older group: the superior frontal cortex, the caudal middle frontal cortex, and the caudate (P ≤ 0.01 false discovery rate-corrected). In the older group, cortical volumes and cortical thickness were 13-33 and 7-18% lower, respectively, in multiple brain regions (P ≤ 0.01 FDR correction). There were no differences in CMRg between individuals who were or were not prescribed antihypertensive medication. There were no significant correlations between CMRg and cognitive performance or metabolic parameters measured in fasting plasma. We conclude that highly localized glucose hypometabolism and widespread cortical thinning and atrophy can be present in older adults who are cognitively normal, as assessed using age-normed neuropsychological testing measures. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  19. The effect of normal aging and age-related macular degeneration on perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, Andrew T; Blighe, Alan J; Webb, Ben S; McGraw, Paul V

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether perceptual learning could be used to improve peripheral word identification speed. The relationship between the magnitude of learning and age was established in normal participants to determine whether perceptual learning effects are age invariant. We then investigated whether training could lead to improvements in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Twenty-eight participants with normal vision and five participants with AMD trained on a word identification task. They were required to identify three-letter words, presented 10° from fixation. To standardize crowding across each of the letters that made up the word, words were flanked laterally by randomly chosen letters. Word identification performance was measured psychophysically using a staircase procedure. Significant improvements in peripheral word identification speed were demonstrated following training (71% ± 18%). Initial task performance was correlated with age, with older participants having poorer performance. However, older adults learned more rapidly such that, following training, they reached the same level of performance as their younger counterparts. As a function of number of trials completed, patients with AMD learned at an equivalent rate as age-matched participants with normal vision. Improvements in word identification speed were maintained at least 6 months after training. We have demonstrated that temporal aspects of word recognition can be improved in peripheral vision with training across a range of ages and these learned improvements are relatively enduring. However, training targeted at other bottlenecks to peripheral reading ability, such as visual crowding, may need to be incorporated to optimize this approach.

  20. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  1. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  2. Stochastic simulations of normal aging and Werner's syndrome.

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qi

    2014-04-26

    Human cells typically consist of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Telomeres are repetitive sequences of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. During cell replication, a number of basepairs are lost from the end of the chromosome and this shortening restricts the number of divisions that a cell can complete before it becomes senescent, or non-replicative. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to form a stochastic model of telomere shortening to investigate how telomere shortening affects normal aging. Using this model, we study various hypotheses for the way in which shortening occurs by comparing their impact on aging at the chromosome and cell levels. We consider different types of length-dependent loss and replication probabilities to describe these processes. After analyzing a simple model for a population of independent chromosomes, we simulate a population of cells in which each cell has 46 chromosomes and the shortest telomere governs the replicative potential of the cell. We generalize these simulations to Werner\\'s syndrome, a condition in which large sections of DNA are removed during cell division and, amongst other conditions, results in rapid aging. Since the mechanisms governing the loss of additional basepairs are not known, we use our model to simulate a variety of possible forms for the rate at which additional telomeres are lost per replication and several expressions for how the probability of cell division depends on telomere length. As well as the evolution of the mean telomere length, we consider the standard deviation and the shape of the distribution. We compare our results with a variety of data from the literature, covering both experimental data and previous models. We find good agreement for the evolution of telomere length when plotted against population doubling.

  3. Relationship of metabolic and endocrine parameters to brain glucose metabolism in older adults: do cognitively-normal older adults have a particular metabolic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, S; Castellano, C A; Bocti, C; Dionne, I; Fulop, T; Cunnane, S C

    2016-02-01

    Our primary objective in this study was to quantify whole brain and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRg) in young and older adults in order to determine age-normalized reference CMRg values for healthy older adults with normal cognition for age. Our secondary objectives were to--(i) report a broader range of metabolic and endocrine parameters including body fat composition that could form the basis for the concept of a 'metabolic phenotype' in cognitively normal, older adults, and (ii) to assess whether medications commonly used to control blood lipids, blood pressure or thyroxine affect CMRg values in older adults. Cognition assessed by a battery of tests was normal for age and education in both groups. Compared to the young group (25 years old; n = 34), the older group (72 years old; n = 41) had ~14% lower CMRg (μmol/100 g/min) specifically in the frontal cortex, and 18% lower CMRg in the caudate. Lower grey matter volume and cortical thickness was widespread in the older group. These differences in CMRg, grey matter volume and cortical thickness were present in the absence of any known evidence for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Percent total body fat was positively correlated with CMRg in many brain regions but only in the older group. Before and after controlling for body fat, HOMA2-IR was significantly positively correlated to CMRg in several brain regions in the older group. These data show that compared to a healthy younger adult, the metabolic phenotype of a cognitively-normal 72 year old person includes similar plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and TSH, higher hemoglobin A1c and percent body fat, lower CMRg in the superior frontal cortex and caudate, but the same CMRg in the hippocampus and white matter. Age-normalization of cognitive test results is standard practice and we would suggest that regional CMRg in cognitively healthy older adults should also be age-normalized.

  4. Poor cognitive ageing: Vulnerabilities, mechanisms and the impact of nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Sophie; Champ, Claire; Day, Jon; Aarts, Esther; Bahr, Ben A; Bakker, Martijntje; Bánáti, Diána; Calabrese, Vittorio; Cederholm, Tommy; Cryan, John; Dye, Louise; Farrimond, Jonathan A; Korosi, Aniko; Layé, Sophie; Maudsley, Stuart; Milenkovic, Dragan; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Sijben, John; Solomon, Alina; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Thuret, Sandrine; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Vauzour, David; Vellas, Bruno; Wesnes, Keith; Willatts, Peter; Wittenberg, Raphael; Geurts, Lucie

    2018-03-01

    Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated. This review aims to summarise the current state of knowledge of vulnerabilities that predispose towards dysfunctional brain ageing, highlight potential protective mechanisms, and discuss dietary interventions that may be used as therapies. A special focus of this paper is on the impact of nutrition on neuroprotection and the underlying molecular mechanisms, and this focus reflects the discussions held during the 2nd workshop 'Nutrition for the Ageing Brain: Functional Aspects and Mechanisms' in Copenhagen in June 2016. The present review is the most recent in a series produced by the Nutrition and Mental Performance Task Force under the auspice of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe (ILSI Europe). Coupling studies of cognitive ageing with studies investigating the effect of nutrition and dietary interventions as strategies targeting specific mechanisms, such as neurogenesis, protein clearance, inflammation, and non-coding and microRNAs is of high value. Future research on the impact of nutrition on cognitive ageing will need to adopt a longitudinal approach and multimodal nutritional interventions will likely need to be imposed in early-life to observe significant impact in older age. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased working memory-related brain activity in middle-aged women with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Julie A; Kutz, Amanda M; McDonald, Brenna C; Naylor, Magdalena R; Pfaff, Ashley C; Saykin, Andrew J; Newhouse, Paul A

    2013-04-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests might be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as the threshold, 12 women were categorized as cognitive complainers (CC) and 11 were noncomplainers (NC). All subjects then took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session during which they completed a visual-verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed no difference in working memory performance between CC and NC groups. However, the CC group showed greater activation relative to the NC group in a broad network involved in working memory including the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9 and 10), the precuneus (BA 7), and the cingulate gyrus (BA 24 and 32). The CC group recruited additional regions of the working memory network compared with the NC group as the working memory load and difficulty of the task increased. This study showed brain activation differences during working memory performance in a middle-aged group of postmenopausal women with subjective cognitive complaints but without objective cognitive deficit. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cortical activity during effort-demanding cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tau and β-Amyloid Are Associated with Medial Temporal Lobe Structure, Function, and Memory Encoding in Normal Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Shawn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Inst.; Lockhart, Samuel N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Inst.; Baker, Suzanne L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging; Jagust, William J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Helen Wills Neuroscience Inst.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging

    2017-03-22

    Normal aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory and also with aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins and atrophy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures crucial to memory formation. Although some evidence suggests that Aβ is associated with aberrant neural activity, the relationships among these two aggregated proteins, neural function, and brain structure are poorly understood. Using in vivo human Aβ and tau imaging, we demonstrate that increased Aβ and tau are both associated with aberrant fMRI activity in the MTL during memory encoding in cognitively normal older adults. This pathological neural activity was in turn associated with worse memory performance and atrophy within the MTL. A mediation analysis revealed that the relationship with regional atrophy was explained by MTL tau. These findings broaden the concept of cognitive aging to include evidence of Alzheimer’s disease-related protein aggregation as an underlying mechanism of age-related memory impairment.

  7. False memories with age: neural and cognitive underpinnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. PMID:27592332

  8. Chronic administration of ellagic acid improved the cognition in middle-aged overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yu, Shuyi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xueli; Dong, Wanru; Lin, Ruichao; Liu, Qingshan

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate if ellagic acid has beneficial effects on cognitive deficits in middle-aged overweight individuals and to propose a possible mechanism. A total of 150 middle-aged male participants, including 76 normal-weight and 74 overweight men, aged between 45 to 55 years, were recruited for this study. Both normal-weight and overweight participants were administered either 50 mg ellagic acid or placebo cellulose daily for 12 weeks. Blood lipids, peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and saliva cortisol were assessed on the last day of the procedure to investigate the effects induced by ellagic acid. The results revealed that ellagic acid treatment improved the levels of blood lipid metabolism with a 4.7% decline in total cholesterol, 7.3% decline in triglycerides, 26.5% increase in high-density lipoprotein, and 6.5% decline in low-density lipoprotein. Additionally, ellagic acid increased plasma BDNF by 21.2% in the overweight group and showed no effects on normal-weight participants. Moreover, the increased saliva cortisol level in overweight individuals was inhibited by 22.7% in a 12-week ellagic acid treatment. Also, compared with placebo, overweight individuals who consumed ellagic acid showed enhanced cognitive function as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that ellagic acid prevents cognitive deficits through normalization of lipid metabolism, increase in plasma BDNF level, and reduction of saliva cortisol concentration. These results indicate that ellagic acid has a potential to restore cognitive performance related to mild age-related declines.

  9. Cognitive and Neural Correlates of Aging in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    this study. B. Blair Braden, PhD has been active in all of our projects on ASD and aging . She came to the lab after graduate training in...i. Aging in Autism Special Interest Group, International Society for Autism Research (INSAR). Both Drs. Baxter and Braden actively participated...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0211 TITLE: Cognitive and Neural Correlates of Aging in Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leslie C

  10. Complementary Cognitive Capabilities, Economic Decision-Making, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in whi...

  11. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, M.

    2007-01-01

    sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7).In spite of the cerebral atrophy of aging, these relative hypometabolic brain areas are considered to be correlated with structural and functional cerebral changes and cognitive dysfunction such as verbal and spatial working memory deficit in the process of normal brain aging. The study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brains can be used for reference and instruction in future clinical studies and in normal brain aging. (author)

  12. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives To evaluate the associations of sensory impairments with the 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. Previous work has primarily focused on the relationship between a single sensory system and cognition. Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, WI community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up exams have been conducted every 5 years. Setting General community Participants EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998–2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age = 66.7 years) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Measurements Cognitive impairment was a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) of > 25 decibel Hearing Level in either ear. Visual impairment was Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk [Hearing: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 1.11, 3.26; Vision: HR = 2.05, 95% C.I. = 1.24, 3.38; Olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% C.I. = 2.45, 6.26]. However, 85% with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Conclusion The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system suggesting sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. PMID:27611845

  13. Association between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M.I.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L.M.; Adèr, H.J.; Schmand, B.

    1999-01-01

    In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly, a sample of 3,778 nondemented persons, 65-84 yrs old, was divided into 2 cognitive categories: normal, and borderline and impaired. At baseline, the presence or absence of memory complaints was assessed with a single question. At follow-up,

  14. Amyloid and metabolic positron emission tomography imaging of cognitively normal adults with Alzheimer's parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosconi, Lisa; Rinne, Juha O; Tsui, Wai H

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between fibrillar beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and reduced glucose metabolism, a proxy for neuronal dysfunction, in cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a parent affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty-seven 40-80-year-old NL received positr...

  15. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  16. Correlation of Cognitive Abilities Level, Age and Ranks in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraček Stanislav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to ascertain the correlation between selected cognitive abilities, age and performance of judokas according to ranking. The study group consisted of judokas in the age group 18 ± 2.4 years. The Stroop Color-Word Test - Victoria Version (VST was the instrument used to determine the level of cognitive abilities. The data obtained were measured by the Pearson Correlation (r correlation test. The results of the study show an associative relationship of indirect correlation (p < 0.01 between age and all of the three categories of the Stroop test. This is an indirect correlation, so the higher the age, the lower the time (better performance of the probands in the Stroop test. There was no statistically significant correlation between performance in the categories of the Stroop test and rankings. The outcomes show that the level of selected cognitive abilities depends on age, but the level of the selected cognitive abilities does not affect the ranking of the judokas.

  17. Brain Plasticity and Motor Practice in Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang eCai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population.

  18. CT attenuation in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Pearlson, G.D.; Goldfinger, A.D.; Tune, L.E.; Heyler, G.

    1986-01-01

    113 screened normal volunteers aged 18-85 and 50 elderly demented individuals meeting NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, (SDAT), received a non-contrast x-CT head scan on a single 512x512 matrix Siemens Somatom DR3 Scanner. Scanning parameters (KV,MA) were kept constant, and the authors used a specially designed head holder to ensure a uniform scanning angle. Standard 8mm thick cuts, at zero degrees to the supra-orbito-meatal line, were taken through the entire brain. A ''phantom'' consisting of plastics of several different attenuation values was scanned before each patient as a reference to correct for any numerical drift in the scanner. Both patients and controls were scanned during the same sessions to eliminate possible systematic bias, and a single CT technologist carried out all scanning. Numerical CT data were collected on magnetic tape for analysis on a specially designed image processing system. Software was used to read CT density data from the 512x512 matrix scanner output tapes and to transfer the resulting image in standardized format to hard disk on the processing system. This system consists of a PDP-11-34 computer, linked to a Gould DeAnza IP-5000 image processors, hard disk system and tape drive. Once transferred to disk, images were rated blindly to subject identity or diagnosis by another 2 separate raters using a computer-linked cursor, and digitizer tablet. These numerical attenuation data from various anatomically defined regions of interest, (ROI's), were then corrected for head size using a regression model

  19. The Built Environment and Cognitive Disorders: Results From the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2017-07-01

    Built environment features have been related to behavior modification and might stimulate cognitive activity with a potential impact on cognitive health in later life. This study investigated cross-sectional associations between features of land use and cognitive impairment and dementia, and also explored urban and rural differences in these associations. Postcodes of the 7,505 community-based participants (aged ≥65 years) in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (collected in 2008-2011) were linked to environmental data from government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression investigated associations between cognitive impairment (defined as Mini-Mental State Examination score ≤25) and dementia (Geriatric Mental Status and Automatic Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy organicity level ≥3) and land use features, including natural environment availability and land use mix, fitting interaction terms with three rural/urban categories. Data were analyzed in 2015. Associations between features of land use and cognitive impairment were not linear. After adjusting for individual-level factors and area deprivation, living in areas with high land use mix was associated with a nearly 30% decreased odds of cognitive impairment (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.58, 0.89). This was similar, yet non-significant, for dementia (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.46, 1.06). In conurbations, living in areas with high natural environment availability was associated with 30% reduced odds of cognitive impairment (OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.50, 0.97). Non-linear associations between features of land use and cognitive impairment were confirmed in this new cohort of older people in England. Both lack of and overload of environmental stimulation may be detrimental to cognition in later life. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V.O. Bento-Torres

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61–84 years of age. CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test, no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling and age (60–69 and ≥70 years. Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  1. Curcumin attenuates surgery-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Chen, Huixin; Huang, Chunhui; Gu, Xinmei; Wang, Jialing; Xu, Dilin; Yu, Xin; Shuai, Chu; Chen, Liping; Li, Shun; Xu, Yiguo; Gao, Tao; Ye, Mingrui; Su, Wei; Liu, Haixiong; Zhang, Jinrong; Wang, Chuang; Chen, Junping; Wang, Qinwen; Cui, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with elderly patients undergoing surgery. However, pharmacological treatments for POCD are limited. In this study, we found that curcumin, an active compound derived from Curcuma longa, ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction following abdominal surgery in aged mice. Further, curcumin prevented surgery-induced anti-oxidant enzyme activity. Curcumin also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-positive area and expression of pAkt in the brain, suggesting that curcumin activated BDNF signaling in aged mice. Furthermore, curcumin neutralized cholinergic dysfunction involving choline acetyltransferase expression induced by surgery. These results strongly suggested that curcumin prevented cognitive impairments via multiple targets, possibly by increasing the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, activation of BDNF signaling, and neutralization of cholinergic dysfunction, concurrently. Based on these novel findings, curcumin might be a potential agent in POCD prophylaxis and treatment.

  2. Association Between Serum Triglycerides and Cerebral Amyloidosis in Cognitively Normal Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Jung; Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Baek, Hye Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Ji Young; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2016-08-01

    Although many preclinical studies have suggested the possible linkage between dyslipidemia and cerebral amyloid deposition, the association between serum lipid measures and cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition in human brain is still poorly known. We aimed to investigate the association in cognitively normal (CN) elderly individuals. Cross-sectional study. University hospital dementia clinic. 59 CN elderly. The study measures included comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment based on the CERAD protocol, magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography scans, and quantification for serum lipid biomarkers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that a higher serum triglycerides level was associated with heavier global cerebral Aβ deposition even after controlling age, sex, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype. Serum apolipoprotein B also showed significant positive association with global cerebral Aβ deposition, but the significance disappeared after controlling serum triglycerides level. No association was found between other lipid measures and global cerebral Aβ deposition. The findings suggest that serum triglycerides are closely associated with cerebral amyloidosis, although population-based prospective studies are needed to provide further evidence of the causative effect of triglycerides on cerebral amyloidosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diet-Induced Ketosis Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1α levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:20204773

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  5. Nutritional Status and Cognitive Performance among Children Aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without adequate nutrition, children cannot develop to their full physical and mental potentials. The nutritional status and the cognitive performance of 500 school children aged 5-12 years from urban and rural areas of Enugu State, Nigeria were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements of heights and weights were ...

  6. Gait in ageing and associated dementias; its relationship with cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, Erik; Eggermont, Laura; Swaab, Dick; van Heuvelen, Marieke; Kamsma, Yvo; de Greef, Mathieu; van Wijck, Ruud; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this review is on the close relationship between gait and cognition in ageing and associated dementias. This close relationship is supported by epidemiological studies, clinical studies of older people with and without dementia that focused on the intensity of the physical activity,

  7. Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Nejdi, Amine; Rozan, Pascale; Hidalgo, Sophie; Lalonde, Robert; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2008-07-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the main factor involved in functional declines during normal and pathological ageing, and that antioxidant agents, such as polyphenols, may improve or prevent these deficits. We examined whether 1-year administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder), orally delivered at the dose of 24 mg/kg per d between 15 and 27 months of age, affects the onset of age-related cognitive deficits, urinary free dopamine levels and lifespan in old Wistar-Unilever rats. Acticoa powder improved cognitive performances in light extinction and water maze paradigms, increased lifespan and preserved high urinary free dopamine levels. These results suggest that Acticoa powder may be beneficial in retarding age-related brain impairments, including cognitive deficits in normal ageing and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of cocoa polyphenols in neuroprotection and to explore their effects in man.

  8. Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Barnes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan.

  9. Age-dependent cognitive dysfunction in untreated hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins da Silva, Ana; Cavaco, Sara; Fernandes, Joana; Samões, Raquel; Alves, Cristina; Cardoso, Márcio; Kelly, Jeffery W; Monteiro, Cecília; Coelho, Teresa

    2018-02-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis has been described in patients whose disease course was modified by liver transplant. However, cognitive dysfunction has yet to be investigated in those patients. Moreover, CNS involvement in untreated patients or asymptomatic mutation carriers remains to be studied. A series of 340 carriers of the TTRVal30Met mutation (180 symptomatic and 160 asymptomatic) underwent a neuropsychological assessment, which included the Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2), auditory verbal learning test, semantic fluency, phonemic fluency, and trail making test. Cognitive deficits were identified at the individual level, after adjusting the neuropsychological test scores for demographic characteristics (sex, age, and education), based on large national normative data. The presence of cognitive dysfunction was determined by deficit in DRS-2 and/or multiple cognitive domains. Participants were also screened for depression based on a self-report questionnaire. The frequency of cognitive dysfunction was higher (p = 0.003) in symptomatic (9%) than in asymptomatic (2%) carriers. Among older carriers (≥ 50 years), the frequency of cognitive dysfunction was higher (p hereditary TTR amyloidosis patients with peripheral polyneuropathy, even in the early stages of the disease.

  10. Social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy aging: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2014-12-01

    Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia but it is not clear whether this is specific for the illness and whether emotion perception is selectively affected. To study this we examined the perception of emotional and non-emotional clues in facial expressions, a key social cognitive skill, in schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals using young healthy individuals as reference. Tests of object recognition, visual orientation, psychomotor speed, and working memory were included to allow multivariate analysis taking into account other cognitive functions Schizophrenia patients showed impairments in recognition of identity and emotional facial clues compared to young and old healthy groups. Severity was similar to that for object recognition and visuospatial processing. Older and younger healthy groups did not differ from each other on these tests. Schizophrenia patients and old healthy individuals were similarly impaired in the ability to automatically learn new faces during the testing procedure (measured by the CSTFAC index) compared to young healthy individuals. Social cognition is distinctly impaired in schizophrenia compared to healthy aging. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of automatic social cognitive learning impairment in schizophrenia patients and healthy aging individuals and determine whether similar neural systems are affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glia and zinc in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: A mechanism for cognitive decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eHancock

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal ageing is characterised by cognitive decline across a range of neurological functions, which are further impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Recently, alterations in zinc concentrations, particularly at the synapse, have emerged as a potential mechanism underlying the cognitive changes that occur in both ageing and AD. Zinc is now accepted as a potent neuromodulator, affecting a variety of signalling pathways at the synapse that are critical to normal cognition. While the focus has principally been on the neuron: zinc interaction, there is a growing literature suggesting that glia may also play a modulatory role in maintaining both zinc ion homeostasis and the normal function of the synapse. Indeed, zinc transporters have been demonstrated in glial cells where zinc has also been shown to have a role in signalling. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the pathogenesis of AD critically involves glial cells (such as astrocytes, which have been reported to contribute to amyloid-beta neurotoxicity. This review discusses the current evidence supporting a complex interplay of glia, zinc dyshomeostasis and synaptic function in ageing and AD.

