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Sample records for cognitive processes

  1. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  2. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...

  3. Information processing, computation, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.

  4. Resource-adaptive cognitive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Crocker, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    This book investigates the adaptation of cognitive processes to limited resources. The central topics of this book are heuristics considered as results of the adaptation to resource limitations, through natural evolution in the case of humans, or through artificial construction in the case of computational systems; the construction and analysis of resource control in cognitive processes; and an analysis of resource-adaptivity within the paradigm of concurrent computation. The editors integrated the results of a collaborative 5-year research project that involved over 50 scientists. After a mot

  5. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  6. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  7. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  8. Constructive processes in person cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, K

    1993-12-01

    The notion of constructive memory processes is imported from research on eyewitness memory to the area of social cognition. Mere questioning about the applicability of personality attributes to a target person is shown to affect subsequent memory-based judgements of that person. These constructive influences are to be distinguished, conceptually, from the global notion of priming effects. In Expt 1, the target person was first described as an extravert; afterwards, subjects had to indicate whether either desirable aspects of extraversion (self-confidence) or undesirable aspects (exhibitionism) apply to the target or not. Mere questioning resulted in a congruent judgment bias towards the questioned attributes that did not generalize to a global halo effect. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that this phenomenon is independent of a generation effect (i.e. the memory advantage of self-generated inferences). These results are interpreted in terms of (a) a reframing of the categorical distribution representing the information about the target person in memory and (b) a regressive tendency to assume intermediate default values rather than extreme values for questioned attributes under uncertainty. Alternative explanations in terms of demand effects or a conformation bias cannot provide sufficient accounts. The relevance of constructive processes to understanding self-fulfilling prophecies and other phenomena in social interaction is discussed.

  9. Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozzolo, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and Cognitive Processes in Reading explores reading and reading disabilities within the context of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Emphasis is on the roles of brain mechanisms in reading and reading disturbances. In the areas of perception and cognition, theoretical models of the reading process are used to highlight the various psychological processes involved in the act of skilled reading. Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental processes of reading, giving particular attention to a psychological theory that builds on two concepts: that the basic processes of reading are few in number, and that they are separable from one another. A useful and testable information-processing model of reading that consists of three separable, fundamental processes - decoding, word meaning, and sentence comprehension - is described. Subsequent chapters deal with some of the external and internal factors involved in reading; a model of disorders of readi...

  10. Rhythms of EEG and cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova S.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive processes is regarded to be more effective if it combines a psychological approach with a neurophysiological one. This approach makes it possible to come closer to understanding of the basic mechanisms of different cognitive processes, to describe the patterns of forming these mechanisms in ontogenesis, to investigate the origin of cognitive impairments, and to develop intervention techniques. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of cognitive functions is the electroencephalography (EEG. This is a non-invasive, safe, and relatively cheap method of research of the functional condition of the brain. The characteristics of EEG rhythms, recorded with different cognitive loads, reflect the processes of functional modulation of neural network activity of the cortex, which serves the neurophysiologic basis for attention, memory and other cognitive processes. The article provides an overview of works containing the analysis of the alpha and theta rhythms’ dynamics in various states of wakefulness. It also introduces the substantiation of methodology of functional regulatory approach to the interpretation of behaviors of EEG rhythms.

  11. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  12. Cognitive processing of a child with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Čížková, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe cognitive processing of a child with autistic spectrum disorder, to pause on its mechanisms and causes. The first part of the work presents a theoretical background for following interpretation of the data acquired in the research. Firstly it briefly defines autistic spectrum disorders, cognitive functioning of individuals with the disorder and above all two main psychological theories of autism: Theory of Mind (S. B. Cohen) and Weak Central Coherence Theor...

  13. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  14. Scaffolding Cognitive Processes in a Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, John

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of improving the cognitive processes of students in business studies today. When developing a curriculum in business studies at higher education level, thorough consideration should be given to all components of the learning and assessment processes. They should be tailored to real world dynamics so that they…

  15. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  16. Effects of Chewing on Cognitive Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and…

  17. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  18. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Schnicke, Monica K.

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen sexual assault survivors received cognitive processing therapy in group format to help deal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following rape. Compared to 20-subject waiting list control group, participants improved significantly from pre- to posttreatment on PTSD and depression measures and maintained their improvement for 6…

  19. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  20. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  1. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  2. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  3. Transdiagnostic cognitive processes in high trait anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John M

    2011-03-01

    Trait anger is a personality construct that refers to stable individual differences in the propensity to experience anger as an emotional state. The objective of this paper is to review relevant empirical studies in order to determine whether the transdiagnostic cognitive processes that have been identified across the DSM-IV Axis I disorders (specifically, selective attention, memory biases, reasoning biases and recurrent negative thinking) are also an underlying characteristic of high trait anger. On the basis of the review it is concluded that, whilst the research base is limited, there is good evidence that high trait anger is associated with selective attention to hostile social cues, the tendency to interpret the behaviour of others as indicating potential hostility and the tendency to ruminate over past anger-provoking experiences. The range of cognitive processes identified in high trait anger is consistent with those identified in the Axis I disorders. It is concluded that these findings provide support for (i) the broad applicability of the transdiagnostic approach as a theoretical framework for understanding a range of psychological conditions, not limited to the Axis I disorders, and (ii) the validity of conceptualising high trait anger as an aspect of personality functioning that is maintained, at least in part, by cognitive processes. Cognitive and motivational factors (specifically, beliefs and goals) that may underlie the hostile information-processing biases and recurrent negative thinking associated with high trait anger are discussed, and consideration is given to the clinical relevance of the findings of the review. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  6. Cognitive facilities of governance of transformations processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-03-01

    For example, each of levels of organization of the both realized and subconscious, facilities of cognition includes the dependent numerical, voice, coloured and concept facilities correlative. As for the system of the realized and subconscious facilities of transformations, their basis is made by the ascending and descending forms of organization of motion of matter, energy, information and organization of elements of life. Fixed in basis of research of mul’timodal’na logician allowed to expose dialectical nature of mechanisms of bifurcations, synthesis, freymuvannya and clusterizations as main condition of forming on principle of new control system by processes development of man, state and society, on the way of mastering of space.

  7. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  8. Cognitive Processes Underlying the Artistic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Wah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the field of aesthetics, for centuries philosophers and more recently scientists have been concerned with understanding the artistic experience focusing on emotional responses to the perception of artworks. By contrast, in the last decades, evolutionary biology has been concerned with explaining the artistic experience by focusing on the cognitive processes underlying this experience. Up until now, the cognitive mechanisms that allow humans to experience objects and events as art remain largely unexplored and there is still no conventional use of terms for referring to the processes which may explain why the artistic experience is characteristically human and universal to human beings (Dissanayake, 1992, p. 24; Donald, 2006, p. 4. In this paper, I will first question whether it is productive to understand the artistic experience in terms of perception and emotion, and I will subsequently propose a possible alternative explanation to understand this experience. Drawing upon the work of Ellen Dissanayake (1992, 2000, 2015, Merlin Donald (2001, 2006, 2013, Antonio Damasio (1994, 2000, 2003, 2010, Barend van Heusden (2004, 2009, 2010, and Alejandra Wah (2014, I will argue that this experience is characterized by particular degrees of imagination and consciousness.

  9. Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha Ann; Wolfe, Christy D.

    2004-01-01

    Regulatory aspects of development can best be understood by research that conceptualizes relations between cognition and emotion. The neural mechanisms associated with regulatory processes may be the same as those associated with higher order cognitive processes. Thus, from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective, emotion and cognition…

  10. Toward cognitively constrained models of language processing : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Margreet; Mills, Anne C.; Reitter, David; van Rij, Jacolien; Hendriks, Petra; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2017-01-01

    Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained

  11. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  12. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  13. Cognitive processes associated with child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-08-01

    To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.

  14. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  15. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  16. Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Forte, Jason; Sewell, David; Carter, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing. No effects of cognitive load were seen in Experiments 2 or 3. Together, the findings provide evidence that under some circumstances cognitive load effects can penetrate the early stages of visual processing and that higher cognitive function and early perceptual processing may not be as independent as was once thought.

  17. The Role of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Processes in Chronic Pain: An Important Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W

    2018-05-01

    Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that seem to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pretreatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process-mindfulness-evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). The results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.

  18. Cognitive marital therapy : the process of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.; van Linden van den Heuvell, C.; Sanderman, R.; Scholing, A.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to comments made by N. Epstein and D. H. Baucom (see record 1989-16434-001) concerning the present authors' (see record 1989-16433-001) study of communication skills training and cognitive therapy for distressed couples. The reliable assessment of cognitions in outcome studies is discussed.

  19. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  20. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  1. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making.

  2. The impact of moods and cognitive processing on framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ravndal, Mathias; Sjøbakken, Hallvard

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mood and cognitive processing on risky choice framing. A mixed between- and within-subject lab experimental design was conducted to investigate our hypotheses. As predicted, the results indicate that cognitive processing moderated the effects of scenario framing, with higher levels of intuitive processing leading to classical framing effects, whereas higher levels of analytical processing leading to no such framing effects. Self-reported valence, as in self-...

  3. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: o C1 = children at risk (having considerable difficulty with jumping and minor difficulty with manual dexterity and simultaneous coding); o C2 = children on the mean (all cognitive-motor scores close to the mean); o C3 = free from cognitive-motor problems (all scores above average); o C4 = manual dexterity, planning and simultaneous coding difficulties; o C5 = manual dexterity, dynamic balance, and planning difficulties; o C6 = generalized cognitive-motor dysfunction (all scores considerably below average). It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-11-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction.

  5. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further research is also needed on the reasons why low cognitive demands are made in the teaching of Technology. .... the NCS (Department of Basic Education, 2011), and the topics ..... In the quantitative phase each lesson objective was classified according .... involves the retrieving (listing) of knowledge from memory (at.

  6. Meaning of cognitive processes for creating artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Pangrác, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis brings an integral view at cognitive processes connected with artificial intelligence systems, and makes a comparison with the processes observed in nature, including human being. A historical background helps us to look at the whole issue from a certain point of view. The main axis of interest comes after the historical overview and includes the following: environment -- stimulations -- processing -- reflection in the cognitive system -- reaction to stimulation; I balance...

  7. Organizational Change, Leadership and Learning: Culture as Cognitive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    Examines the claim that it is necessary to change an organization's culture in order to bring about organizational change. Considers the purported causal relationship between the role of the leader and organizational learning and develops the notion of culture as cognitive process based on research in cultural anthropology and cognitive science.…

  8. Neurobiological correlates of cognitions in fear and anxiety: a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Ellard, Kristen K; Siegle, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    We review likely neurobiological substrates of cognitions related to fear and anxiety. Cognitive processes are linked to abnormal early activity reflecting hypervigilance in subcortical networks involving the amygdala, hippocampus, and insular cortex, and later recruitment of cortical regulatory resources, including activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex to implement avoidant response strategies. Based on this evidence, we present a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model of fear and anxiety, linking distinct brain structures to specific stages of information processing of perceived threat.

  9. Positive emotion impedes emotional but not cognitive conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Obermeier, Christian; Kanske, Philipp; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. Participants categorized either spoken vowels (cognitive task) or their emotional valence (emotional task) and ignored the visual stimulus dimension. Behaviorally, a positive target showed no influence on cognitive conflict processing, but impeded emotional conflict processing. In the emotional task, response time conflict costs were higher for positive than for neutral targets. In the EEG, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the P200 and N200 ERP components in emotional but not in cognitive conflict processing. In the emotional conflict task, the P200 and N200 conflict effect was larger for emotional than neutral targets. Thus, our results show that emotion affects conflict processing differently as a function of conflict type and emotional valence. This suggests that there are conflict- and valence-specific mechanisms modulating executive control.

  10. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  11. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  12. Nursing's ways of knowing and dual process theories of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John; Cheyne, Helen; Dalgleish, Len; Duncan, Edward A S; Niven, Catherine A

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a comparison of nursing's patterns of knowing with the systems identified by cognitive science, and evaluates claims about the equal-status relation between scientific and non-scientific knowledge. Ever since Carper's seminal paper in 1978, it has been taken for granted in the nursing literature that there are ways of knowing, or patterns of knowing, that are not scientific. This idea has recently been used to argue that the concept of evidence, typically associated with evidence-based practice, is inappropriately restricted because it is identified exclusively with scientific research. The paper reviews literature in psychology which appears to draw a comparable distinction between rule-based, analytical cognitive processes and other forms of cognitive processing which are unconscious, holistic and intuitive. There is a convincing parallel between the 'patterns of knowing' distinction in nursing and the 'cognitive processing' distinction in psychology. However, there is an important difference in the way the relation between different forms of knowing (or cognitive processing) is depicted. In nursing, it is argued that the different patterns of knowing have equal status and weight. In cognitive science, it is suggested that the rule-based, analytical form of cognition has a supervisory and corrective function with respect to the other forms. Scientific reasoning and evidence-based knowledge have epistemological priority over the other forms of nursing knowledge. The implications of this claim for healthcare practice are briefly indicated.

  13. Volumetric image interpretation in radiology: scroll behavior and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2018-05-16

    The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.

  14. Some Cognitive Components of the Diagnostic Thinking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Identifies 14 cognitive components of the diagnostic thinking process in clinical problem solving. Analyzes the differences between medical students, hospital house officers, and hospital registrars in London, England, on the relative use of such thinking processes. Suggests that diagnostic thinking processes cannot be incorporated into medical…

  15. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  16. How visual cognition influences process model comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2017-01-01

    Process analysts and other professionals extensively use process models to analyze business processes and identify performance improvement opportunities. Therefore, it is important that such models can be easily and properly understood. Previous research has mainly focused on two types of factors

  17. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included

  18. A Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    in terms of levels of processing models (e.g., Craik and Lockhart , 1972; Craik and Tulving, 1975). A similarly counter-intuitive result from a novel...NJ.: Erlbaum. Craik ,F.I.M. & Lockhart ,R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal... processes or at least, a recognition of the correspondence betveen these symbols and external events. ( Craik , 1943, p. 50) Craik thus provides a

  19. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  20. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In “Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions,” published in Psychological Bulletin, Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so the authors outline a series of links between various constructs, such as fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, absorption, suggestibility, altered information-processin...

  1. Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception-cognition-action and i...... of categorical sensing and perception with the equally hierarchical issues of the "binding problem", "triadic causality", the "emergent interpretant" and the increasing semiotic freedom observed in biological and cognitive systems....

  2. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing...

  5. Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Craik . F.I.M., & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11...task at both levels of performance, then one would, in both cases, postulate systems that had the ability to process symbols at the microscopic level ...821760s and early 70s. (cf. Atkinson & Shiffrin. 1968: Craik & Lockhart . 1972: Norman, Rumelhart, & LNR, 1975). This architecture is comprised of several

  6. Information Processing and Dynamics in Minimally Cognitive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D.; Williams, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we…

  7. The Process of Student Cognition in Constructing Mathematical Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, I. Wayan Puja; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe the process of student cognition in constructing mathematical conjecture. Many researchers have studied this process but without giving a detailed explanation of how students understand the information to construct a mathematical conjecture. The researchers focus their analysis on how to construct and prove the…

  8. THE INTERNAL AUDIT AS COGNITIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term AUDIT generally comes from the Latin word "audire" to listen and to inform others, from today's Anglo-Saxon countries, this term has the meaning of a revision of the accounting information and of those of a different nature, realized by an independent professional, in view of expressing an opinion regarding the regularity and honesty of the audited information (1 §tefan Craciun, Audit financiar §i audit intern, The Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004, page 22. In a general register, an audit has the purpose to grant an entity added value by a systematic and methodic approach, evaluating the risk management processes, the control processes and the governing processes, all of which are materialized within an objective and professional report.

  9. Cognitive processes, models and metaphors in decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Newell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision research in psychology has traditionally been influenced by the extit{homo oeconomicus} metaphor with its emphasis on normative models and deviations from the predictions of those models. In contrast, the principal metaphor of cognitive psychology conceptualizes humans as `information processors', employing processes of perception, memory, categorization, problem solving and so on. Many of the processes described in cognitive theories are similar to those involved in decision making, and thus increasing cross-fertilization between the two areas is an important endeavour. A wide range of models and metaphors has been proposed to explain and describe `information processing' and many models have been applied to decision making in ingenious ways. This special issue encourages cross-fertilization between cognitive psychology and decision research by providing an overview of current perspectives in one area that continues to highlight the benefits of the synergistic approach: cognitive modeling of multi-attribute decision making. In this introduction we discuss aspects of the cognitive system that need to be considered when modeling multi-attribute decision making (e.g., automatic versus controlled processing, learning and memory constraints, metacognition and illustrate how such aspects are incorporated into the approaches proposed by contributors to the special issue. We end by discussing the challenges posed by the contrasting and sometimes incompatible assumptions of the models and metaphors.

  10. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cognitive processing of currency: Euros and Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we evaluated whether the processing of currency was determined by familiarity of people with banknotes. In Experiment 1, participants who used the Euro currency named sequences of Euro banknotes and Dollar banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants showed an interference effect in the blocked context with Dollar banknotes but not with Euro banknotes. In Experiment 2, the interference effect was observed with Euro banknotes when participants were not familiar with the Euro currency. These results suggest that the semantic processing of banknotes depends on the participants' familiarity with currency. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  13. Cognitive conflict increases processing of negative, task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures. Participants responded to congruent (non-conflict) or to incongruent (conflict-eliciting) trials of a modified flanker task. Each response was followed by a presentation of a neutral or negative picture. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to picture presentation was used to assess the level of picture processing after conflict vs non-conflict trials. Connectivity between the DLPFC and attentional and perceptual areas during picture presentation was analysed to check if the DLPFC might be a source of these modulations. ERP results showed an effect of cognitive conflict only on processing of negative pictures: LPP in response to negative pictures was increased after conflict trials, whereas LPP in response to neutral pictures remained unchanged. Cortical connectivity analysis showed that conflict trials intensified information flow from the DLPFC towards attentional and perceptual regions. Results suggest that cognitive conflict increases processing of task-irrelevant stimuli; however, they must display high biological salience. Increase in cognitive control exerted by the DLPFC over attentional and perceptual regions is a probable mechanism of the effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Literacy processes cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching

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    Cartwright, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Reading and writing instruction require individuals--both students and teachers--to flexibly process many kinds of information, from a variety of sources. This is the first book to provide an in-depth examination of cognitive flexibility: how it develops across the lifespan; its role in specific literacy processes, such as phonemic awareness, word recognition, and comprehension; and implications for improving literacy instruction and teacher education. The contributors include leading researchers in literacy, psychology, and cognitive development, who summarize the current state of the science

  15. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

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    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  16. Visualization of decision processes using a cognitive architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Mark A.; Murugesan, Arthi; Brock, Derek; Frost, Wende K.; Perzanowski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive architectures are computational theories of reasoning the human mind engages in as it processes facts and experiences. A cognitive architecture uses declarative and procedural knowledge to represent mental constructs that are involved in decision making. Employing a model of behavioral and perceptual constraints derived from a set of one or more scenarios, the architecture reasons about the most likely consequence(s) of a sequence of events. Reasoning of any complexity and depth involving computational processes, however, is often opaque and challenging to comprehend. Arguably, for decision makers who may need to evaluate or question the results of autonomous reasoning, it would be useful to be able to inspect the steps involved in an interactive, graphical format. When a chain of evidence and constraint-based decision points can be visualized, it becomes easier to explore both how and why a scenario of interest will likely unfold in a particular way. In initial work on a scheme for visualizing cognitively-based decision processes, we focus on generating graphical representations of models run in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Our visualization algorithm operates on a modified version of Polyscheme's output, which is accomplished by augmenting models with a simple set of tags. We provide example visualizations and discuss properties of our technique that pose challenges for our representation goals. We conclude with a summary of feedback solicited from domain experts and practitioners in the field of cognitive modeling.

  17. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

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    Erika Tomec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.