  12. Stochastic simulations of normal aging and Werner's syndrome.

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Qi; Wattis, Jonathan A D; Byrne, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    aging. Using this model, we study various hypotheses for the way in which shortening occurs by comparing their impact on aging at the chromosome and cell levels. We consider different types of length-dependent loss and replication probabilities

  13. Normal weight children have higher cognitive performance - Independent of physical activity, sleep, and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sørensen, Louise B; Andersen, Rikke; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Ritz, Christian; Tetens, Inge; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne; Egelund, Niels; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-10-15

    Aside from the health consequences, observational studies indicate that being overweight may also negatively affect cognitive function. However, existing evidence has to a large extent not controlled for the possible confounding effect of having different lifestyles. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between weight status and lifestyle indicators with cognitive performance in 8-11year old Danish children. The analyses included 828 children (measured in 2011-2012) each having one to three measurement occasions separated by approximately 100days. Dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep duration were measured using dietary records and accelerometers. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was used to access sleep problems and the Andersen test was carried out to estimate cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Weight status (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) was defined according to body mass index and cognitive performance was assessed using the d2-test of attention, a reading test, and a math test. A linear mixed model including a number of fixed and random effects was used to test associations between lifestyle indicators as well as BMI category and cognitive performance. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomics, and multiple lifestyle indicators, normal weight children had higher cognitive test scores than overweight/obese and underweight children of up to 89% and 48% of expected learning within one school year (Pbreakfast consumption, fewer sleep problems, higher CRF, less total physical activity, more sedentary time, and less light physical activity were associated with higher cognitive performance independently of each other in at least one of the three cognitive tests (Pperformance compared to overweight/obese as well as underweight children, independent of multiple lifestyle indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive load during speech perception in noise: the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognition on the pupil response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E; Festen, Joost M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognitive ability on the cognitive processing load during listening to speech presented in noise. Cognitive load was assessed by means of pupillometry (i.e., examination of pupil dilation), supplemented with subjective ratings. Two groups of subjects participated: 38 middle-aged participants (mean age = 55 yrs) with normal hearing and 36 middle-aged participants (mean age = 61 yrs) with hearing loss. Using three Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) in stationary noise tests, we estimated the speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs) required for the correct repetition of 50%, 71%, or 84% of the sentences (SRT50%, SRT71%, and SRT84%, respectively). We examined the pupil response during listening: the peak amplitude, the peak latency, the mean dilation, and the pupil response duration. For each condition, participants rated the experienced listening effort and estimated their performance level. Participants also performed the Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, a test of processing speed, and a word vocabulary test. Data were compared with previously published data from young participants with normal hearing. Hearing loss was related to relatively poor SRTs, and higher speech intelligibility was associated with lower effort and higher performance ratings. For listeners with normal hearing, increasing age was associated with poorer TRTs and slower processing speed but with larger word vocabulary. A multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated main effects of group and SNR and an interaction effect between these factors on the pupil response. The peak latency was relatively short and the mean dilation was relatively small at low intelligibility levels for the middle-aged groups, whereas the reverse was observed for high intelligibility levels. The decrease in the pupil response as a function of increasing SNR was relatively small for the listeners with hearing loss. Spearman

  15. Neuromelanin marks the spot: identifying a locus coeruleus biomarker of cognitive reserve in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David V; Lee, Tae-Ho; Greening, Steven; Ponzio, Allison; Margalit, Eshed; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Leading a mentally stimulating life may build up a reserve of neural and mental resources that preserve cognitive abilities in late life. Recent autopsy evidence links neuronal density in the locus coeruleus (LC), the brain's main source of norepinephrine, to slower cognitive decline before death, inspiring the idea that the noradrenergic system is a key component of reserve (Robertson, I. H. 2013. A noradrenergic theory of cognitive reserve: implications for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol. Aging. 34, 298-308). Here, we tested this hypothesis using neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to visualize and measure LC signal intensity in healthy younger and older adults. Established proxies of reserve, including education, occupational attainment, and verbal intelligence, were linearly correlated with LC signal intensity in both age groups. Results indicated that LC signal intensity was significantly higher in older than younger adults and significantly lower in women than in men. Consistent with the LC-reserve hypothesis, both verbal intelligence and a composite reserve score were positively associated with LC signal intensity in older adults. LC signal intensity was also more strongly associated with attentional shifting ability in older adults with lower cognitive reserve. Together these findings link in vivo estimates of LC neuromelanin signal intensity to cognitive reserve in normal aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Food for thought: the role of appetitive peptides in age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Jim R; Jolivalt, Corinne G; Reagan, Lawrence P

    2013-06-01

    Through their well described actions in the hypothalamus, appetitive peptides such as insulin, orexin and leptin are recognized as important regulators of food intake, body weight and body composition. Beyond these metabolic activities, these peptides also are critically involved in a wide variety of activities ranging from modulation of immune and neuroendocrine function to addictive behaviors and reproduction. The neurological activities of insulin, orexin and leptin also include facilitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and enhancement of cognitive performance. While patients with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes have greater risk of developing cognitive deficits, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for, or contribute to, age-related cognitive decline are poorly understood. In view of the importance of these peptides in metabolic disorders, it is not surprising that there is a greater focus on their potential role in cognitive deficits associated with aging. The goal of this review is to describe the evidence from clinical and pre-clinical studies implicating insulin, orexin and leptin in the etiology and progression of age-related cognitive decline. Collectively, these studies support the hypothesis that leptin and insulin resistance, concepts normally associated with the hypothalamus, are also applicable to the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct brain metabolic patterns separately associated with cognition, motor function, and aging in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Katako, Audrey; Aljuaid, Maram; Goertzen, Andrew L; Borys, Andrew; Hobson, Douglas E; Kim, Seok Min; Lee, Chong Sik

    2017-12-01

    We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis. A multivariate network analysis then revealed 3 metabolic patterns that are separately associated with cognitive performance (p = 0.042), age (p = 0.042), and motor symptom severity (p = 0.039). The age-related pattern's association with aging was replicated in healthy controls (p = 0.047) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.002). The cognition-related pattern's association with cognitive performance was observed, with a trend-level of correlation, in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (p = 0.084) but not in patients with Alzheimer's disease (p = 0.974). We found no association with fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane and Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography with patients' cognitive performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Theta power is reduced in healthy cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Tarrant D R; Finnigan, Simon

    2007-10-01

    The effects of healthy cognitive aging on electroencephalographic (EEG) theta (4.9-6.8 Hz) power were examined during performance of a modified Sternberg, S., 1966. High-speed scanning in human memory. Science 153, 652-654.) word recognition task. In a sample of fourteen young (mean age 21.9 years, range=18-27) and fourteen older (mean age 68.4 years, range=60-80) participants, theta power was found to be significantly lower in older adults during both the retention and recognition intervals. This theta power difference was greatest at the fronto-central midline electrode and occurred in parallel with a small, non-significant decrease in recognition accuracy in the older sample. A significant decrease in older adults' mean theta power was also observed in resting EEG, however, it was of substantially smaller magnitude than the task-related theta difference. It is proposed that a neurophysiological measure(s), such as task-specific frontal midline theta (fmtheta) power, may be a more sensitive marker of cognitive aging than task performance measures. Furthermore, as recent research indicates that fmtheta is generated primarily in the anterior cingulate cortex, the current findings support evidence that the function of brain networks incorporating this structure may be affected in cognitive aging.

  19. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-09

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

  20. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailean, Anamaria; Huisman, Martijn; Prince, Martin; Prina, A Matthew; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie

    2016-09-30

    This study aims to examine cohort differences in cognitive performance and rates of change in episodic memory, processing speed, inductive reasoning, and general cognitive performance and to investigate whether these cohort effects may be accounted for by education attainment. The first cohort (N = 705) was born between 1920 and 1930, whereas the second cohort (N = 646) was born between 1931 and 1941. Both birth cohorts were aged 65 to 75 years at baseline and were followed up 3 and 6 years later. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. The later born cohort had better general cognitive performance, inductive reasoning, and processing speed at baseline, but cohort differences in inductive reasoning and general cognitive performance disappeared after adjusting for education. The later born cohort showed steeper decline in processing speed. Memory decline was steeper in the earlier born cohort but only from Time 1 to Time 3 when the same memory test was administered. Education did not account for cohort differences in cognitive decline. The later born cohort showed better initial performance in certain cognitive abilities, but no better preservation of cognitive abilities overtime compared with the earlier born cohort. These findings carry implications for healthy cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  1. Effects of age and mild cognitive impairment on the pain response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Mylius, Veit; Schepelmann, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Both age and dementia have been shown to have an effect on nociception and pain processing. The question arises whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is thought to be a transitional stage between normal ageing and dementia, is also associated with alterations in pain processing. The aim of the present study was to answer this question by investigating the impact of age and MCI on the pain response system. Forty young subjects, 45 cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects and 42 subjects with MCI were investigated by use of an experimental multi-method approach. The subjects were tested for their subjective (pain ratings), motor (RIII reflex), facial (Facial Action Coding System) and their autonomic (sympathetic skin response and evoked heart rate response) responses to noxious electrical stimulation of the nervus suralis. We found significant group differences in the autonomic responses to noxious stimulation. The sympathetic skin response amplitude was significantly reduced in the cognitively unimpaired elderly subjects compared to younger subjects and to an even greater degree in subjects with MCI. The evoked heart rate response was reduced to a similar degree in both groups of aged subjects. Regression analyses within the two groups of the elderly subjects revealed that age and, in the MCI group, cognitive status were significant predictors of the decrease in autonomic responsiveness to noxious stimulation. Except for the autonomic parameters, no other pain parameter differed between the three groups. The pain response system appeared to be quite unaltered in MCI patients compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals of the same age. Only the sympathetic responsiveness qualified as an indicator of early aging effects as well as of pathophysiology associated with MCI, which both seemed to affect the pain system independently from each other.

  2. Age identity, gender, and perceptions of decline: does feeling older lead to pessimistic dispositions about cognitive aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H; Shippee, Tetyana P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on past studies of age identity, this article examined whether feeling older was associated with more pessimistic views about cognitive aging. Using respondents aged 55 years and older in the Midlife Development in the United States study, we estimated a series of linear regression models to predict people's dispositions toward their cognitive aging. The main comparison is whether the effects of age identity on cognitive aging differ for men and women. Beyond the effects of chronological age, older age identities were associated with more pessimistic dispositions about cognitive aging. This relationship, however, was found only among women. Age identity shapes cognitive aging dispositions, though the gendered nature of this relationship remains somewhat unclear. The findings give further evidence about the far-reaching implications of age identity for successful aging and suggest that future work can explicate how subjective aging processes may differ by gender.

  3. Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in cognitively normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Jon B.; Zetterberg, Henrik; van Harten, Argonde C.; Glodzik, Lidia; Martinez-Lage, Pablo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Rami, Lorena; Hansson, Oskar; Sperling, Reisa; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Vandijck, Manu; Hampel, Harald; Teipl, Stefan; Moghekar, Abhay; Albert, Marilyn; Hu, William T.; Monge Argilés, Jose A.; Gorostidi, Ana; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Molinuevo, Jose L.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Linazasoro, Gurutz; de Leon, Mony J.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from 12 different centres with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex® measurements were selected for this study. Each centre sent nine new cerebrospinal fluid aliquots that were used to measure total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42 in the Gothenburg laboratory. Seven centres showed a high correlation with the new Gothenburg measurements; therefore, 10 cohorts from these centres are included in the analyses here (1233 healthy control subjects, 40–84 years old). Amyloid-β amyloid status (negative or positive) and neurodegeneration status (negative or positive) was established based on the pathological cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer’s disease cut-off values for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and total tau, respectively. While gender did not affect these biomarker values, APOE genotype modified the age-associated changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such that APOE ε4 carriers showed stronger age-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, total tau and amyloid-β1-42 values and APOE ε2 carriers showed the opposite effect. At 40 years of age, 76% of the subjects were classified as amyloid negative, neurodegeneration negative and their frequency decreased to 32% at 85 years. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-negative group remained stable. The amyloid-negative neurodegeneration-positive group frequency increased slowly from 1% at 44 years to 16% at 85 years, but its frequency was not affected by APOE genotype. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-positive frequency increased from 1% at 53 years to 28% at 85 years. Abnormally low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 levels were already frequent in midlife and APOE genotype

  4. Neuropsychological profile in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jin; Zheng, Xiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wenhui; Cao, Hongmei; Qin, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments have been reported to be more common in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and education levels play an important role in intelligence. The studies on cognitive impairments in Chinese PD patients with higher education levels and normal global cognition according to Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) have not been reported. We enrolled 69 consecutive PD patients with over 6 years education levels and a MMSE score above 24 (of 30) and performed a battery of neuropsychological scales. There are extensive cognitive domain impairments in PD patients with "normal" global cognitive according to MMSE. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a highly sensitive scale to screen cognitive impairments in PD. The cutoff score of 28 on the MMSE screening for cognitive impairment in Chinese PD patients with high education levels may be more appropriate.

  5. Developing a dimensional model for successful cognitive and emotional aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Thompson, Wesley K; Depp, Colin A; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V

    2012-04-01

    There is currently a lack of consensus on the definition of successful aging (SA) and existing implementations have omitted constructs associated with SA. We used empirical methods to develop a dimensional model of SA that incorporates a wider range of associated variables, and we examined the relationship among these components using factor analysis and Bayesian Belief Nets. We administered a successful aging questionnaire comprising several standardized measures related to SA to a sample of 1948 older women enrolled in the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative study. The SA-related variables we included in the model were self-rated successful aging, depression severity, physical and emotional functioning, optimism, resilience, attitude towards own aging, self-efficacy, and cognitive ability. After adjusting for age, education and income, we fitted an exploratory factor analysis model to the SA-related variables and then, in order to address relationships among these factors, we computed a Bayesian Belief Net (BBN) using rotated factor scores. The SA-related variables loaded onto five factors. Based on the loading, we labeled the factors as follows: self-rated successful aging, cognition, psychosocial protective factors, physical functioning, and emotional functioning. In the BBN, self-rated successful aging emerged as the primary downstream factor and exhibited significant partial correlations with psychosocial protective factors, physical/general status and mental/emotional status but not with cognitive ability. Our study represents a step forward in developing a dimensional model of SA. Our findings also point to a potential role for psychiatry in improving successful aging by managing depressive symptoms and developing psychosocial interventions to improve self-efficacy, resilience, and optimism.

  6. Is income equality also better for your cognitive health? A multilevel analysis on trajectories of cognitive function at older ages

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Anja; Chauvel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to research on contextual associations with older-age cognitive function by investigating to which extent country-level income inequality is associated with older-age cognitive function and decline. Data came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), providing information on cognitive function (fluency, immediate and delayed recall) of respondents aged 50-80 years coming from a total of 16 European countries that participated in at least two wa...

  7. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  9. Heuristic and Analytic Processing: Age Trends and Associations with Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokis, Judite V.; Macpherson, Robyn; Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined developmental and individual differences in tendencies to favor analytic over heuristic responses in three tasks (inductive reasoning, deduction under belief bias conditions, probabilistic reasoning) in children varying in age and cognitive ability. Found significant increases in analytic responding with development on first two tasks.…

  10. The Impact of Age and Cognitive Reserve on Resting-State Brain Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica I. Fleck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a protective mechanism that supports sustained cognitive function following damage to the physical brain associated with age, injury, or disease. The goal of the research was to identify relationships between age, CR, and brain connectivity. A sample of 90 cognitively normal adults, ages 45–64 years, had their resting-state brain activity recorded with electroencephalography (EEG and completed a series of memory and executive function assessments. CR was estimated using years of education and verbal IQ scores. Participants were divided into younger and older age groups and low- and high-CR groups. We observed greater left- than right-hemisphere coherence in younger participants, and greater right- than left-hemisphere coherence in older participants. In addition, greater coherence was observed under eyes-closed than eyes-open recording conditions for both low-CR and high-CR participants, with a more substantial difference between recording conditions in individuals high in CR regardless of age. Finally, younger participants low in CR exhibited greater mean coherence than younger participants high in CR, whereas the opposite pattern was observed in older participants, with greater coherence in older participants high in CR. Together, these findings suggest the possibility of a shift in the relationship between CR and brain connectivity during aging.

  11. Childhood social class and cognitive aging in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Malin; Lundholm, Cecilia; Fors, Stefan; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Zavala, Catalina; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2017-07-03

    In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.

  12. Revisiting nicotine's role in the ageing brain and cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majdi, Alireza; Kamari, Farzin; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi

    2017-01-01

    stress, excitotoxicity, amyloid-β toxicity, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and perturb neurotrophic factors in the brain. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acts as a pharmacological chaperone in the regulation of nAChR expression, potentially intervening...... in age-related changes in diverse molecular pathways leading to pathology. Although nicotine has therapeutic potential, paradoxical effects have been reported, possibly due to its inverted U-shape dose-response effects or pharmacokinetic factors. Additionally, nicotine administration should result...... in optimum therapeutic effects without imparting abuse potential or toxicity. Overall, this review aims to compile the previous and most recent data on nicotine and its effects on cognition-related mechanisms and age-related cognitive impairment....

  13. Music causes deterioration of source memory: evidence from normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Omigie, Diana; Clément, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that music exposure can impair a wide variety of cognitive and behavioural performance. We investigated whether this is the case for source memory. Forty-one younger adults and 35 healthy elderly were required to retain the location in which pictures of coloured objects were displayed. On a subsequent recognition test they were required to decide whether the objects were displayed in the same location as before or not. Encoding took place (a) in silence, (b) while listening to street noise, or (c) while listening to Vivaldi's "Four Seasons". Recognition always took place during silence. A significant reduction in source memory was observed following music exposure, a reduction that was more pronounced for older adults than for younger adults. This pattern was significantly correlated with performance on an executive binding task. The exposure to music appeared to interfere with binding in working memory, worsening source recall.

  14. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age Related Changes in Cognition during the Working Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-31

    Psscholog-, 1979, 30, 63-102# Craik , F. I. H., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memor5 research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal...progressively lower levels of performance* The decline is assumed tu be due to the biological aging process . Reductions in physiological functioning lead in turn... levels of cognitive processing were taken -- for examplep measures of masking could be related to performance In situations requiring visual scanningp

  16. Aberrant Intrinsic Activity and Connectivity in Cognitively Normal Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Harrington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in intrinsic activity during resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD, but have largely been studied in a priori defined subnetworks. The cognitive significance of abnormal intrinsic activity is also poorly understood, as are abnormalities that precede the onset of mild cognitive impairment. To address these limitations, we leveraged three different analytic approaches to identify disturbances in rsfMRI metrics in 31 cognitively normal PD patients (PD-CN and 30 healthy adults. Subjects were screened for mild cognitive impairment using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force Level II criteria. Whole-brain data-driven analytic approaches first analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations (ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo, a measure of local connectivity amongst functionally similar regions. We then examined if regional disturbances in these metrics altered functional connectivity with other brain regions. We also investigated if abnormal rsfMRI metrics in PD-CN were related to brain atrophy and executive, visual organization, and episodic memory functioning. The results revealed abnormally increased and decreased ALFF and ReHo in PD-CN patients within the default mode network (posterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, parahippocampus, entorhinal cortex, sensorimotor cortex (primary motor, pre/post-central gyrus, basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and posterior cerebellar lobule VII, which mediates cognition. For default mode network regions, we also observed a compound profile of altered ALFF and ReHo. Most regional disturbances in ALFF and ReHo were associated with strengthened long-range interactions in PD-CN, notably with regions in different networks. Stronger long-range functional connectivity in PD-CN was also partly expanded to connections that were outside the networks of the control group. Abnormally increased activity and functional connectivity appeared to have a

  17. Cognitive Intraindividual Variability and White Matter Integrity in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraindividual variability (IIV of cognitive performance has been shown to increase with aging. While brain research has generally focused on mean performance, little is known about neural correlates of cognitive IIV. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that IIV relates more strongly than mean level of performance to the quality of white matter (WM. Our study aims to explore the relation between WM integrity and cognitive IIV by combining functional (fMRI and structural (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI imaging. Twelve young adults (aged 18–30 years and thirteen older adults (61–82 years underwent a battery of neuropsychological tasks, along with fMRI and DTI imaging. Their behavioral data were analyzed and correlated with the imaging data at WM regions of interest defined on the basis of (1 the fMRI-activated areas and (2 the Johns Hopkins University (JHU WM tractography atlas. For both methods, fractional anisotropy, along with the mean, radial, and axial diffusivity parameters, was computed. In accord with previous studies, our results showed that the DTI parameters were more related to IIV than to mean performance. Results also indicated that age differences in the DTI parameters were more pronounced in the regions activated primarily by young adults during a choice reaction-time task than in those also activated in older adults.

  18. Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian T; Johnson, Nathan F; Powell, David K

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Cognitive decline, mortality, and organophosphorus exposure in aging Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kimberly C; Ling, Chenxiao; Lee, Anne; To, Tu My; Cockburn, Myles; Haan, Mary; Ritz, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major health concern among older Mexican Americans, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may be influenced by environmental exposures. To investigate whether agricultural based ambient organophosphorus (OP) exposure influences 1) the rate of cognitive decline and mortality and 2) whether these associations are mediated through metabolic or inflammatory biomarkers. In a subset of older Mexican Americans from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (n = 430), who completed modified mini-mental state exams (3MSE) up to 7 times (1998-2007), we examined the relationship between estimated ambient OP exposures and cognitive decline (linear repeated measures model) and time to dementia or being cognitively impaired but not demented (CIND) and time to mortality (cox proportional hazards model). We then explored metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers as potential mediators of these relationships (additive hazards mediation). OP exposures at residential addresses were estimated with a geographic information system (GIS) based exposure assessment tool. Participants with high OP exposure in the five years prior to baseline experienced faster cognitive decline (β = 0.038, p = 0.02) and higher mortality over follow-up (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.26). The direct effect of OP exposure was estimated at 241 (95% CI = 27-455) additional deaths per 100,000 person-years, and the proportion mediated through the metabolic hormone adiponectin was estimated to be 4% 1.5-19.2). No other biomarkers were associated with OP exposure. Our study provides support for the involvement of OP pesticides in cognitive decline and mortality among older Mexican Americans, possibly through biologic pathways involving adiponectin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased self-diffusion of brain water in normal aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Henriksen, O

    1994-01-01

    With magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, brain water self-diffusion was measured in 17 healthy volunteers 22-76 (mean, 44.6) years old. The calculated values for the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) ranged from 0.58 x 10(-9) to 1.23 x 10(-9) m2/sec in cerebral white matter. A significant...... by an increase in the extracellular volume due to age-dependent neuronal degeneration or to changes in myelination. These findings have implications for future clinical investigations with diffusion MR imaging techniques in patients with neurologic diseases, and stress the importance of having an age...

  1. Neuroimaging of cognitive dysfunction and depression in aging retired National Football League players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A; Womack, Kyle B; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess cognitive impairment and depression in aging former professional football (National Football League [NFL]) players and to identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. DESIGN We compared former NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression, cognitively normal retired players who were not depressed, and matched healthy control subjects. SETTING Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. PATIENTS Cross-sectional sample of former NFL players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region and age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. Thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age, 61.8 years) underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. A subset of 26 players also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared with imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging mea-sures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow. RESULTS Of the 34 former NFL players, 20 were cognitively normal. Four were diagnosed as having a fixed cognitive deficit; 8, mild cognitive impairment; 2, dementia; and 8, depression. Of the subgroup in whom neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired participants showed the greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in cognitively impaired and depressed retired players compared with their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the cognitively impaired group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming, and word finding). CONCLUSIONS Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging former NFL players compared with healthy

  2. Cognitive ability in adolescents born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated......BACKGROUND: Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. STUDY...... with a significantly increased height, larger HC, increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and increased full-scale IQ compared to those born SGA without catch-up growth. CONCLUSION: SGA and IUGR may not be harmful for adult cognitive ability, at least not in individuals born at near-term. However...

  3. Age-related differences in metabolites in the posterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of normal ageing brain: A 1H-MRS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyngoudt, Harmen; Claeys, Tom; Vlerick, Leslie; Verleden, Stijn; Acou, Marjan; Deblaere, Karel; De Deene, Yves; Audenaert, Kurt; Goethals, Ingeborg; Achten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study age-related metabolic changes in N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (Ins). Materials and methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) was performed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the left hippocampus (HC) of 90 healthy subjects (42 women and 48 men aged 18–76 years, mean ± SD, 48.4 ± 16.8 years). Both metabolite ratios and absolute metabolite concentrations were evaluated. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Metabolite ratios Ins/tCr and Ins/H 2 O were found significantly increased with age in the PCC (P 2 O was only observed in the PCC (P 1 H-MRS results in these specific brain regions can be important to differentiate normal ageing from age-related pathologies such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Dynamic Alu Methylation during Normal Development, Aging, and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation primarily occurs on CpG dinucleotides and plays an important role in transcriptional regulations during tissue development and cell differentiation. Over 25% of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome reside within Alu elements, the most abundant human repeats. The methylation of Alu elements is an important mechanism to suppress Alu transcription and subsequent retrotransposition. Decades of studies revealed that Alu methylation is highly dynamic during early development and aging. Recently, many environmental factors were shown to have a great impact on Alu methylation. In addition, aberrant Alu methylation has been documented to be an early event in many tumors and Alu methylation levels have been associated with tumor aggressiveness. The assessment of the Alu methylation has become an important approach for early diagnosis and/or prognosis of cancer. This review focuses on the dynamic Alu methylation during development, aging, and tumor genesis. The cause and consequence of Alu methylation changes will be discussed.

  5. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pedersen

    Full Text Available AIMS: Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 40 to 65 year-old patients with type 2 diabetes and limited co morbidity (N = 56, age-matched individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (N = 56 as well as age-matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (N = 72. Specific cognitive functions were assessed with focus on verbal memory, processing speed, executive functions, and a composite overall mean score. Oral glucose tolerance test, VO(2max test, systemic inflammation, DXA scanning and abdominal MRI were measured. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender and verbal intelligence demonstrated that a low score in processing speed, executive functions and overall cognitive function were related to high fasting C-peptide, as well as low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and VO(2max. Measurements of blood glucose, obesity and inflammation were not associated with cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Low cognitive scores are seen in middle aged individuals with hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and low aerobic capacity. These findings emphasize the importance of appropriate lifestyle and not only blood glucose control in prevention of cognitive disability.

  6. Cognitive levels of performance account for hemispheric lateralisation effects in dyslexic and normally reading children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Meffert, Elisabeth; Eickhoff, Simon B; Schreiber, Helen; Kukolja, Juraj; Shah, Nadim Jon; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-12-01

    Recent theories of developmental dyslexia explain reading deficits in terms of deficient phonological awareness, attention, visual and auditory processing, or automaticity. Since dyslexia has a neurobiological basis, the question arises how the reader's proficiency in these cognitive variables affects the brain regions involved in visual word recognition. This question was addressed in two fMRI experiments with 19 normally reading children (Experiment 1) and 19 children with dyslexia (Experiment 2). First, reading-specific brain activation was assessed by contrasting the BOLD signal for reading aloud words vs. overtly naming pictures of real objects. Next, ANCOVAs with brain activation during reading the individuals' scores for all five cognitive variables assessed outside the scanner as covariates were performed. Whereas the normal readers' brain activation during reading showed co-variation effects predominantly in the right hemisphere, the reverse pattern was observed for the dyslexics. In particular, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex, and precuneus showed contralateral effects for controls as compared to dyslexics. In line with earlier findings in the literature, these data hint at a global change in hemispheric asymmetry during cognitive processing in dyslexic readers, which, in turn, might affect reading proficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Music for the ageing brain: Cognitive, emotional, social, and neural benefits of musical leisure activities in stroke and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Music engages an extensive network of auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional processing regions in the brain. Coupled with the fact that the emotional and cognitive impact of music is often well preserved in ageing and dementia, music is a powerful tool in the care and rehabilitation of many ageing-related neurological diseases. In addition to formal music therapy, there has been a growing interest in self- or caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities or hobbies as a widely applicable means to support psychological wellbeing in ageing and in neurological rehabilitation. This article reviews the currently existing evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural benefits of musical leisure activities in normal ageing as well as in the rehabilitation and care of two of the most common and ageing-related neurological diseases: stroke and dementia.

  8. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, D.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  9. Depressive Symptom Clusters and Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Alzheimer's and Cognitively Normal Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition.

  10. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  11. Sex, age, and cognitive correlates of asymmetries in thickness of the cortical mantle across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Bansal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    hemisphere than in the left on the lateral surface, whereas it derived from a steeper decline with age in the left hemisphere than in the right on the mesial surface. Finally, measures of performance on working memory and vocabulary tasks improved with increasing magnitudes of normal asymmetries in regions...... thought to support these cognitive capacities....

  12. Hippocampal proteomics defines pathways associated with memory decline and resilience in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Sarah M; Wilmott, Lynda A; Hoffmann, Brian R; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

    2017-03-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in the elderly, has no cure. Thus, the identification of key molecular mediators of cognitive decline in AD remains a top priority. As aging is the most significant risk factor for AD, the goal of this study was to identify altered proteins and pathways associated with the development of normal aging and AD memory deficits, and identify unique proteins and pathways that may contribute to AD-specific symptoms. We used contextual fear conditioning to diagnose 8-month-old 5XFAD and non-transgenic (Ntg) mice as having either intact or impaired memory, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify hippocampal membrane proteins across groups. Subsequent analysis detected 113 proteins differentially expressed relative to memory status (intact vs impaired) in Ntg mice and 103 proteins in 5XFAD mice. Thirty-six proteins, including several involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity (e.g., GRIA1, GRM3, and SYN1), were altered in both normal aging and AD. Pathway analysis highlighted HDAC4 as a regulator of observed protein changes in both genotypes and identified the REST epigenetic regulatory pathway and G i intracellular signaling as AD-specific pathways involved in regulating the onset of memory deficits. Comparing the hippocampal membrane proteome of Ntg versus AD, regardless of cognitive status, identified 138 differentially expressed proteins, including confirmatory proteins APOE and CLU. Overall, we provide a novel list of putative targets and pathways with therapeutic potential, including a set of proteins associated with cognitive status in normal aging mice or gene mutations that cause AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe hyposmia and aberrant functional connectivity in cognitively normal Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Yoneyama

    Full Text Available Severe hyposmia is a risk factor of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD, while the underlying functional connectivity (FC and brain volume alterations in PD patients with severe hyposmia (PD-SH are unclear.We examined voxel-based morphometric and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging findings in 15 cognitively normal PD-SH, 15 cognitively normal patients with PD with no/mild hyposmia (PD-N/MH, and 15 healthy controls (HCs.Decreased gray matter volume (GMV was observed in the bilateral cuneus, right associative visual area, precuneus, and some areas in anterior temporal lobes in PD-SH group compared to HCs. Both the PD-SH and PD-N/MH groups showed increased GMV in the bilateral posterior insula and its surrounding regions. A widespread significant decrease in amygdala FC beyond the decreased GMV areas and olfactory cortices were found in the PD-SH group compared with the HCs. Above all, decreased amygdala FC with the inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was significantly correlated with both reduction of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised scores and severity of hyposmia in all participants. Canonical resting state networks exhibited decreased FC in the precuneus and left executive control networks but increased FC in the primary and high visual networks of patients with PD compared with HCs. Canonical network FC to other brain regions was enhanced in the executive control, salience, primary visual, and visuospatial networks of the PD-SH.PD-SH showed extensive decreased amygdala FC. Particularly, decreased FC between the amygdala and inferior parietal lobule, lingual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus were associated with the severity of hyposmia and cognitive performance. In contrast, relatively preserved canonical networks in combination with increased FC to brain regions outside of canonical networks may be related to compensatory mechanisms, and preservation of brain function.

  14. Neuroimaging Characteristics of Small-Vessel Disease in Older Adults with Normal Cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mimenza-Alvarado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD represents the most frequent type of vascular brain lesions, often coexisting with Alzheimer disease (AD. By quantifying white matter hyperintensities (WMH and hippocampal and parietal atrophy, we aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of SVD among older adults with normal cognition (NC, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and probable AD and to describe associated risk factors. Methods: This study included 105 older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and neuropsychological tests. We used the Fazekas scale (FS for quantification of WMH, the Scheltens scale (SS for hippocampal atrophy, and the Koedam scale (KS for parietal atrophy. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between FS, SS, and KS scores and the presence of NC, MCI, or probable AD. Results: Compared to NC subjects, SVD was more prevalent in MCI and probable AD subjects. After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression showed a positive association between higher scores on the FS and probable AD (OR = 7.6, 95% CI 2.7–20, p < 0.001. With the use of the SS and KS (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 3.5–58, p = 0.003 and OR = 8.9, 95% CI 1–72, p = 0.04, respectively, the risk also remained significant for probable AD. Conclusions: These results suggest an association between severity of vascular brain lesions and neurodegeneration.

  15. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR at 7 Tesla correlates with Amyloid beta in Hippocampus and Brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  16. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) at 7 Tesla correlates with amyloid beta in hippocampus and brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  17. Carotid disease at age 73 and cognitive change from age 70 to 76 years: A longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerhand, Michael; Eadie, Elizabeth; Thomas, Avril; Corley, Janey; Pattie, Alison; Taylor, Adele; Shenkin, Susan D; Cox, Simon; Gow, Alan; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline and carotid artery atheroma are common at older ages. In community-dwelling subjects, we assessed cognition at ages 70, 73 and 76 and carotid Doppler ultrasound at age 73, to determine whether carotid stenosis was related to cognitive decline. We used latent growth curve models to examine associations between four carotid measures (internal carotid artery stenosis, velocity, pulsatility and resistivity indices) and four cognitive ability domains (memory, visuospatial function, crystallised intelligence, processing speed) adjusted for cognitive ability at age 11, current age, gender and vascular risk factors. Amongst 866 participants, carotid stenosis (median 12.96%) was not associated with cognitive abilities at age 70 or cognitive decline from age 70 to 76. Increased ICA pulsatility and resistivity indices were associated with slower processing speed (both P function (P = 0.036, 0.031, respectively) at age 70, and declining crystallised intelligence from ages 70 to 76 (P = 0.008, 0.006, respectively). The findings suggest that vascular stiffening, rather than carotid luminal narrowing, adversely influences cognitive ageing and provides a potential target for ameliorating age-related cognitive decline. PMID:28155579

  18. Carotid disease at age 73 and cognitive change from age 70 to 76 years: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, Joanna M; Allerhand, Michael; Eadie, Elizabeth; Thomas, Avril; Corley, Janey; Pattie, Alison; Taylor, Adele; Shenkin, Susan D; Cox, Simon; Gow, Alan; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive decline and carotid artery atheroma are common at older ages. In community-dwelling subjects, we assessed cognition at ages 70, 73 and 76 and carotid Doppler ultrasound at age 73, to determine whether carotid stenosis was related to cognitive decline. We used latent growth curve models to examine associations between four carotid measures (internal carotid artery stenosis, velocity, pulsatility and resistivity indices) and four cognitive ability domains (memory, visuospatial function, crystallised intelligence, processing speed) adjusted for cognitive ability at age 11, current age, gender and vascular risk factors. Amongst 866 participants, carotid stenosis (median 12.96%) was not associated with cognitive abilities at age 70 or cognitive decline from age 70 to 76. Increased ICA pulsatility and resistivity indices were associated with slower processing speed (both P < 0.001) and worse visuospatial function ( P = 0.036, 0.031, respectively) at age 70, and declining crystallised intelligence from ages 70 to 76 ( P = 0.008, 0.006, respectively). The findings suggest that vascular stiffening, rather than carotid luminal narrowing, adversely influences cognitive ageing and provides a potential target for ameliorating age-related cognitive decline.

  19. Complementary Cognitive Capabilities, Economic Decision-Making, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults’ higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making “traits”—including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants’ greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults. PMID:24040999

  20. Complementary cognitive capabilities, economic decision making, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Baldassi, Martine; Johnson, Eric J; Weber, Elke U

    2013-09-01

    Fluid intelligence decreases with age, yet evidence about age declines in decision-making quality is mixed: Depending on the study, older adults make worse, equally good, or even better decisions than younger adults. We propose a potential explanation for this puzzle, namely that age differences in decision performance result from the interplay between two sets of cognitive capabilities that impact decision making, one in which older adults fare worse (i.e., fluid intelligence) and one in which they fare better (i.e., crystallized intelligence). Specifically, we hypothesized that older adults' higher levels of crystallized intelligence can provide an alternate pathway to good decisions when the fluid intelligence pathway declines. The performance of older adults relative to younger adults therefore depends on the relative importance of each type of intelligence for the decision at hand. We tested this complementary capabilities hypothesis in a broad sample of younger and older adults, collecting a battery of standard cognitive measures and measures of economically important decision-making "traits"--including temporal discounting, loss aversion, financial literacy, and debt literacy. We found that older participants performed as well as or better than younger participants on these four decision-making measures. Structural equation modeling verified our hypothesis: Older participants' greater crystallized intelligence offset their lower levels of fluid intelligence for temporal discounting, financial literacy, and debt literacy, but not for loss aversion. These results have important implications for public policy and for the design of effective decision environments for older adults.

  1. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion

  2. MR measurement of normal corpus callosum: Age and sex differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Seob; Kim, Myung Soon; Park, Hyun Ju [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Measurement of various portions of the corpus callosum was performed on magnetic resonance(MR) images of 114 subjects with no known or suspected corpus callosal disorders. Midsagittal T1-weighted images used for measurements and mean diameters of various portions in each age and sex group were obtained. Measures of five portions were made: (A) the anterio-posterior length, (B) the diameter of genu position, (C) the diameter of splenium, (D) the diameter of mid-body portion, (E) the diameter of a narrow portion at the body of corpus callosum. The mean diameter in each gender group for A, B, C, D and E were 68.8 mm, 12.1 mm, 12.3 mm, 6,9 mm, 4.1 mm in male and 69.9 mm, 12.0 mm, 12.1 mm, 6.4 mm, 4.1 mm in female, retrospectively. The groups of 0-9 years of both genders showed the minimum mean value in each portion.

  3. Effects of age on cognitive control during semantic categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudar, Raksha A; Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Maguire, Mandy J; Spence, Jeffrey S; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study age effects of perceptual (basic-level) vs. perceptual-semantic (superordinate-level) categorization on cognitive control using the go/nogo paradigm. Twenty-two younger (11 M; 21 ± 2.2 years) and 22 older adults (9 M; 63 ± 5.8 years) completed two visual go/nogo tasks. In the single-car task (SiC) (basic), go/nogo responses were made based on single exemplars of a car (go) and a dog (nogo). In the object animal task (ObA) (superordinate), responses were based on multiple exemplars of objects (go) and animals (nogo). Each task consisted of 200 trials: 160 (80%) 'go' trials that required a response through button pressing and 40 (20%) 'nogo' trials that required inhibition/withholding of a response. ERP data revealed significantly reduced nogo-N2 and nogo-P3 amplitudes in older compared to younger adults, whereas go-N2 and go-P3 amplitudes were comparable in both groups during both categorization tasks. Although the effects of categorization levels on behavioral data and P3 measures were similar in both groups with longer response times, lower accuracy scores, longer P3 latencies, and lower P3 amplitudes in ObA compared to SiC, N2 latency revealed age group differences moderated by the task. Older adults had longer N2 latency for ObA compared to SiC, in contrast, younger adults showed no N2 latency difference between SiC and ObA. Overall, these findings suggest that age differentially affects neural processing related to cognitive control during semantic categorization. Furthermore, in older adults, unlike in younger adults, levels of categorization modulate neural processing related to cognitive control even at the early stages (N2). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez Emiliano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI in Spain, and the existing information shows important variations depending on the geographical setting and the methodology employed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CI in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area, and to analyze its associated risk factors. Methods Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional, home questionnaire-based study; Setting: Populational, urban setting. Participants: The reference population comprised over-65s living in the city of Salamanca (Spain in 2009. Randomized sampling stratified according to health district was carried out, and a total of 480 people were selected. In all, 327 patients were interviewed (68.10%, with a mean age of 76.35 years (SD: 7.33. Women accounted for 64.5% of the total. Measurements: A home health questionnaire was used to obtain the following data: age, sex, educational level, family structure, morbidity and functionality. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. The prevalence data were compared with those of the European population, with direct adjustment for age and sex. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment - no dementia (CIND, and dementia. Results The prevalence of CI among these over-65s was 19% (14.7% CIND and 4.3% dementia. The age-and sex-adjusted global prevalence of CI was 14.9%. CI increased with age (p Conclusions The observed raw prevalence of CI was 19% (14.9% after adjusting for age and sex. Older age and the presence of diabetes and anxiety-depression increased the risk of CI, while higher educational level reduced the risk.

  5. Age Drives Distortion of Brain Metabolic, Vascular and Cognitive Functions, and the Gut Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D. Hoffman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advancing age is the top risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the contribution of aging processes to AD etiology remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that reduced brain metabolic and vascular functions occur decades before the onset of cognitive impairments, and these reductions are highly associated with low-grade, chronic inflammation developed in the brain over time. Interestingly, recent findings suggest that the gut microbiota may also play a critical role in modulating immune responses in the brain via the brain-gut axis. In this study, our goal was to identify associations between deleterious changes in brain metabolism, cerebral blood flow (CBF, gut microbiome and cognition in aging, and potential implications for AD development. We conducted our study with a group of young mice (5–6 months of age and compared those to old mice (18–20 months of age by utilizing metabolic profiling, neuroimaging, gut microbiome analysis, behavioral assessments and biochemical assays. We found that compared to young mice, old mice had significantly increased levels of numerous amino acids and fatty acids that are highly associated with inflammation and AD biomarkers. In the gut microbiome analyses, we found that old mice had increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and alpha diversity. We also found impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB function and reduced CBF as well as compromised learning and memory and increased anxiety, clinical symptoms often seen in AD patients, in old mice. Our study suggests that the aging process involves deleterious changes in brain metabolic, vascular and cognitive functions, and gut microbiome structure and diversity, all which may lead to inflammation and thus increase the risk for AD. Future studies conducting comprehensive and integrative characterization of brain aging, including crosstalk with peripheral systems and factors, will be necessary to

  6. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  7. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.

  8. Cortical Amyloid Beta in Cognitively Normal Elderly Adults is Associated with Decreased Network Efficiency within the Cerebro-Cerebellar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Stefanie C; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton; Wyss, Michael; Schreiner, Simon; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Kälin, Andrea; Leh, Sandra; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M; Prüssmann, Klaas P; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of cortical amyloid beta (Aβ) is a correlate of aging and a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). While several higher order cognitive processes involve functional interactions between cortex and cerebellum, this study aims to investigate effects of cortical Aβ deposition on coupling within the cerebro-cerebellar system. We included 15 healthy elderly subjects with normal cognitive performance as assessed by neuropsychological testing. Cortical Aβ was quantified using (11)carbon-labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron-emission-tomography late frame signals. Volumes of brain structures were assessed by applying an automated parcelation algorithm to three dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo T1-weighted images. Basal functional network activity within the cerebro-cerebellar system was assessed using blood-oxygen-level dependent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging at the high field strength of 7 T for measuring coupling between cerebellar seeds and cerebral gray matter. A bivariate regression approach was applied for identification of brain regions with significant effects of individual cortical Aβ load on coupling. Consistent with earlier reports, a significant degree of positive and negative coupling could be observed between cerebellar seeds and cerebral voxels. Significant positive effects of cortical Aβ load on cerebro-cerebellar coupling resulted for cerebral brain regions located in inferior temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that brain amyloidosis in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with decreased network efficiency within the cerebro-cerebellar system. While the identified cerebral regions are consistent with established patterns of increased sensitivity for Aβ-associated neurodegeneration, additional studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between dysfunction of the cerebro-cerebellar system and risk for AD.

  9. Lower cognitive reserve in the aging human immunodeficiency virus-infected brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Linda; Holt, John L; Yakupov, Renat; Jiang, Caroline S; Ernst, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    More HIV-infected individuals are living longer; however, how their brain function is affected by aging is not well understood. One hundred twenty-two men (56 seronegative control [SN] subjects, 37 HIV subjects with normal cognition [HIV+NC], 29 with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder [HAND]) performed neuropsychological tests and had acceptable functional magnetic resonance imaging scans at 3 Tesla during tasks with increasing attentional load. With older age, SN and HIV+NC subjects showed increased activation in the left posterior (reserve, "bottom-up") attention network for low attentional-load tasks, and further increased activation in the left posterior and anterior ("top-down") attention network on intermediate (HIV+NC only) and high attentional-load tasks. HAND subjects had only age-dependent decreases in activation. Age-dependent changes in brain activation differed between the 3 groups, primarily in the left frontal regions (despite similar brain atrophy). HIV and aging act synergistically or interactively to exacerbate brain activation abnormalities in different brain regions, suggestive of a neuroadaptive mechanism in the attention network to compensate for declined neural efficiency. While the SN and HIV+NC subjects compensated for their declining attention with age by using reserve and "top-down" attentional networks, older HAND subjects were unable to compensate which resulted in cognitive decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Working memory in middle-aged males: Age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; Evers, Elisabeth; De Groot, Renate; Backes, Walter; Veltman, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on

  11. Cognitive Ageing: The Effects of Disruption on Multitasking Abilities in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask is an incredibly important aspect of everyday life and it is thought that the cognitive processes used for multitasking are mediated by the frontal lobes (Stuss & Alexander, 2000). Patients with frontal lobe damage have been shown to be impaired in their ability to multitask, despite having normal IQ’s. It is thought that as human adult’s age, the frontal lobes deteriorate, so there is a possibility that that multitasking skills will also be impaired in older adults. ...