  18. Information processing and dynamics in minimally cognitive agents.

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    Beer, Randall D; Williams, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we separately analyze the operation of this agent using the mathematical tools of information theory and dynamical systems theory. Information-theoretic analysis reveals how task-relevant information flows through the system to be combined into a categorization decision. Dynamical analysis reveals the key geometrical and temporal interrelationships underlying the categorization decision. Finally, we propose a framework for directly relating these two different styles of explanation and discuss the possible implications of our analysis for some of the ongoing debates in cognitive science. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. N-3 PUFAs and neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders

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    Leyrolle Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new nutritional approaches to prevent and delay the onset of cognitive decline. Neuroinflammatory processes contribute to neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performances and reduce the neuroinflammatory responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders. We will also discuss the mechanisms underlying n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids effect on neuroinflammation and memory decline.

  20. Conceptualization, Cognitive Process between Image and Word

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    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the process of constituting and organizing the system of concepts. After a comparative analysis of image and concept, conceptualization is reconsidered through raising for discussion the relations of concept with image in general and with self-image mirrored in body schema in particular. Taking into consideration the notion of mental space, there is developed an articulated perspective on conceptualization which has the images of mental space at one pole and the categories of language and operations of thinking at the other pole. There are explored the explicative possibilities of the notion of Tversky’s diagrammatic space as an element which is necessary to understand the genesis of graphic behaviour and to define a new construct, graphic intelligence.

  1. Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Stanovich, Keith E

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Influence of empathetic pain processing on cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kesong; Lijffijt, Marijn; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Fan, Zhiwei; Shi, Hui; He, Shuchang

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in both empathy and cognition have been reported widely in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these deficits interact among such patients. In the present study, we used pain portraying pictures preceding a color-word Stroop task to investigate the effect of empathetic pain observation on cognition among patients with schizophrenia. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and twenty healthy controls were included. The control group showed increased Stroop facilitation and decreased interference during the empathetic pain condition compared with the non-empathetic condition. Although patients with schizophrenia exhibited deficits in cognition, they demonstrated a similar empathy effect to controls on Stroop facilitation, but a somewhat larger empathy effect on Stroop interference (a more decreased effect). In particular, the groups did not differ in either automatic or controlled processing during the non-empathetic condition, suggesting general rather than specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Together, we interpret our findings in terms of two opposing effects of empathy on cognition in schizophrenia, with possible neuromodulatory mechanism. Whereas prior studies showed empathy to be impaired, our outcomes indicate that at least some components of empathetic pain processing are preserved in such patients.

  4. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  5. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  6. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  7. Developmental Dynamics of Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.; Weaver, Jennifer Miner

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic relations during the preschool years across processes of control and understanding in the domains of emotion and cognition were examined. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers who were seen first when the children were 3 years old and again when they were 4. Results indicated dynamic dependence among the…

  8. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  9. Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Carlström, Christoffer; Johansson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct…

  10. Cognitive Process as a Basis for Intelligent Retrieval Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of the cognitive processes involved in online document-based information retrieval were conducted. These studies led to the development of five computational models of online document retrieval which were incorporated into the design of an "intelligent" document-based retrieval system. Both the system and the broader implications of…

  11. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  12. On Dual Processing and Heuristic Approaches to Moral Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the implications of dual-processing theories of cognition for the moral domain, with particular emphasis upon "System 1" theories: the Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt), moral heuristics (Sunstein), fast-and-frugal moral heuristics (Gigerenzer), schema accessibility (Lapsley & Narvaez) and moral expertise (Narvaez). We argue that these…

  13. Working memory span in mild cognitive impairment. Influence of processing speed and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often includes episodic memory impairment, but can also involve other types of cognitive decline. Although previous studies have shown poorer performance of MCI patients in working memory (WM) span tasks, different MCI subgroups were not studied. In the present exploratory study, 145 participants underwent extensive cognitive evaluation, which included three different WM span tasks, and were classified into the following groups: multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mda-MCI), single-domain amnestic MCI (sda-MCI), and controls. General linear model was conducted by considering the WM span tasks as the within-subject factor; the group (mda-MCI, sda-MCI, and controls) as the inter-subject factor; and processing speed, vocabulary and age as covariates. Multiple linear regression models were also used to test the influence of processing speed, vocabulary, and other cognitive reserve (CR) proxies. Results indicate different levels of impairment of WM, with more severe impairment in mda-MCI patients. The differences were still present when processing resources and CR were controlled. Between-group differences can be understood as a manifestation of the greater severity and widespread memory impairment in mda-MCI patients and may contribute to a better understanding of continuum from normal controls to mda-MCI patients. Processing speed and CR have a limited influence on WM scores, reducing but not removing differences between groups.

  14. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  15. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

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    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  16. Commentary: cognitive-affective mechanisms and processes in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A

    2003-03-01

    This commentary highlights some of the interesting points to emerge from the preceding papers about the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. Additionally some cognitive functions are also considered and especially the way in which autobiographical memory supports, constrains, and maintains the goals of the self. Directions for future research into the self, social, directive, and cognitive-affective functions and processes of autobiographical memory are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on future research into the function of autobiographical memory in representations of attachment.

  17. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia.

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    Jianglan Wang

    Full Text Available Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs. Accuracy (ACC, reaction time (RT, the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process

  18. The process of clinical assessment: cognitions of the evaluator

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    Carmelo Ibáñez Aguirre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive paradigm of the past few decades opens several new possibilities for psychological evaluation.  The objective of this essay is to emphasize the possibilities related to the quality of self-evaluation, specifically professional self-assessment, meaning a critical analysis of one’s own evaluation process. In this essay, metacognition activities and strategies are examined, as are the ways in which these activities and strategies relate to metacognition and cognitive skills. The intent of this theoretical essay is to offer answers to the clinical evaluator’s professional experience. The results indicate that the clinical professional must consider strategies to improve metacognition and cognitive skills through reflection, self-analysis and self-criticism to improve the quality and efficiency of their work.

  19. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  20. Cognitive Load Alters Neuronal Processing of Food Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Hensel, Sonja Maria; Sijben, Rik; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-10-31

    Obesity is a major health concern in modern societies. Although decreased physical activity and enhanced intake of high-caloric foods are important risk factors for developing obesity, human behavior during eating also plays a role. Previous studies have shown that distraction while eating increases food intake and leads to impaired processing of food stimuli. As olfaction is the most important sense involved in flavor perception, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the influence of cognitive memory load on olfactory perception and processing. Low- and high-caloric food odors were presented in combination with either low or high cognitive loads utilizing a memory task. The efficacy of the memory task was verified by a decrease in participant recall accuracy and an increase in skin conductance response during high cognitive load. Our behavioral data reveal a diminished perceived intensity for low- but not high-caloric food odors during high cognitive load. For low-caloric food odors, bilateral orbitofrontal (OFC) and piriform cortices (pirC) showed significantly lower activity during high compared with low cognitive load. For high-caloric food odors, a similar effect was established in pirC, but not in OFC. Insula activity correlates with higher intensity ratings found during the low cognitive load condition. We conclude lower activity in pirC and OFC to be responsible for diminished intensity perception, comparable to results in olfactory impaired patients and elderly. Further studies should investigate the influence of olfactory/gustatory intensities on food choices under distraction with special regards to low-caloric food. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. COGNITIVE SCIENCE DAN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT DALAM PEMROSESAN INFORMASI (INFORMATION PROCESSING PADAANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Prima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive science is a science which studies how human mental processes to influence one’s behavior. Principal major issue that needs to be known in the understanding of cognitive science and their development is related to how the initial state of cognitive science itself, the mind is adapted, the development process starting from the concrete to the abstract, the conceptual nature of the change, the difference between learning and development, format representation of the underlying changes in development, the role of implicit and explicit cognitions in the development, the role of the association and the rules in the development, the universal development, cognitive domain and how to influence the development of brain structure. There are three difference in the cognitive domain of the most common sense that domain as a module, as the domain of expertise, and domain as a model of mind.   Ilmu kognitif adalah suatu pengetahuan yang mempelajari tentang bagaimana proses mental manusia dalam mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang. Pokok pembahasan utama yang perlu diketahui dalam memahami ilmu kognitif dan perkembangannya yaitu terkait dengan bagaimana keadaan awal dari ilmu kognitif itu sendiri, pikiran yang teradaptasi, proses perkembangan mulai dari hal yang kongkrit sampai dengan abstrak, sifat konseptual dalam perubahan, perbedaan antara belajar dan pengembangan, format representasi yang mendasari perubahan dalam perkembangan, peran kognisi implisit dan eksplisit dalam perkembangan, peran asosiasi dan aturan dalam perkembangan, perkembangan secara universal, domain kognitif dan bagaimana struktur otak mempengaruhi perkembangan. Ada tiga perbedaan domain kognitif dari indera yang paling umum yaitu domain sebagai modul, domain sebagai bidang keahlian, dan domain sebagai model pikiran.

  2. The cognitive processing of the allomorphy in Serbian

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    Jovanović Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored cognitive status of suffix allomorphy of the masculine nouns in instrumental singular in Serbian language (eg. mišom-mišem; pužom-pužem. Allomorphy represents distinct variations in form of the morpheme which does not influence it’s function and meaning (cf. Lyons, 1968. Despite it’s frequent appearance in speech and language production, it has rarely been a subject of psycholinguistic explorations. First goal of this research was to determine whether the cognitive processing of allomorphic nouns has it’s specificities and second goal was to create the base for making and testing hypothesis regarding morphological and/or phonological factors that influence suffix alternation in forming of instrumental singular of masculine nouns. We conducted visual lexical decision experiment and applied a questionnaire created for the needs of investigating allomorphy in language production. Results showed that at least two processes influence cognitive processing of masculine nouns in instrumental singular: (a certain morpho-phonological restrictions that influence appearance of the suffix-em, and (b allomorphy - variations in suffix in instrumental singular. In addition, the findings indicate that allomorphy could be the consequence of the tendency to use more frequent suffix (-om, that eases the processing, and blocks the influence of the morpho-phonological restrictions.

  3. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  4. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  6. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  7. Processing approaches to cognition: the impetus from the levels-of-processing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Gallo, David A; Geraci, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Processing approaches to cognition have a long history, from act psychology to the present, but perhaps their greatest boost was given by the success and dominance of the levels-of-processing framework. We review the history of processing approaches, and explore the influence of the levels-of-processing approach, the procedural approach advocated by Paul Kolers, and the transfer-appropriate processing framework. Processing approaches emphasise the procedures of mind and the idea that memory storage can be usefully conceptualised as residing in the same neural units that originally processed information at the time of encoding. Processing approaches emphasise the unity and interrelatedness of cognitive processes and maintain that they can be dissected into separate faculties only by neglecting the richness of mental life. We end by pointing to future directions for processing approaches.

  8. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  9. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  10. Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchow, Jordan W; Bourgin, David D; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-07-01

    Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioinformation processing a primer on computational cognitive science

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It begins with a general model of cognitive processes in a network of computational nodes, such as neurons, using a variety of tools from mathematics, computational science and neurobiology. It then moves on to solve the diffusion model from a low-level random walk point of view. It also demonstrates how this idea can be used in a new approach to solving the cable equation, in order to better understand the neural computation approximations. It introduces specialized data for emotional content, which allows a brain model to be built using MatLab tools, and also highlights a simple model of cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

  13. Cognitive load disrupts implicit theory-of-mind processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Lam, Rebecca; Bayliss, Andrew P; Dux, Paul E

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements in Sally-Anne false-belief tasks appear to reflect the ability to implicitly monitor the mental states of other individuals (theory of mind, or ToM). It has recently been proposed that an early-developing, efficient, and automatically operating ToM system subserves this ability. Surprisingly absent from the literature, however, is an empirical test of the influence of domain-general executive processing resources on this implicit ToM system. In the study reported here, a dual-task method was employed to investigate the impact of executive load on eye movements in an implicit Sally-Anne false-belief task. Under no-load conditions, adult participants displayed eye movement behavior consistent with implicit belief processing, whereas evidence for belief processing was absent for participants under cognitive load. These findings indicate that the cognitive system responsible for implicitly tracking beliefs draws at least minimally on executive processing resources. Thus, even the most low-level processing of beliefs appears to reflect a capacity-limited operation.

  14. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Affective and cognitive processes and the development and maintenance of anxiety and its disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research related to cognitive hypotheses and models of childhood anxiety. The cognitive behavioral approach and the information processing approach to childhood anxiety are explored. Cognitive developmental aspects of anxiety-related cognition, the typical patterns of

  16. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  17. [Chang of cognitions and feelings during the process of procrastination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Shun

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.

  18. Emotion and persuasion: cognitive and meta-cognitive processes impact attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.

  19. Examining Cognitive Processes and Drinking Urge in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Rachel L.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2018-01-01

    Despite their centrality to learning theories, strikingly little attention has been paid to the role of cognitions in efforts to understand associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine information processing pathways for trauma and alcohol information, and the effects of posttraumatic stress and trauma cue exposure on these pathways. Participants were college students (N = 232; 49% female; Mage = 19.56,SD = 1.44) categorized into three diagnostic groups based on current PTSD status determined by structured clinical interview. These students then were exposed to a personalized trauma or neutral cue script, followed by a Stroop task modified to include trauma, alcohol, and contrast words. Indices of mood and urge to drink alcohol were administered throughout the task. Findings revealed that those with PTSD who were exposed to the personalized trauma cue showed a general response slowing across all stimuli types on the Stroop task. Intriguingly, this slowing effect was significantly associated with urge to drink alcohol for only those PTSD participants who were exposed to the trauma cues. In contrast, we did not find support for the hypothesis that trauma cues would lead to attention bias to trauma and alcohol specific Stroop stimuli among participants with PTSD, nor did slower RT for specific word types predict unique variance in urge to drink alcohol. Findings suggest that individual (PTSD) and environmental (cue) circumstances may work conjointly to precipitate changes in cognitive processing - changes that may have implications for drinking motivation. Given the importance of cognition in the etiology of both PTSD and drinking, this is a mechanism that warrants further investigation. PMID:28073047

  20. Effect of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Holographic Reprocessing on Reduction of Posttraumatic Cognitions in Students Exposed to Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz molavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This research was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing on the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions in students exposed to trauma. "nMethod: This was an experimental study with spread pretest-posttest randomized groups design. Statistical society of this research consisted of male freshman, junior and senior high school students of Uremia (N=10286. Utilizing Traumatic Events Screening Inventory, and SCL-90 R on 1000 randomly selected high school students, 129 students were recognized as having experienced traumatic events. Of the subjects, 60 were selected randomly. Then, clinical interview was conducted, and the selected sample was randomly assigned in to three groups of cognitive processing therapy, holographic reprocessing and control. These groups responded to Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory in pretest and post test. Differences of pre-post test scores were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Scheffe test. "nResults: The results demonstrated significant differences between the three groups in total score of the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory. Difference was also observed in negative cognitions on self and self-blame dimensions. Furthermore, these two therapeutic methods were equally effective in the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions.   "nConclusion: It appears that cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing which had been originally developed and tested for sexually assaulted females, can also be applied for the victims of other traumatic events, particularly  adolescents.

  1. The cognitive processing of film and musical soundtracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musical soundtracks can influence the interpretation, emotional impact, and remembering of film information. The intent here was to examine how music is encoded into the cognitive system and subsequently represented relative to its accompanying visual action. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a set of music/film clips that were either congruent or incongruent in their emotional affects. Selective attending was also systematically manipulated by instructing viewers to attend to and remember the music, film, or both in tandem. The results from tune recognition, film recall, and paired discrimination tasks collectively revealed that mood-congruent pairs lead to a joint encoding of music/film information as well as an integrated memory code. Incongruent pairs, on the other hand, result in an independent encoding in which a given dimension, music or film, is only remembered well if it was selectively attended to at the time of encoding. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that tunes from mood-congruent pairs are better recognized when cued by their original scenes, while those from incongruent pairs are better remembered in the absence of scene information. These findings both support and extend the "Congruence Associationist Model" (A. J. Cohen, 2001), which addresses those cognitive mechanisms involved in the processing of music/film information.

  2. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  3. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  4. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  5. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  6. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Lex

    Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  7. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  8. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  9. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages.

  10. Cognitive control processes in paranoia: the impact of threat induction on strategic cognition and self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Laura; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stopa, Lusia

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical models emphasize certain cognitive processes in the maintenance of distressing paranoia. While a number of these processes have been examined in detail, the role of strategic cognition and self-focused attention remain under-researched. This study examined the deployment of cognitive strategies and self-focused attention in people with non-clinical paranoia. An experimental design was used to examine the impact of a threat activation task on these processes, in participants with high and low non-clinical paranoia. Twenty-eight people were recruited to each group, and completed measures of anxiety, paranoid cognition, strategic cognition and self-focused attention. The threat activation task was effective in increasing anxiety in people with high and low non-clinical paranoia. The high paranoia group experienced more paranoid cognitions following threat activation. This group also reported greater use of thought suppression, punishment and worry, and less use of social control strategies when under threat. No differences were found between the groups on measures of self-focused attention. This study shows that the threat activation task increased anxiety in people with high non-clinical paranoia, leading to increased paranoid thinking. The use of strategic cognition following threat activation varied dependent on level of non-clinical paranoia. If these differences are replicated in clinical groups, the strategies may be implicated in the maintenance of distressing psychosis, and may therefore be a valuable target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  12. Levels of integration in cognitive control and sequence processing in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Korb, Franziska M; Gratton, Caterina; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control is necessary to flexibly act in changing environments. Sequence processing is needed in language comprehension to build the syntactic structure in sentences. Functional imaging studies suggest that sequence processing engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, cognitive control processes additionally recruit bilateral rostral lateral PFC regions. The present study aimed to investigate these two types of processes in one experimental paradigm. Sequence processing was manipulated using two different sequencing rules varying in complexity. Cognitive control was varied with different cue-sets that determined the choice of a sequencing rule. Univariate analyses revealed distinct PFC regions for the two types of processing (i.e. sequence processing: left ventrolateral PFC and cognitive control processing: bilateral dorsolateral and rostral PFC). Moreover, in a common brain network (including left lateral PFC and intraparietal sulcus) no interaction between sequence and cognitive control processing was observed. In contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed an interaction of sequence and cognitive control processing, such that voxels in left lateral PFC and parietal cortex showed different tuning functions for tasks involving different sequencing and cognitive control demands. These results suggest that the difference between the process of rule selection (i.e. cognitive control) and the process of rule-based sequencing (i.e. sequence processing) find their neuronal underpinnings in distinct activation patterns in lateral PFC. Moreover, the combination of rule selection and rule sequencing can shape the response of neurons in lateral PFC and parietal cortex.