  12. Ultradian rhythmicity of plasma cortisol is necessary for normal emotional and cognitive responses in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafatakis, K; Russell, G M; Harmer, C J; Munafo, M R; Marchant, N; Wilson, A; Brooks, J C; Durant, C; Thakrar, J; Murphy, P; Thai, N J; Lightman, S L

    2018-04-24

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are secreted in an ultradian, pulsatile pattern that emerges from delays in the feedforward-feedback interaction between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands. Dynamic oscillations of GCs are critical for normal cognitive and metabolic function in the rat and have been shown to modulate the pattern of GC-sensitive gene expression, modify synaptic activity, and maintain stress responsiveness. In man, current cortisol replacement therapy does not reproduce physiological hormone pulses and is associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially apathy and attenuated motivation in engaging with daily activities. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the pattern of GC dynamics in the brain is of crucial importance for regulating cognitive and behavioral processes. We provide evidence that exactly the same dose of cortisol administered in different patterns alters the neural processing underlying the response to emotional stimulation, the accuracy in recognition and attentional bias toward/away from emotional faces, the quality of sleep, and the working memory performance of healthy male volunteers. These data indicate that the pattern of the GC rhythm differentially impacts human cognition and behavior under physiological, nonstressful conditions and has major implications for the improvement of cortisol replacement therapy.

  13. Interactions of age and cognitive functions in predicting decision making under risky conditions over the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Schiebener, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how normal healthy aging affects decision-making competence. In this study 538 participants (age 18-80 years) performed the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Subsamples also performed the Iowa Gambling Task as well as tasks measuring logical thinking and executive functions. In a moderated regression analysis, the significant interaction between age and executive components indicates that older participants with good executive functioning perform well on the GDT, while older participants with reduced executive functions make more risky choices. The same pattern emerges for the interaction of age and logical thinking. Results demonstrate that age and cognitive functions act in concert in predicting the decision-making performance.

  14. Jumping Stand Apparatus Reveals Rapidly Specific Age-Related Cognitive Impairments in Mouse Lemur Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Picq

    Full Text Available The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a promising primate model for investigating normal and pathological cerebral aging. The locomotor behavior of this arboreal primate is characterized by jumps to and from trunks and branches. Many reports indicate insufficient adaptation of the mouse lemur to experimental devices used to evaluate its cognition, which is an impediment to the efficient use of this animal in research. In order to develop cognitive testing methods appropriate to the behavioral and biological traits of this species, we adapted the Lashley jumping stand apparatus, initially designed for rats, to the mouse lemur. We used this jumping stand apparatus to compare performances of young (n = 12 and aged (n = 8 adults in acquisition and long-term retention of visual discriminations. All mouse lemurs completed the tasks and only 25 trials, on average, were needed to master the first discrimination problem with no age-related differences. A month later, all mouse lemurs made progress for acquiring the second discrimination problem but only the young group reached immediately the criterion in the retention test of the first discrimination problem. This study shows that the jumping stand apparatus allows rapid and efficient evaluation of cognition in mouse lemurs and demonstrates that about half of the old mouse lemurs display a specific deficit in long-term retention but not in acquisition of visual discrimination.

  15. Residential Mobility and Cognitive Function Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Dupre, Matthew E; Østbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Wu, Bei

    2018-01-01

    To assess the association between rural and urban residential mobility and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. We used data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health that included adults age 50+ from China ( N = 12,410). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine how residential mobility and age at migration were associated with cognitive function. Urban and urban-to-urban residents had the highest level of cognitive function, whereas rural and rural-to-rural residents had the poorest cognitive function. Persons who migrated to/within rural areas before age 20 had poorer cognitive function than those who migrated during later adulthood. Socioeconomic factors played a major role in accounting for the disparities in cognition; however, the association remained significant after inclusion of all covariates. Residential mobility and age at migration have significant implications for cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China.

  16. Genetic variants and cognitive aging: destiny or a nudge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    One would be hard-pressed to find a human trait that is not heritable at least to some extent, and genetics have played an important role in behavioral science for more than half a century. With the advent of high-throughput molecular methods and the increasing availability of genomic analyses, genetics have acquired a firm foothold in public discourse. However, although the proliferation of genetic association studies and ever-expanding library of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have generated some fascinating results, they have thus far fallen short of delivering the anticipated dramatic breakthroughs. In this collection of eight articles, we present a spectrum of efforts aimed at finding more nuanced and meaningful ways of integrating genomic findings into the study of cognitive aging. The articles present examples of Mendelian randomization in the service of investigating difficult-to-manipulate biochemical properties of human participants. Furthermore, in an important step forward, they acknowledge the interactive effects of genes and physiological risk factors on age-related difference and change in cognitive performance, as well as the possibility of modifying the negative effect of genetic variants by lifestyle changes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decline in Weight and Incident Mild Cognitive Impairment: Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhurani, Rabe E.; Vassilaki, Maria; Aakre, Jeremiah; Mielke, Michelle M.; Kremers, Walter K.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Knopman, David S.; Peterson, Ronald C.; Roberts, Rosebud O.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Unintentional weight loss has been associated with risk of dementia. Since mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal stage for dementia, we sought to evaluate whether changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) may predict incident MCI. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of change in weight and BMI with risk of MCI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A population-based, prospective study of participants aged 70 years and older from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Maximum weight and height in midlife (aged 40 to 65 years old) were retrospectively ascertained from the medical records of participants using a medical records linkage system. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES Participants were evaluated for cognitive outcomes of normal cognition, MCI, or dementia at baseline and prospectively assessed for incident events at each 15-month evaluation. The association of rate of change in weight and body mass index with risk of MCI was investigated using proportional hazards models. RESULTS Over a mean follow-up of 4.4 years, 524 of 1895 cognitively normal participants developed incident MCI. The mean (standard deviation) rate of weight change per decade from midlife to study entry was greater for individuals who developed incident MCI vs. those who remained cognitively normal (−2.0 (5.1) vs. −1.2 (4.9) kg; p = 0.006). A greater decline in weight per decade was associated with an increased risk of incident MCI (hazard ratio [HR] 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 [1.02, 1.06], p weight loss of 5 kg/decade corresponds to a 24% increase in risk of MCI (HR=1.24). Higher decline in BMI per decade was also associated with incident MCI (HR, 1.08, 95% CI = [1.03, 1.13], p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that declining weight from midlife to late-life is a marker for MCI and may help identify persons at increased risk for MCI. PMID:26831542

  19. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever, A.G.; Geurts, H.M.

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is

  20. Insulin Signaling-independent Activation of DAF-16 Shapes the Transcriptome during Normal Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Liang, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Li, Shang-Tong; Zhang, Pan; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Zhao, Han-Qing

    2018-01-01

    The roles and regulatory mechanisms of transriptome changes during aging are unclear. It has been proposed that the transcriptome suffers decay during aging owing to age-associated down-regulation of transcription factors. In this study, we characterized the role of a transcription factor DAF-16, which is a highly conserved lifespan regulator, in the normal aging process of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that DAF-16 translocates into the nucleus in aged wild-type worms and activates the exp...

  1. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  2. The impact of retirement on age related cognitive decline - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Annette; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-07-21

    Knowledge on factors affecting the rate of cognitive decline and how to maintain cognitive functioning in old age becomes increasingly relevant. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the evidence for the impact of retirement on cognitive functioning and on age related cognitive decline. We conducted a systematic literature review, following the principles of the PRISMA statement, of longitudinal studies on the association between retirement and cognition. Only seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found weak evidence that retirement accelerates the rate of cognitive decline in crystallised abilities, but only for individuals retiring from jobs high in complexity with people. The evidence of the impact of retirement on the rate of decline in fluid cognitive abilities is conflicting. The review revealed a major knowledge gap in regards to the impact of retirement on cognitive decline. More knowledge on the association between retirement and age related cognitive decline as well as knowledge on the mechanisms behind these associations is needed.

  3. Out of sight, out of mind: Categorization learning and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Sabrina; Minda, John P; Lech, Robert K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-10-01

    The present combined EEG and eye tracking study examined the process of categorization learning at different age ranges and aimed to investigate to which degree categorization learning is mediated by visual attention and perceptual strategies. Seventeen young subjects and ten elderly subjects had to perform a visual categorization task with two abstract categories. Each category consisted of prototypical stimuli and an exception. The categorization of prototypical stimuli was learned very early during the experiment, while the learning of exceptions was delayed. The categorization of exceptions was accompanied by higher P150, P250 and P300 amplitudes. In contrast to younger subjects, elderly subjects had problems in the categorization of exceptions, but showed an intact categorization performance for prototypical stimuli. Moreover, elderly subjects showed higher fixation rates for important stimulus features and higher P150 amplitudes, which were positively correlated with the categorization performances. These results indicate that elderly subjects compensate for cognitive decline through enhanced perceptual and attentional processing of individual stimulus features. Additionally, a computational approach has been applied and showed a transition away from purely abstraction-based learning to an exemplar-based learning in the middle block for both groups. However, the calculated models provide a better fit for younger subjects than for elderly subjects. The current study demonstrates that human categorization learning is based on early abstraction-based processing followed by an exemplar-memorization stage. This strategy combination facilitates the learning of real world categories with a nuanced category structure. In addition, the present study suggests that categorization learning is affected by normal aging and modulated by perceptual processing and visual attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different Effects of Cognitive and Non-exercise Physical Leisure Activities on Cognitive Function by Age in Elderly Korean Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Sook; Kim, Hyunli; Lee, Yeji; Kim, Mijung; Chung, Eunyoung

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of various leisure activities on cognitive impairment in young-old (aged 65-74 years) and old-old (aged ≥ 75 years) adults. In total, 10,279 elderly Korean individuals from the 2014 Korean National Survey on Older Adults' cohort were enrolled in our study. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the standardized score of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening, whereas leisure activities were recorded via self-reporting of the extent and type of leisure activity the subjects involved in over the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of leisure activities on cognitive impairment, while controlling for potential covariates. The subjects were more likely to participate in cognitive activities than in non-exercise physical activities. After controlling for selected covariates, involvement in cognitive activities was found to be a significant predictor of cognitive impairment in both the groups, whereas involvement in non-exercise physical activities was not a predictor of cognitive impairment in individuals aged ≥ 75 years. Moreover, depressive symptoms, rural residence, and hearing difficulties were common predictors of cognitive impairment among elderly-Korean-individuals. Leisure activity involvement may help delay cognitive impairment, which is often concomitant with aging. Hence, an early intervention service may significantly benefit both young-old and old-old individuals.

  5. Search and the Aging Mind: The Promise and Limits of the Cognitive Control Hypothesis of Age Differences in Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Rui; von Helversen, Bettina

    2015-07-01

    Search is a prerequisite for successful performance in a broad range of tasks ranging from making decisions between consumer goods to memory retrieval. How does aging impact search processes in such disparate situations? Aging is associated with structural and neuromodulatory brain changes that underlie cognitive control processes, which in turn have been proposed as a domain-general mechanism controlling search in external environments as well as memory. We review the aging literature to evaluate the cognitive control hypothesis that suggests that age-related change in cognitive control underlies age differences in both external and internal search. We also consider the limits of the cognitive control hypothesis and propose additional mechanisms such as changes in strategy use and affect that may be necessary to understand how aging affects search. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Visual function and cognitive speed of processing mediate age-related decline in memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Olivio J; Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Wadley, Virginia G; Roth, David L; Ball, Karlene K

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sensory and cognitive decline, particularly with respect to speed of processing, memory span, and fluid intelligence. In addition, the common cause, sensory degradation and speed of processing hypotheses were compared. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the complex relationships among age-related decrements in these areas. Cross-sectional data analyses included 842 older adult participants (M = 73 years). After accounting for age-related declines in vision and processing speed, the direct associations between age and memory span and between age and fluid intelligence were nonsignificant. Older age was associated with visual decline, which was associated with slower speed of processing, which in turn was associated with greater cognitive deficits. The findings support both the sensory degradation and speed of processing accounts of age-related, cognitive decline. Furthermore, the findings highlight positive aspects of normal cognitive aging in that older age may not be associated with a loss of fluid intelligence if visual sensory functioning and processing speed can be maintained.

  7. Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mudrák

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Age Cognitive Decline and Performance of Cognitive Motor Tasks in Seniors Relationship between the age-related cognitive decline and decline in cognitive processing speed, in a variety of cognitive motor tasks was examined. The sample consisted of 33 well-adjusted older adults (on average 68 years old, recruited from several physical activity programs. The participants performed five cognitive tests selected from the Vienna test system battery. Subsequently, the relationship of their age and the measures of cognitive function was analyzed. It was found that the age of respondents was related only to their performance in complex tasks which included a processing speed component. The participant’s performance in simple tasks and in measures unaffected by processing speed was unrelated to age. Results are consistent with the processing speed theory of adult age differences in cognition (Salthouse, 1996. Furthermore, the performance in complex cognitive tasks was influenced by the level of participation in leisure physical activities; this suggests that physically active lifestyle may limit the impact of age on cognitive function. Stárnutí a rychlost zpracování kognitivních funkcí V předkládáné studii se zabýváme některými aspekty věkem podmíněného úbytku kognitivních funkcí. Konkrétně zkoumáme předpoklady vycházející z teorie rychlosti zpracování (Salthouse, 1996 týkající se toho, že věkem podmíněný pokles kognitivních funkcí je dán především poklesem rychlosti kognitivních procesů, což se projevuje především u komplexních kognitivních úkolů. Vzorek v naší studii se skládal z 33 seniorů a seniorek (průměrný věk byl 68 let, které jsme oslovili prostřednictvím několika programů pro seniory. Respondenti byli testováni prostřednictvím pěti testů kognitivních funkcí, které jsme vybrali z testové baterie Vienna test systém. Následně jsme analyzovali

  8. Age-related neural correlates of cognitive task performance under increased postural load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this

  9. Cortical thinning in cognitively normal elderly cohort of 60 to 89 year old from AIBL database and vulnerable brain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongmin S.; Avinash, Gopal; Yan, Litao; McMillan, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cortical thinning has been studied by many researchers using quantitative MR images for the past three decades and vastly differing results have been reported. Although results have shown age-related cortical thickening in elderly cohort statistically in some brain regions under certain conditions, cortical thinning in elderly cohort requires further systematic investigation. This paper leverages our previously reported brain surface intensity model (BSIM)1 based technique to measure cortical thickness to study cortical changes due to normal aging. We measured cortical thickness of cognitively normal persons from 60 to 89 years old using Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study (AIBL) data. MRI brains of 56 healthy people including 29 women and 27 men were selected. We measured average cortical thickness of each individual in eight brain regions: parietal, frontal, temporal, occipital, visual, sensory motor, medial frontal and medial parietal. Unlike the previous published studies, our results showed consistent age-related thinning of cerebral cortex in all brain regions. The parietal, medial frontal and medial parietal showed fastest thinning rates of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.10 mm/decade respectively while the visual region showed the slowest thinning rate of 0.05 mm/decade. In sensorimotor and parietal areas, women showed higher thinning (0.09 and 0.16 mm/decade) than men while in all other regions men showed higher thinning than women. We also created high resolution cortical thinning rate maps of the cohort and compared them to typical patterns of PET metabolic reduction of moderate AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The results seemed to indicate vulnerable areas of cortical deterioration that may lead to brain dementia. These results validate our cortical thickness measurement technique by demonstrating the consistency of the cortical thinning and prediction of cortical deterioration trend with AIBL database.

  10. Impact of age and sex on normal left heart structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Linn; Henein, Michael Y; Karp, Kjell; Waldenström, Anders; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-11-01

    Accurate age- and sex-related normal reference values of ventricular structure and function are important to determine the level of dysfunction in patients. The aim of this study therefore was to document normal age range sex-related measurements of LV structural and functional measurements to serve such purpose. We evaluated left ventricular structure and function in 293 healthy subjects between 20 and 90 years with equally distributed gender. Doppler echocardiography was used including measure of both systolic and diastolic functions. Due to systolic LV function, only long axis function correlated with age (r = 0·55, P<0·01) and the correlation was stronger in females. Concerning diastolic function, there was a strong age correlation in all parameters used (r = 0·40-0·74, P<0·001). Due to LV structural changes over age, females showed a larger reduction in end-diastolic volumes, but no or trivial difference in wall thickness after the age of 60 years. Age is associated with significant normal changes in left ventricular structure and function, which should be considered when deciding on normality. These changes are related to systemic arterial changes as well as body stature, thus reflecting overall body ageing process. Furthermore, normal cardiac ageing in females might partly explain the higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection in females. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  12. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals.......Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals....

  13. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  14. Do brain image databanks support understanding of normal ageing brain structure? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, David Alexander; Job, Dominic E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Poole, Ian; Ahearn, Trevor S.; Staff, Roger T.; Murray, Alison D.

    2012-01-01

    To document accessible magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, metadata and statistical results from normal older subjects that may be used to improve diagnoses of dementia. We systematically reviewed published brain image databanks (print literature and Internet) concerned with normal ageing brain structure. From nine eligible databanks, there appeared to be 944 normal subjects aged ≥60 years. However, many subjects were in more than one databank and not all were fully representative of normal ageing clinical characteristics. Therefore, there were approximately 343 subjects aged ≥60 years with metadata representative of normal ageing, but only 98 subjects were openly accessible. No databank had the range of MR image sequences, e.g. T2*, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), required to effectively characterise the features of brain ageing. No databank supported random subject retrieval; therefore, manual selection bias and errors may occur in studies that use these subjects as controls. Finally, no databank stored results from statistical analyses of its brain image and metadata that may be validated with analyses of further data. Brain image databanks require open access, more subjects, metadata, MR image sequences, searchability and statistical results to improve understanding of normal ageing brain structure and diagnoses of dementia. (orig.)

  15. Effect of cognitive load on working memory forgetting in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, Christine; Adam, Stephane; Seron, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Functional approaches to working memory (WM) have been proposed recently to better investigate "maintenance" and "processing" mechanisms. The cognitive load (CL) hypothesis presented in the "Time-Based Resource-Sharing" model (Barrouillet & Camos, 2007) suggests that forgetting from WM (maintenance) can be investigated by varying the presentation rate and processing speed (processing). In this study, young and elderly participants were compared on WM tasks in which the difference in processing speed was controlled by CL manipulations. Two main results were found. First, when time constraints (CL) were matched for the two groups, no aging effect was observed. Second, whereas a large variation in CL affected WM performance, a small CL manipulation had no effect on the elderly. This suggests that WM forgetting cannot be completely accounted for by the CL hypothesis. Rather, it highlights the need to explore restoration times in particular, and the nature of the refreshment mechanisms within maintenance.

  16. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. METHODS: A cohort...... of 11 532 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953-7906, 10 246 and 2483 participants-had completed assessments of cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, respectively. Linear regression was used to investigate the association of early-life characteristics with cognitive test scores at these ages...... and with score changes from early to mid-adulthood. RESULTS: The cognitive scores at age 57 years had high correlations with scores at ages 12 (r = 0.67) and 18 years (r = 0.70), and these two scores also showed bivariate correlation (r = 0.69). Having a father from the working class at birth was associated...

  17. Association between educational attainment and amyloid deposition across the spectrum from normal cognition to dementia: neuroimaging evidence for protection and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Bejanin, Alexandre; Gonneaud, Julie; Wirth, Miranka; La Joie, Renaud; Mutlu, Justine; Gaubert, Malo; Landeau, Brigitte; de la Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2017-11-01

    The brain mechanisms underlying the effect of intellectual enrichment may evolve along the normal aging Alzheimer's disease (AD) cognitive spectrum and may include both protective and compensatory mechanisms. We assessed the association between early intellectual enrichment (education, years) and average cortical florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio as well as performed voxel-wise analyses in a total of 140 participants, including cognitively normal older adults, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD patients. Higher education was associated with lower cortical florbetapir positron emission tomography (florbetapir-PET) uptake, notably in the frontal lobe in normal older adults, but with higher uptake in frontal, temporal, and parietal regions in MCI after controlling for global cognitive status. No association was found in AD. In MCI, we observed an increased fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake with education within the regions of higher florbetapir-PET uptake, suggesting a compensatory increase. Early intellectual enrichment may be associated with protection and compensation for amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition later in life, before the onset of dementia. Previous investigations have been controversial as regard to the effects of intellectual enrichment variables on Aβ deposition; the present findings call for approaches aiming to evaluate mechanisms of resilience across disease stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Disrupted functional and structural networks in cognitively normal elderly subjects with the APOE ɛ4 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaojing; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Shu, Ni; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhanjun; Reiman, Eric M

    2015-03-13

    As the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been suggested as a disconnection syndrome manifested by the disruption of white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity (FC), elucidating the subtle brain structural and functional network changes in cognitively normal ɛ4 carriers is essential for identifying sensitive neuroimaging based biomarkers and understanding the preclinical AD-related abnormality development. We first constructed functional network on the basis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a structural network on the basis of diffusion tensor image. Using global, local and nodal efficiencies of these two networks, we then examined (i) the differences of functional and WM structural network between cognitively normal ɛ4 carriers and non-carriers simultaneously, (ii) the sensitivity of these indices as biomarkers, and (iii) their relationship to behavior measurements, as well as to cholesterol level. For ɛ4 carriers, we found reduced global efficiency significantly in WM and marginally in FC, regional FC dysfunctions mainly in medial temporal areas, and more widespread for WM network. Importantly, the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG.R) was the only region with simultaneous functional and structural damage, and the nodal efficiency of PHG.R in WM network mediates the APOE ɛ4 effect on memory function. Finally, the cholesterol level correlated with WM network differently than with the functional network in ɛ4 carriers. Our results demonstrated ɛ4-specific abnormal structural and functional patterns, which may potentially serve as biomarkers for early detection before the onset of the disease.

  20. The relation of education, occupation, and cognitive activity to cognitive status in old age: the role of physical frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Gouveia, Élvio R; Gouveia, Bruna R; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Odim, Angenay P; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults. We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity. Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength. Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.

  1. Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characterizing the normative profile of 18F-FDG PET brain imaging: sex difference, aging effect, and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov; Miyata, Yoko; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate findings of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) in normal subjects to clarify the effects of sex differences, aging, and cognitive reserve on cerebral glucose metabolism. Participants comprised 123 normal adults who underwent 18F-FDG PET and a neuropsychological battery. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to investigate sex differences, and aging effects. The effects of cognitive reserve on 18F-FDG uptake were investigated using years of education as a proxy. Finally, we studied the effect of cognitive reserve on the recruitment of glucose metabolism in a memory task by dichotomizing the data according to educational level. Our results showed that the overall cerebral glucose metabolism in females was higher than that in males, whereas male participants had higher glucose metabolism in the bilateral inferior temporal gyri and cerebellum than females. Age-related hypometabolism was found in anterior regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus. These areas are part of the attentional system, which may decline with aging even in healthy elderly individuals. Highly educated subjects revealed focal hypermetabolism in the right hemisphere and lower recruitment of glucose metabolism in memory tasks. This phenomenon is likely a candidate for a neural substrate of cognitive reserve. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Assessing the impact of age on cognitively induced visual tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive distractions have been shown to affect drivers adversely and are a leading cause of : accidents. Research indicates that drivers alter how they allocate their visual attention while engaging in : secondary cognitive tasks. To evaluate the p...

  4. Quantification of microangiopathic lesions in brain parenchyma and age-adjusted mean scores for the diagnostic separation of normal from pathological values in senile dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, F.; Kreis, M.; Damian, M.; Krumm, B.; Froelich, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to quantify microangiopathic lesions in the cerebral white matter and to develop age-corrected cut-off values for separating normal from dementia-related pathological lesions. Materials and methods: in a memory clinic, 338 patients were investigated neuropsychiatrically by a psychological test battery and by MRI. Using a FLAIR sequence and a newly developed rating scale, white matter lesions (WMLs) were quantified with respect to localization, number and intensity, and these ratings were condensed into a score. The WML scores were correlated with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) score in dementia patients. A non-linear smoothing procedure was used to calculate age-related mean values and confidence intervals, separate for cognitively intact subjects and dementia patients. Results: the WML scores correlated highly significantly with age in cognitively intact subjects and with psychometric scores in dementia patients. Age-adjusted WML scores of cognitively intact subjects were significantly different from those of dementia patients with respect to the whole brain as well as to the frontal lobe. Mean value and confidence intervals adjusted for age significantly separated dementia patients from cognitively intact subjects over an age range of 54 through 84 years. Conclusion: a rating scale for the quantification of WML was validated and age-adjusted mean values with their confidence intervals for a diagnostically relevant age range were developed. This allows an easy to handle, fast and reliable diagnosis of the vascular component in senile dementia. (orig.)

  5. Synaptic genes are extensively downregulated across multiple brain regions in normal human aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Coleman, Paul D.; Cribbs, David H.; Rogers, Joseph; Gillen, Daniel L.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Synapses are essential for transmitting, processing, and storing information, all of which decline in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Because synapse loss only partially accounts for the cognitive declines seen in aging and AD, we hypothesized that existing synapses might undergo molecular changes that reduce their functional capacity. Microarrays were used to evaluate expression profiles of 340 synaptic genes in aging (20–99 years) and AD across 4 brain regions from 81 cases. The analysis revealed an unexpectedly large number of significant expression changes in synapse-related genes in aging, with many undergoing progressive downregulation across aging and AD. Functional classification of the genes showing altered expression revealed that multiple aspects of synaptic function are affected, notably synaptic vesicle trafficking and release, neurotransmitter receptors and receptor trafficking, postsynaptic density scaffolding, cell adhesion regulating synaptic stability, and neuromodulatory systems. The widespread declines in synaptic gene expression in normal aging suggests that function of existing synapses might be impaired, and that a common set of synaptic genes are vulnerable to change in aging and AD. PMID:23273601

  6. Medication and finance management among HIV-infected adults: the impact of age and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Kim, Michelle S; Becker, Brian W; Foley, Jessica M; Hines, Lindsay J; Singer, Elyse J; Heaton, Robert K; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and cognitive impairment on medication and finance management in an HIV sample. We observed main effects of age (older finance management. The interaction of advancing age and cognitive impairment may confer significant functional limitations for HIV individuals that may be better detected by performance-based measures of functional abilities rather than patient self-report.

  7. Cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling MRI at resting state in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Gordon, Marc L; Goldberg, Terry E

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD. With improvements in hardware and experimental design, ASL is proving to be an increasingly promising tool for exploring pathogenetic mechanisms, early detection, monitoring disease progression and pharmacological response, and differential diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability

  9. A novel multi-tissue RNA diagnostic of healthy ageing relates to cognitive health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sanjana; Gallagher, Iain J; Lunnon, Katie; Rullman, Eric; Keohane, Aoife; Crossland, Hannah; Phillips, Bethan E; Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Thomas; van Loon, Luc J C; Lannfelt, Lars; Kraus, William E; Atherton, Philip J; Howard, Robert; Gustafsson, Thomas; Hodges, Angela; Timmons, James A

    2015-09-07

    Diagnostics of the human ageing process may help predict future healthcare needs or guide preventative measures for tackling diseases of older age. We take a transcriptomics approach to build the first reproducible multi-tissue RNA expression signature by gene-chip profiling tissue from sedentary normal subjects who reached 65 years of age in good health. One hundred and fifty probe-sets form an accurate classifier of young versus older muscle tissue and this healthy ageing RNA classifier performed consistently in independent cohorts of human muscle, skin and brain tissue (n = 594, AUC = 0.83-0.96) and thus represents a biomarker for biological age. Using the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men birth-cohort (n = 108) we demonstrate that the RNA classifier is insensitive to confounding lifestyle biomarkers, while greater gene score at age 70 years is independently associated with better renal function at age 82 years and longevity. The gene score is 'up-regulated' in healthy human hippocampus with age, and when applied to blood RNA profiles from two large independent age-matched dementia case-control data sets (n = 717) the healthy controls have significantly greater gene scores than those with cognitive impairment. Alone, or when combined with our previously described prototype Alzheimer disease (AD) RNA 'disease signature', the healthy ageing RNA classifier is diagnostic for AD. We identify a novel and statistically robust multi-tissue RNA signature of human healthy ageing that can act as a diagnostic of future health, using only a peripheral blood sample. This RNA signature has great potential to assist research aimed at finding treatments for and/or management of AD and other ageing-related conditions.

  10. Progressive Disintegration of Brain Networking from Normal Aging to Alzheimer Disease: Analysis of Independent Components of 18F-FDG PET Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Giuliani, Alessandro; Öberg, Johanna; De Carli, Fabrizio; Morbelli, Silvia; Girtler, Nicola; Arnaldi, Dario; Accardo, Jennifer; Bauckneht, Matteo; Bongioanni, Francesca; Chincarini, Andrea; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Jonsson, Cathrine; Nobili, Flavio

    2017-07-01

    Brain connectivity has been assessed in several neurodegenerative disorders investigating the mutual correlations between predetermined regions or nodes. Selective breakdown of brain networks during progression from normal aging to Alzheimer disease dementia (AD) has also been observed. Methods: We implemented independent-component analysis of 18 F-FDG PET data in 5 groups of subjects with cognitive states ranging from normal aging to AD-including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) not converting or converting to AD-to disclose the spatial distribution of the independent components in each cognitive state and their accuracy in discriminating the groups. Results: We could identify spatially distinct independent components in each group, with generation of local circuits increasing proportionally to the severity of the disease. AD-specific independent components first appeared in the late-MCI stage and could discriminate converting MCI and AD from nonconverting MCI with an accuracy of 83.5%. Progressive disintegration of the intrinsic networks from normal aging to MCI to AD was inversely proportional to the conversion time. Conclusion: Independent-component analysis of 18 F-FDG PET data showed a gradual disruption of functional brain connectivity with progression of cognitive decline in AD. This information might be useful as a prognostic aid for individual patients and as a surrogate biomarker in intervention trials. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Working memory binding and episodic memory formation in aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Heringa, Sophie M; van den Berg, Esther; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that in both normal and pathological aging working memory (WM) performance deteriorates, especially when associations have to be maintained. However, most studies typically do not assess the relationship between WM and episodic memory formation. In the present study, we examined WM and episodic memory formation in normal aging and in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (mild cognitive impairment, MCI; and Alzheimer's dementia, AD). In the first study, 26 young adults (mean age 29.6 years) were compared to 18 middle-aged adults (mean age 52.2 years) and 25 older adults (mean age 72.8 years). We used an associative delayed-match-to-sample WM task, which requires participants to maintain two pairs of faces and houses presented on a computer screen for short (3 s) or long (6 s) maintenance intervals. After the WM task, an unexpected subsequent associative memory task was administered (two-alternative forced choice). In the second study, 27 patients with AD and 19 patients with MCI were compared to 25 older controls, using the same paradigm as that in Experiment 1. Older adults performed worse than both middle-aged and young adults. No effect of delay was observed in the healthy adults, and pairs that were processed during long maintenance intervals were not better remembered in the subsequent memory task. In the MCI and AD patients, longer maintenance intervals hampered the task performance. Also, both patient groups performed significantly worse than controls on the episodic memory task as well as the associative WM task. Aging and AD present with a decline in WM binding, a finding that extends similar results in episodic memory. Longer delays in the WM task did not affect episodic memory formation. We conclude that WM deficits are found when WM capacity is exceeded, which may occur during associative processing.

  13. ERP C250 shows the elderly (cognitively normal, Alzheimer's disease) store more stimuli in short-term memory than Young Adults do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert M; Gardner, Margaret N; Mapstone, Mark; Klorman, Rafael; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Dupree, Haley M; Antonsdottir, Inga M; Kamalyan, Lily

    2016-06-01

    To determine how aging and dementia affect the brain's initial storing of task-relevant and irrelevant information in short-term memory. We used brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to measure short-term memory storage (ERP component C250) in 36 Young Adults, 36 Normal Elderly, and 36 early-stage AD subjects. Participants performed the Number-Letter task, a cognitive paradigm requiring memory storage of a first relevant stimulus to compare it with a second stimulus. In Young Adults, C250 was more positive for the first task-relevant stimulus compared to all other stimuli. C250 in Normal Elderly and AD subjects was roughly the same to relevant and irrelevant stimuli in Intratrial Parts 1-3 but not 4. The AD group had lower C250 to relevant stimuli in part 1. Both normal aging and dementia cause less differentiation of relevant from irrelevant information in initial storage. There was a large aging effect involving differences in the pattern of C250 responses of the Young Adult versus the Normal Elderly/AD groups. Also, a potential dementia effect was obtained. C250 is a candidate tool for measuring short-term memory performance on a biological level, as well as a potential marker for memory changes due to normal aging and dementia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospectus for ethical analysis of ageing individuals' responsibility to prevent cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Hall, Wayne

    2017-11-01

    As the world's population ages, governments and non-governmental organizations in developed countries are promoting healthy cognitive ageing to reduce the rate of age-related cognitive decline and sustain economic productivity in an ageing workforce. Recommendations from the Productivity Commission (Australia), Dementia Australia, Government Office for Science (UK), Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (USA), Institute of Medicine (USA), among others, are encouraging older adults to engage in mental, physical, and social activities. These lifestyle recommendations for healthy cognitive ageing are timely and well supported by scientific evidence but they make implicit normative judgments about the responsibility of ageing individuals to prevent cognitive decline. Ethical tensions arise when this individual responsibility collides with social and personal realities of ageing populations. First, we contextualize the priority given to healthy cognitive ageing within the current brain-based medical and social discourses. Second, we explore the individual responsibility by examining the economic considerations, medical evidence and individual interests that relate to the priority given to healthy cognitive ageing. Third, we identify three key ethical challenges for policymakers seeking to implement lifestyle recommendations as an effective population-level approach to healthy cognitive ageing. The result is a prospectus for future in-depth analysis of ethical tensions that arise from current policy discussions of healthy cognitive ageing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. This study determines whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was

  16. Cognitive ability across the life course and cortisol levels in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-11-01

    Elevated cortisol levels have been hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging, but study findings are inconsistent. In the present study, we examined the association between salivary cortisol in older age and cognitive ability across the life course. We used data from 370 members of the 36-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947, who underwent cognitive testing at age 11 years and were then followed up at around age 78 years, completing further cognitive tests and providing diurnal salivary cortisol samples. We hypothesized that higher cortisol levels would be associated with lower cognitive ability in older age and greater cognitive decline from childhood to older age but also lower childhood cognitive ability. Few of the tested associations were significant, and of those that were, most suggested a positive relationship between cortisol and cognitive ability. Only 1 cognitive measure showed any sign of cortisol-related impairment. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no results remained significant. These findings suggest that cortisol may not play an important role in cognitive aging across the life course. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene are modestly associated with normal cognitive function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, J; Christensen, K; Thinggaard, M

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variants in the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene have been suggested as risk factors for neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the importance of genetic variants in the ChAT gene in normal cognitive function of elderly in a study sample of Danish twins...... and singletons (N = 2070). The ChAT rs3810950 A allele, which has been associated with increased risk for AD, was found to be associated with a decrease cognitive status evaluated by a five-component cognitive composite score [P = 0.03, regression coefficient -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.57 to -0...

  18. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging.

  19. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2001-01-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging

  20. Role of oxidants/inflammation in declining renal function in chronic kidney disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Uribarri, Jaime; Striker, Gary E

    2009-12-01

    Oxidant stress (OS) and inflammation increase in normal aging and in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as observed in human and animal studies. In cross-sectional studies of the US population, these changes are associated with a decrease in renal function, which is exhibited by a significant proportion of the population. However, since many normal adults have intact renal function, and longitudinal studies show that some persons maintain normal renal function with age, the link between OS, inflammation, and renal decline is not clear. In aging mice, greater oxidant intake is associated with increased age-related CKD and mortality, which suggests that interventions that reduce OS and inflammation may be beneficial for older individuals. Both OS and inflammation can be readily lowered in normal subjects and patients with CKD stage 3-4 by a simple dietary modification that lowers intake and results in reduced serum and tissue levels of advanced glycation end products. Diabetic patients, including those with microalbuminuria, have a decreased ability to metabolize and excrete oxidants prior to observable changes in serum creatinine. Thus, OS and inflammation may occur in the diabetic kidney at an early time. We review the evidence that oxidants in the diet directly lead to increased serum levels of OS and inflammatory mediators in normal aging and in CKD. We also discuss a simple dietary intervention that helps reduce OS and inflammation, an important and achievable therapeutic goal for patients with CKD and aging individuals with reduced renal function.

  1. Gray matter network disruptions and amyloid beta in cognitively normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Kate, Mara Ten; Wink, Alle Meije; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Ecay, Mirian; Clerigue, Montserrat; Estanga, Ainara; Garcia Sebastian, Maite; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Martinez Lage, Pablo; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sanz Arigita, Ernesto; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter networks are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear when these disruptions start during the development of AD. Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42) is among the earliest changes in AD. We studied, in cognitively healthy adults, the relationship between Aβ42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures. Single-subject gray matter networks were extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in a sample of cognitively healthy adults (N = 185; age range 39-79, mini-mental state examination >25, N = 12 showed abnormal Aβ42 level and for 90 anatomical areas. Associations between continuous Aβ42 CSF levels and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures were tested. Smoothing splines were used to determine whether a linear or nonlinear relationship gave a better fit to the data. Lower Aβ42 CSF levels were linearly associated at whole brain level with lower connectivity density, and nonlinearly with lower clustering values and higher path length values, which is indicative of a less-efficient network organization. These relationships were specific to medial temporal areas, precuneus, and the middle frontal gyrus (all p levels can be related to gray matter networks disruptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal relationship between cognitive and physical performance in middle-aged to oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, Marjon; Aartsen, Marja J.; Taekema, Diana G.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Huisman, Martijn; Meskers, Carel G.M.; De Craen, Anton J.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive and physical impairment frequently co-occur in older people. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal order of these age-related changes in cognitive and physical performance and to assess whether a relationship was different across specific cognitive and physical

  3. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) genotype and cognitive function in persons aged 35 years or older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izaks, Gerbrand J.; van der Knaap, Aafke M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Common polymorphisms of the Cholestryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) gene may predict lower risk of cognitive decline. We investigated the association of cognitive function with CETP genotype in a population-based cohort of 4135 persons aged 35-82 years. Cognitive function was measured with the Ruff

  4. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area: DERIVA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Mora-Simón, Sara; Patino-Alonso, María C; García-García, Ricardo; Escribano-Hernández, Alfonso; García-Ortiz, Luis; Perea-Bartolomé, Ma Victoria; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A

    2011-11-17

    Few data are available on the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in Spain, and the existing information shows important variations depending on the geographical setting and the methodology employed. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CI in individuals aged over 65 in an urban area, and to analyze its associated risk factors. A descriptive, cross-sectional, home questionnaire-based study; Populational, urban setting. The reference population comprised over-65s living in the city of Salamanca (Spain) in 2009. Randomized sampling stratified according to health district was carried out, and a total of 480 people were selected. In all, 327 patients were interviewed (68.10%), with a mean age of 76.35 years (SD: 7.33). Women accounted for 64.5% of the total. A home health questionnaire was used to obtain the following data: age, sex, educational level, family structure, morbidity and functionality. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. The prevalence data were compared with those of the European population, with direct adjustment for age and sex. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment - no dementia (CIND), and dementia. The prevalence of CI among these over-65s was 19% (14.7% CIND and 4.3% dementia). The age-and sex-adjusted global prevalence of CI was 14.9%. CI increased with age (p < 0.001) and decreased with increasing educational level (p < 0.001). Significant risk factors were found with the multivariate analyses: age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.12), anxiety-depression (OR = 3.47, 95%CI: 1.61-7.51) and diabetes (OR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18). In turn, years of education was found to be a protective factor (OR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.70-0.90). Although CI was more frequent among women and in people living without a partner, these characteristics were not significantly associated with CI risk. The observed raw prevalence of CI was 19% (14.9% after adjusting for age

  5. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…

  6. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahng, Geon-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital-Gangdong, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Xu, Songfan [Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Weiner, Micheal W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Schuff, Norbert [University of California-San Francisco, Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Medical Center and the Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Park, Seungjoon [Graduate School of Kyung Hee University, Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University, Department of Pharmacology and the Medical Research Center for Bioreaction to ROS and the Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  7. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  8. Nicotinic receptor imaging with F-18 A85380 PET in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottlaender, M.; Maziere, B.; Pappata, S.; Dolle, F.; Rowe, C.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Reutens, D.; Chan, G.; Woodward, M.

    2002-01-01

    preserve cholinergic neurones. To determine the distribution of F-18 A85380 in the normal human brain in persons aged between 50 and 80 years. To determine the effect of age on F-18 A85380 binding. To determine the distribution of F-18 A85380 in the brain of persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. To determine if F-18 A85380 PET can reliably differentiate persons with early Alzheimer's disease from elderly normal persons. In April 2002 the first human study of nicotinic receptors with F-18 A85380 was performed at ARMC. Difficulties with Ethics approval delayed the commencement of scanning in France but human studies have now commenced at both sites. Both Centres are working together to optimise scan times and determine the most appropriate analysis technique. Both Centres plan to study at least 20 mild AD subjects and at least 20 age matched normal subjects. The data will be pooled for joint publication. Future studies in Mild Cognitive Impairment, familial frontal lobe epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's Disease may follow

  9. A critical review of Vitamin C for the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Fiona E

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants in the diet have long been thought to confer some level of protection against the oxidative damage that is involved in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease as well as general cognitive decline in normal aging. Nevertheless, support for this hypothesis in the literature is equivocal. In the case of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in particular, lack of consideration of some of the specific features of vitamin C metabolism has led to studies in which classification of participants accord...

  10. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  11. Training versus Engagement as Paths to Cognitive Enrichment with Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Payne, Brennan R.; Roberts, Brent W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Payne, Laura; Hill, Patrick L.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Gao, Xuefei; Noh, Soo Rim; Janke, Megan C.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2014-01-01

    While a training model of cognitive intervention targets the improvement of particular skills through instruction and practice, an engagement model is based on the idea that being embedded in an intellectually and socially complex environment can impact cognition, perhaps even broadly, without explicit instruction. We contrasted these two models of cognitive enrichment by randomly assigning healthy older adults to a home-based inductive reasoning training program, a team-based competitive pro...