  13. A content review of cognitive process measures used in pain research within adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M A; Lang, C P; Newton-John, T R O; Ehde, D M; Jensen, M P

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that measures of cognitive process may be confounded by the inclusion of items that also assess cognitive content. The primary aims of this content review were to: (1) identify the domains of cognitive processes assessed by measures used in pain research; and (2) determine if pain-specific cognitive process measures with adequate psychometric properties exist. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched to identify the measures of cognitive process used in pain research. Identified measures were double coded and the measure's items were rated as: (1) cognitive content; (2) cognitive process; (3) behavioural/social; and/or (4) emotional coping/responses to pain. A total of 319 scales were identified; of these, 29 were coded as providing an un-confounded assessment of cognitive process, and 12 were pain-specific. The cognitive process domains assessed in these measures are Absorption, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, Acceptance, Rumination, Non-Judgment, and Enhancement. Pain-specific, un-confounded measures were identified for: Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, and Acceptance. Psychometric properties of all 319 scales are reported in supplementary material. To understand the importance of cognitive processes in influencing pain outcomes as well as explaining the efficacy of pain treatments, valid and pain-specific cognitive process measures that are not confounded with non-process domains (e.g., cognitive content) are needed. The findings of this content review suggest that future research focused on developing cognitive process measures is critical in order to advance our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie effective pain treatment. Many cognitive process measures used in pain research contain a 'mix' of items that assess cognitive process, cognitive content, and behavioural/emotional responses. Databases searched: PsychInfo, CINAHL, Psyc

  14. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  15. Information processing speed as a mediator between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Hui F; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Haron, Sharifah A

    2018-01-01

    The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well. The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests. Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P cognition was found to be significant in men only, whereas the association between processing speed and global cognition was significant in men and women. Psychosocial stress may increase the likelihood that older adults will experience poor processing capacity, which could reduce their higher level cognition. Results indicate that there is a need to develop processing capacity intervention programmes for psychologically distressed older adults to prevent them from suffering cognitive decline. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  16. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  19. Explicit and implicit cognition: a preliminary test of a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Brazy, Paige C; Shah, James Y; Teachman, Bethany A; Nosek, Brian A

    2007-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to test a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression. According to this theory, implicit and explicit cognitive processes have differential effects on depressive reactions to stressful life events. Implicit processes are hypothesized to be critical in determining an individual's immediate affective reaction to stress whereas explicit cognitions are thought to be more involved in long-term depressive reactions. Consistent with hypotheses, the results of study 1 (cross-sectional; N=237) showed that implicit, but not explicit, cognitions predicted immediate affective reactions to a lab stressor. Study 2 (longitudinal; N=251) also supported the dual-process model of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Results showed that both the implicit and explicit measures interacted with life stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms, respectively. However, when both implicit and explicit predictors were entered into a regression equation simultaneously, only the explicit measure interacted with stress to remain a unique predictor of depressive symptoms over the five-week prospective interval.

  20. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Perez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1 to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2 to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3 to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  1. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L D; Venza, Erin E; Chapman, Sandra B

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28-79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  2. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M.; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L. D.; Venza, Erin E.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations. PMID:29867641

  3. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B; Loewy, Rachel; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time. Lowess analysis, mixed models repeated measures analysis, and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine whether APS trajectories were moderated by age and illness duration, and mediated improvements in cognitive outcome measures. We observed significant improvements in APS from baseline to 20 hours of training (initial change), followed by a flat APS trajectory (plateau) at subsequent time-points. Participants showed interindividual variability in the steepness of the initial APS change and in the APS plateau achieved and sustained between 20 and 40 hours. We found that participants who achieved the fastest APS plateau, showed the greatest transfer effects to untrained cognitive domains. There is a significant association between an individual's ability to generate and sustain auditory processing efficiency and their degree of cognitive improvement after TCT, independent of baseline neurocognition. APS plateau may therefore represent a behavioral measure of target engagement mediating treatment response. Future studies should examine the optimal plateau of auditory processing efficiency required to induce significant cognitive improvements, in the context of interindividual differences in neural plasticity and sensory system efficiency that characterize schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  5. Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Processes: Implications for School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations have been found in cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. These cognitive processes improve during the day and decrease during the night and early hours of the morning. Sleep deprivation further decreases these cognitive…

  6. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  7. Cognitive Task Analysis of the Battalion Level Visualization Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leedom, Dennis K; McElroy, William; Shadrick, Scott B; Lickteig, Carl; Pokorny, Robet A; Haynes, Jacqueline A; Bell, James

    2007-01-01

    ... position or as a battalion Operations Officer or Executive Officer. Bases on findings from the cognitive task analysis, 11 skill areas were identified as potential focal points for future training development...

  8. Cognitive Processes and Learner Strategies in the Acquisition of Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    children: Capacity or processing deficits? Memory and Cognition, 1976, 4, 559-S72. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework...learning and memory research. In F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing and theories of memory. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1978...functions. Cognitive activities are described at a highly theoretical (technical) level as well as in a pragmatic manner. Differences in processing

  9. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  10. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  11. Analysis of operators' diagnosis tasks based on cognitive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yong; Zhang Li

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants characterized as high-dynamic uncertainties are complex reasoning tasks. Diagnosis errors are the main causes for the error of commission. Firstly, based on mental model theory and perception/action cycle theory, a cognitive model for analyzing operators' diagnosis tasks is proposed. Then, the model is used to investigate a trip event which occurred at crystal river nuclear power plant. The application demonstrates typical cognitive bias and mistakes which operators may make when performing diagnosis tasks. They mainly include the strong confirmation tendency, difficulty to produce complete hypothesis sets, group mindset, non-systematic errors in hypothesis testing, and etc. (authors)

  12. Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stenlund, Therese; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  13. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean

    1993-01-01

    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary

  14. Brain insulin signaling: a key component of cognitive processes and a potential basis for cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C.; Recknagel, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the role of insulin in the brain has gradually expanded, from initial conceptions of the brain as insulin-insensitive through identification of a role in regulation of feeding to recent demonstration of insulin as a key component of hippocampal memory processes. Conversely, systemic insulin resistance such as that seen in type 2 diabetes is associated with a range of cogntive and neural deficits. Here we review the evidence for insulin as a cognitive and neural modulator, including potential effector mechanisms, and examine the impact that type 2 diabetes has on these mechanisms in order to identify likely bases for the cognitive impairments seen in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:21907815

  15. Passion’s Slave? : Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processes in Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Field, M.; Stacy, A.W.; Sher, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on cognitive processes in substance use disorders from a dual-process perspective. In dual-process models, behavior is viewed as the joint outcome of "impulsive" and "reflective" processes. Reflective processes rely on a single limited capacity mechanism and can

  16. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  17. Conceptual Transformation and Cognitive Processes in Origami Paper Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbrink, Thora; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on problem solving typically does not address tasks that involve following detailed and/or illustrated step-by-step instructions. Such tasks are not seen as cognitively challenging problems to be solved. In this paper, we challenge this assumption by analyzing verbal protocols collected during an Origami folding task. Participants…

  18. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  19. Exploring Flipped Classroom Effects on Second Language Learners' Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…

  20. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insights into numerical cognition: considering eye-fixations in number processing and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, J; Huber, S; Klein, E; Moeller, K

    2016-05-01

    Considering eye-fixation behavior is standard in reading research to investigate underlying cognitive processes. However, in numerical cognition research eye-tracking is used less often and less systematically. Nevertheless, we identified over 40 studies on this topic from the last 40 years with an increase of eye-tracking studies on numerical cognition during the last decade. Here, we review and discuss these empirical studies to evaluate the added value of eye-tracking for the investigation of number processing. Our literature review revealed that the way eye-fixation behavior is considered in numerical cognition research ranges from investigating basic perceptual aspects of processing non-symbolic and symbolic numbers, over assessing the common representational space of numbers and space, to evaluating the influence of characteristics of the base-10 place-value structure of Arabic numbers and executive control on number processing. Apart from basic results such as reading times of numbers increasing with their magnitude, studies revealed that number processing can influence domain-general processes such as attention shifting-but also the other way round. Domain-general processes such as cognitive control were found to affect number processing. In summary, eye-fixation behavior allows for new insights into both domain-specific and domain-general processes involved in number processing. Based thereon, a processing model of the temporal dynamics of numerical cognition is postulated, which distinguishes an early stage of stimulus-driven bottom-up processing from later more top-down controlled stages. Furthermore, perspectives for eye-tracking research in numerical cognition are discussed to emphasize the potential of this methodology for advancing our understanding of numerical cognition.

  2. Applying pause analysis to explore cognitive processes in the copying of sentences by second language users

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Putri Afzan Maria Binti

    2013-01-01

    Pause analysis is a method that investigates processes of writing by measuring the amount of time between pen strokes. It provides the field of second language studies with a means to explore the cognitive processes underpinning the nature of writing. This study examined the potential of using free handwritten copying of sentences as a means of investigating components of the cognitive processes of adults who have English as their Second Language (ESL).\\ud \\ud A series of one pilot and three ...

  3. Heuristic and Analytic Processing: Age Trends and Associations with Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokis, Judite V.; Macpherson, Robyn; Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined developmental and individual differences in tendencies to favor analytic over heuristic responses in three tasks (inductive reasoning, deduction under belief bias conditions, probabilistic reasoning) in children varying in age and cognitive ability. Found significant increases in analytic responding with development on first two tasks.…

  4. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  5. Reviewing the Role of Cognitive Load, Expertise Level, Motivation, and Unconscious Processing in Working Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity is unavailable for conscious processing of every amount of instructional messages. Aligning an instructional design with learner expertise level would allow better use of available working memory capacity in a cognitive learning task. Motivating students to learn consciously is also an essential determinant of the capacity…

  6. A Dual Coding Model of Processing Chinese as a Second Language: A Cognitive-Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Diana Po Lan

    2002-01-01

    The research was conducted in Sydney and Hong Kong using students, from grades 5 to 9, whose first language or teaching medium was English, learning to read Chinese as second language. According to cognitive load theory, the processing of single Chinese characters accompanied by pictures should impose extraneous cognitive load and thus hinders…

  7. Dancing Thoughts: An Examination of Children's Cognition and Creative Process in Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine children's cognition within the creative process in dance and to examine how dance making affects cognitive development in children. Data on children's thinking were gathered from fifth graders participating in an artist-in-residence program in a public school in Pennsylvania. Both the inquiry and the data…

  8. Parallel Distributed Processing at 25: Further Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; McClelland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of "Cognitive Science" initiated on the 25th anniversary of the publication of "Parallel Distributed Processing" (PDP), a two-volume work that introduced the use of neural network models as vehicles for understanding cognition. The collection surveys the core commitments of the PDP…

  9. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  10. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Sensory processing and cognitive development of preterm and full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ribeiro Cavalcanti Buffone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current studies show the repercussion of sensory processing disorder in infant neurodevelopment. Little is known about the influence of these disorders in the infant’s cognitive development, however, it is known that they negatively interfere on daily life activities and remain during life course. Objective:To evaluate the relationship between sensory processing and cognitive development in infants and the association between prematurity and sensory processing in this population. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Childcare Outpatient Department of the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal Universidade de Pernambuco, from December 2009 to August 2010. The sample consisted of 182 infants from 8 to 15 months, of which 54 (29.7% were born preterm with the prematurity age correction made to 40 weeks of gestational age. We used the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI to evaluate the sensory processing and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III to assess cognitive development. Results: There was a significantly higher frequency of at risk and deficient sensory processing among preterm infants (37% when compared to term infants (21.9%. Cognitive delay was significantly higher (8.3% in infants with at risk and deficient sensory processing when compared to those with normal sensory processing (1.5%. Conclusion: Prematurity was a risk factor for sensory processing disorder, and infants diagnosed with this disorder showed cognitive delay more frequently. Prematurity alone was not associated with cognitive delay.

  12. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  13. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  14. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling di...

  15. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  16. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  17. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes; La radiotherapie affecte la cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  18. The impact of translation-memory (TM) technology on cognitive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The use of Translation-Memory (TM) technology and other translation software is bound to influence translators' cognitive processes. Unfortunately we still lack empirically founded knowledge of this. Our paper therefore presents and discusses the theoretical background, setup and preliminary...

  19. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  20. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitive study using cognitive interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  1. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was

  2. Memory biases in remitted depression: the role of negative cognitions at explicit and automatic processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive models propose that depression is caused by dysfunctional schemas that endure beyond the depressive episode, representing vulnerability factors for recurrence. However, research testing negative cognitions linked to dysfunctional schemas in formerly depressed individuals is still scarce. Furthermore, negative cognitions are presumed to be linked to biases in recalling negative self-referent information in formerly depressed individuals, but no studies have directly tested this association. In the present study, we evaluated differences between formerly and never-depressed individuals in several experimental indices of negative cognitions and their associations with the recall of emotional self-referent material. Formerly (n = 30) and never depressed individuals (n = 40) completed measures of explicit (i.e., scrambled sentence test) and automatic (i.e., lexical decision task) processing to evaluate negative cognitions. Furthermore participants completed a self-referent incidental recall task to evaluate memory biases. Formerly compared to never depressed individuals showed greater negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing. Results also showed greater recall of negative self-referent information in formerly compared to never-depressed individuals. Finally, individual differences in negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing predicted greater recall of negative self-referent material in formerly depressed individuals. Analyses of the relationship between explicit and automatic processing indices and memory biases were correlational and the majority of participants in both groups were women. Our findings provide evidence of negative cognitions in formerly depressed individuals at both automatic and explicit levels of processing that may confer a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for a neural dual-process account for adverse effects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Nicolas; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2018-06-09

    Advantageous effects of cognitive control are well-known, but cognitive control may also have adverse effects, for example when it suppresses the implicit processing of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings that could benefit task performance. Yet, the neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical structures associated with adverse effects of cognitive control are poorly understood. We used an extreme group approach to compare individuals who exhibit adverse effects of cognitive control to individuals who do not by combining event-related potentials (ERPs), source localization, time-frequency analysis and network analysis methods. While neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control (i.e. N2, N450, theta power and theta-mediated neuronal network efficiency) and task-set updating (P3) both reflect control demands and implicit information processing, differences in the degree of adverse cognitive control effects are associated with two independent neural mechanisms: Individuals, who show adverse behavioral effects of cognitive control, show reduced small-world properties and thus reduced efficiency in theta-modulated networks when they fail to effectively process implicit information. In contrast to this, individuals who do not display adverse control effects show enhanced task-set updating mechanism when effectively processing implicit information, which is reflected by the P3 ERP component and associated with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, BA 40) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8). These findings suggest that implicit S-R contingencies, which benefit response selection without cognitive control, are always 'picked up', but may fail to be integrated with task representations to guide response selection. This provides evidence for a neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical "dual-process" account of adverse cognitive control effects.

  4. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  5. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility: evidence for the theory of attentional inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Introzzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discriminate the differential contribution of different inhibitory processes -perceptual, cognitive and behavioral inhibition- to switching cost effect associated with alternation cognitive tasks. A correlational design was used. Several experimental paradigms (e.g., Stop signal, visual search, Stemberg´s experimental and Simon paradigm were adapted and included in a computerized program called TAC (Introzzi & Canet Juric, 2014 to the assessment of the different cognitive processes. The final sample consisted of 45 adults (18-50 years. Perceptual and behavioral inhibition shows moderate and low correlations with attentional cost, cognitive inhibition shows no relation with flexibility and only perceptual inhibition predicts switching costs effects, suggesting that different inhibitory processes contribute differentially to switch cost. This could be interpreted as evidence to Attentional Inertia Theory main argument which postulates that inhibition plays an essential role in the ability to flexibly switch between tasks and/or representations.

  7. The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Cook, Jennifer L; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-03

    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition.

  8. A Conceptual Model of the Cognitive Processing of Environmental Distance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montello, Daniel R.

    I review theories and research on the cognitive processing of environmental distance information by humans, particularly that acquired via direct experience in the environment. The cognitive processes I consider for acquiring and thinking about environmental distance information include working-memory, nonmediated, hybrid, and simple-retrieval processes. Based on my review of the research literature, and additional considerations about the sources of distance information and the situations in which it is used, I propose an integrative conceptual model to explain the cognitive processing of distance information that takes account of the plurality of possible processes and information sources, and describes conditions under which particular processes and sources are likely to operate. The mechanism of summing vista distances is identified as widely important in situations with good visual access to the environment. Heuristics based on time, effort, or other information are likely to play their most important role when sensory access is restricted.

  9. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Kabaywe Yumba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC. This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC and individual listeners’ responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men, aged 33–80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89, with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1 linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP, (2 linear amplification with noise reduction (NR, and (3 non-linear amplification without NR (“fast-acting compression”. The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise. We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  10. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N

    2014-08-01

    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5) as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling disorder and the promise for translating the neurobiological understanding into treatment advances remains largely unrealized. Here we review the neurocognitive underpinnings of gambling disorder with a view to improving prevention, treatment, and policy efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CREATIVE MEDITATION CENTERED ON NATURAL ELEMENTS: CONSEQUENCES ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the effects of a creative meditation centered on a natural element (fire on different aspects of cognitive functioning, commonly associated with well-being, either positively (self-esteem, or negatively (automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. The results showed that while self-esteem improves after the creative meditation, automatic negative thinking and thought suppression do not decrease significantly. The conclusion is that the creative meditation helps in getting in touch with Self, supporting a healthy self-esteem when taking into consideration the social standards, but this also means accepting both positive and negative aspects of self, including the automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. This recommends the technique as a useful tool for psychotherapeutic and personal development use, as the vulnerabilities may become the focus without unnecessary self-blame, but with an intuitive solution in mind to turn them into personal resources.

  13. Cognition About the Creative Process – Interview With Dr Andrew P. Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the creative process and cognition and perception? Lynda Loughnane, a master’s student in Art and Process in Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork, Ireland interviewed Dr Andrew P. Allen about the subject. Areas covered include mindfulness, Type 1 and Type 2 thinking, stage theories of creativity, engagement with the art process and the artwork, phenomenology and consciousness with and without self report. The interview was constructed to cover a wide range of subject matter, so as to gather as much information as possible in layman's language about the cognitive process in relation to creativity and interaction with art.

  14. When cognitive biases lead to business process management issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavian, M.; Turetken, O.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Dumas, M.; Fantinato, M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a broad consensus that design decision making is important for Business Process Management success. Despite many business process design approaches and practices that are available, the quality of business process analysis and design relies heavily on human factors. Some of these factors

  15. Cognitive Structures in Vocational Information Processing and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Dorothy D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Tested the assumptions that the structural features of vocational schemas affect vocational information processing and career self-efficacy. Results indicated that effective vocational information processing was facilitated by well-integrated systems that processed information along fewer dimensions. The importance of schematic organization on the…

  16. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants' neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward.

  17. Concept of a cognitive-numeric plant and process modelizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterkind, D.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve automatic modeling of plant distrubances and failure limitation procedures, first the system's hardware and the present media (water, steam, coolant fluid) are formalized into fully computable matrices, called topographies. Secondly a microscopic cellular automation model, using lattice gases and state transition rules, is combined with a semi - microscopic cellular process model and with a macroscopic model, too. In doing this, at semi-microscopic level there are acting a cellular data compressor, a feature detection device and the Intelligent Physical Element's process dynamics. At macroscopic level the Walking Process Elements, a process evolving module, a test-and-manage device and abstracting process net are involved. Additionally, a diagnosis-coordinating and a counter measurements coordinating device are used. In order to automatically get process insights, object transformations, elementary process functions and associative methods are used. Developments of optoelectronic hardware language components are under consideration

  18. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition –the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships– is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger’s syndrome (AS (DSM-V. However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a assess multiple social cognition domains, (b examine executive functions, (c follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012 addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients’ performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia. Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

  19. Digital Learning As Enhanced Learning Processing? Cognitive Evidence for New insight of Smart Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; Ranieri, Jessica; Lacasa, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Large use of technology improved quality of life across aging and favoring the development of digital skills. Digital skills can be considered an enhancing to human cognitive activities. New research trend is about the impact of the technology in the elaboration information processing of the children. We wanted to analyze the influence of technology in early age evaluating the impact on cognition. We investigated the performance of a sample composed of n. 191 children in school age distributed in two groups as users: high digital users and low digital users. We measured the verbal and visuoperceptual cognitive performance of children by n. 8 standardized psychological tests and ad hoc self-report questionnaire. Results have evidenced the influence of digital exposition on cognitive development: the cognitive performance is looked enhanced and better developed: high digital users performed better in naming, semantic, visual memory and logical reasoning tasks. Our finding confirms the data present in literature and suggests the strong impact of the technology using not only in the social, educational and quality of life of the people, but also it outlines the functionality and the effect of the digital exposition in early age; increased cognitive abilities of the children tailor digital skilled generation with enhanced cognitive processing toward to smart learning.

  20. Enactivism, Radical Enactivism and Predictive Processing: What is Radical in Cognitive Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Enactivism, cognition should be understood in terms of a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. Further, this view holds that organisms do not passively receive information from this environment, they rather selectively create this environment by engaging in interaction with the world. Radical Enactivism adds that basic cognition does so without entertaining representations and hence that representations are not an essential constituent of cognition. Some proponents think that getting rid of representations amounts to a revolutionary alternative to standard views about cognition. To emphasize the impact, they claim that this ‘radicalization’ should be applied to all enactivist friendly views, including, another current and potentially revolutionary approach to cognition: predictive processing. In this paper, we will show that this is not the case. After introducing the problem (section 2, we will argue (section 3 that ‘radicalizing’ predictive processing does not add any value to this approach. After this (section 4, we will analyze whether or not radical Enactivism can count as a revolution within cognitive science at all and conclude that it cannot. Finally, in section 5 we will claim that cognitive science is better off when embracing heterogeneity.

  1. Cognitive process modelling of controllers in en route air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoru; Furuta, Kazuo; Nakata, Keiichi; Kanno, Taro; Aoyama, Hisae; Brown, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various efforts have been made in air traffic control (ATC) to maintain traffic safety and efficiency in the face of increasing air traffic demands. ATC is a complex process that depends to a large degree on human capabilities, and so understanding how controllers carry out their tasks is an important issue in the design and development of ATC systems. In particular, the human factor is considered to be a serious problem in ATC safety and has been identified as a causal factor in both major and minor incidents. There is, therefore, a need to analyse the mechanisms by which errors occur due to complex factors and to develop systems that can deal with these errors. From the cognitive process perspective, it is essential that system developers have an understanding of the more complex working processes that involve the cooperative work of multiple controllers. Distributed cognition is a methodological framework for analysing cognitive processes that span multiple actors mediated by technology. In this research, we attempt to analyse and model interactions that take place in en route ATC systems based on distributed cognition. We examine the functional problems in an ATC system from a human factors perspective, and conclude by identifying certain measures by which to address these problems. This research focuses on the analysis of air traffic controllers' tasks for en route ATC and modelling controllers' cognitive processes. This research focuses on an experimental study to gain a better understanding of controllers' cognitive processes in air traffic control. We conducted ethnographic observations and then analysed the data to develop a model of controllers' cognitive process. This analysis revealed that strategic routines are applicable to decision making.

  2. Cognitive processing for step precision increases beta and gamma band modulation during overground walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Arguissain, Federico Gabriel; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (N...... activity in cognitive, motor and sensorimotor areas may be relevant to produce patterned and safe locomotion through challenging paths.......The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (NW....../sensorimotor regions, a phase in the gait cycle in which participants define the correct foot placement for the next step. These results suggest that greater cognitive demands during precision stepping influences electrocortical dynamics especially towards step transitions. Therefore, increased electrocortical...

  3. Journaling about stressful events: effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    The effects of two journaling interventions, one focusing on emotional expression and the other on both cognitive processing and emotional expression, were compared during 1 month of journaling about a stressful or traumatic event. One hundred twenty-two students were randomly assigned to one of three writing conditions: (a) focusing on emotions related to a trauma or stressor, (b) focusing on cognitions and emotions related to a trauma or stressor, or (c) writing factually about media events. Writers focusing on cognitions and emotions developed greater awareness of the positive benefits of the stressful event than the other two groups. This effect was apparently mediated by greater cognitive processing during writing. Writers focusing on emotions alone reported more severe illness symptoms during the study than those in other conditions. This effect appeared to be mediated by a greater focus on negative emotional expression during writing.

  4. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M.; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD:…

  5. Effects of attribute framing on cognitive processing and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bård; Selart, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Whereas there is extensive documentation that attribute framing influences the content of people’s thought, we generally know less about how it affects the processes assumed to precede those thoughts. While existing explanations for attribute framing effects rely completely on valence-based associative processing, the results obtained in the present study are also consistent with the notion that negative framing stimulates more effortful and thorough information processing than positive frami...

  6. The Study of the Relation between Comprehension Process and Cognitive Capacities of Students in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Poorang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the creation of substances for developing and thinking of cognitive levels in mathematics from elementary course and recognizing effective variables of all external factors of mathematics, researchers have considered through designing hypothesis and effort to find the relation of reading literacy level and cognitive levels in mathematics of fourth grade among girls and boys and cognitive capacities of them in Tehran. The evaluation of reading literacy with the definition of comprehension process as index in surface layers spectrum such as focusing and reviewing information that are be stated in text and directive induction has organized. On other hands, mathematics evaluation has implemented for both content and cognitive dimensions. Research process has formed with selecting eight schools and in two tests. Reading literacy tests with the aim of evaluation of comprehension process and math test with the aim of the evaluation of cognitive levels have implemented for two classes of each schools. Research hypotheses have tested based on researching positive correlative between surface layers of comprehension with cognitive levels in mathematics meaningfully that have organized in three levels of knowing, application and reasoning. Instrumentation of the performance of comprehension have included two literary-information texts of PIRLS test 2011 and the collection of two respected notebooks and instrumentation of performance of cognitive levels in mathematics such as on notebook of TIMSS 2011. The procedure of testing hypotheses with Spearman correlative coefficient method have performed that all hypotheses have accepted meaningfully. Therefore, there is significant and directive relation between comprehension processes as reading literacy with cognitive capacities of students in mathematics of fourth grade.

  7. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  8. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  9. Piagetian Cognitive Development and Primary Process Thinking in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulach, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-seven middle-class white children, ages 5-8, were tested on eight Piagetian tasks and the Rorschach test, and divided into preoperational, transitional, and concrete operational groups. Measures of primary process vs. secondary process thinking were found to be related to the Piagetian stages of development. (GDC)

  10. The Role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in Cognitive Control Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:26648901

  11. The role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in cognitive control processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI in individuals’ cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed

  12. Deconstructing the sensation of pain: The influence of cognitive processes on pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja

    2016-11-04

    Phenomena such as placebo analgesia or pain relief through distraction highlight the powerful influence cognitive processes and learning mechanisms have on the way we perceive pain. Although contemporary models of pain acknowledge that pain is not a direct readout of nociceptive input, the neuronal processes underlying cognitive modulation are not yet fully understood. Modern concepts of perception-which include computational modeling to quantify the influence of cognitive processes-suggest that perception is critically determined by expectations and their modification through learning. Research on pain has just begun to embrace this view. Insights into these processes promise to open up new avenues to pain prevention and treatment by harnessing the power of the mind. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The relative contributions of processing speed and cognitive load to working memory accuracy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Lengenfelder, Jean; Moore, Nancy B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include processing-speed deficits and working memory impairment. The precise manner in which these deficits interact in individuals with MS remains to be explicated. We hypothesized that providing more time on a complex working memory task would result in performance benefits for individuals with MS relative to healthy controls. Fifty-three individuals with clinically definite MS and 36 matched healthy controls performed a computerized task that systematically manipulated cognitive load. The interval between stimuli presentations was manipulated to provide increasing processing time. The results confirmed that individuals with MS who have processing-speed deficits significantly improve in performance accuracy when given additional time to process the information in working memory. Implications of these findings for developing appropriate cognitive rehabilitation interventions are discussed.

  14. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  15. Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Benjamin T; Oehlert, Mary E; Krieshok, Thomas S; Lichtenberg, James W

    2018-04-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in conditions reflective of current clinical practice within the Veterans Health Administration. Method This study involved a retrospective review of 2030 charts. A total of 750 veterans from 10 U.S. states who received cognitive processing therapy or prolonged exposure in individual psychotherapy were included in the study (participants in cognitive processing therapy, N = 376; participants in prolonged exposure, N = 374). The main dependent variable was self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as measured by total scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The study used multilevel modeling to evaluate the absolute and relative effectiveness of both treatments and determine the relationship between patient-level variables and total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores during treatment. Results Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were equally effective at reducing total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores. Veterans who completed therapy reported significantly larger reductions in the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist than patients who did not complete therapy. There were no significant differences in the improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with respect to age and three racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were shown to be effective in conditions highly reflective of clinical practice and with a highly diverse sample of veterans. Challenges related to dropout from trauma focused therapy should continue to be researched.

  16. Cognitive Modeling and Task Analysis: Basic Processes and Individual Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    ... in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task conditions selected were those that involve basic processes of working memory, task monitoring, and differential loads on spatial reasoning and speed of perceiving...

  17. Cognitive Processes in Close Relationships: Recent Findings and Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that coinciding with recent growth of professional interest in relationship counseling has been emergence of important research on cognitive processes of persons in close relationships. Reviews selected findings from this literature which illuminates attributional, self-evaluation, and self-verification processes of participants in close…

  18. Memory Indexing: A Novel Method for Tracing Memory Processes in Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkewitz, Frank; Jahn, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We validate an eye-tracking method applicable for studying memory processes in complex cognitive tasks. The method is tested with a task on probabilistic inferences from memory. It provides valuable data on the time course of processing, thus clarifying previous results on heuristic probabilistic inference. Participants learned cue values of…

  19. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  20. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  1. Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive bias modification on emotional vulnerability†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Ben; MacLeod, Colin; Rudaizky, Daniel; Holmes, Emily A; Salemink, Elske; Fox, Elaine; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-11-01

    If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al 's conclusions in light of these findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  2. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs.

  3. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

  4. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    and slower information processing capacities, however, might favor model-free strategies. Thus, the valence and preference of either system strongly depends on stressful experiences and individual cognitive capacities.

  5. The Development from Effortful to Automatic Processing in Mathematical Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Daniel B.; And Others

    This investigation capitalizes upon the information processing models that depend upon measurement of latency of response to a mathematical problem and the decomposition of reaction time (RT). Simple two term addition problems were presented with possible solutions for true-false verification, and accuracy and RT to response were recorded. Total…

  6. Motivation, Cognitive Processing and Achievement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Marjon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report questionnaire on three different occasions. The…

  7. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  8. Motivation, cognitive processing and achievement in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report

  9. Cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Yves; Borghgraef, Cindy; Beguin, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Devos, Martine; Doyen, Chantal; Dubruille, Stéphanie; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Straetmans, Nicole; Van Den Neste, Eric; Bron, Dominique; Razavi, Darius

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-known negative impacts of cancer and anticancer therapies on cognitive performance, little is known about the cognitive compensatory processes of older patients with cancer. This study was designed to investigate the cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. We assessed 89 consecutive patients (age ≥ 65 y) without severe cognitive impairment and 89 age-, sex-, and education level-matched healthy controls. Cognitive compensatory processes were investigated by (1) comparing cognitive performance of patients and healthy controls in novel (first exposure to cognitive tasks) and non-novel (second exposure to the same cognitive tasks) contexts, and (2) assessing psychological factors that may facilitate or inhibit cognitive performance, such as motivation, psychological distress, and perceived cognitive performance. We assessed cognitive performance with the Trail-Making, Digit Span and FCSR-IR tests, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perceived cognitive performance with the FACT-Cog questionnaire. In novel and non-novel contexts, average cognitive performances of healthy controls were higher than those of patients and were associated with motivation. Cognitive performance of patients was not associated with investigated psychological factors in the novel context but was associated with motivation and psychological distress in the non-novel context. Older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated lower cognitive compensatory processes compared to healthy controls. Reducing distress and increasing motivation may improve cognitive compensatory processes of patients in non-novel contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2017-08-01

    New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (P<0.05) affected by all factors in the model except for sex that was not significant for some of the cognitive processes, and stimulus which was not significant (P<0.05) for all of them except for the coping style related ones. The interaction between all factors within the model was non-significant (P<0.05) for almost all cognitive processes. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural information processing in cognition: we start to understand the orchestra, but where is the conductor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther ePalm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article.

  12. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  13. Cognitive load privileges memory-based over data-driven processing, not group-level over person-level processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; Mavor, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    In the current paper, we argue that categorization and individuation, as traditionally discussed and as experimentally operationalized, are defined in terms of two confounded underlying dimensions: a person/group dimension and a memory-based/data-driven dimension. In a series of three experiments, we unconfound these dimensions and impose a cognitive load. Across the three experiments, two with laboratory-created targets and one with participants' friends as the target, we demonstrate that cognitive load privileges memory-based over data-driven processing, not group- over person-level processing. We discuss the results in terms of their implications for conceptualizations of the categorization/individuation distinction, for the equivalence of person and group processes, for the ultimate 'purpose' and meaningfulness of group-based perception and, fundamentally, for the process of categorization, broadly defined. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eBilleke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others' mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision-making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.

  15. Using EEG/MEG Data of Cognitive Processes in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, David

    2008-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim at providing a non-muscular channel for sending commands to the external world using electroencephalographic (EEG) and, more recently, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of the brain function. Most of the current implementations of BCIs rely on EEG/MEG data of motor activities as such neural processes are well characterized, while the use of data related to cognitive activities has been neglected due to its intrinsic complexity. However, cognitive data usually has larger amplitude, lasts longer and, in some cases, cognitive brain signals are easier to control at will than motor signals. This paper briefy reviews the use of EEG/MEG data of cognitive processes in the implementation of BCIs. Specifically, this paper reviews some of the neuromechanisms, signal features, and processing methods involved. This paper also refers to some of the author's work in the area of detection and classifcation of cognitive signals for BCIs using variability enhancement, parametric modeling, and spatial fltering, as well as recent developments in BCI performance evaluation

  16. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  17. Envisioning future cognitive telerehabilitation technologies: a co-design process with clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Tuck-Voon; Hwang, Amy S; Green, Robin E A; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Cognitive telerehabilitation is the concept of delivering cognitive assessment, feedback, or therapeutic intervention at a distance through technology. With the increase of mobile devices, wearable sensors, and novel human-computer interfaces, new possibilities are emerging to expand the cognitive telerehabilitation paradigm. This research aims to: (1) explore design opportunities and considerations when applying emergent pervasive computing technologies to cognitive telerehabilitation and (2) develop a generative co-design process for use with rehabilitation clinicians. Methods We conducted a custom co-design process that used design cards, probes, and design sessions with traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinicians. All field notes and transcripts were analyzed qualitatively. Results Potential opportunities for TBI cognitive telerehabilitation exist in the areas of communication competency, executive functioning, emotional regulation, energy management, assessment, and skill training. Designers of TBI cognitive telerehabilitation technologies should consider how technologies are adapted to a patient's physical/cognitive/emotional state, their changing rehabilitation trajectory, and their surrounding life context (e.g. social considerations). Clinicians were receptive to our co-design approach. Conclusion Pervasive computing offers new opportunities for life-situated cognitive telerehabilitation. Convivial design methods, such as this co-design process, are a helpful way to explore new design opportunities and an important space for further methodological development. Implications for Rehabilitation Designers of rehabilitation technologies should consider how to extend current design methods in order to facilitate the creative contribution of rehabilitation stakeholders. This co-design approach enables a fuller participation from rehabilitation clinicians at the front-end of design. Pervasive computing has the potential to: extend the duration and intensity of

  18. Sex differences in social cognition: The case of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2017-01-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Integrating Process Mining and Cognitive Analysis to Study EHR Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Stephanie K; Burton, Matthew M; Grando, Adela; Larson, David W; Kaufman, David R

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous methods to study workflow. However, few produce the kinds of in-depth analyses needed to understand EHR-mediated workflow. Here we investigated variations in clinicians' EHR workflow by integrating quantitative analysis of patterns of users' EHR-interactions with in-depth qualitative analysis of user performance. We characterized 6 clinicians' patterns of information-gathering using a sequential process-mining approach. The analysis revealed 519 different screen transition patterns performed across 1569 patient cases. No one pattern was followed for more than 10% of patient cases, the 15 most frequent patterns accounted for over half ofpatient cases (53%), and 27% of cases exhibited unique patterns. By triangulating quantitative and qualitative analyses, we found that participants' EHR-interactive behavior was associated with their routine processes, patient case complexity, and EHR default settings. The proposed approach has significant potential to inform resource allocation for observation and training. In-depth observations helped us to explain variation across users.

  20. Clinical cognition and diagnostic error: applications of a dual process model of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat

    2009-09-01

    Both systemic and individual factors contribute to missed or delayed diagnoses. Among the multiple factors that impact clinical performance of the individual, the caliber of cognition is perhaps the most relevant and deserves our attention and understanding. In the last few decades, cognitive psychologists have gained substantial insights into the processes that underlie cognition, and a new, universal model of reasoning and decision making has emerged, Dual Process Theory. The theory has immediate application to medical decision making and provides an overall schema for understanding the variety of theoretical approaches that have been taken in the past. The model has important practical applications for decision making across the multiple domains of healthcare, and may be used as a template for teaching decision theory, as well as a platform for future research. Importantly, specific operating characteristics of the model explain how diagnostic failure occurs.

  1. Understanding cognitive processes behind acceptance or refusal of phase I trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gorini, Alessandra; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Participation in phase I trials gives patients the chance to obtain control over their disease by trying an experimental therapy. The patients' vulnerability, the informed consent process aiming at understanding the purpose and potential benefits of the phase I trial, and the complexity of the studies may impact the patient's final decision. Emotionally difficult health conditions may induce patients to succumb to cognitive biases, allocating attention only on a part of the provided information. Filling the gap in patients' information process can foster the implementation of strategies to help physicians tailor clinical trials' communication providing personalized support and tailored medical information around patients' need, so avoiding cognitive biases in patients and improving informed shared decision quality. The aim of the present review article focuses on the analysis of cognitive and psychological factors that affect patients' decision to participate or not to early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Developmental Relations Among Motor and Cognitive Processes and Mathematics Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A K; Cameron, Claire E; Grissmer, David

    2018-03-01

    This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade. Implications of examining the hierarchical interrelations among processes underlying the development of children's mathematics skills are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S

    2017-08-01

    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  4. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  5. Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adults With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Cummins, Kevin; Trim, Ryan S; Xu, Xiaomin; Cui, Ruifeng; Allard, Carolyn B; Brown, Sandra A; Tate, Susan R

    2016-03-01

    The comorbidity of substance use disorder (SUD), depression, and PTSD is common among veterans. Prior research has shown that among veterans with SUD and depression, those with PTSD did not maintain cognitive-behavioral treatment gains as well as those without PTSD. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate whether adding trauma-focused treatment following an initial group-based integrated cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for SUD and depression improved treatment outcomes. Participants were 123 veterans (89% male) recruited from the VA San Diego Healthcare System. All participants received ICBT in twice weekly, group-delivered sessions for 12 weeks (Phase 1). Participants were then randomized to receive 12 sessions of individual follow-up sessions (Phase 2) utilizing either ICBT or cognitive processing therapy that was modified to integrate SUD treatment (CPT-M). Results indicated that PTSD and depression symptoms slightly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and further improved through Phase 2 individual treatment (except for participants without PTSD who received CPT-M), with treatment gains maintained one year later. Substance use significantly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and these improvements were maintained through Phase 2 and the one year follow-up. Participants in the trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (CPT-M) exhibited similar levels of symptom reduction and maintenance of treatment gains as those in the non-trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (ICBT). However, there was a slight advantage for Phase 2 CPT-M over Phase 2 ICBT with respect to heavy drinking outcomes for individuals with PTSD. Overall, the combination of group ICBT followed by either CPT-M or ICBT individual therapy appears to be effective for veterans with depression, SUD, and trauma history. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Golonka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80, two components of error-related potential (ERP, error-related negativity (ERN, and error positivity (Pe, were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40, a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40. Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN and proactive and conscious (Pe aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe, showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  7. Psilocybin disrupts sensory and higher order cognitive processing but not pre-attentive cognitive processing-study on P300 and mismatch negativity in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravermanová, Anna; Viktorinová, Michaela; Tylš, Filip; Novák, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Korčák, Jakub; Horáček, Jiří; Balíková, Marie; Griškova-Bulanova, Inga; Danielová, Dominika; Vlček, Přemysl; Mohr, Pavel; Brunovský, Martin; Koudelka, Vlastimil; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT 2A receptors in information processing is less clear. We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT 2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects (10M/10F) were given 0.26 mg/kg of psilocybin orally in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. ERPs (P300, MMN) were registered during the peak of intoxication. Correlations between measured electrophysiological variables and psilocin serum levels and neuropsychological effects were also analyzed. Psilocybin induced robust psychedelic effects and psychotic-like symptoms, decreased P300 amplitude (p = 0.009) but did not affect the MMN. Psilocybin's disruptive effect on P300 correlated with the intensity of the psychedelic state, which was dependent on the psilocin serum levels. We also observed a decrease in N100 amplitude (p = 0.039) in the P300 paradigm and a negative correlation between P300 and MMN amplitude (p = 0.014). Even though pre-attentive cognition (MMN) was not affected, processing at the early perceptual level (N100) and in higher-order cognition (P300) was significantly disrupted by psilocybin. Our results have implications for the role of 5-HT 2A receptors in altered information processing in psychosis and schizophrenia.