  12. Factors affecting aging cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, JeeWon; Kang, Se-Won; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine factors affecting aging cognitive function of 3,645 community-dwelling older adults in Korea. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale assessed aging cognitive function, blood analyses and anthropometrics assessed cardio-metabolic risk factors, and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korean Version assessed depressive symptoms. Participants with poor aging cognitive function were more likely to be in the late age group (≥75 y) and currently smoking and have a medical history of stroke, high body mass index, and high level of depressive symptoms; they were also less likely to engage in regular meals and physical activities. Regular meals and physical activities may be primary factors for clinical assessment to identify older adults at risk for aging cognitive function. With aging, depressive symptoms and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours should be managed to prevent cognitive function disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon R.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Hernández, Maria del C. Valdés; Bastin, Mark E.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. However, many studies are cross-sectional or have relatively short follow-up periods, making it difficult to relate GCs directly to changes in cognitive ability with increasing age. Moreover, studies combining endocrine, MRI and cognitive variables are scarce, measurement methods vary considerably, and formal tests of the underlying causal hypothesis (cortisol → brain → cognition) are absent. In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years, provided measures of fluid intelligence, processing speed and memory, diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol and two measures of white matter (WM) structure (WM hyperintensity volume from structural MRI and mean diffusivity averaged across 12 major tracts from diffusion tensor MRI), hippocampal volume, and also cognitive ability at age 11. We tested whether negative relationships between cognitive ageing differences (over more than 60 years) and salivary cortisol were significantly mediated by WM and hippocampal volume. Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73 (r = −.28 to −.36, p cognition associations (cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain WM structure. PMID:26298692

  14. Aging and vestibular system: specific tests and role of melatonin in cognitive involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpini, D; Cesarani, A; Fraschini, F; Kohen-Raz, R; Capobianco, S; Cornelio, F

    2004-01-01

    Balance disorders are frequent with aging. They are particularly important because they decrease social autonomy of the aged subjects and they often provoke falls. The cause is always multifactorial. There is evidence that aging affects multiple sensory inputs, as well as the muscoloskeletal system and central nervous system ability to perform sensorimotor integration. For the evaluation of decreased balance skills in elderly, a specific questionnaire has been prepared, in order to identify high risk of falling called falling risk inventory (FRI) questionnaire, and a complex psycho-sensory-motor test has been studied by means of posturography, in order to detect specific vestibular impairment. Regarding ethiopathogenesis of balance disorders in aged subjects, because the decline of behavioral and cognitive performances are due also to decline of biological rhythm control, the role of melatonin (the hormone regulating circadian rhythms, being strictly connected with cerebellar function, and it is well known that cerebellum acts in elderly both at motor and cognitive regulation. The goals of the present paper are: (i) To present a self-administered FRI questionnaire aimed at identifying possible causes of falls and quantifying falling risk in aged. (ii) To validate posturography as a specific test to investigate vestibular involvement in elderly in correlation with FRI. (iii) To present a complex behavioral test (NT) aimed at evaluating both spatial orientation and spatial memory in elderly, factors involved into the genesis of complex dizziness and unsteadiness. (iv) To evaluate the role of melatonin in cognitive involvement in dizzy, old subjects due to the functional correlations between circadian rhythms, cerebellum balance disturbances and cognitive disorders. General conclusions are: FRI correlates with falling risk. Posturography identifies specific vestibular impairments correlated to balance disorders and elderly falls. Spatial orientation is altered in

  15. Learning to remember: Cognitive training-induced attenuation of age-related memory decline depends on sex and cognitive demand, and can transfer to untrained cognitive domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom, Joshua S.; West, Stephen G.; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B.; Enders, Craig K.; Crain, Ian; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive changes in learning and memory. A potential approach to attenuate age-related cognitive decline is cognitive training. In this study, adult male and female rats were given either repeated exposure to a T-maze, or no exposure to any maze, and then tested on a final battery of cognitive tasks. Two groups of each sex were tested from 6-18 months old on the same T-maze; one group received a version testing spatial reference memory, and the other group received only the procedural testing components with minimal cognitive demand. Groups three and four of each sex had no maze exposure until the final battery, and were comprised of aged or young rats. The final maze battery included the practiced T-maze plus two novel tasks, one with a similar, and one with a different, memory type to the practice task. The fifth group of each sex was not maze tested, serving as an aged control for the effects of maze testing on neurotrophin protein levels in cognitive brain regions. Results showed that adult intermittent cognitive training enhanced performance on the practice task when aged in both sexes, that cognitive training benefits transferred to novel tasks only in females, and that cognitive demand was necessary for these effects since rats receiving only the procedural testing components showed no improvement on the final maze battery. Further, for both sexes, rats that showed faster learning when young demonstrated better memory when aged. Age-related increases in neurotrophin concentrations in several brain regions were revealed, which was related to performance on the training task only in females. This longitudinal study supports the tenet that cognitive training can help one remember later in life, with broader enhancements and associations with neurotrophins in females. PMID:25104561

  16. Occupational activity and cognitive reserve: implications in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stéphane Adam1, Eric Bonsang2, Catherine Grotz1, Sergio Perelman3 1Unité de Psychologie de la Sénescence, University of Liège, Belgium; 2Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market, Maastricht University, The Netherlands; 3Center of Research in Public Economics and Population Economics, University of Liège, Belgium Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the concept of activity (including both professional and nonprofessional and cognitive functioning among older European individuals. In this research, we used data collected during the first wave of SHARE (Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, and a measurement approach known as stochastic frontier analysis, derived from the economic literature. SHARE includes a large population (n > 25,000 geographically distributed across Europe, and analyzes several dimensions simultaneously, including physical and mental health activity. The main advantages of stochastic frontier analysis are that it allows estimation of parametric function relating cognitive scores and driving factors at the boundary and disentangles frontier noise and distance to frontier components, as well as testing the effect of potential factors on these distances simultaneously. The analysis reveals that all activities are positively related to cognitive functioning in elderly people. Our results are discussed in terms of prevention of cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease, and regarding the potential impact that some retirement programs might have on cognitive functioning in individuals across Europe. Keywords: cognitive aging, cognitive reserve, retirement, Alzheimer’s disease

  17. [Associations of obesity and physical activity with cognition in people aged 50 and above in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z Z; Zhang, Y C; Zheng, Y; Guo, Y F; Ruan, Y; Sun, S Y; Shi, Y; Gao, S N; Ye, J H; Yan, Y J; Wu, K; Xu, R F; Wu, F

    2018-03-10

    Objective: To investigate the associations of obesity and physical activity with cognition in the elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2009 to June 2010 among people aged ≥50 years selected through multistage random cluster sampling in Shanghai. The subjects' body weight, body height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR), and the data on self-reported physical activity level were collected through questionnaire survey. A comprehensive battery of cognitive tests was conducted to assess subjects' cognitive functions, including verbal recall, forward digit span (FDS), backward digit span (BDS), and verbal fluency (VF). General linear model was used to examine the associations of BMI, WHR and physical activity with cognition. Results: A total of 7 913 participants were included, with a median age of 60 years. Age, sex, education level, income level, BMI, WHR and physical activity level were significantly associated with cognitive scores in univariate analysis. After adjusted for age, sex, education level and income level, BMI was no longer significantly associated with cognitive scores in all cognitive functions (all P >0.01). WHR was significantly associated with VF score ( P cognitive functions ( P cognitive functions ( P cognition level in the elderly, suggesting that waist circumference control and physical activity might help maintain cognition in the elderly.

  18. Effects of Preretirement Work Complexity and Postretirement Leisure Activity on Cognitive Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the influence of postretirement leisure activity on longitudinal associations between work complexity in main lifetime occupation and trajectories of cognitive change before and after retirement. Methods: Information on complexity of work with data, people, and things, leisure activity participation in older adulthood, and four cognitive factors (verbal, spatial, memory, and speed) was available from 421 individuals in the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Participants were followed for an average of 14.2 years (SD = 7.1 years) and up to 23 years across eight cognitive assessments. Most of the sample (88.6%) completed at least three cognitive assessments. Results: Results of growth curve analyses indicated that higher complexity of work with people significantly attenuated cognitive aging in verbal skills, memory, and speed of processing controlling for age, sex, and education. When leisure activity was added, greater cognitive and physical leisure activity was associated with reduced cognitive aging in verbal skills, speed of processing, and memory (for cognitive activity only). Discussion: Engagement in cognitive or physical leisure activities in older adulthood may compensate for cognitive disadvantage potentially imposed by working in occupations that offer fewer cognitive challenges. These results may provide a platform to encourage leisure activity participation in those retiring from less complex occupations. PMID:25975289

  19. Molecular insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and its relationship to normal aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A Podtelezhnikov

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that diverges from the process of normal brain aging by unknown mechanisms. We analyzed the global structure of age- and disease-dependent gene expression patterns in three regions from more than 600 brains. Gene expression variation could be almost completely explained by four transcriptional biomarkers that we named BioAge (biological age, Alz (Alzheimer, Inflame (inflammation, and NdStress (neurodegenerative stress. BioAge captures the first principal component of variation and includes genes statistically associated with neuronal loss, glial activation, and lipid metabolism. Normally BioAge increases with chronological age, but in AD it is prematurely expressed as if some of the subjects were 140 years old. A component of BioAge, Lipa, contains the AD risk factor APOE and reflects an apparent early disturbance in lipid metabolism. The rate of biological aging in AD patients, which cannot be explained by BioAge, is associated instead with NdStress, which includes genes related to protein folding and metabolism. Inflame, comprised of inflammatory cytokines and microglial genes, is broadly activated and appears early in the disease process. In contrast, the disease-specific biomarker Alz was selectively present only in the affected areas of the AD brain, appears later in pathogenesis, and is enriched in genes associated with the signaling and cell adhesion changes during the epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT transition. Together these biomarkers provide detailed description of the aging process and its contribution to Alzheimer's disease progression.

  20. Normal cranial bone marrow MR imaging pattern with age-related ADC value distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Pan Shinong; Yin Yuming; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Liu Yunhui; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine MRI appearances of normal age-related cranial bone marrow and the relationship between MRI patterns and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Methods: Five hundred subjects were divided into seven groups based on ages. Cranial bone marrow MRI patterns were performed based on different thickness of the diploe and signal intensity distribution characteristics. ADC values of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones on DWI were measured and calculated. Correlations between ages and ADC values, between patterns and ADC values, as well as the distribution of ADC values were analyzed. Results: Normal cranial bone marrow was divided into four types and six subtypes, Type I, II, III and IV, which had positive correlation with age increasing (χ 2 = 266.36, P 0.05). In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the ADC values and MRI patterns in the normal parietal and occipital bones (r = -0.691 and -0.750, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The combination of MRI features and ADC values changes in different cranial bones showed significant correlation with age increasing. Familiar with the MRI appearance of the normal bone marrow conversion pattern in different age group and their ADC value will aid the diagnosis and differential of the cranial bone pathology.

  1. Age-related contrast enhancement study of normal bone marrow in lumbar spinal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young A; Ha, Doo Hoe

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of contrast enhancement of normal bone marrow in L-spine relating to aging and to determine the range of contrast enhancement in normal bone marrow. We analyzed a total of 120 patients (20 per decade) who had undergone lumbar spinal MRI and who ranged in age from the 2nd decade to more than the 7th. Bone marrow revealed no abnormal pathology. Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained before and after gadolinium administration. For each sequence, a region of interest was drawn within the L1 vertebral body from the midsagittal slice. Signal intensity (SI) values of each sequence were ascertained and the percentage increase in SI was calculated. After contrast enhancement, lumbar MRI revealed no statistically significant in the percentage increase in SI of normal bone marrow in relation to aging. Most patients (99%) however showed an SI increase of between 10% and 49%. In only four, none of whom were aged over 40, was this increase above 50%. Lumbar MRI, revealed no statistically significant difference in percentage increase in SI in normal bone marrow relating to aging, but when the increase is above 50% in a patient aged over 40, bone marrow pathology should be further investigated

  2. A triple network connectivity study of large-scale brain systems in cognitively normal APOE4 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The triple network model, consisting of the central executive network, salience network and default mode network, has been recently employed to understand dysfunction in core networks across various disorders. Here we used the triple network model to investigate the large-scale brain networks in cognitively normal APOE4 carriers who are at risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To explore the functional connectivity for each of the three networks and the effective connectivity among them, we evaluated 17 cognitively normal individuals with a family history of AD and at least one copy of the apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4 allele and compared the findings to those of 12 individuals who did not carry the APOE4 gene or have a family history of AD, using independent component analysis and Bayesian network approach. Our findings indicated altered within-network connectivity that suggests future cognitive decline risk, and preserved between-network connectivity that may support their current preserved cognition in the cognitively normal APOE4 allele carries. The study provides novel sights into our understanding of the risk factors for AD and their influence on the triple network model of major psychopathology.

  3. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi; Hossein Rezaie-Delui

    2013-01-01

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive e...

  4. Prediction of endometriosis by transvaginal ultrasound in reproductive-age women with normal ovarian size

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer H. Said; Amal Z. Azzam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To predict endometriosis by transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in reproductive-age women with normal ovarian size. Design: Prospective study. Setting: El-Shatby Maternity Hospital, Alexandria University. Patients: 125 Women with symptoms suggestive of endometriosis and with normal ovarian size during TVS. Interventions: Patients were subjected to high frequency ultrasound and evaluated for the presence of ultrasound signs of endometriosis (TVS-based soft markers). All patien...

  5. [Brain Perfusion, Cognitive Functions, and Vascular Age in Middle Aged Patients With Essential Arterial Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, V A; Ostroumova, T M; Pеrepelova, E M; Perepelov, V A; Kochetkov, A I; Ostroumova, O D

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the cognitive functions and cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL) and their possible correlations with vascular age in untreated middle-aged patients with grade 1-2 essential arterial hypertension (EAH). We examined 73 subjects aged 40-59 years (33 with EAH and 40 healthy volunteers [controls]). Neuropsychological assessment included Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Trail Making test (part A and part B), Stroop Color and Word Test, verbal fluency test (phonemic verbal fluency and semantic verbal fluency), 10‑item word list learning task. All subjects underwent brain MRI. MRI protocol included ASL. Vascular age was calculated by two techniques - using Framingham Heart Study risk tables and SCORE project scales. Patients with EAH had lower performance on phonemic verbal fluency test and lower mean MoCA score (29.2±1.4 vs. 28.1±1.7 points) compared to controls (13.4±3.2, р=0.002; 29.2±1.4, p=0.001, respectively). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were present in 7.5 % controls and in 51.5 % EAH patients (р=0.0002). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in EAH patients was lower in both right (39.1±5.6 vs. 45.8±3.2 ml / 100 g / min) and left frontal lobes of the brain (39.2±6.2 и 45.2±3.6 ml / 100 g / min, respectively) compared to controls (р.

  6. Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment, Dementia and Mortality: The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Crawford, John; Kochan, Nicole A; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Reppermund, Simone; Maston, Kate; Mather, Karen A; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-05-01

    The nature and commonality of late-life risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate potential risk factors, simultaneously in a single cohort including many individuals initially with normal cognition and followed for 6 years. We classified 873 community-dwelling individuals (70-90 years old and without dementia at baseline) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study as cognitively normal (CN), having MCI or dementia, or deceased 6 years after baseline. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical factors were investigated, including apolipoprotein (APOE) genotype, MCI at baseline, and reversion from MCI to CN within 2 years of baseline. Eighty-three (9.5%) participants developed dementia and 114 (13%) died within 6 years; nearly 33% had MCI at baseline, of whom 28% reverted to CN within 2 years. A core set of baseline factors was associated with MCI and dementia at 6 years, including older age (per year: odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals = 1.08, 1.01-1.14 for MCI; 1.19, 1.09-1.31 for dementia), MCI at baseline (5.75, 3.49-9.49; 8.23, 3.93-17.22), poorer smelling ability (per extra test point: 0.89, 0.79-1.02; 0.80, 0.68-0.94), slower walking speed (per second: 1.12, 1.00-1.25; 1.21, 1.05-1.39), and being an APOE ε4 carrier (1.84, 1.07-3.14; 3.63, 1.68-7.82). All except APOE genotype were also associated with mortality (age: 1.11, 1.03-1.20; MCI: 3.87, 1.97-7.59; smelling ability: 0.83, 0.70-0.97; walking speed: 1.18, 1.03-1.34). Compared with stable CN participants, individuals reverting from MCI to CN after 2 years were at greater risk of future MCI (3.06, 1.63-5.72). Those who reverted exhibited some different associations between baseline risk factors and 6-year outcomes than individuals with stable MCI. A core group of late-life risk factors indicative of physical and mental frailty are associated with each of dementia, MCI, and mortality after 6

  7. Association between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M. I.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L. M.; Adèr, H. J.; Schmand, B.

    1999-01-01

    Results of previous studies suggest that memory complaints may predict cognitive decline and dementia among elderly people in whom cognitive impairment is already apparent. However, cognitive decline is often a gradual process, and elderly people may notice that their memory deteriorates before

  8. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  9. Cluster Analysis of Physical and Cognitive Ageing Patterns in Older People from Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Bandelow; Xin Xu; Shifu Xiao; Eef Hogervorst

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education, cognitive and physical function in older age, and their respective impacts on activities of daily living (ADL). Data on 148 older participants from a community-based sample recruited in Shanghai, China, included the following measures: age, education, ADL, grip strength, balance, gait speed, global cognition and verbal memory. The majority of participants in the present cohort were cognitively and physically healthy and reported no p...

  10. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni L. Vlahou; Franka Thurm; Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Winfried Schlee

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18–89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show tha...

  11. Peripheral surgical wounding may induce cognitive impairment through interlukin-6-dependent mechanisms in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yuanlin; Xu, Zhipeng; Huang, Lining; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased cost of medical care. However, the neuropathogenesis and targeted interventions of POCD remain largely to be determined. We have found that the peripheral surgical wounding induces an age-dependent A? accumulation, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokine interlukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in rodents and human...

  12. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Amyloid burden and incident depressive symptoms in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Karra D; Gould, Emma; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Pietrzak, Robert H; Rembach, Alan; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Martins, Ralph N; Salvado, Olivier; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Masters, Colin L; Maruff, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have reported that non-demented older adults with clinical depression show changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and on neuroimaging that are consistent with those observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that Aβ may be one of the mechanisms underlying the relation between the two conditions. We sought to determine the relation between elevated cerebral Aβ and the presence of depression across a 54-month prospective observation period. Cognitively normal older adults from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle study who were not depressed and had undergone a positron emission tomography scan to classify them as either high Aβ (n = 81) or low Aβ (n = 278) participated. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form at 18-month intervals over 54 months. Whilst there was no difference in probable depression between groups at baseline, incidence was 4.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-16.4) times greater within the high Aβ group (9%) than the low Aβ group (2%) by the 54-month assessment. Results of this study suggest that elevated Aβ levels are associated with a 4.5-fold increased likelihood of developing clinically significant depressive symptoms on follow-up in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. This underscores the importance of assessing, monitoring and treating depressive symptoms in older adults with elevated Aβ. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of Age and Working Memory Capacity on Speech Recognition Performance in Noise Among Listeners With Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Cole, Stacey Samuels

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if younger and older listeners with normal hearing who differ on working memory span perform differently on speech recognition tests in noise. Older adults typically exhibit poorer speech recognition scores in noise than younger adults, which is attributed primarily to poorer hearing sensitivity and more limited working memory capacity in older than younger adults. Previous studies typically tested older listeners with poorer hearing sensitivity and shorter working memory spans than younger listeners, making it difficult to discern the importance of working memory capacity on speech recognition. This investigation controlled for hearing sensitivity and compared speech recognition performance in noise by younger and older listeners who were subdivided into high and low working memory groups. Performance patterns were compared for different speech materials to assess whether or not the effect of working memory capacity varies with the demands of the specific speech test. The authors hypothesized that (1) normal-hearing listeners with low working memory span would exhibit poorer speech recognition performance in noise than those with high working memory span; (2) older listeners with normal hearing would show poorer speech recognition scores than younger listeners with normal hearing, when the two age groups were matched for working memory span; and (3) an interaction between age and working memory would be observed for speech materials that provide contextual cues. Twenty-eight older (61 to 75 years) and 25 younger (18 to 25 years) normal-hearing listeners were assigned to groups based on age and working memory status. Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers sentences were presented in noise using an adaptive procedure to measure the signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to 50% correct performance. Cognitive ability was evaluated with two tests of working memory (Listening

  15. Polarization sensitive changes in the human macula associated with normal aging and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNasdale, Dean Allan, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    The human macula occupies a relatively small, but crucial retinal area, as it is the location responsible for our most acute spatial vision and best color discrimination. Localizing important landmarks in the retina is difficult even in normal eyes where morphological inter-individual variability is high. This becomes even more challenging in the presence of sight-threatening pathology. With respect to the human macula, there remains a significant gap in the understanding of normal structure and function. Even less is known about the pathological mechanisms that occur in sight-threatening diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Because relatively little is known about normal aging changes, it is also difficult to differentiate those changes from changes associated with retinal disease. To better understand normal and pathological changes in the macula, imaging techniques using specific optical signatures are required. Structural features in the macula can be distinguished based on their intrinsic properties using specific light/tissue interactions. Because of the high degree of structural regularity in the macula, polarization sensitive imaging is potentially a useful tool for evaluating the morphology and integrity of the cellular architecture for both normal individuals and those affected by disease. In our investigations, we used polarization sensitive imaging to determining normal landmarks that are important clinically and for research investigations. We found that precision and accuracy in localizing the central macula was greatly improved through the use of polarization sensitive imaging. We also found that specific polarization alterations can be used to demonstrate systematic changes as a function of age, disproportionately affecting the central macular region. When evaluating patients with age-related macular degeneration, we found that precision and accuracy of localizing the central macula was also improved, even when significant pathology

  16. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  17. Training versus engagement as paths to cognitive enrichment with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L; Payne, Brennan R; Roberts, Brent W; Kramer, Arthur F; Morrow, Daniel G; Payne, Laura; Hill, Patrick L; Jackson, Joshua J; Gao, Xuefei; Noh, Soo Rim; Janke, Megan C; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2014-12-01

    While a training model of cognitive intervention targets the improvement of particular skills through instruction and practice, an engagement model is based on the idea that being embedded in an intellectually and socially complex environment can impact cognition, perhaps even broadly, without explicit instruction. We contrasted these 2 models of cognitive enrichment by randomly assigning healthy older adults to a home-based inductive reasoning training program, a team-based competitive program in creative problem solving, or a wait-list control. As predicted, those in the training condition showed selective improvement in inductive reasoning. Those in the engagement condition, on the other hand, showed selective improvement in divergent thinking, a key ability exercised in creative problem solving. On average, then, both groups appeared to show ability-specific effects. However, moderators of change differed somewhat for those in the engagement and training interventions. Generally, those who started either intervention with a more positive cognitive profile showed more cognitive growth, suggesting that cognitive resources enabled individuals to take advantage of environmental enrichment. Only in the engagement condition did initial levels of openness and social network size moderate intervention effects on cognition, suggesting that comfort with novelty and an ability to manage social resources may be additional factors contributing to the capacity to take advantage of the environmental complexity associated with engagement. Collectively, these findings suggest that training and engagement models may offer alternative routes to cognitive resilience in late life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. On the moderating role of age in the relationship between pain and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Gibson, S.J.; Pulles, W.L.J.A.; Veldhuijzen, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background A relationship between pain perception and cognitive function is evident. However, the directionality of this association is unclear and may be influenced by age. That is, inverse associations between pain and cognition have been reported in young and middle-aged chronic pain patients,

  19. MTHFR polymorphisms and cognitive ageing in the ninth decade: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiepers, O. J.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Harris, S. E.; Gow, A. J.; Pattie, A.; Brett, C. E.; de Groot, R. H.; Jolles, J.; Starr, J. M.; Deary, I. J.

    2011-01-01

    Low blood levels of B vitamins have been implicated in age-associated cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the association between genetic variation in folate metabolism and age-related cognitive decline in the ninth decade of life. Both the 677C>T (rs1801133) polymorphism and the

  20. Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance…

  1. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive performance in middle-aged and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Aleman, A.; Bots, M.; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background: Decline of cognitive function with age may be due, in part, to atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to cognitive functioning in middle-aged and elderly men. Methods: In a cross-sectional study,

  2. Brain Insulin Administration Triggers Distinct Cognitive and Neurotrophic Responses in Young and Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Clarissa B; Kalinine, Eduardo; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Hansel, Gisele; Brochier, Andressa W; Oses, Jean P; Portela, Luis V; Muller, Alexandre P

    2016-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative disorders, and impaired brain insulin receptor (IR) signaling is mechanistically linked to these abnormalities. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether brain insulin infusions improve spatial memory in aged and young rats. Aged (24 months) and young (4 months) male Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with insulin (20 mU) or vehicle for five consecutive days. The animals were then assessed for spatial memory using a Morris water maze. Insulin increased memory performance in young rats, but not in aged rats. Thus, we searched for cellular and molecular mechanisms that might account for this distinct memory response. In contrast with our expectation, insulin treatment increased the proliferative activity in aged rats, but not in young rats, implying that neurogenesis-related effects do not explain the lack of insulin effects on memory in aged rats. Furthermore, the expression levels of the IR and downstream signaling proteins such as GSK3-β, mTOR, and presynaptic protein synaptophysin were increased in aged rats in response to insulin. Interestingly, insulin treatment increased the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptors in the hippocampus of young rats, but not of aged rats. Our data therefore indicate that aged rats can have normal IR downstream protein expression but failed to mount a BDNF response after challenge in a spatial memory test. In contrast, young rats showed insulin-mediated TrkB/BDNF response, which paralleled with improved memory performance.