  8. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  9. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  10. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  11. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  12. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  13. Imitation, Inspiration, and Creation: Cognitive Process of Creative Drawing by Copying Others' Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without…

  14. Processing Speed and Executive Functions in Cognitive Aging: How to Disentangle Their Mutual Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric T.; Boucard, Geoffroy; Bouquet, Cedric; Audiffren, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The processing-speedtheory and the prefrontal-executivetheory are competing theories of cognitive aging. Here we used a theoretically and methodologically-driven framework to investigate the relationships among measures classically used to assess these two theoretical constructs. Twenty-eight young adults (18-32 years) and 39 healthy older adults…

  15. Test Every Senior Project: Evidence of Cognitive Processes Related to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardine, Frank E.

    Reported is a study designed to evaluate differences in cognitive processes related to science among (1) college bound high school students who had studied both physics and chemistry, (2) college bound students who had not studied either subject, and (3) non-college bound students who had not studied either subject. The test used to assess the…

  16. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  17. Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. Conceptual expansion refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while overcoming knowledge constraints refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

  18. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: A review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  19. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  20. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  1. The role of networks in business model innovation : three shaping processes supporting cognitive shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; de Man, Ard-Pieter; Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholders and in particular customers are an important source for business model innovation. Especially for sustainable business models, stakeholder integration may radically change the business logic and help to revise the business model. In this process cognition plays a central role,

  2. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  3. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  4. Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual…

  5. Collaborative Testing: Cognitive and Interpersonal Processes Related to Enhanced Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanoff, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that collaborative testing, working on tests in groups, leads to improved test scores but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been specified. Three factors were proposed as mediators: cognitive processes, interpersonal interactions and reduced test-anxiety. Thirty-three students completed a multiple-choice exam…

  6. Examiner Expectancy and Bias as a Function of the Referral Process in Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bruce T.; Vitro, Frank T.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the present study suggest that clinical cognitive assessment is not influenced by examiner bias as in experimental or nonclinical assessment. A bias effect was not observed as a result of the referral process. The halo effect demonstrated in previous studies was not observed in this study. (Author/BY)

  7. How to Reason with Economic Concepts: Cognitive Process of Japanese Undergraduate Students Solving Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tadayoshi; Yamaoka, Michio

    2015-01-01

    The authors administered a Japanese version of the Test of Understanding in College Economics, the fourth edition (TUCE-4) to assess the economic literacy of Japanese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2009. These two test results were combined to investigate students' cognitive process or reasoning with specific economic concepts and principles…

  8. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  9. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  10. Model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Y.P.; Dijkstra, W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer-respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  11. A model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer–respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  12. Investigating IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 : Relationships between cognitive writing processes, text quality, and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Lee, MinJin

    2017-01-01

    This project examined the cognitive processes and online behaviours of second language writers while performing IELTS Academic Writing Test Task 2, and the ways in which the online behaviours of test-takers relate to the quality of the text produced. An additional aim was to assess whether writing

  13. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces. PMID:29046625

  14. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Emilia Nicolae

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain.Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination. Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing.Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs.Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  15. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70-90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  16. An integrated model of clinical reasoning: dual-process theory of cognition and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning is an important component for providing quality medical care. The aim of the present paper is to develop a model of clinical reasoning that integrates both the non-analytic and analytic processes of cognition, along with metacognition. The dual-process theory of cognition (system 1 non-analytic and system 2 analytic processes) and the metacognition theory are used to develop an integrated model of clinical reasoning. In the proposed model, clinical reasoning begins with system 1 processes in which the clinician assesses a patient's presenting symptoms, as well as other clinical evidence, to arrive at a differential diagnosis. Additional clinical evidence, if necessary, is acquired and analysed utilizing system 2 processes to assess the differential diagnosis, until a clinical decision is made diagnosing the patient's illness and then how best to proceed therapeutically. Importantly, the outcome of these processes feeds back, in terms of metacognition's monitoring function, either to reinforce or to alter cognitive processes, which, in turn, enhances synergistically the clinician's ability to reason quickly and accurately in future consultations. The proposed integrated model has distinct advantages over other models proposed in the literature for explicating clinical reasoning. Moreover, it has important implications for addressing the paradoxical relationship between experience and expertise, as well as for designing a curriculum to teach clinical reasoning skills. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Subliminally and consciously induced cognitive conflicts interact at several processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Friedrich, Julia; Beste, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Controlled behavior is susceptible to conflicts that can emerge from subliminal or consciously processed information. While research suggests that both sources of conflicting information may interact in their modulation of controlled behavior, it has remained unclear which cognitive sub-processes involved in controlled behavior are affected by this interaction; i.e., at which processing level subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts interact in modulating controlled behavior. Moreover, we investigated whether this interaction of subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts was due to a nexus between the two types of conflict like a common cognitive process or factor. For this, n = 38 healthy young subjects completed a paradigm which combines subliminal primes and consciously perceived flankers while an electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. We show that the interaction of subliminal and conscious sources of conflict is not restricted to the response selection level (N2) but can already be shown at the earliest stages of perceptual and attentional processing (P1). While the degree of early attentional processing of subliminal information seems to depend on the absence of consciously perceived response conflicts, conflicts during the stage of response selection may be either reduced or enhanced by subliminal priming. Moreover, the results showed that even though the two different sources of conflict interact at the response selection level, they clearly originate from two distinct processes that interact before they detrimentally affect cognitive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COGNITIVE PROCESS IN ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING: A CASE STUDY OF THREE INDONESIAN COLUMNISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrus Zaman Fadhly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at reconstructing cognitive processes experienced by Indonesian advancedwriters in five stages of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Three Indonesian advanced writers were involved to be sources to reveal the noumena or under-meaning structures that make their works come into existence. This research reveals that various ways experienced by every single writer in exploring inspiration, starting to write, developing ideas and arguments, revising draft, and determining them as final drafts.Learning from advanced writers isfruitful effortsto evolve our writing competence. Experiences, cognitions, interests, values, stylistics, metaphors, and mechanics are influential aspects in enriching their works.

  19. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localised, creative reasoning, including analogising and mental simulation. We analysed not just the short-term, localised effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing and information selection, but also its...... long-term impact on downstream creative processes. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent would engender: (1) immediate creative elaboration of that referent aimed at resolving uncertainty and determining information selection; and (2...

  20. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the subjectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results showed...

  1. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  2. Cognitive processing speed is related to fall frequency in older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Balantrapu, Swathi; Pilutti, Lara A; Sandroff, Brian M; Morrison, Steven; Motl, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    To examine mobility, balance, fall risk, and cognition in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) as a function of fall frequency. Retrospective, cross-sectional design. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling persons with MS (N=27) aged between 50 and 75 years were divided into 2 groups-single-time (n=11) and recurrent (n=16; >2 falls/12 mo) fallers-on the basis of fall history. Not applicable. Mobility was assessed using a variety of measures including Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, walking speed (Timed 25-Foot Walk test), endurance (6-Minute Walk test), and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test). Balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, posturography, and self-reported balance confidence. Fall risk was assessed with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Cognitive processing speed was quantified with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Recurrent fallers had slower cognitive processing speed than single-time fallers (P ≤.01). There was no difference in mobility, balance, or fall risk between recurrent and single-time fallers (P>.05). Results indicated that cognitive processing speed is associated with fall frequency and may have implications for fall prevention strategies targeting recurrent fallers with MS. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the Use of Electroencephalography to Gather Objective Evidence of Cognitive Processing During Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Thomas; Seery, Niall; Lynch, Raymond

    2018-04-01

    Currently, there is significant interest being directed towards the development of STEM education to meet economic and societal demands. While economic concerns can be a powerful driving force in advancing the STEM agenda, care must be taken that such economic imperative does not promote research approaches that overemphasize pragmatic application at the expense of augmenting the fundamental knowledge base of the discipline. This can be seen in the predominance of studies investigating problem solving approaches and procedures, while neglecting representational and conceptual processes, within the literature. Complementing concerns about STEM graduates' problem solving capabilities, raised within the pertinent literature, this paper discusses a novel methodological approach aimed at investigating the cognitive elements of problem conceptualization. The intention is to demonstrate a novel method of data collection that overcomes some of the limitations cited in classic problem solving research while balancing a search for fundamental understanding with the possibility of application. The methodology described in this study employs an electroencephalographic (EEG) headset, as part of a mixed methods approach, to gather objective evidence of students' cognitive processing during problem solving epochs. The method described provides rich evidence of students' cognitive representations of problems during episodes of applied reasoning. The reliability and validity of the EEG method is supported by the stability of the findings across the triangulated data sources. The paper presents a novel method in the context of research within STEM education and demonstrates an effective procedure for gathering rich evidence of cognitive processing during the early stages of problem conceptualization.

  4. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  5. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defrin, R; Amanzio, Martina; de Tomasso, M

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained and complex healthcare needs which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty...... of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared to cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated...... to cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited, but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research employing additional behavioural...

  6. The Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Post Event Processing Among Those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  7. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  8. Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972 and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school. The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

  9. Effects of Epistemological Beliefs and Topic-Specific Beliefs on Undergraduates' Cognitive and Strategic Processing of Dual-Positional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Howell, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates' (N=40) cognitive and strategic processing of a dual-positional text. Findings reveal that epistemological beliefs about the speed of learning affected the overall number of cognitive processes exhibited, whereas topic-specific beliefs interacted with the…

  10. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. Our analysis of the DTRS11 dataset examined not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing...... and information selection, but also its long-term impact on downstream creative processes and decisions about what information to take forward. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent (i.e., a post-it note translated from Chinese end-users) would......, as predicted, found to engender subsequent attentive returns to cognitive referents at later points in the design process. Third, although epistemic uncertainty did not predict the information that was eventually selected to take forward in the design space, both immediate creative elaboration and subsequent...

  11. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  12. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  13. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Friedel

    2017-06-01

    stress exposure and slower information processing capacities, however, might favor model-free strategies. Thus, the valence and preference of either system strongly depends on stressful experiences and individual cognitive capacities.

  14. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  15. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaric, Martin; Boutis, Kathy; Beckstead, Jason; Pusic, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online. To illustrate the big data component, they highlight the data available in a digital environment (time-stamped, click-level process data). Learning analytics were illustrated using algorithmic computer-enabled approaches to process-level feedback.For each phase, the authors were able to identify examples of potentially useful BD/LA measures. For orientation, the trackable behavior of re-reviewing the clinical history was associated with increased diagnostic accuracy. For searching/scanning, evidence of skipping views was associated with an increased false-negative rate. For feature detection, heat maps overlaid on the radiograph can provide a metacognitive visualization of common novice errors. For decision making, the measured influence of sequence effects can reflect susceptibility to bias, whereas computer-generated path maps can provide insights into learners' diagnostic strategies.In conclusion, the augmented collection and dynamic analysis of learning process data within a cognitive simulation can improve feedback and prompt more precise reflection on a novice clinician's skill development.

  16. Aging of theory of mind: the influence of educational level and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wang, Fan; Tao, Qian; Xie, Yu; Cheng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of theory of mind (ToM) in old age have provided mixed results. We predicted that educational level and cognitive processing are two factors influencing the pattern of the aging of ToM. To test this hypothesis, a younger group who received higher education (mean age 20.46 years), an older group with an education level equal to that of the young group (mean age 76.29 years), and an older group with less education (mean age 73.52 years) were recruited. ToM tasks included the following tests: the second-order false-belief task, the faux-pas task, the eyes test, and tests of fundamental aspects of cognitive function that included two background tests (memory span and processing speed) and three subcomponents of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting). We found that the younger group and the older group with equally high education outperformed the older group with less education in false-belief and faux-pas tasks. However, there was no significant difference between the two former groups. The three groups of participants performed equivalently in the eyes test as well as in control tasks (false-belief control question, faux-pas control question, faux-pas control story, and Eyes Test control task). The younger group outperformed the other two groups in the cognitive processing tasks. Mediation analyses showed that difficulties in inhibition, memory span, and processing speed mediated the age differences in false-belief reasoning. Also, the variables of inhibition, updating, memory span, and processing speed mediated age-related variance in faux-pas. Discussion focused on the links between ToM aging, educational level, and cognitive processing. Supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (number: 30870766) and Anhui Province Natural Science Foundation (number: 11040606M166).

  17. Monitoring cognitive and emotional processes through pupil and cardiac response during dynamic versus logical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette

    2010-06-01

    The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.

  18. Localized atrophy of the thalamus and slowed cognitive processing speed in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph Hb

    2016-09-01

    Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have investigated surface-based structure changes over time with respect to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, the relationship between cognition and the spatio-temporal evolution of DGM atrophy is poorly understood. To explore DGM structural differences between MS and HCs over time in relation to neuropsychological (NP) outcomes. The participants were 44 relapsing-remitting and 20 secondary progressive MS patients and 22 HCs. All were scanned using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up. NP examination emphasized consensus standard tests of processing speed and memory. We performed both volumetric and shape analysis of DGM structures and assessed their relationships with cognition. Compared to HCs, MS patients presented with significantly smaller DGM volumes. For the thalamus and caudate, differences in shape were mostly localized along the lateral ventricles. NP outcomes were related to both volume and shape of the DGM structures. Over 3 years, decreased cognitive processing speed was related to localized atrophy on the anterior and superior surface of the left thalamus. These findings highlight the role of atrophy in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and its relation to cognitive decline in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  19. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P. G.; Cardoso, Ricardo L.; Linhares, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making. PMID:29375440

  20. Imitation, Inspiration, and Creation: Cognitive Process of Creative Drawing by Copying Others' Artworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Kentaro

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without having seen another's work; and (c) copying another artist's work, then reproducing that artist's style independently. We discovered that through copying unfamiliar abstract drawings, participants were able to produce creative drawings qualitatively different from the model drawings. Process analyses suggested that participants' cognitive constraints became relaxed, and new perspectives were formed from copying another's artwork. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to styles of artwork considered unfamiliar facilitated creativity in drawing, while styles considered familiar did not do so. Experiment 3 showed that both copying and thoroughly viewing artwork executed using an unfamiliar style facilitated creativity in drawing, whereas merely thinking about alternative styles of artistic representation did not do so. These experiments revealed that deep encounters with unfamiliar artworks-whether through copying or prolonged observation-change people's cognitive representations of the act of drawing to produce novel artwork. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P G; Cardoso, Ricardo L; Linhares, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  2. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. G. Jelihovschi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper. These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  3. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Buescher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative production technology for high-wage countries” at RWTH Aachen University which integrates several cognitive capabilities according to human cognition. This approach combines the advantages of automation with the flexibility of humans. In this paper the main principles of the system's core component—the cognitive control unit—are presented to underline its advantages with respect to traditional assembly systems. Based on this, the actual innovation of this paper is the development of key performance indicators. These refer to the ramp-up process as a main objective of such a system is to minimize the planning effort during ramp-up. The KPIs are also designed to show the impact on the main idea of the Cluster of Excellence in resolving the so-called Polylemma of Production.

  4. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MEDIATING COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION WITH VR 3D SKETCHING DURING CONCEPTUAL ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pour Rahimian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications for information synchronization during the conceptual design phase require designers to employ more intuitive digital design tools. This paper presents findings of a feasibility study for using VR 3D sketching interface in order to replace current non-intuitive CAD tools. We used a sequential mixed method research methodology including a qualitative case study and a cognitive-based quantitative protocol analysis experiment. Foremost, the case study research was conducted in order to understand how novice designers make intuitive decisions. The case study documented the failure of conventional sketching methods in articulating complicated design ideas and shortcomings of current CAD tools in intuitive ideation. The case study’s findings then became the theoretical foundations for testing the feasibility of using VR 3D sketching interface during design. The latter phase of study evaluated the designers’ spatial cognition and collaboration at six different levels: "physical-actions", "perceptualactions", "functional-actions", "conceptual-actions", "cognitive synchronizations", and "gestures". The results and confirmed hypotheses showed that the utilized tangible 3D sketching interface improved novice designers’ cognitive and collaborative design activities. In summary this paper presents the influences of current external representation tools on designers’ cognition and collaboration as well as providing the necessary theoretical foundations for implementing VR 3D sketching interface. It contributes towards transforming conceptual architectural design phase from analogue to digital by proposing a new VR design interface. The paper proposes this transformation to fill in the existing gap between analogue conceptual architectural design process and remaining digital engineering parts of building design process hence expediting digital design process.

  6. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of neuropsychological tests to assess domains of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Composite scores were calculated, grouping tests into cognitive domains. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patients and healthy controls on global cognition and all cognitive domains, including verbal intelligence......BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery...

  7. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  8. Comparing the Cognitive Process of Circular Causality in Two Patients with Strokes through Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanrad, Seyed Alireza; Piven, Emily; Ghoochani, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC). Although considerable research has been devoted to study the brain dynamics by sophisticated computerized imaging techniques, less attention has been paid to study it through investigating the adaptation process of thoughts and behaviors. To explore how CPCC manifested thinking and behavioral patterns, a qualitative case study was conducted on two matched female participants with strokes, who were of comparable ages, affected sides, and other characteristics, except for their resilience and motivational behaviors. CPCC was compared by matrix analysis between two participants, using content analysis with pre-determined categories. Different patterns of thinking and behavior may have happened, due to disparate regulation of CPCC between two participants.

  9. Study and comparison of the meta cognitive-emotional processing and drug therapy in modifying emotional, cognitive and social skills in bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    fatemeh bahrami; seyed kamal Solati dehkordi; ali farhadi

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy for bipolor disorder has been very much neglected. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the meta cognitive, emotional processing training (MEPT) with medical and standard therapy (drug) in increasing emotional, cognitive and social skills, of the patients with bipolar disorders. Materials and Methods: This semi experimental study with control group was carried out on 32 females in the 16-40 age bracket, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by means of DSM - IV –R crite...

  10. The Structured Process Modeling Theory (SPMT) : a cognitive view on why and how modelers benefit from structuring the process of process modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, J.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Gailly, F.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Poels, G.

    2015-01-01

    After observing various inexperienced modelers constructing a business process model based on the same textual case description, it was noted that great differences existed in the quality of the produced models. The impression arose that certain quality issues originated from cognitive failures

  11. Cognitive processes and neural basis of language switching: proposal of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-12-09

    Although studies on bilingualism are abundant, cognitive processes and neural foundations of language switching received less attention. The aim of our study is to provide new insights to this still open question: do dedicated region(s) for language switching exist or is this function underlain by a distributed circuit of interconnected brain areas, part of a more general cognitive system? On the basis of recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies, we propose an original 'hodological' model of language switching. This process might be subserved by a large-scale cortico-subcortical network, with an executive system (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus) controlling a more dedicated language subcircuit, which involves postero-temporal areas, supramarginal and angular gyri, Broca's area, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  12. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  13. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buescher, Christian; Hauck, Eckart; Schilberg, Daniel; Jeschke, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed wi...

  14. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) ...

  15. Cognitive Dissonance, Confirmatory Bias and Inadequate Information Processing: Evidence from Experimental Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ying; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Using psychological terms such as cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias, this study reveals how individual consumers inadequately process (food safety) information, pay limited attention to signals, and make purchase decisions that are bias towards their initial choices. While it is expected that reading extra information about potential risk associated with the food decreases consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), the magnitude of the impact varies across individuals. In general, consumer...

  16. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...

  17. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Giedzinska-Simons, Antoinette; Gross, Mitchell; Agus, David B

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that cancer patients who are more involved in treatment decision-making (TDM) report better quality of life following treatment. This study examines the association and possible mechanisms between prostate cancer patient's discussions about TDM and affect following treatment. We predicted that the length of time patients spent discussing treatment options with social networks and physicians prior to treatment would predict emotional adjustment after treatment. We further predicted that cognitive processing, coping, and patient understanding of treatment options would mediate this association. Fifty-seven patients completed questionnaires prior to treatment and at 1 and 6 months following treatment completion. Findings from the present study suggest that discussing treatment options with others, prior to beginning treatment for prostate cancer, significantly contributed to improvements in affect 1 and 6 months following treatment. Residualized regression analyses indicated that discussing treatment options with patient's social networks predicted a decrease in negative affect 1 and 6 months following treatment, while discussions with physicians predicted an increase in positive affect 1 month following treatment. Patients who spent more time discussing treatment options with family and friends also reported greater pre-treatment social support and emotional expression. Mediation analyses indicated that these coping strategies facilitated cognitive processing (as measured by a decrease in intrusive thoughts) and that cognitive processing predicted improvement in affect. Greater time spent talking with family and friends about treatment options may provide opportunities for patients to cope with their cancer diagnosis and facilitate cognitive processing, which may improve patient distress over time. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Neural predictors and mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy on threat processing in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Heide; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Phan, K Luan

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is "gold standard" psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Cognitive models posit that preferential processing of threat mediates excessive forms of anxiety, which is supported by exaggerated amygdala, insula, and cortical reactivity to threatening socio-emotional signals in SAD. However, little is known about neural predictors of CBT success or the mechanisms by which CBT exerts its therapeutic effects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during responses to social signals of threat (fearful/angry faces) against positive signals (happy faces) in 14 patients with SAD before and after 12 weeks of CBT. For comparison, 14 healthy control (HC) participants also underwent two fMRI scans, 12 weeks apart. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses showed therapeutic success was predicted by enhanced pre-treatment activation to threatening faces in higher-order visual (superior and middle temporal gyrus), cognitive, and emotion processing areas (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex). Moreover, a group by time interaction was revealed in prefrontal regions (dorsomedial, medial gyrus) and insula. The interaction was driven by relatively greater activity during threat processing in SAD, which significantly reduced after CBT but did not significantly predict response to CBT. Therefore, pre-treatment cortical hyperactivity to social threat signals may serve as a prognostic indicator of CBT success in SAD. Collectively, CBT-related brain changes involved a reduction in activity in insula, prefrontal, and extrastriate regions. Results are consistent with cognitive models, which associate decreases in threat processing bias with recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hierarchical processing in the prefrontal cortex in a variety of cognitive domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ae eJeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review scrutinizes several findings on human hierarchical processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC in diverse cognitive domains. Converging evidence from previous studies has shown that the PFC, specifically Brodmann area (BA 44, may function as the essential region for hierarchical processing across the domains. In language fMRI studies, BA 44 was significantly activated for the hierarchical processing of center-embedded sentences and this pattern of activations was also observed in artificial grammar. The same pattern was observed in the visuo-spatial domain where BA44 was actively involved in the processing of hierarchy for the visual symbol. Musical syntax, which is the rule-based arrangement of musical sets, has also been construed as hierarchical processing as in the language domain such that the activation in BA44 was observed in a chord sequence paradigm. P600 ERP was also engendered during the processing of musical hierarchy. Along with a longstanding idea that a human’s number faculty is developed as a by-product of language faculty, BA44 was closely involved in hierarchical processing in mental arithmetic. This review extended its discussion of hierarchical processing to hierarchical behavior, that is, human action which has been referred to as being hierarchically composed. Several lesion and TMS studies supported the involvement of BA44 for hierarchical processing in the action domain. Lastly, the hierarchical organization of cognitive controls was discussed within the PFC, forming a cascade of top-down hierarchical processes operating along a posterior-to-anterior axis of the lateral PFC including BA44 within the network. It is proposed that PFC is actively involved in different forms of hierarchical processing and specifically BA44 may play an integral role in the process. Taking levels of proficiency and subcortical areas into consideration may provide further insight into the functional role of BA44 for hierarchical

  20. Need for Cognition and False Memory: Can One's Natural Processing Style Be Manipulated by External Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Samantha S; Leding, Juliana K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly. After all the lists were presented, participants completed 3 successive recall tests. The deep processing condition produced higher rates of false memories for both NFC groups than the shallow processing condition. In addition, the high-NFC group produced higher rates of target recall in both the deep and shallow conditions than the low-NFC group. However, the high-NFC group also produced higher rates of false recall for the shallowly processed lists. These data indicate that high-NFC people exhibit enhanced target recall for word lists, which may come at the expense of overall accuracy due to the increase of false recall.

  1. Change in cognitive process during dance video game play with different appendages for motor output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Ono, Yumie; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, Jack Adam

    2018-02-01

    Playing a dance video game (DVG) requires fine temporal control of foot positions based on simultaneous visuoauditory integration. Despite the highly-demanding nature of its cognitive processes, DVG could offer promising exercise opportunities for elderly people to maintain their cognitive abilities due to its strong adherence. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we have previously shown that DVG play with the foot activates prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices. However, it is still in debate whether this brain-stimulatory effect of DVG could also be maintained in case that DVG is played with the hand by people who have difficulty to play DVG in a standing position. We therefore investigated the regional brain activity of 12 healthy, right-handed young-adults when they played DVG with their dominant hand and foot. We found that the DVG-related hemodynamic activity was comparable in the prefrontal area regardless of the appendages while that was significantly smaller in case of playing with the hand related to the foot in the left superior/middle temporal gyrus (S/MTG). A similar trend was also observed in the right S/MTG. These results suggest that the motor preparatory function mediated by the prefrontal cortices is equally employed regardless of appendages while more cognitive load is required in the temporal cortices with foot-played DVG, possibly to integrate visual, auditory, and proprioceptive information. Hand-played DVG may partially substitute foot-played DVG in the sense of cognitive training in the elderly.

  2. Influence of shift work on cognitive performance in male business process outsourcing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, Bijavara; Sudhakar, Honnamachanahalli

    2012-09-01

    India is a front runner in IT industry. Business process outsourcing (BPO) sector is a major part of IT industry with around 4.5 million employees. These employees are subjected to high work stress, odd working hours, and frequent shift changes leading to increased physical and mental health problems. To study the cognitive functions in male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts. Young BPO employees from various BPO companies of Bangalore were tested for cognitive functions. Fifty male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts were assessed for various cognitive functions including tests for speed, attention, learning and memory, and executive function. They were compared with 50 non-BPO employees not working in shifts. Statistical analysis - Data was analysed by t-test and Mann-Whitney test using SPSS V.13.0. BPO employees performed poorly compared to their controls in tests for mental speed, learning and memory, and response inhibition. No changes were seen between groups in tests for attention and working memory. Cognitive functions are impaired in BPO employees exposed to regular shift changes.

  3. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Theory of mind and context processing in schizophrenia: the role of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Charest, Anick; Anselmo, Karyne; Rodriguez, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Guy

    2012-12-30

    The present study sought to identify whether cognitive flexibility and context processing may impact theory of mind (ToM) ability in schizophrenia. Thirty two patients with schizophrenia and 29 matched healthy participants were tested individually on their ToM ability using a task involving attribution and comprehension of a speaker's ironic intent. This task made it possible to determine whether the degree of incongruity between contextual information and a target sentence has an impact on the attribution of ironic intent to the protagonists of a story. Participants were also assessed on their cognitive flexibility and working memory. The main results revealed that participants with schizophrenia correctly perceived contextual information cueing attribution of ironic intent to the protagonist of the stimulus, but they showed difficulty to correctly integrate this information, performing significantly worse than healthy participants when they attributed mental states. However, some participants with schizophrenia performed like healthy control participants on the ToM task while others did not. A lack of flexibility seems to differentiate the two schizophrenia subgroups thereby obtained, suggesting that cognitive flexibility has an impact on ToM performances in schizophrenia. These difficulties were not associated with clinical symptoms. Such results will have an impact on cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relating Memory To Functional Performance In Normal Aging to Dementia Using Hierarchical Bayesian Cognitive Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, William R.; Pooley, James P.; Steyvers, Mark; Hara, Junko; Mangrola, Tushar; Reisberg, Barry; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD). 280 patients (normal or ADRD) received a total of 1,514 assessments using the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen (MCIS). A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing (HBCP) model was created by embedding a signal detection theory (SDT) model of the MCIS delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The SDT model used latent parameters of discriminability (memory process) and response bias (executive function) to predict, simultaneously, recognition memory performance for each patient and each FAST severity group. The observed recognition memory data did not distinguish the six FAST severity stages, but the latent parameters completely separated them. The latent parameters were also used successfully to transform the ordinal FAST measure into a continuous measure reflecting the underlying continuum of functional severity. HBCP models applied to recognition memory data from clinical practice settings accurately translated a latent measure of cognition to a continuous measure of functional severity for both individuals and FAST groups. Such a translation links two levels of brain information processing, and may enable more accurate correlations with other levels, such as those characterized by biomarkers. PMID:22407225

  6. Neural Temporal Dynamics of Facial Emotion Processing: Age Effects and Relationship to Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the effects of age on neural temporal dynamics of processing task-relevant facial expressions and their relationship to cognitive functions. Negative (sad, afraid, angry, and disgusted, positive (happy, and neutral faces were presented to 30 older and 31 young participants who performed a facial emotion categorization task. Behavioral and ERP indices of facial emotion processing were analyzed. An enhanced N170 for negative faces, in addition to intact right-hemispheric N170 for positive faces, was observed in older adults relative to their younger counterparts. Moreover, older adults demonstrated an attenuated within-group N170 laterality effect for neutral faces, while younger adults showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, older adults exhibited sustained temporo-occipital negativity deflection over the time range of 200–500 ms post-stimulus, while young adults showed posterior positivity and subsequent emotion-specific frontal negativity deflections. In older adults, decreased accuracy for labeling negative faces was positively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scores, and accuracy for labeling neutral faces was negatively correlated with age. These findings suggest that older people may exert more effort in structural encoding for negative faces and there are different response patterns for the categorization of different facial emotions. Cognitive functioning may be related to facial emotion categorization deficits observed in older adults. This may not be attributable to positivity effects: it may represent a selective deficit for the processing of negative facial expressions in older adults.

  7. Examination of the suitability of collecting in event cognitive processes using Think Aloud protocol in golf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined the use of think aloud (TA protocol as a means for collecting data of cognitive processes during performance in golf. In study 1, TA was employed to examine if different verbalisation (Level 2 or Level 3 TA instructions influence performance of high and low skilled golfers. Participants performed 30 putts using TA at either Level 2, Level 3, or no verbalization condition. Although Level 3 verbalization produced a higher volume of verbal data than Level 2, TA at either level 2 or 3 did not impair putting performance compared to no verbalization. Study 2 examined the congruence between data collected via TA at Level 3 and cued retrospective recall of cognitive processes during golf performance. Experienced golfers performed six holes of golf whilst engaging in Level 3 TA. After performance, three semi-structured retrospective interviews were conducted (ten minutes after performance, 24 hours after performance and 48 hours after performance. A comparison of the themes identified large discrepancies between the information reported during TA and at interview, with only 38-41% similarity in variables reported to influence decision making on each hole. Both studies suggest TA is a valuable method for recording cognitive processes of individuals during task performance. TA provides richer verbal data regarding decisions than cued retrospective recall, and TA does not negatively impact performance.

  8. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.

  10. Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Social Cognitive Processing in Partners of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohee, Andrea A; Adams, Rebecca N; Fife, Betsy L; Von Ah, Diane M; Monahan, Patrick O; Zoppi, Kathleen A; Cella, David; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-01-01

    To determine (a) if depressive symptoms in partners of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCSs) could be predicted by social cognitive processing theory and (b) if partners of younger and older BCSs were differentially affected by the cancer experience.
. A cross-sectional, descriptive study using self-report questionnaires.
. Indiana University in Bloomington and 97 ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group sites in the United States.
. 508 partners of BCSs diagnosed three to eight years prior to the study. 
. Secondary data mediation analyses were conducted to determine if cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms. Age-related differences on all scales were tested.
. Depressive symptoms; secondary variables included social constraints, cognitive processing (avoidance and intrusive thoughts), and potentially confounding variables.
. Cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms for partners. Partners of younger BCSs reported worse outcomes on all measures than partners of older BCSs.
. As predicted by the social cognitive processing theory, cognitive processing mediated the relationship between social constraints and depressive symptoms. In addition, partners of younger BCSs fared worse on social constraints, intrusive thoughts, and depressive symptoms than partners of older BCSs. 
. Results provide support for using the social cognitive processing theory in an intervention design with partners of long-term BCSs to decrease depressive symptoms.

  11. Delivering cognitive processing therapy in a community health setting: The influence of Latino culture and community violence on posttraumatic cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luana; Eustis, Elizabeth H; Dixon, Louise; Valentine, Sarah E; Borba, Christina P C; Simon, Naomi; Kaysen, Debra; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the applicability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to addressing sequelae of a range of traumatic events, few studies have evaluated whether the treatment itself is applicable across diverse populations. The present study examined differences and similarities among non-Latino, Latino Spanish-speaking, and Latino English-speaking clients in rigid beliefs-or "stuck points"-associated with PTSD symptoms in a sample of community mental health clients. We utilized the procedures of content analysis to analyze stuck point logs and impact statements of 29 participants enrolled in a larger implementation trial for CPT. Findings indicated that the content of stuck points was similar across Latino and non-Latino clients, although fewer total stuck points were identified for Latino clients compared to non-Latino clients. Given that identification of stuck points is central to implementing CPT, difficulty identifying stuck points could pose significant challenges for implementing CPT among Latino clients and warrants further examination. Thematic analysis of impact statements revealed the importance of family, religion, and the urban context (e.g., poverty, violence exposure) in understanding how clients organize beliefs and emotions associated with trauma. Clinical recommendations for implementing CPT in community settings and the identification of stuck points are provided. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Cognitive alterations in motor imagery process after left hemispheric ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after

  13. Eye movement analysis and cognitive processing: detecting indicators of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marta LG Freitas; Camargo, Marina von Zuben A; Aprahamian, Ivan; Forlenza, Orestes V

    2014-01-01

    A great amount of research has been developed around the early cognitive impairments that best predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Given that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is no longer considered to be an intermediate state between normal aging and AD, new paths have been traced to acquire further knowledge about this condition and its subtypes, and to determine which of them have a higher risk of conversion to AD. It is now known that other deficits besides episodic and semantic memory impairments may be present in the early stages of AD, such as visuospatial and executive function deficits. Furthermore, recent investigations have proven that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe structures are not only involved in memory functioning, but also in visual processes. These early changes in memory, visual, and executive processes may also be detected with the study of eye movement patterns in pathological conditions like MCI and AD. In the present review, we attempt to explore the existing literature concerning these patterns of oculomotor changes and how these changes are related to the early signs of AD. In particular, we argue that deficits in visual short-term memory, specifically in iconic memory, attention processes, and inhibitory control, may be found through the analysis of eye movement patterns, and we discuss how they might help to predict the progression from MCI to AD. We add that the study of eye movement patterns in these conditions, in combination with neuroimaging techniques and appropriate neuropsychological tasks based on rigorous concepts derived from cognitive psychology, may highlight the early presence of cognitive impairments in the course of the disease. PMID:25031536

  14. Bridging consciousness and cognition in memory and perception: evidence for both state and strength processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2012-01-01

    Subjective experience indicates that mental states are discrete, in the sense that memories and perceptions readily come to mind in some cases, but are entirely unavailable to awareness in others. However, a long history of psychophysical research has indicated that the discrete nature of mental states is largely epiphenomenal and that mental processes vary continuously in strength. We used a novel combination of behavioral methodologies to examine the processes underlying perception of complex images: (1) analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROCs), (2) a modification of the change-detection flicker paradigm, and (3) subjective reports of conscious experience. These methods yielded converging results showing that perceptual judgments reflect the combined, yet functionally independent, contributions of two processes available to conscious experience: a state process of conscious perception and a strength process of knowing; processes that correspond to recollection and familiarity in long-term memory. In addition, insights from the perception experiments led to the discovery of a new recollection phenomenon in a long-term memory change detection paradigm. The apparent incompatibility between subjective experience and theories of cognition can be understood within a unified state-strength framework that links consciousness to cognition across the domains of perception and memory.

  15. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  16. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Trbižan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compared and based on these conclusions were drawn.Results: An individual has an active role and the use of ICT enables, through the processes of reflection and exchanges of views, for an individual to resolve problems and consequently is able to achieve excellent results at both the personal (educational level and in business. In learning and working with computers, individuals needinternal motivation. Internal motivation can be increased with positive affective processes that also positively influence cognitive processes.Organization:Knowledge of generational characteristics is currently becoming a competitive advantage of organizations. Younger generations are growing up with computers and both teachers and managers have to beaware and accommodate their teaching and business processes to the requirements of ICT.Society: In the 21st century we live in a knowledge society that is unconditionally connected and dependent on the development of information technology. Digital literacy is an everyday concept that society also is aware of and training programmes are being offered on computer literacy for all generations.Originality: The paper presents a concise synthesis of research and authors points of views recorded over the last 25 years and these are combined with our own conclusions based on observations.Limitations/Future Research:The fundamental limitation is that this is a comparative research study that compares the views and conclusions of different authors

  17. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-03

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  18. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing - from the reproductive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sundström Sundström Poromaa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI -0.35 – 3.57, suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase.

  19. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive pro- cessing demands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were...... recorded in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the sub- jectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results...

  20. Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Barnes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan.

  1. Tracking cognitive processing stages with MEG : A spatio-temporal model of associative recognition in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Ghuman, Avniel S; Anderson, John R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing stages underlying associative recognition using MEG. Over the last four decades, a model of associative recognition has been developed in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This model was first exclusively based on behavior, but was later

  2. Factor Analytic Study of Cognitive Processing and Self Perception of Learning Disabilities among the Elementary Inclusive School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to explore the underlying construct of cognitive processing and self-perception of learning disabilities in elementary inclusive school children. A cognitive assessment test battery and self-perception of disabilities inventory was developed by the investigator and administered to 100 elementary sixth and…

  3. Efficacy of Cognitive Processes in Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Novel Visual Information-Processing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Samantha J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Robinson, Stephen R.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Yelland, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised by a unique pattern of preserved abilities and deficits within and across cognitive domains. The Complex Information Processing Theory proposes this pattern reflects an altered capacity to respond to cognitive demands. This study compared how complexity induced by time constraints on processing…

  4. Cognitive Processes in Decisions Under Risk Are Not the Same As in Decisions Under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We deal with risk versus uncertainty, a distinction that is of fundamental importance for cognitive neuroscience yet largely neglected. In a world of risk (small world, all alternatives, consequences, and probabilities are known. In uncertain (large worlds, some of this information is unknown or unknowable. Most of cognitive neuroscience studies exclusively study the neural correlates for decisions under risk (e.g., lotteries, with the tacit implication that understanding these would lead to an understanding of decision making in general. First, we show that normative strategies for decisions under risk do not generalize to uncertain worlds, where simple heuristics are often the more accurate strategies. Second, we argue that the cognitive processes for making decisions in a world of risk are not the same as those for dealing with uncertainty. Because situations with known risks are the exception rather than the rule in human evolution, it is unlikely that our brains are adapted to them. We therefore suggest a paradigm shift towards studying decision processes in uncertain worlds and provide first examples.