  3. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  4. Normalization of Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Data During Ageing in Distinct Cerebral Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, G; Vivien, D; Docagne, F; Roussel, B D

    2016-04-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a routine method in many laboratories. Normalization of data from experimental conditions is critical for data processing and is usually achieved by the use of a single reference gene. Nevertheless, as pointed by the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, several reference genes should be used for reliable normalization. Ageing is a physiological process that results in a decline of many expressed genes. Reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data becomes crucial when studying ageing. Here, we propose a RT-qPCR study from four mouse brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum) at different ages (from 8 weeks to 22 months) in which we studied the expression of nine commonly used reference genes. With the use of two different algorithms, we found that all brain structures need at least two genes for a good normalization step. We propose specific pairs of gene for efficient data normalization in the four brain regions studied. These results underline the importance of reliable reference genes for specific brain regions in ageing.

  5. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  6. Neurogenetic effects on cognition in aging brains: A window of opportunity for intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Reinvang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic influences on cognitive aging can constrain and guide interventions aimed at limiting age-related cognitive decline in older adults. Progress in understanding the neural basis of cognitive aging also requires a better understanding of the neurogenetics of cognition. This selective review article describes studies aimed at deriving specific neurogenetic information from three parallel and interrelated phenotype based approaches: psychometric constructs, cognitive neuroscience based processing measures, and brain imaging morphometric data. Developments in newer genetic analysis tools, including genome wide association, are also described. In particular, we focus on models for establishing genotype-phenotype associations within an explanatory framework linking molecular, brain, and cognitive levels of analysis. Such multiple-phenotype approaches indicate that individual variation in genes central to maintaining synaptic integrity, neurotransmitter function, and synaptic plasticity are important in affecting age-related changes in brain structure and cognition. Investigating phenotypes at multiple levels is recommended as a means to advance understanding of the neural impact of genetic variants relevant to cognitive aging. Further knowledge regarding the mechanisms of interaction between genetic and preventative procedures will in turn help in understanding the ameliorative effect of various experiential and lifestyle factors on age-related cognitive decline.

  7. The cognitive complexity of concurrent cognitive-motor tasks reveals age-related deficits in motor performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Reiche, Mikkel Staall; Vinescu, Cristina Ioana

    2018-01-01

    Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence......, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking...... tasks when compared to younger adults. Both upper limb and walking tasks involved simple and complex cognitive demands through decision-making. For both tasks, decision-making was assessed by including a distracting factor to the execution. The results showed that older adults were substantially slower...

  8. Aging and insulin signaling differentially control normal and tumorous germline stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Han; Tseng, Chen-Yuan; Wan, Chih-Ling; Su, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Chang-Che; Pi, Haiwei; Hsu, Hwei-Jan

    2015-02-01

    Aging influences stem cells, but the processes involved remain unclear. Insulin signaling, which controls cellular nutrient sensing and organismal aging, regulates the G2 phase of Drosophila female germ line stem cell (GSC) division cycle in response to diet; furthermore, this signaling pathway is attenuated with age. The role of insulin signaling in GSCs as organisms age, however, is also unclear. Here, we report that aging results in the accumulation of tumorous GSCs, accompanied by a decline in GSC number and proliferation rate. Intriguingly, GSC loss with age is hastened by either accelerating (through eliminating expression of Myt1, a cell cycle inhibitory regulator) or delaying (through mutation of insulin receptor (dinR) GSC division, implying that disrupted cell cycle progression and insulin signaling contribute to age-dependent GSC loss. As flies age, DNA damage accumulates in GSCs, and the S phase of the GSC cell cycle is prolonged. In addition, GSC tumors (which escape the normal stem cell regulatory microenvironment, known as the niche) still respond to aging in a similar manner to normal GSCs, suggesting that niche signals are not required for GSCs to sense or respond to aging. Finally, we show that GSCs from mated and unmated females behave similarly, indicating that female GSC-male communication does not affect GSCs with age. Our results indicate the differential effects of aging and diet mediated by insulin signaling on the stem cell division cycle, highlight the complexity of the regulation of stem cell aging, and describe a link between ovarian cancer and aging. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate on working memory and cognitive flexibility in an animal model of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankosky, Emily R; Sherrill, Luke K; Ruvola, Lauren A; Haake, Rachel M; Kim, Taehyeon; Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Kougias, Daniel G; Juraska, Janice M; Gulley, Joshua M

    2017-09-01

    Normal aging results in cognitive decline and nutritional interventions have been suggested as potential approaches for mitigating these deficits. Here, we used rats to investigate the effects of short- and long-term dietary supplementation with the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on working memory and cognitive flexibility. Beginning ∼12 months of age, male and female Long-Evans rats were given twice daily access to sipper tubes containing calcium HMB (450 mg/kg) or vehicle (285 mg/kg calcium lactate) in a sucrose solution (20% w/v). Supplementation continued for 1 or 7 months (middle- and old-age (OA) groups, respectively) before testing began. Working memory was assessed by requiring rats to respond on a previously sampled lever following various delays. Cognitive flexibility was assessed by training rats to earn food according to a visual strategy and then, once acquired, shifting to an egocentric response strategy. Treatment with HMB improved working memory performance in middle-age (MA) males and OA rats of both sexes. In the cognitive flexibility task, there was a significant age-dependent deficit in acquisition of the visual strategy that was not apparent in OA males treated with HMB. Furthermore, HMB ameliorated an apparent deficit in visual strategy acquisition in MA females. Together, these findings suggest that daily nutritional supplementation with HMB facilitates learning and improves working memory performance. As such, HMB supplementation may mitigate age-related cognitive deficits and may therefore be an effective tool to combat this undesirable feature of the aging process.

  10. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Age-related reduction in microcolumnar structure correlates with cognitive decline in ventral but not dorsal area 46 of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L; Roe, D L; Urbanc, B; Inglis, A; Stanley, H E; Rosene, D L

    2009-02-18

    The age-related decline in cognitive function that is observed in normal aging monkeys and humans occurs without significant loss of cortical neurons. This suggests that cognitive impairment results from subtle, sub-lethal changes in the cortex. Recently, changes in the structural coherence in mini- or microcolumns without loss of neurons have been linked to loss of function. Here we use a density map method to quantify microcolumnar structure in both banks of the sulcus principalis (prefrontal cortical area 46) of 16 (ventral) and 19 (dorsal) behaviorally tested female rhesus monkeys from 6 to 33 years of age. While total neuronal density does not change with age in either of these banks, there is a significant age-related reduction in the strength of microcolumns in both regions on the order of 40%. This likely reflects a subtle but definite loss of organization in the structure of the cortical microcolumn. The reduction in strength in ventral area 46 correlates with cognitive impairments in learning and memory while the reduction in dorsal area 46 does not. This result is congruent with published data attributing cognitive functions to ventral area 46 that are similar to our particular cognitive battery which does not optimally tap cognitive functions attributed to dorsal area 46. While the exact mechanisms underlying this loss of microcolumnar organization remain to be determined, it is plausible that they reflect age-related alterations in dendritic and/or axonal organization which alter connectivity and may contribute to age-related declines in cognitive performance.

  12. The impact of retirement on age related cognitive decline - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Nexø, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge on factors affecting the rate of cognitive decline and how to maintain cognitive functioning in old age becomes increasingly relevant. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the evidence for the impact of retirement on cognitive functioning and on age...... related cognitive decline. METHOD: We conducted a systematic literature review, following the principles of the PRISMA statement, of longitudinal studies on the association between retirement and cognition. RESULTS: Only seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found weak evidence...... that retirement accelerates the rate of cognitive decline in crystallised abilities, but only for individuals retiring from jobs high in complexity with people. The evidence of the impact of retirement on the rate of decline in fluid cognitive abilities is conflicting. CONCLUSION: The review revealed a major...

  13. Subjective physical and cognitive age among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older: differences with chronological age and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihira, Hikaru; Furuna, Taketo; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Makino, Keitaro; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between self-reported subjective physical and cognitive age, and actual physical and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older people aged 75 years and older. The sample comprised 275 older adults aged 75-91 years. Two questions were asked regarding subjective age: 'How old do you feel physically?' and 'How old do you feel cognitively?' To assess physical functions, we measured handgrip strength, knee extension strength, standing balance and walking speed. Tests of attention, executive function, processing speed and memory were performed to assess actual cognitive function. Subjective physical and cognitive age was associated with performance on all of the physical and cognitive tests, respectively (p older adults who reported themselves as feeling older than their chronological age had a slower walking speed and lower scores for word-list memory recall than those who did not report themselves as feeling older than their actual age. These findings suggest that promoting a fast walking speed and good memory function may help to maintain a younger subjective physical and cognitive age in older adults aged 75 years and older.

  14. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

  15. The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Katherine; Lutgers, Helen L; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Campbell, Lesley V; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Baune, Bernard T; Lipnicki, Darren M; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes predicts accelerated cognitive decline and brain atrophy. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and incident glucose disorders have detrimental effects on global cognition and brain volume. We further hypothesized that metabolic and inflammatory derangements accompanying hyperglycaemia contribute to change in brain structure and function. This was a longitudinal study of a community-dwelling elderly cohort with neuropsychological testing (n = 880) and brain volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 312) measured at baseline and 2 years. Primary outcomes were global cognition and total brain volume. Secondary outcomes were cognitive domains (processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial and executive function) and brain volumes (hippocampal, parahippocampal, precuneus and frontal lobe). Participants were categorised as normal, impaired fasting glucose at both assessments (stable IFG), baseline diabetes or incident glucose disorders (incident diabetes or IFG at 2 years). Measures included inflammatory cytokines and oxidative metabolites. Covariates were age, sex, education, non-English speaking background, smoking, blood pressure, lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications, mood score, apolipoprotein E genotype and baseline cognition or brain volume. Participants with incident glucose disorders had greater decline in global cognition and visuospatial function compared to normal, similar to that observed in baseline diabetes. Homocysteine was independently associated with the observed effect of diabetes on executive function. Apolipoprotein E genotype did not influence the observed effects of diabetes on cognition. Incident glucose disorders and diabetes were also associated with greater 2-year decline in total brain volume, compared to normal (40.0 ± 4.2 vs. 46.7 ± 5.7 mm(3) vs. 18.1 ± 6.2, respectively, p cognition or brain volumes compared to normal. Incident glucose disorders, like diabetes, are

  16. "To everything there is a season": some Shakespearean models of normal and anomalous aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donow, H S

    1992-12-01

    Shakespeare perceived aging characters as falling broadly into two categories: normal and anomalous. The former age in conformity to societal expectations, often displaying an inability to affect the outcome of events; the latter (e.g., Lear and Falstaff), deviating from these behavioral norms, dominate the action of their respective plays. Falstaff, a prime example of the anomalous ager, suffers rejection by King Henry V, his former boon companion, a consequence of ageism.

  17. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  18. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  19. Positron emission tomographic studies using C-11-glucose in normal aging and cerebrovascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujike, Takashi; Terashi, Akiro; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1984-01-01

    Seven normal volunteers and 11 patients with cerebrovascular dementia were studied about the relations between effect of aging, severity of dementia, cerebral glucose metabolism and metabolic response to verbal stimuli by positron emission tomography (PET) using C-11-glucose. Regional distribution of glycogenic metabolites (RDGM: mg/100 g brain), which was a semi-quantitation of the pool of glycogenic metabolites mainly amino acids, were calculated. The RDGM values in elder normal subjects were significantly low compared with young normal subjects in frontal cortex (p < 0.05). The decline in frontal cortex metabolism could have been caused by the morphological changes in the course of aging. In temporal cortex, there was no significance between two groups. RDGM increased significantly respond to the verbal stimuli in frontal and temporal cortex both young and elder normal subjects. The RDGM values in vascular dementias were significantly low (p < 0.001) compared with elder normal subjects' in frontal and temporal cortex. Significant difference existed between mild and severe dementia in frontal cortex (p < 0.05). However, there was no significance between mild and severe dementias in temporal cortex. In mild dementias, RDGM increased significantly respond to the verbal stimuli in frontal and temporal cortex. In severe dementias, metabolic response to the verbal stimuli was less or lacking. Our results suggest that the cerebral metabolic functional reserve and the ability of the cerebral cortex to function respond to psychophysiologic stimulation are preserved in young and elder normal subjects and mild cerebrovascular dementias. (J.P.N.)

  20. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p 0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  1. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range encompasses the mean and 2. SO to either side of the mean per decade. Subjects are regarded as being at high risk for fracture if the BMO falls below 2 SO of the mean (or the lowest quartile) relative to young normals (aged 30 - 39 years) (t-score). Both sets of graphs confirm the relatively steep fall in BMO after.

  2. Destination memory in social interaction: Better memory for older than for younger destinations in normal aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Raffard, S.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.

    2018-01-01

    Destination memory, a memory component allowing the attribution of information to its appropriate receiver (e.g., to whom did I lend my pen?), is compromised in normal aging. The present paper investigated whether older adults might show better memory for older destinations than for younger

  3. NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING TODDLING AGE IN NORMAL-CHILDREN AND CHILDREN AT RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEMPEL, MS

    Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and

  4. Age-related changes in normal adult pancreas: MR imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Noda, Yasufumi; Higaki, Atsushi; Kanki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate age-related changes in normal adult pancreas as identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We examined 115 patients without pancreatic diseases (21–90 years) who underwent upper abdominal MRI to evaluate the normal pancreatic MRI findings related to aging. The parameters examined were the pancreatic anteroposterior (AP) diameter, pancreatic lobulation, pancreatic signal intensity (SI), depiction of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), grade of the visual SI decrease on the opposed-phase T1-weighted images compared with in-phase images, and enhancement effect of the pancreas in the arterial phase of dynamic imaging. Results: The pancreatic AP diameter significantly reduced (head, p = 0.0172; body, p = 0.0007; tail, p < 0.0001), and lobulation (p < 0.0001) and parenchymal fatty change (p < 0.0001) became more evident with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and pancreatic SI, however the SI on the in-phase T1-weighted images tended to decrease with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and the depiction of the MPD as well as aging and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: MRI findings of pancreatic atrophy, lobulation, and fatty degeneration are characteristic changes related to aging, and it is necessary to recognize these changes in the interpretation of abdominal MRI in patients with and without pancreatic disease

  5. Left ventricular functional, structural and energetic effects of normal aging: Comparison with hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehill D Parikh

    Full Text Available Both aging and hypertension are significant risk factors for heart failure in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine how aging, with and without hypertension, affects left ventricular function.Cross-sectional study of magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy-based measurements of left ventricular structure, global function, strains, pulse wave velocity, high energy phosphate metabolism in 48 normal subjects and 40 treated hypertensive patients (though no other cardiovascular disease or diabetes stratified into 3 age deciles from 50-79 years.Normal aging was associated with significant increases in systolic blood pressure, vascular stiffness, torsion, and impaired diastolic function (all P<0.05. Age-matched hypertension exacerbated the effects of aging on systolic pressure, and diastolic function. Hypertension alone, and not aging, was associated with increased left ventricular mass index, reduced energetic reserve, reduced longitudinal shortening and increased endocardial circumferential shortening (all P<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that these unique hypertensive features were significantly related to systolic blood pressure (P<0.05.1 Hypertension adds to the age-related changes in systolic blood pressure and diastolic function; 2 hypertension is uniquely associated with changes in several aspects of left ventricular structure, function, systolic strains, and energetics; and 3 these uniquely hypertensive-associated parameters are related to the level of systolic blood pressure and so are potentially modifiable.

  6. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. It is determined whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was examined in a group of 72 subjects, ages 22 to 82 years, with 36 regions of interest chosen from both hemispheres of the cortex, midbrain and cerebellum. To determine metabolic rates the in-vivo technique of positron emission tomography (PET) was employed. Three age groups were chosen to compare hemispherical differences. In both young and intermediate age groups the left hemisphere had higher rCMRGlu values than those of the right for the majority of regions with, although less pronounced in the intermediate group. Importantly, the older age group displayed little difference between hemispheres. (author)

  7. Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Carrie R H; Jones, Richard D; Anderson, Tim J; Hollobon, Susan G; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is no international standard for the assessment of fitness to drive for cognitively or physically impaired persons. A computerized battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests) has been developed, comprising tests of visuoperception, visuomotor ability, complex attention, visual search, decision making, impulse control, planning, and divided attention. Construct validity analysis was conducted in 60 normal, healthy subjects and showed that, overall, the novel cognitive tests assessed cognitive functions similar to a set of standard neuropsychological tests. The novel tests were found to have greater perceived face validity for predicting on-road driving ability than was found in the equivalent standard tests. Test-retest stability and reliability of SMCTests measures, as well as correlations between SMCTests and on-road driving, were determined in a subset of 12 subjects. The majority of test measures were stable and reliable across two sessions, and significant correlations were found between on-road driving scores and measures from ballistic movement, footbrake reaction, hand-control reaction, and complex attention. The substantial face validity, construct validity, stability, and reliability of SMCTests, together with the battery's level of correlation with on-road driving in normal subjects, strengthen our confidence in the ability of SMCTests to detect and identify sensory-motor and cognitive deficits related to unsafe driving and increased risk of accidents.

  8. The assessment of changes in cognitive functioning: age-, education-, and gender-specific reliable change indices for older adults tested on the CERAD-NP battery: results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Daerr, Moritz; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Zimmermann, Thomas; Köhler, Mirjam; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Kaufeler, Teresa; Pentzek, Michael; Wiese, Birgitt; Wollny, Anja; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological (CERAD-NP) battery represents a commonly used neuropsychological instrument to measure cognitive functioning in the elderly. This study provides normative data for changes in cognitive function that normally occur in cognitively healthy individuals to interpret changes in CERAD-NP test scores over longer time periods. Longitudinal cohort study with three assessments at 1.5-year intervals over a period of 3 years. : Primary care medical record registry sample. As part of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients, a sample of 1,450 cognitively healthy general practitioner patients, age 75 years and older, was assessed. Age-, education-, and gender-specific Reliable Change Indices (RCIs) were computed for a 90% confidence interval for selected subtests of the CERAD-NP battery. Across different age, education, and gender subgroups, changes from at least six to nine points in Verbal Fluency, four to eight points in Word List Memory, two to four points in Word List Recall, and one to four points in Word List Recognition indicated significant (i.e. reliable) changes in CERAD-NP test scores at the 90% confidence level. Furthermore, the calculation of RCIs for individual patients is demonstrated. Smaller changes in CERAD-NP test scores can be interpreted with only high uncertainty because of probable measurement error, practice effects, and normal age-related cognitive decline. This study, for the first time, provides age-, education-, and gender-specific CERAD-NP reference values on the basis of RCI methods for the interpretation of cognitive changes in older-age groups.

  9. Long-term cognitive outcome of very low birth-weight Saudi preterm infants at the corrected age of 24-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobaih, Badr H

    2018-04-01

    To assess infants' cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months, and to identify factors associated with adverse outcome and examine the correlation between Bayley Infants Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS) score and Gesell Schedule of Child Development (GSCD). Methods: This retrospective study was performed on Saudi very low birth-weight (VLBW)  infants born   in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 1997 and 2014 by the use of BINS as screening test and GSCD as definitive test. Results: Of 561 enrolled infants, 367 (65.4%) continued to follow-up. Three-hundred and fifteen infants (85.6%) had a normal cognitive function. In addition to lower birth weight (beta = -0.003) (p less than 0.001), male gender (OR =3.9) (p=0.001)and cerebral palsy (OR =33.9) (p less than 0.001) were the strongest factors associated with poor cognitive outcome. Approximately 75.4% of infants with normal BINS score had normal cognitive function and 7.6% of total infants had sever cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The majority of VLBW infants in our center have  normal cognitive function at the corrected age of 24-36 months. Male gender, lower birth weight, and cerebral palsy are major predictors of poor outcome. The BINS scores were correlated with GSCD as a valid predictor for future developmental outcome.

  10. Normal ventricular size and changes with age in pediatric groups on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Yoshitaka; Nose, Tadao; Enomoto, Takao; Maki, Yutaka

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine the normal value of the ventricular size on CT, snd analyze its changes with age in normal pediatric group. Materials and Methods: We searched through our 240 normal pediatric CT film files, aged 4 months to 14 years. Scans were performed on Hitachi CT-II scanner, using 10 mm collimation. Results: 1. The width of the third ventricle showed the same value in all pediatric groups, the mean value of its being 4.8 mm (SD 1.3 mm). 2. Bicaudate cerebroventricular indexes of the anterior horns of lateral ventricles (interecarlate distance/transverse diameter of the brain x100) were 15.3 in infants under one year, 13.8 in the age of one year and 12.7 in the children over two years. The indexes were almost the same in old age group over the age of three years. 3. The upper limit of the normal inverse cella media index (minium width of cella media/transverse diameter of the brain x100) was 31. Therefore the cases with the index above this range can be diagnosed as hydrocephalic. 4. The shape of the anterior horns of lateral ventricles was Y-shaped in infants under one year. II-shaped (paralied shaped) in the age of 1 - 12 years, and again it was Y-shaped in the group over 12 years. 5. In the age group under one year, the temporal horns of the lateral ventricles were visualized in about 60% cases, while the figure decreased to 20% in the older group. (author)

  11. The roles of gender, age and cognitive development in children's pedestrian route selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B

    2012-03-01

    Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  13. Age-dependent changes of the normal human spine during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, F J; Müntener, M; Henneberg, M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of aging on the morphology of the osseous spine is still debated. Clinical studies usually record combined aging effects, as well as age-related degenerative changes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of (degeneration-independent) aging on the morphology of the osseous human spine during adulthood. Various osseous dimensions of human spinal landmarks at all major vertebral levels have been assessed in macroscopically normal Swiss skeletons (N = 71), with historically known sex and age at death, as well as in larger Central European skeletal samples (N = 277) with anthropologically determined individual age and sex. All measurements were correlated with individual age (or age group) by linear regression and analyzed separately for each sex. Only few osseous spinal dimensions, and only in men, correlate significantly with individual age. Generally, the significant dimensions show an increase in size during adulthood. Similar tendencies, but with significant alterations of spinal measurements in women as well, can be found in the larger samples with anthropologically determined sex and age group. Increase of certain spinal dimensions found in this study may be a reflection of an increase in the robustness of individuals with age. Because of the absence of a significant secular alteration of stature within the well-recorded sample, we exclude secular change in body dimensions as a major bias. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  14. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  15. Cognitive Vulnerability in Aging May Be Modulated by Education and Reserve in Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María D. Roldán-Tapia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging is related to a deterioration of cognitive performance and to multiple alterations in the brain. Even before the beginning of a noticeable cognitive decline, the framework which holds cognitive function experiences these alterations. From a system-vulnerability point of view of cognition, the deterioration associated with age would be the collection of repercussions during a life. Brain function and structure are modified in a multidimensional way, which could concern different aspects like structural integrity, functional activity, connectivity, or glucose metabolism. From this point of view, the effects of aging could affect the most brain systems and their functional activity. In this study, we analyze the functional development of three cognitive domains in relation to aging, educational level, and cognitive reserve (CR. A total of 172 healthy subjects were divided into two age groups (young and old, and completed a battery of classic neuropsychological tests. The tests were organized and analyzed according to three cognitive domains: working memory and flexibility, visuoconstructive functions, and declarative memory. Subjects also completed a questionnaire on CR. Results showed that the performance in all cognitive domains decreased with age. In particular, tests related to working memory, flexibility, and visuoconstructive abilities were influenced by age. Nevertheless, this effect was attenuated by effects of education, mainly in visuoconstructive domain. Surprisingly, visual as well as verbal memory tests were not affected either by aging, education, or CR. Brain plasticity plays a prominent role in the aging process, but, as other studies have shown, the plasticity mechanism is quite different in healthy vs. pathological brains. Moreover, this plasticity brain mechanism could be modulated by education and CR. Specially, cognitive domains as working memory, some executive functions and the visuoconstructive abilities seem to be

  16. Do economic recessions during early and mid-adulthood influence cognitive function in older age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/2009 and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b=-0.06, CI -0.11 to -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34=-0.03, CI -0.04 to -0.01; b35-44=-0.02, CI -0.04 to -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly through more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function.