  5. General emotion processing in social anxiety disorder: neural issues of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Annette Beatrix; Herwig, Uwe; Delsignore, Aba; Jäncke, Lutz; Rufer, Michael

    2013-05-30

    Anxiety disorders are characterized by deficient emotion regulation prior to and in anxiety-evoking situations. Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have increased brain activation also during the anticipation and perception of non-specific emotional stimuli pointing to biased general emotion processing. In the current study we addressed the neural correlates of emotion regulation by cognitive control during the anticipation and perception of non-specific emotional stimuli in patients with SAD. Thirty-two patients with SAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the announced anticipation and perception of emotional stimuli. Half of them were trained and instructed to apply reality-checking as a control strategy, the others anticipated and perceived the stimuli. Reality checking significantly (pperception of negative emotional stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex was comparably active in both groups (p>0.50). The results suggest that cognitive control in patients with SAD influences emotion processing structures, supporting the usefulness of emotion regulation training in the psychotherapy of SAD. In contrast to studies in healthy subjects, cognitive control was not associated with increased activation of prefrontal regions in SAD. This points to possibly disturbed general emotion regulating circuits in SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Setting a new paradigm in cognitive science information: contributions to the process of knowing the information professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Dal' Evedove

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies about human cognition represent a relevant perspective in information science, considering the subjective actions of information professionals and dialogic process that should permeate the activity of subjects dealing with the organization and representation of information.Objective: Explore the approach of the cognitive perspective in information science and their new settings by contemporary needs of information to reflect on the process of meeting the professional information through the social reality that permeates the contexts of information.Methodology: Reflection on theoretical aspects that deal with the cognitive development to discuss the implications of the cognitive approach in information science and its evolution in the scope of the representation and processing of information.Results: Research in Information Science must consider issues of cognitive and social order that underlie information processing and the process of knowing the information professional as knowledge structures must be explained from the social context of knowing subjects.Conclusions: There is a need to investigate the process of knowing the information professional in the bias of socio-cognitive approach, targeting new elements for the understanding of the relationship information (cognitive manifestations and its implications on the social dimension.

  7. COGNITIVE STRUCTURING OF TEXT COMPREHENSION PROCESS IN THE ASPECT OF MICROLINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodina Nina Ivanovna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of mnemo-units of knowledge in the aspect of microliguistics is deliberated in the article. Mnemo-unit of knowledge is considered to be a unit of knowledge in the operative memory, which cannot be verbalized but can be explained. The singling out such units, on the one hand, gives the opportunity to construct the structural scheme of comprehension process, and, on the other hand, to justify the theory of comprehension process as the process of operating with tiny recognized and unrecognized units which have schematic or contour fixation in the human's memory. The process of text comprehension is analyzed and compared with the process of making saccades. Given examples about the eyesight fixation on the words picked out on the line allow to speak about the fixation of attention only on these words. The summing up of such theоretic and practical data leads to the opportunity to base the theory of mnemo-units of knowledge in the aspect of microlinguistics. The comprehension process demands supporting the steady connections between the mnemo-units of knowledge. In their turn, the steady connections between the mnemo-units of knowledge, which are necessary for production of thinking forms, are insured by constant activization of the same units at the same sequence. Constant and sequent activization of the same units of knowledge leads to the human thinking process stereotyping. The cognitive model of structural thinking process is built in the article. The analysis of received data on stereotyped comprehension process allows to reveal the fact that the activization of one mnemo-units group demands the activization of another mnemo-units group. Activated mnemo-units groups determine the psychological structure of personality. In this aspect the motivation and the behavior are the necessary steps in the cognitive model of structural comprehension process while the psychological structure is considered.

  8. Cognitive regulation of smoking behavior within a cigarette: Automatic and nonautomatic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschman, Courtney A; Tiffany, Stephen T

    2016-06-01

    There has been limited research on cognitive processes governing smoking behavior in individuals who are tobacco dependent. In a replication (Baxter & Hinson, 2001) and extension, this study examined the theory (Tiffany, 1990) that drug use may be controlled by automatic processes that develop over repeated use. Heavy and occasional cigarette smokers completed a button-press reaction time (RT) task while concurrently smoking a cigarette, pretending to smoke a lit cigarette, or not smoking. Slowed RT during the button-press task indexed the cognitive disruption associated with nonautomatic control of behavior. Occasional smokers' RTs were slowed when smoking or pretending to smoke compared with when not smoking. Heavy smokers' RTs were slowed when pretending to smoke versus not smoking; however, their RTs were similarly fast when smoking compared with not smoking. The results indicated that smoking behavior was more highly regulated by controlled, nonautomatic processes among occasional smokers and by automatic processes among heavy smokers. Patterns of RT across the interpuff interval indicated that occasional smokers were significantly slowed in anticipation of and immediately after puffing onset, whereas heavy smokers were only slowed significantly after puffing onset. These findings suggest that the entirety of the smoking sequence becomes automatized, with the behaviors leading up to puffing becoming more strongly regulated by automatic processes with experience. These results have relevance to theories on the cognitive regulation of cigarette smoking and support the importance of interventions that focus on routinized behaviors that individuals engage in during and leading up to drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Poka-yoke process controller: designed for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R F; Sant, D

    1998-01-01

    Poka-yoke is a Japanese term meaning "error proofing." Poka-yoke techniques were developed to achieve zero defects in manufacturing and assembly processes. The application of these techniques tends to reduce both the physical and cognitive demands of tasks and thereby make them more accessible. Poka-yoke interventions create a dialogue between the worker and the process, and this dialogue provides the feedback necessary for workers to prevent errors. For individuals with cognitive impairments, weighing and counting tasks can be difficult or impossible. Interventions that provide sufficient feedback to workers without disabilities tend to be too subtle for workers with cognitive impairments; hence, the feedback must be enhanced. The Poka-Yoke Controller (PYC) was designed to assist individuals with counting and weighing tasks. The PYC interfaces to an Ohaus CT6000 digital scale for weighing parts and for counting parts by weight. It also interfaces to sensors and switches for object counting tasks. The PYC interfaces to a variety of programmable voice output devices so that voice feedback or prompting can be provided at specific points in the weighing or counting process. The PYC can also be interfaced to conveyor systems, indexed turntables, and other material handling systems for coordinated counting and material handling operations. In all of our applications to date, we have observed improved worker performance, improved process quality, and greater worker independence. These observed benefits have also significantly reduced the need for staff intervention. The process controller is described and three applications are presented: a weighing task and two counting applications.

  10. Enhancement of Cognitive Processing by Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using Liquid Cooling Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This can have a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patient and of their primary care giver. This case study explores the possibility that liquid cooling therapy may be used to enhance the cognitive processing of MS patients in the same way that it provides temporary relief of some physical impairment. Two MS patients were presented a series of pattern discrimination tasks before and after being cooled with a liquid cooling garment for a one hour period. The subject whose ear temperature was reduced during cooling showed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and scored much better on the task after cooling. The patient whose ear temperature was unaffected by cooling showed less EEG activity and degraded performance after the one hour cooling period.

  11. TMS Affects Moral Judgment, Showing the Role of DLPFC and TPJ in Cognitive and Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danique eJeurissen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  12. Differences in cognitive and emotional processes between persecutory and grandiose delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garety, Philippa A; Gittins, Matthew; Jolley, Suzanne; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive models propose that cognitive and emotional processes, in the context of anomalies of experience, lead to and maintain delusions. No large-scale studies have investigated whether persecutory and grandiose delusions reflect differing contributions of reasoning and affective processes. This is complicated by their frequent cooccurrence in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that persecutory and grandiose subtypes would differ significantly in their associations with psychological processes. Participants were the 301 patients from the Psychological Prevention of Relapse in Psychosis Trial (ISRCTN83557988). Persecutory delusions were present in 192 participants, and grandiose delusions were present in 97, while 58 were rated as having delusions both of persecution and grandiosity. Measures of emotional and reasoning processes, at baseline only, were employed. A bivariate response model was used. Negative self-evaluations and depression and anxiety predicted a significantly increased chance of persecutory delusions whereas grandiose delusions were predicted by less negative self-evaluations and lower anxiety and depression, along with higher positive self and positive other evaluations. Reasoning biases were common in the whole group and in categorically defined subgroups with only persecutory delusions and only grandiose delusions; however, jumping to conclusions, and belief flexibility were significantly different in the 2 groups, the grandiose group having a higher likelihood of showing a reasoning bias than the persecutory group. The significant differences in the processes associated with these 2 delusion subtypes have implications for etiology and for the development of targeted treatment strategies.

  13. Pattern destabilization and emotional processing in cognitive therapy for personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Adele M; Yasinski, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials of treatments for personality disorders can provide a medium for studying the process of therapeutic change with particularly entrenched and self-perpetuating systems and might reveal important principles of system transition. We examined the extent to which maladaptive personality patterns were destabilized in a trial of cognitive therapy personality disorders (CT-PD) and how destabilization was associated with emotional processing and treatment outcomes. Dynamic systems theory was used as a theoretical framework for studying change. Participants were 27 patients diagnosed with Avoidant or Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (AVPD or OCPD), who completed an open trial of CT-PD. Raters coded treatment sessions using a coding system that operationalizes emotional processing, as well as cognitive, affective, behavioral, and somatic components of pathological (negative) and more adaptive (positive) patterns of functioning. Pattern destabilization (dispersion) scores during the early phase of treatment (phase 1: session 1-10) and the schema-focused phase (phase 2: session 11-34) were calculated using a program called GridWare. More pattern destabilization and emotional processing in the schema-focused phase of CT-PD predicted more improvement in personality disorder symptoms and positive pattern strength at the end of treatment, whereas these variables in phase 1 did not predict outcome. In addition to illustrating a quantitative method for studying destabilization and change of patterns of psychopathology, we present findings that are consistent with recent updates of emotional processing theory and with principles from dynamic systems theory.

  14. Connectionism, parallel constraint satisfaction processes, and gestalt principles: (re) introducing cognitive dynamics to social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, S J; Vanman, E J; Miller, L C

    1997-01-01

    We argue that recent work in connectionist modeling, in particular the parallel constraint satisfaction processes that are central to many of these models, has great importance for understanding issues of both historical and current concern for social psychologists. We first provide a brief description of connectionist modeling, with particular emphasis on parallel constraint satisfaction processes. Second, we examine the tremendous similarities between parallel constraint satisfaction processes and the Gestalt principles that were the foundation for much of modem social psychology. We propose that parallel constraint satisfaction processes provide a computational implementation of the principles of Gestalt psychology that were central to the work of such seminal social psychologists as Asch, Festinger, Heider, and Lewin. Third, we then describe how parallel constraint satisfaction processes have been applied to three areas that were key to the beginnings of modern social psychology and remain central today: impression formation and causal reasoning, cognitive consistency (balance and cognitive dissonance), and goal-directed behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of parallel constraint satisfaction principles for a number of broader issues in social psychology, such as the dynamics of social thought and the integration of social information within the narrow time frame of social interaction.

  15. Pattern destabilization and emotional processing in cognitive therapy for personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele M. Hayes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of treatments for personality disorders can provide a medium for studying the process of therapeutic change with particularly entrenched and self-perpetuating systems and might reveal important principles of system transition. We examined the extent to which maladaptive personality patterns were destabilized in a trial of cognitive therapy personality disorders (CT-PD and how destabilization was associated with emotional processing and treatment outcomes. Dynamic systems theory was used as a theoretical framework for studying change. Method: Participants were 27 patients diagnosed with Avoidant or Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, who completed an open trial of CT-PD. Raters coded treatment sessions using a coding system that operationalizes emotional processing, as well as cognitive, affective, behavioral, and somatic components of pathological (negative and more adaptive (positive patterns of functioning. Pattern destabilization (dispersion scores during the early phase of treatment (phase 1: session 1-10 and the schema-focused phase (phase 2: session 11-34 were calculated using a program called GridWare. Results: More pattern destabilization and emotional processing in the schema-focused phase of CT-PD predicted more improvement in personality disorder symptoms and positive pattern strength at the end of treatment, whereas these variables in phase 1 did not predict outcome. Conclusions: In addition to illustrating a quantitative method for studying destabilization and change of patterns of psychopathology, we present findings that are consistent with recent updates of emotional processing theory and with principles from dynamic systems theory.

  16. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-personal and moral-impersonal dilemmas to each other and examine the differential effects of applying TMS over the right DLPFC or right TPJ. In this comparison, we find that the TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during the decision process, affects the outcome of the moral-personal judgment, while TMS-induced disruption of TPJ affects only moral-impersonal conditions. In other words, we find a double-dissociation between DLPFC and TPJ in the outcome of a moral decision. Furthermore, we find that TMS-induced disruption of the DLPFC during non-moral, moral-impersonal, and moral-personal decisions lead to lower ratings of regret about the decision. Our results are in line with the dual-process theory and suggest a role for both the emotional response and cognitive reasoning process in moral judgment. Both the emotional and cognitive processes were shown to be involved in the decision outcome.

  17. Processing structure in language and music: a case for shared reliance on cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Okada, Brooke M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between structural processing in music and language has received increasing interest in the past several years, spurred by the influential Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH; Patel, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 674-681, 2003). According to this resource-sharing framework, music and language rely on separable syntactic representations but recruit shared cognitive resources to integrate these representations into evolving structures. The SSIRH is supported by findings of interactions between structural manipulations in music and language. However, other recent evidence suggests that such interactions also can arise with nonstructural manipulations, and some recent neuroimaging studies report largely nonoverlapping neural regions involved in processing musical and linguistic structure. These conflicting results raise the question of exactly what shared (and distinct) resources underlie musical and linguistic structural processing. This paper suggests that one shared resource is prefrontal cortical mechanisms of cognitive control, which are recruited to detect and resolve conflict that occurs when expectations are violated and interpretations must be revised. By this account, musical processing involves not just the incremental processing and integration of musical elements as they occur, but also the incremental generation of musical predictions and expectations, which must sometimes be overridden and revised in light of evolving musical input.

  18. Physics students' approaches to learning and cognitive processes in solving physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Josee

    This study examined traditional instruction and problem-based learning (PBL) approaches to teaching and the extent to which they foster the development of desirable cognitive processes, including metacognition, critical thinking, physical intuition, and problem solving among undergraduate physics students. The study also examined students' approaches to learning and their perceived role as physics students. The research took place in the context of advanced courses of electromagnetism at a Canadian research university. The cognitive science, expertise, physics and science education, instructional psychology, and discourse processes literature provided the framework and background to conceptualize and structure this study. A within-stage mixed-model design was used and a number of instruments, including a survey, observation grids, and problem sets were developed specifically for this study. A special one-week long problem-based learning (PBL) intervention was also designed. Interviews with the instructors participating in the study provided complementary data. Findings include evidence that students in general engage in metacognitive processes in the organization of their personal study time. However, this potential, including the development of other cognitive processes, might not be stimulated as much as it could in the traditional lecture instructional context. The PBL approach was deemed as more empowering for the students. An unexpected finding came from the realisation that a simple exposure to a structured exercise of problem-solving (pre-test) was sufficient to produce superior planning and solving strategies on a second exposure (post-test) even for the students who had not been exposed to any special treatment. Maturation was ruled out as a potential threat to the validity of this finding. Another promising finding appears to be that the problem-based learning (PBL) intervention tends to foster the development of cognitive competencies, particularly

  19. Enhancement of Cognitive Processing by Multiple Sclerosis Patients Using Liquid Cooling Technology: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological studies demonstrate that cognitive dysfunction is a common symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis. In many cases the presence of cognitive impairment affects the patient's daily activities to a greater extent than would be found due to their physical disability alone. Cognitive dysfunction can have a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patient and that of their primary caregiver. Two cognitively impaired male MS patients were given a visual discrimination task before and after a one hour cooling period. The subjects were presented a series of either red or blue circles or triangles. One of these combinations, or one fourth of the stimuli, was designated as the "target" presentation. EEG was recorded from 20 scalp electrodes using a Tracor Northern 7500 EEG/ERP system. Oral and ear temperatures were obtained and recorded manually every five minutes during the one hour cooling period. The EEG ERP signatures from each series of stimuli were analyzed in the energy density domain to determine the locus of neural activity at each EEG sampling time. The first subject's ear temperature did not decrease during the cooling period. It was actually elevated approximately 0.05 C by the end of the cooling period compared to his mean of control period value. In turn, Subject One's discrimination performance and cortical energy remained essentially the same after body cooling. In contrast, Subject Two's ear temperature decreased approx. 0.8 C during his cooling period. Subject Two's ERROR score decreased from 12 during the precooling control period to 2 after cooling. His ENERGY value increased approximately 300%, from a precooling value of approximately 200 to a postcooling value of nearly 600. These findings might be interpreted by the following three-part hypothesis: (1) the general cognitive impairment of MS patients may be a result of low or unfocused metabolic energy conversion in the cortex; (2) such differences show up most

  20. The protective role of maternal posttraumatic growth and cognitive trauma processing among Palestinian mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Safwat Y; Isosävi, Sanna; Qouta, Samir R; Kuittinen, Saija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2018-02-01

    War survivors use multiple cognitive and emotional processes to protect their mental health from the negative impacts of trauma. Because mothers and infants may be especially vulnerable to trauma in conditions of war, it is urgent to determine which cognitive and emotional processes are effective for preventing negative trauma impacts." This study examined whether mothers' high posttraumatic growth (PTG) and positive posttraumatic cognitions (PTC) protected (a) their own mental health and (b) their infants' stress regulation and sensorimotor and language development from the effects of war trauma. The participants were 511 Palestinian mothers and their infants living in the Gaza strip. The mothers were interviewed in their second trimester of pregnancy (T1) as well as when the infant was four months (T2) and twelve months (T3). Mothers reported posttraumatic growth (PTG; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996) at T1 and posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI; Foa et al., 1999) at T2. They also reported their exposure to traumatic war events both at T1 and T3 and described their mental health conditions (e.g., PTSD and/or depressive and dissociation symptoms) at T3. The Infant Behaviour Questionnaire (IBQ) was used to measure infants' stress regulation at T2 and sensorimotor and language development at T3. The results, based on regression analyses with interaction terms between trauma and PTG, showed that high levels of traumatic war events were not associated with high levels of PTSD, depressive, or dissociation symptoms among mothers showing high levels of PTG. This suggests that PTG may protect maternal mental health from the effects of trauma. In turn, positive maternal PTCs appeared to protect the infants' stress regulation from the effects of war trauma. The study concludes by discussing ways to develop and implement preventive interventions for mother-infant dyads in war conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The relation between cognitive and metacognitive strategic processing during a science simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Daniel L; Zoellner, Brian P

    2018-03-01

    This investigation was designed to uncover the relations between students' cognitive and metacognitive strategies used during a complex climate simulation. While cognitive strategy use during science inquiry has been studied, the factors related to this strategy use, such as concurrent metacognition, prior knowledge, and prior interest, have not been investigated in a multidimensional fashion. This study addressed current issues in strategy research by examining not only how metacognitive, surface-level, and deep-level strategies influence performance, but also how these strategies related to each other during a contextually relevant science simulation. The sample for this study consisted of 70 undergraduates from a mid-sized Southeastern university in the United States. These participants were recruited from both physical and life science (e.g., biology) and education majors to obtain a sample with variance in terms of their prior knowledge, interest, and strategy use. Participants completed measures of prior knowledge and interest about global climate change. Then, they were asked to engage in an online climate simulator for up to 30 min while thinking aloud. Finally, participants were asked to answer three outcome questions about global climate change. Results indicated a poor fit for the statistical model of the frequency and level of processing predicting performance. However, a statistical model that independently examined the influence of metacognitive monitoring and control of cognitive strategies showed a very strong relation between the metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Finally, smallest space analysis results provided evidence that strategy use may be better captured in a multidimensional fashion, particularly with attention paid towards the combination of strategies employed. Conclusions drawn from the evidence point to the need for more dynamic, multidimensional models of strategic processing that account for the patterns of optimal and non