  17. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition.Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50-89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931. Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing.Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge.

  18. A genome-wide association study implicates the APOE locus in nonpathological cognitive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G; Harris, S E; Reynolds, C A; Payton, A; Knight, H M; Liewald, D C; Lopez, L M; Luciano, M; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Henderson, R; Murray, C; Pattie, A; Fox, H C; Redmond, P; Lutz, M W; Chiba-Falek, O; Linnertz, C; Saith, S; Haggarty, P; McNeill, G; Ke, X; Ollier, W; Horan, M; Roses, A D; Ponting, C P; Porteous, D J; Tenesa, A; Pickles, A; Starr, J M; Whalley, L J; Pedersen, N L; Pendleton, N; Visscher, P M; Deary, I J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a feared aspect of growing old. It is a major contributor to lower quality of life and loss of independence in old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to individual differences in nonpathological cognitive ageing in five cohorts of older adults. We undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 549 692 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3511 unrelated adults in the Cognitive Ageing Genetics in England and Scotland (CAGES) project. These individuals have detailed longitudinal cognitive data from which phenotypes measuring each individual's cognitive changes were constructed. One SNP--rs2075650, located in TOMM40 (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog)--had a genome-wide significant association with cognitive ageing (P=2.5 × 10(-8)). This result was replicated in a meta-analysis of three independent Swedish cohorts (P=2.41 × 10(-6)). An Apolipoprotein E (APOE) haplotype (adjacent to TOMM40), previously associated with cognitive ageing, had a significant effect on cognitive ageing in the CAGES sample (P=2.18 × 10(-8); females, P=1.66 × 10(-11); males, P=0.01). Fine SNP mapping of the TOMM40/APOE region identified both APOE (rs429358; P=3.66 × 10(-11)) and TOMM40 (rs11556505; P=2.45 × 10(-8)) as loci that were associated with cognitive ageing. Imputation and conditional analyses in the discovery and replication cohorts strongly suggest that this effect is due to APOE (rs429358). Functional genomic analysis indicated that SNPs in the TOMM40/APOE region have a functional, regulatory non-protein-coding effect. The APOE region is significantly associated with nonpathological cognitive ageing. The identity and mechanism of one or multiple causal variants remain unclear.

  19. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  20. Effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging in differentiating early-stage subcortical ischemic vascular disease, Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chien Tu

    Full Text Available To describe and compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI parameters between patients with subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD and Alzheimer's disease (AD diagnosed using structuralized neuropsychiatric assessments, and investigate potential neuronal substrates related to cognitive performance.Thirty-five patients with SIVD, 40 patients with AD, and 33 cognitively normal control (NC subjects matched by age and education level were consecutively recruited and underwent cognitive function assessments and DTI examinations. Comparisons among these three subgroups with regards to cognitive performance and DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD values were performed. Partial correlation analysis after controlling for age and education was used to evaluate associations between cognitive performance and DTI parameters.With regards to cognitive performance, the patients with SIVD had lower total scores in frontal assessment battery (FAB compared to those with AD (p < 0.05 in the context of comparable Mini-Mental Status Examination and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument scores. With regards to DTI parameters, there were more regions of significant differences in FA among these three subgroups compared with MD. Compared with NC group, the patients with SIVD had significant global reductions in FA (p < 0.001 ~ 0.05, while significant reductions in FA among the patients with AD were regionally confined within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and bilateral forceps major, and the anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum of the left side (p < 0.01 ~ 0.05. Analysis of FA values within the left forceps major, left anterior thalamic radiation, and genu of the corpus callosum revealed a 71.8% overall correct classification (p < 0.001 with sensitivity of 69.4%, specificity of 73.8%, positive predictive value of 69.4%, and negative predictive value

  1. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.I.; Majurin, M.L.; Komu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.)

  2. Relaxation time of normal breast tissues. Changes with age and variations during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, K.I. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Majurin, M.L. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Komu, M. (University Central Hospital, Turku (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1994-05-01

    The influence of age on the relaxation times of normal breast parenchyma and its surrounding fatty tissue were evaluated, and the variations during a normal menstrual cycle were analyzed using an ultra low field 0.02 T imager. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 59 years were examined to determine T1 and T2 relaxation times, and 8 of these volunteers were studied once weekly during one menstrual cycle. The only significant trend was an increase in the T2 of breast parenchyma with increasing age. During the menstrual cycle there was a slight but insignificant (p=0.10) increase in T1 of the breast parenchyma values during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, and a corresponding increase in T2 values between the 2nd and 3rd weeks of the menstrual cycle, which was significant. (orig.).

  3. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S.; Kucera, P.

    2006-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  4. Impaired cognitive functions in mild traumatic brain injury patients with normal and pathologic magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurca, E.; Sivak, S. [Comenius University, Clinic of Neurology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Martin (Slovakia); Kucera, P. [Comenius University, 1st Clinic of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-09-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common neurological (neurotraumatological) diagnosis. As well as different subjective symptoms, many patients develop neuropsychological dysfunction with objective impairment of attention, memory and certain executive functions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not routinely used in MTBI patients despite its proven greater sensitivity and specificity in comparison with computed tomography (CT). The patient group consisted of 30 persons with MTBI and the control group consisted of 30 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Both groups underwent neurological examination, neuropsychological testing (including the Postconcussion Symptoms Scale questionnaire, PCSS) and brain MRI (the patient group within 96 h after injury). The analyzed groups did not differ significantly in terms of sex, age, or level or duration of education. MRI pathological findings (traumatic and nonspecific) were present in nine patients. Traumatic lesions were found in seven patients. Nonspecific white matter lesions were found in five healthy controls. There were significant differences between MTBI patients and controls in terms of subjective symptoms (PCSS) and selected neuropsychological tests. Statistically significant neuropsychological differences were found between MTBI patients with true traumatic lesions and MTBI patients with nonspecific lesions. There is evidence that MTBI patients with true traumatic MRI lesions are neuropsychologically different from MTBI patients with nonspecific MRI lesions or normal brain MRI. These results support the hypothesis that some acute MTBI signs and symptoms have a real organic basis which can be detected by selected new MRI modalities. (orig.)

  5. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. N/A. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

  6. Both odor identification and ApoE-ε4 contribute to normative cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ε4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features.

  7. Aging, obesity, and post-therapy cognitive recovery in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhezhou; Zheng, Ying; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi

    2017-02-14

    Therapy-induced cognitive impairment is prevalent and long-lasting in cancer survivors, but factors affecting post-therapy cognitive recovery are unclear. We conducted this study to evaluate the associations of age, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and physical activity (PA) with post-therapy cognitive changes in a population-based breast cancer (BC) survivor cohort. We collected information on PA, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences of 1286 BC survivors aged 20-75. We assessed their cognitive functions, including immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency, and attention, at 18 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations of age, BMI, WHR and PA with mean changes in cognitive scores from 18- to 36-month follow-up interview. We found that the post-therapy cognitive changes differed by age and obesity status. Verbal fluency and attention improved in younger patients aged therapy cognitive change. Due to the novelty of our findings and the limitations of our study, further research, including intervention trials, is warranted to confirm the causal relationship between obesity and cognitive impairments.

  8. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  9. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  10. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean+/-standard deviation 2.3+/-1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (pright frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (pbrain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference.

  11. [Implications of mental image processing in the deficits of verbal information coding during normal aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaie, Thierry; Thomas, Delphine

    2008-06-01

    Our study specifies the contributions of image generation and image maintenance processes occurring at the time of imaginal coding of verbal information in memory during normal aging. The memory capacities of 19 young adults (average age of 24 years) and 19 older adults (average age of 75 years) were assessed using recall tasks according to the imagery value of the stimuli to learn. The mental visual imagery capacities are assessed using tasks of image generation and temporary storage of mental imagery. The variance analysis indicates a more important decrease with age of the concretness effect. The major contribution of our study rests on the fact that the decline with age of dual coding of verbal information in memory would result primarily from the decline of image maintenance capacities and from a slowdown in image generation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Normative values of cognitive and physical function in older adults: findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Rose Anne; Coen, Robert F; Frewen, John; Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M

    2013-05-01

    To provide normative values of tests of cognitive and physical function based on a large sample representative of the population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Data were used from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a prospective cohort study that includes a comprehensive health assessment. Health assessment was undertaken at one of two dedicated health assessment centers or in the study participant's home if travel was not practicable. Five thousand eight hundred ninety-seven members of a nationally representative sample of the community-living population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Those with severe cognitive impairment, dementia, or Parkinson's disease were excluded. Measurements included height and weight, normal walking speed, Timed Up-and-Go, handgrip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Color Trails Test, and bone mineral density. Normative values were estimated using generalized additive models for location shape and scale (GAMLSS) and are presented as percentiles, means, and standard deviations. Generalized additive models for location shape and scale fit the observed data well for each measure, leading to reliable estimates of normative values. Performance on all tasks decreased with age. Educational attainment was a strong determinant of performance on all cognitive tests. Tests of walking speed were dependent on height. Distribution of body mass index did not change with age, owing to simultaneous declines in weight and height. Normative values were found for tests of many aspects of cognitive and physical function based on a representative sample of the general older Irish population. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Structure-function relationships in elderly resting-state-networks : influence of age and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jockwitz, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the structure-function relationship in cognitive resting state networks in a large population-based elderly sample. The first study characterized the functional connectivity in four cognitive resting state networks with respect to age, gender and cognitive performance: Default Mode Network (DMN), executive, and left and right frontoparietal resting state networks. The second study assessed the structural correlates of the functional reorganization of th...

  15. Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, Anna; Tan, Qihua; McGue, Matt

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population ages, the age-related cognitive decline presents a great challenge to world's healthcare systems. One of the molecular mechanisms implicated in cognitive ageing is DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification known to be a key player in memory formation, maintenance......, and synaptic plasticity. Using the twin design we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in a population of 486 middle-aged monozygotic twins (mean age at follow-up 65.9, SD = 6.1) and correlated their blood DNA methylation to their level (cross-sectional analysis) and change in cognitive...... abilities over 10 years (longitudinal analysis). We identified several CpG sites where cross-sectional cognitive functioning was associated with DNA methylation levels. The top identified loci were located in ZBTB46 (p = 5.84 × 10-7), and TAF12 (p = 4.91 × 10-7). KEGG's enrichment analyses of the most...

  16. Age-Dependent Pleiotropy Between General Cognitive Function and Major Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W David; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-15

    General cognitive function predicts psychiatric illness across the life course. This study examines the role of pleiotropy in explaining the link between cognitive function and psychiatric disorder. We used two large genome-wide association study data sets on cognitive function-one from older age, n = 53,949, and one from childhood, n = 12,441. We also used genome-wide association study data on educational attainment, n = 95,427, to examine the validity of its use as a proxy phenotype for cognitive function. Using a new method, linkage disequilibrium regression, we derived genetic correlations, free from the confounding of clinical state between psychiatric illness and cognitive function. We found a genetic correlation of .711 (p = 2.26e-12) across the life course for general cognitive function. We also showed a positive genetic correlation between autism spectrum disorder and cognitive function in childhood (rg = .360, p = .0009) and for educational attainment (rg = .322, p = 1.37e-5) but not in older age. In schizophrenia, we found a negative genetic correlation between older age cognitive function (rg = -.231, p = 3.81e-12) but not in childhood or for educational attainment. For Alzheimer's disease, we found negative genetic correlations with childhood cognitive function (rg = -.341, p = .001), educational attainment (rg = -.324, p = 1.15e-5), and with older age cognitive function (rg = -.324, p = 1.78e-5). The pleiotropy exhibited between cognitive function and psychiatric disorders changed across the life course. These age-dependent associations might explain why negative selection has not removed variants causally associated with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Lab. of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  18. Magnetisation transfer imaging of the normal adenohypophysis: the effect of sex and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques provide tissue contrast depending mainly on the concentration of macromolecules. Because many macromolecules are involved in the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, MT techniques might be useful in the study of pituitary gland disorders. Our purpose was to establish a quantitative database of the MT ratio (MTR) of the normal adenohypophysis and to see whether there are age- and sex-related differences. Using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence for MT we studied the adenohypophysis in 56 males and 61 females aged 7 months-77 years; postsaturation images were obtained using an on-resonance binomial prepulse. The images were normal in all but three patients, two with meningiomas, one with a schwannoma. Adenohypophyseal MTR increased in both sexes up to 19 years of age (r = 0.47 males, 0.39 females, P < 0.05). In men after 20 years and in women from 20-49 years MTR decreased (r = -0.68, P < 0.001, r = -0.46, P < 0.05, respectively). In women aged 50-59 years the MTR again increased slightly. The MTR in males was slightly higher at all ages except before 9 and after 50 years of age. These differences were not statistically significant except in the 40-49 year group (P < 0.05). (orig.)

  19. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  20. Age and sex differences in steadiness of elbow flexor muscles with imposed cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo M.; Spears, Vincent C.; Schlinder-Delap, Bonnie; Yoon, Tejin; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose These studies determined (1) age and sex-related differences in steadiness of isometric contractions when high cognitive demand was imposed across a range of forces with the elbow flexor muscles (study 1) and, (2) sex differences in steadiness among older adults when low cognitive demand was imposed (study 2). Methods 36 young adults (18–25 years; 18 women) and 30 older adults (60–82 years; 17 women) performed isometric contractions at 5%, 30% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Study 1 involved a high-cognitive demand session (serial subtractions by 13 during the contraction) and a control session (no mental math). Study 2 (older adults only) involved a low-cognitive demand session (subtracting by 1s). Results Older individuals exhibited greater increases in force fluctuations (coefficient of variation of force, CV) with high cognitive demand than young adults, with the largest age difference at 5% MVC (P = 0.01). Older adults had greater agonist EMG activity with high-cognitive demand and women had greater coactivation than men (Pdemand for the older women but not for the older men (P = 0.03). Conclusion Older adults had reduced steadiness and increased muscle activation when high cognitive demand was imposed while low cognitive demand induced increased force fluctuations in older women but not older men. These findings have implications for daily and work-related tasks that involve cognitive demand performed simultaneously during submaximal isometric contractions in an aging workforce. PMID:25633070

  1. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andrew P; Barnes, Linda E; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. The postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ≤ 25), dementia (organicity level ≥3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  2. IANA task force on nutrition and cognitive decline with aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Abellan van Kan, G.; Andrieu, S.; Barberger-Gateau, P.; Berr, C.; Bonnefoy, M.; Dartigues, J.F.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Ferry, M.; Galan, P.; Hercberg, S.; Jeandel, C.; Morris, M.C.; Nourhashemi, F.; Payette, H.; Poulain, J.P.; Portet, F.; Roussel, A.M.; Ritz, P.; Rolland, Y.; Vellas, B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive impairment can be influenced by a number of factors. The potential effect of nutrition has become a topic of increasing scientific and public interest. In particular, there are arguments that nutrients (food and/or supplements) such as vitamins, trace minerals, lipids, can affect the risk

  3. Physical activity, healthy diet and good cognitive functioning: findings from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Willemke; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Visser, M.; Hobbelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background. In an ageing society cognitive decline is expected to become an important health problem. Previous studies showed that a healthy lifestyle, i.e. sufficient physical activity and a healthy diet,can benefit cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to assess the (synergistic) association

  4. Mastication for the mind-The relationship between mastication and cognition in ageing and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this literature review has been to investigate the relationship between mastication and cognition, with a special focus on ageing and dementia, and its possible underlying mechanisms. Since the relationship between mastication and cognition is not yet firmly established, and is

  5. Mastication for the mind: the relationship between mastication and cognition in ageing and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this literature review has been to investigate the relationship between mastication and cognition, with a special focus on ageing and dementia, and its possible underlying mechanisms. Since the relationship between mastication and cognition is not yet firmly established, and is

  6. Keep Your Brain Fit! A Psychoeducational Training Program for Healthy Cognitive Aging: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Jennifer; van Heugten, Caroline; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A psychoeducational face-to-face training program (Keep Your Brain Fit!) was developed to support the working population in coping with age-related cognitive changes and taking proactive preventive measures to maintain cognitive health. A feasibility study was conducted to test the training program presented in a workshop format. Participants…

  7. Physiological Reactivity to Cognitive Stressors: Variations by Age and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Shevaun D.; Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Lachman, Margie E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study focused on age and SES differences in stress reactivity in response to cognitively challenging tasks. Specifically, we assessed within-person trajectories of cortisol, a steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stressors, before, during, and after exposure to cognitively challenging tasks. We extend the…

  8. Diet and cognitive decline at middle age : The role of antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Milder, Ivon E J; Van Gelder, Boukje M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids and lignans) and cognitive decline at middle age, analyses were performed on data from the population based Doetinchem Cohort Study. Habitual diet and cognitive function were

  9. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Hansen, Naja Liv; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94) and poorer (Group B, n = 95) on cognitive testing at age 57 than...

  10. Gene expression changes in the course of normal brain aging are sexually dimorphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Cribbs, David H.; Coleman, Paul D.; Rogers, Joseph; Head, Elizabeth; Kim, Ronald; Beach, Tom; Miller, Carol; Troncoso, Juan; Trojanowski, John Q.; Zielke, H. Ronald; Cotman, Carl W.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiles were assessed in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, superior-frontal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus across the lifespan of 55 cognitively intact individuals aged 20–99 years. Perspectives on global gene changes that are associated with brain aging emerged, revealing two overarching concepts. First, different regions of the forebrain exhibited substantially different gene profile changes with age. For example, comparing equally powered groups, 5,029 probe sets were significantly altered with age in the superior-frontal gyrus, compared with 1,110 in the entorhinal cortex. Prominent change occurred in the sixth to seventh decades across cortical regions, suggesting that this period is a critical transition point in brain aging, particularly in males. Second, clear gender differences in brain aging were evident, suggesting that the brain undergoes sexually dimorphic changes in gene expression not only in development but also in later life. Globally across all brain regions, males showed more gene change than females. Further, Gene Ontology analysis revealed that different categories of genes were predominantly affected in males vs. females. Notably, the male brain was characterized by global decreased catabolic and anabolic capacity with aging, with down-regulated genes heavily enriched in energy production and protein synthesis/transport categories. Increased immune activation was a prominent feature of aging in both sexes, with proportionally greater activation in the female brain. These data open opportunities to explore age-dependent changes in gene expression that set the balance between neurodegeneration and compensatory mechanisms in the brain and suggest that this balance is set differently in males and females, an intriguing idea. PMID:18832152

  11. Circulating microRNAs disclose biology of normal cognitive function in healthy elderly people – a discovery twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Feddersen, Søren; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Neurobiology is regulated by miRNA. Here circulating plasma miRNAs were assayed on a 754 miRNA OpenArray platform using 90 monozygotic elderly twins (73–95 year of age) and associated with mini mental state examination (MMSE) and a five-component cognitive score (CCS) in an explorative study. Bot...

  12. Contribution of neuroinflammation and immunity to brain aging and the mitigating effects of physical and cognitive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Svetlana; Müller, Ludmila; Wenger, Elisabeth; Düzel, Sandra; Pawelec, Graham

    2017-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain and the immune system continuously interact during normal as well as pathological functioning. Human aging is commonly accompanied by low-grade inflammation in both the immune and central nervous systems, thought to contribute to many age-related diseases. This review of the current literature focuses first on the normal neuroimmune interactions occurring in the brain, which promote learning, memory and neuroplasticity. Further, we discuss the protective and dynamic role of barriers to neuroimmune interactions, which have become clearer with the recent discovery of the meningeal lymphatic system. Next, we consider age-related changes of the immune system and possible deleterious influences of immunosenescence and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) on neurodegenerative processes in the normally aging brain. We survey the major immunomodulators and neuroregulators in the aging brain and their highly tuned dynamic and reciprocal interactions. Finally, we consider our current understanding of how physical activity, as well as a combination of physical and cognitive interventions, may mediate anti-inflammatory effects and thus positively impact brain aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal morphology of sacroiliac joints in children: magnetic resonance studies related to age and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollow, M.; Paris, S.; Mutze, S.; Hamm, B.; Braun, J.; Kannenberg, J.; Biedermann, T.; Schauer-Petrowskaja, C.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine in a prospective study the normal MRI morphology of the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) in relation to age and sex during adolescence. Design and patients. A total of 98 children (63 boys, mean age 12.7±2.8 years; 35 girls, mean age 13.7±2.3 years), ranging in age from 8 to 17 years, with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) but without signs of sacroiliitis fulfilled the study prerequisites (no back pain and no pathologic changes of the SIJs on physical examination before MRI in a 1.5-year follow-up). An additional eight HLA-B27-negative boys and eight HLA-B27-negative girls without arthritis served as controls. The MRI protocol comprised a T1-weighted SE sequence, an opposed-phase T2*-weighted GE sequence, and a dynamic contrast-enhanced study in single-section technique. Results. Noncontrast MRI permitted differentiation of ''open'' from ossified segmental and lateral apophyses of the sacral wings, with a significant difference in age (P <0.05) between children with open and ossified apophyses. Ossification of the apophyses of the sacral wings was seen significantly earlier (P <0.05) in girls than in boys. Girls also had a significantly higher incidence of transitional lumbosacral vertebrae, pelvic asymmetries, and accessory joints. In the contrast-enhanced opposed-phase MRI study, normal cartilage of the SIJs showed no contrast enhancement whereas the joint capsule showed a moderate enhancement. Conclusion. There are significant age- and sex-related differences in the normal MRI morphology of juvenile SIJs. Our findings might serve as a standard of comparison for the evaluation of pathologic changes - in particular for the early identification of juvenile sacroiliitis. (orig.)

  14. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  15. Evaluation of the normal fetal kidney length and its correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaie-Delui, Hossein

    2013-05-30

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.