  2. Social Cognitive Training Improves Emotional Processing and Reduces Aggressive Attitudes in Ex-combatants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Sandra; Trujillo, Natalia; Lopez, Jose D.; Gomez, Diana; Valencia, Stella; Rendon, Jorge; Pineda, David A.; Parra, Mario A.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional processing (EP) is a complex cognitive function necessary to successfully adjust to social environments where we need to interpret and respond to cues that convey threat or reward signals. Ex-combatants have consistently shown atypical EP as well as poor social interactions. Available reintegration programs aim to facilitate the re-adaptation of ex-combatants to their communities. However, they do not incorporate actions to improve EP and to enhance cognitive-emotional regulation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an intervention focused on Social Cognitive Training (SCT), which was designed to equip ex-combatants enrolled in the Social Reintegration Route with EP and social cognition skills. A group of 31 ex-combatants (mean age of 37.2, 29 men) from Colombian illegal armed groups were recruited into this study. Of these, 16 were invited to take part in a SCT and the other continued with the conventional reintegration intervention. Both groups underwent 12 training sessions in a period 12–14 weeks. They were assessed with a comprehensive protocol which included Psychosocial, Behavioral, and Emotion Processing instruments. The scores on these instruments prior to and after the intervention were compared within and between groups. Both groups were matched at baseline. Ex-combatants receiving the SCT experienced significant improvements in EP and a reduction in aggressive attitudes, effects not observed in those continuing the conventional reintegration intervention. This is the first study that achieves such outcomes in such a population using SCT intervention. We discuss the implications of such results toward better social reintegration strategies. PMID:28428767

  3. Eye movement analysis and cognitive processing: detecting indicators of conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira ML

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marta LG Freitas Pereira, Marina von Zuben A Camargo, Ivan Aprahamian, Orestes V ForlenzaLaboratory of Neuroscience (LIM-27, Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: A great amount of research has been developed around the early cognitive ­impairments that best predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Given that mild cognitive impairment (MCI is no longer considered to be an intermediate state between normal aging and AD, new paths have been traced to acquire further knowledge about this condition and its subtypes, and to determine which of them have a higher risk of conversion to AD. It is now known that other deficits besides episodic and semantic memory impairments may be present in the early stages of AD, such as visuospatial and executive function deficits. Furthermore, recent investigations have proven that the hippocampus and the medial temporal lobe structures are not only involved in memory functioning, but also in visual processes. These early changes in memory, visual, and executive processes may also be detected with the study of eye movement patterns in pathological conditions like MCI and AD. In the present review, we attempt to explore the existing literature concerning these patterns of oculomotor changes and how these changes are related to the early signs of AD. In particular, we argue that deficits in visual short-term memory, specifically in iconic memory, attention processes, and inhibitory control, may be found through the analysis of eye movement patterns, and we discuss how they might help to predict the progression from MCI to AD. We add that the study of eye movement patterns in these conditions, in combination with neuroimaging techniques and appropriate neuropsychological tasks based on rigorous concepts derived from cognitive psychology, may highlight the early presence of cognitive impairments in the course of the disease

  4. Neural bases of different cognitive strategies for facial affect processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Salgado-Pineda, Pilar; Delaveau, Pauline; Hariri, Ahmad R; Blin, Olivier

    2008-03-01

    To examine the neural basis and dynamics of facial affect processing in schizophrenic patients as compared to healthy controls. Fourteen schizophrenic patients and fourteen matched controls performed a facial affect identification task during fMRI acquisition. The emotional task included an intuitive emotional condition (matching emotional faces) and a more cognitively demanding condition (labeling emotional faces). Individual analysis for each emotional condition, and second-level t-tests examining both within-, and between-group differences, were carried out using a random effects approach. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) were tested for variations in functional connectivity between amygdala and other brain regions as a function of changes in experimental conditions (labeling versus matching). During the labeling condition, both groups engaged similar networks. During the matching condition, schizophrenics failed to activate regions of the limbic system implicated in the automatic processing of emotions. PPI revealed an inverse functional connectivity between prefrontal regions and the left amygdala in healthy volunteers but there was no such change in patients. Furthermore, during the matching condition, and compared to controls, patients showed decreased activation of regions involved in holistic face processing (fusiform gyrus) and increased activation of regions associated with feature analysis (inferior parietal cortex, left middle temporal lobe, right precuneus). Our findings suggest that schizophrenic patients invariably adopt a cognitive approach when identifying facial affect. The distributed neocortical network observed during the intuitive condition indicates that patients may resort to feature-based, rather than configuration-based, processing and may constitute a compensatory strategy for limbic dysfunction.

  5. I spy with my little eye: cognitive processing of framed physical activity messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Castelhano, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative cognitive processing of gain-framed versus loss-framed physical activity messages following exposure to health risk information. Guided by the Extended Parallel Process Model, the secondary purpose was to examine the relation between dwell time, message recall, and message-relevant thoughts, as well as perceived risk, personal relevance, and fear arousal. Baseline measures of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and health problems were administered to 77 undergraduate students. Participants read population-specific health risk information while wearing a head-mounted eye tracker, which measured dwell time on message content. Perceived risk was then reassessed. Next, participants read PA messages while the eye tracker measured dwell time on message content. Immediately following message exposure, recall, thought-listing, fear arousal, and personal relevance were measured. Dwell time on gain-framed messages was significantly greater than loss-framed messages. However, message recall and thought-listing did not differ by message frame. Dwell time was not significantly related to recall or thought-listing. Consistent with the Extended Parallel Process Model, fear arousal was significantly related to recall, thought-listing, and personal relevance. In conclusion, gain-framed messages may evoke greater dwell time than loss-famed messages. However, dwell time alone may be insufficient for evoking further cognitive processing.

  6. Mapping Common Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive Processes and Their Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.

  7. Associations between therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan

    2013-12-30

    Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Moving Beyond Concepts: Getting Urban High School Students Engaged in Science through Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu

    In order to maintain its global position, the United States needs to increase the number of students opting for science careers. Science teachers face a formidable challenge. Students are not choosing science because they do not think coursework is interesting or applies to their lives. These problems often compound for adolescents in urban areas. This action research investigated an innovation aimed at engaging a group of adolescents in the science learning process through cognitive processes and conceptual understanding. It was hoped that this combination would increase students' engagement in the classroom and proficiency in science. The study was conducted with 28 juniors and sophomores in an Environmental Science class in an urban high school with a student body of 97% minority students and 86% students receiving free and reduced lunch. The study used a mixed-methods design. Instruments included a pre- and post-test, Thinking Maps, transcripts of student discourse, and a two-part Engagement Observation Instrument. Data analysis included basic descriptives and a grounded theory approach. Findings show students became engaged in activities when cognitive processes were taught prior to content. Furthermore it was discovered that Thinking Maps were perceived to be an easy tool to use to organize students' thinking and processing. Finally there was a significant increase in student achievement. From these findings implications for future practice and research are offered.

  9. Cognitive and Neural Effects of Vision-Based Speed-of-Processing Training in Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tivarus, Madalina E; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Tadin, Duje

    2016-06-01

    To examine the cognitive and neural effects of vision-based speed-of-processing (VSOP) training in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and contrast those effects with an active control (mental leisure activities (MLA)). Randomized single-blind controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Individuals with aMCI (N = 21). Six-week computerized VSOP training. Multiple cognitive processing measures, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and two resting state neural networks regulating cognitive processing: central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN). VSOP training led to significantly greater improvements in trained (processing speed and attention: F1,19  = 6.61, partial η(2)  = 0.26, P = .02) and untrained (working memory: F1,19  = 7.33, partial η(2)  = 0.28, P = .01; IADLs: F1,19  = 5.16, partial η(2)  = 0.21, P = .03) cognitive domains than MLA and protective maintenance in DMN (F1, 9  = 14.63, partial η(2)  = 0.62, P = .004). VSOP training, but not MLA, resulted in a significant improvement in CEN connectivity (Z = -2.37, P = .02). Target and transfer effects of VSOP training were identified, and links between VSOP training and two neural networks associated with aMCI were found. These findings highlight the potential of VSOP training to slow cognitive decline in individuals with aMCI. Further delineation of mechanisms underlying VSOP-induced plasticity is necessary to understand in which populations and under what conditions such training may be most effective. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. [Spatial imprinting influence on development of cognitive process in adult animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, V V; Nikol'skaia, K A

    2013-12-01

    The influence of spatial imprinting on cognitive activity of adult mice F1 from DBA/2J C57BL/6J in a transformable multialternative maze has been studied. A control mice initially learned in a maze with "direct" and "bypass" pathway between feeders. They successfully formed a food-getting habit after 9-10 sessions using mainly direct pathway, so the final route decision was consistent with the principle of least action. Experimental mice previously placed into reduced maze with only "bypass" pathway between feeders for 1-2 trials (1-3 min), and turn up in the complete maze immediately after that. Experimental mice could not organize a food-getting behavior according a task conditions since attempted to include in final decision both "direct" and "bypass" pathways, united in a single ring-like construction. They demonstrated situational behavior running from one feeder to another one, despite of fact that therein had no feed. So it opposed the realization of least action principle, becoming a source of psycho-emotional stress. The results showed that spatial information perceiving in the first few minutes of exploring the experimental environment can manifest itself as the acquired preference and come in conflict with an instinctive one. Cognitive dissonance predetermined the direction of the cognitive process.

  11. Thyroid hormone’s role in regulating brain glucose metabolism and potentially modulating hippocampal cognitive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, V; McNay, EC

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive performance is dependent on adequate glucose supply to the brain. Insulin, which regulates systemic glucose metabolism, has been recently shown both to regulate hippocampal metabolism and to be a mandatory component of hippocampally-mediated cognitive performance. Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate systemic glucose metabolism and may also be involved in regulation of brain glucose metabolism. Here we review potential mechanisms for such regulation. Importantly, TH imbalance is often encountered in combination with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, and may cause additional metabolic dysregulation and hence worsening of disease states. TH’s potential as a regulator of brain glucose metabolism is heightened by interactions with insulin signaling, but there have been relatively few studies on this topic or on the actions of TH in a mature brain. This review discusses evidence for mechanistic links between TH, insulin, cognitive function, and brain glucose metabolism, and suggests that TH is a good candidate to be a modulator of memory processes, likely at least in part by modulation of central insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. PMID:22437199

  12. Abnormal proactive and reactive cognitive control during conflict processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; De Paepe, Annick; Aarts, Kristien; Otte, Georges; Van Dorpe, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    According to the Dual Mechanisms of Control framework, cognitive control consists of two complementary components: proactive control refers to anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information, whereas reactive control acts as a correction mechanism that is activated when a conflict occurs. Possibly, the well-known diminished inhibitory control in response to negative stimuli in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients stems from a breakdown in proactive control, and/or anomalies in reactive cognitive control. In our study, MDD patients specifically showed increased response latencies when actively inhibiting a dominant response to a sad compared with a happy face. This condition was associated with a longer duration of a dominant ERP topography (800-900 ms poststimulus onset) and a stronger activity in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting abnormal reactive control when inhibiting attention to a negative stimulus. Moreover, MDD patients showed abnormalities in proactive cognitive control when preparing for the upcoming imperative stimulus (abnormal modulation of the contingent negative variation component), accompanied by more activity in brain regions belonging to the default mode network. All together, deficits to inhibit attention to negative information in MDD might originate from an abnormal use of both proactive resources and reactive control processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Banknote recognition: investigating processing and cognition framework using competitive neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    Humans are apt at recognizing patterns and discovering even abstract features which are sometimes embedded therein. Our ability to use the banknotes in circulation for business transactions lies in the effortlessness with which we can recognize the different banknote denominations after seeing them over a period of time. More significant is that we can usually recognize these banknote denominations irrespective of what parts of the banknotes are exposed to us visually. Furthermore, our recognition ability is largely unaffected even when these banknotes are partially occluded. In a similar analogy, the robustness of intelligent systems to perform the task of banknote recognition should not collapse under some minimum level of partial occlusion. Artificial neural networks are intelligent systems which from inception have taken many important cues related to structure and learning rules from the human nervous/cognition processing system. Likewise, it has been shown that advances in artificial neural network simulations can help us understand the human nervous/cognition system even furthermore. In this paper, we investigate three cognition hypothetical frameworks to vision-based recognition of banknote denominations using competitive neural networks. In order to make the task more challenging and stress-test the investigated hypotheses, we also consider the recognition of occluded banknotes. The implemented hypothetical systems are tasked to perform fast recognition of banknotes with up to 75 % occlusion. The investigated hypothetical systems are trained on Nigeria's Naira banknotes and several experiments are performed to demonstrate the findings presented within this work.

  15. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk

    OpenAIRE

    Walshe, Elizabeth A.; Patterson, Matthew R.; Commins, Se?n; Roche, Richard A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the...

  17. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 communit...

  18. Erythropoietin modulates neural and cognitive processing of emotional information in biomarker models of antidepressant drug action in depressed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Favaron, Elisa; Hafizi, Sepehr

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects, and may be a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We have demonstrated antidepressant-like effects of Epo on the neural and cognitive processing of facial expressions in healthy volunteers. The curren...... study investigates the effects of Epo on the neural and cognitive response to emotional facial expressions in depressed patients.......Erythropoietin (Epo) has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects, and may be a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We have demonstrated antidepressant-like effects of Epo on the neural and cognitive processing of facial expressions in healthy volunteers. The current...

  19. Universal Gestational Age Effects on Cognitive and Basic Mathematic Processing: 2 Cohorts in 2 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. Study design The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment. These estimations were used to predict IQ, mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment in the EPICure Study (171 children mathematic attainment scores by 2.34 (95% CI: −2.99, −1.70) and 2.76 (95% CI: −3.40, −2.11) points, respectively. There were no differences among children born 34-41 weeks GA. Similarly, for children born mathematic processing scores decreased by 1.77 (95% CI: −2.20, −1.34) points with each lower GA week. The prediction function generated using BLS data accurately predicted the effect of GA on IQ and mathematic processing among EPICure children. However, these children had better attainment than predicted by BLS. Conclusions Prematurity has adverse effects on basic mathematic processing following birth at all gestations mathematic attainment mathematic processing scores from one cohort to another among children cared for in different eras and countries suggests that universal neurodevelopmental factors may explain the effects of gestation at birth. In contrast, mathematic attainment may be improved by schooling. PMID:25842966

  20. The Characterization of Cognitive Processes Involved in Chemical Kinetics Using a Blended Processing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Kinsey; Rodriguez, Jon-Marc G.; Moon, Alena; Towns, Marcy H.

    2018-01-01

    Chemical kinetics is a highly quantitative content area that involves the use of multiple mathematical representations to model processes and is a context that is under-investigated in the literature. This qualitative study explored undergraduate student integration of chemistry and mathematics during problem solving in the context of chemical…

  1. A Guide in the Process of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of effective treatment depends on thorough understanding of disorder and its presentation. Treatment strategies must depend on the individual formulation of the patient. In this paper an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder(OCD patient treated with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT methods is presented. It is discussed that in the therapy, formulation is an ongoing dynamic process and necessarily required for the effectiveness of therapy. Case: Y.B. was 32 years old, single male patient graduated from university. He applied because of his obsessions and compulsions. He was diagnosed OCD after the psychiatric evaluation according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(DSM-IV. In treatment following strategies were applied: 1 Cognitive restructuring of the thoughtaction- fusion, anxiety intolerance, overestimated threat appraisals, 2 exposure and response prevention techniques aimed to test if catastrophic expectations would occur. Discussion: When planning CBT for the treatment of OCD, the first and most important step is a good formulation created with the data obtained from a good evaluation process. Treatment planning in our case was planned on using cognitive restructing techniques for thought-action-fusion, anxiety intolerance and overestimated threat appraisals but the formulation was completed in the course of treatment when the patient could talk about his early experiences. As a result, the formulation is a roadmap that should be taken into consideration at every stage of therapy. Its presence is essential to reach the correct destination and it is a dynamic process needed to be updated according to the information from the patient

  2. Study of efficacy of the combination of carbamazepine with nootropics on cognitive processes in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov A.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combination of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs on cognitive processes in patients with epilepsy in experiment in order to reduce the side effects of anticonvulsant therapy. Analysis of anticonvulsant effect of the combination of drugs was carried out on 36 white nonlinear rats of both sexes weighing 160-180 g by the method of maximum electroshock, and the analysis of antiamnestic effect - using a model of retrograde amnesia on 80 white adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g. For studying the mnemotropic activity of drug, the method of the conditioned reflex of active avoidance was used. The authors discovered that the isolated use of carbamazepine has the most negative influence on cognitive processes in animals, namely the formation of skill, memory engrams and consolidating memory trace as compared with the combined use of carbamazepine with neuroprotective drugs. It was found that the use of combinations of carbamazepine and nootropics in the experiment does not prevent the development of seizures completely, however, these combination can significantly reduce the duration of seizures (p <0.0001. Study of the effectiveness of the combined use of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs, revealed, that the tested drug combinations have a positive effect on cognitive processes and show neuroprotective effect on the brain structures of animals. The revealed effects of combined use of carbamazepine with nootropic drugs by the strength and intensity of the impact is much higher than isolated, while using carbamazepine. It was found, that the most effective combination is a combination of carbamazepine with Gliatilin.

  3. Exploring the behavioural patterns of knowledge dimensions and cognitive processes in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ghadirian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer moderation has been used as a beneficial strategy in asynchronous online discussions to assist student learning performance. However, most studies in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions (PMAOD have focused only on learning effectiveness and perceptions of students rather than on students’ knowledge dimensions and cognitive processing patterns. This study combined quantitative content analysis (QCA and lag sequential analysis (LSA to explore student knowledge dimensions and cognitive processing patterns in PMAOD. The participants were 84 students in an undergraduate blended course from University Putra Malaysia (UPM, Malaysia. The Revised Bloom Taxonomy (RBT was used as the codification scheme to code the discussion transcripts of participants assigned the role of peer moderators in a reciprocal manner over seven weeks. Behavioural distributions and patterns of high- and low-quality discussion groups were compared. Results showed that students were primarily sharing knowledge dimensions and cognitive processes of metacognition and understanding, respectively. Additionally, it was found that there was a modest proportion of off-topic discussions. Nonetheless, by means of LSA, it was found that PMAOD exhibited a certain degree of self-sustainability in knowledge and cognitive process behaviours, with the exceptions of procedural knowledge and the cognitive process of applyingand, in terms of diversity in knowledge dimension and cognitive processing, high-quality discussion groups outperformed low-quality groups.

  4. The role of sleep in cognitive processing: focusing on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that sleep promotes various cognitive functions, such as decision-making, language, categorization, and memory. Of these, most work has focused on the influence of sleep on memory, with ample work showing that sleep enhances memory consolidation, a process that stores new memories in the brain over time. Recent psychological and neurophysiological research has vastly increased understanding of this process. Such work not only suggests that consolidation relies on plasticity-related mechanisms that reactivate and stabilize memory representations, but also that this process may be experimentally manipulated by methods that target which memory traces are reactivated during sleep. Furthermore, aside from memory storage capabilities, memory consolidation also appears to reorganize and integrate memories with preexisting knowledge, which may facilitate the discovery of underlying rules and associations that benefit other cognitive functioning, including problem solving and creativity. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1433. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1433 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Anomalous experiences, trauma and symbolization processes at the frontier between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRabeyron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during or after traumatic situations.

  6. Anomalous Experiences, Trauma, and Symbolization Processes at the Frontiers between Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeyron, Thomas; Loose, Tianna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during, or after traumatic situations. PMID:26732646

  7. A Case Study: Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition-Commentary on Evans & Stanovich (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process theories of higher order cognition (DPTs) have been enjoying much success, particularly since Kahneman's 2002 Nobel prize address and recent book Thinking, Fast and Slow (2009). Historically, DPTs have attempted to provide a conceptual framework that helps classify and predict differences in patterns of behavior found under some circumstances and not others in a host of reasoning, judgment, and decision-making tasks. As evidence has changed and techniques for examining behavior have moved on, so too have DPTs. Killing two birds with one stone, Evans and Stanovich (2013, this issue) respond to five main criticisms of DPTs. Along with addressing each criticism in turn, they set out to clarify the essential defining characteristics that distinguish one form of higher order cognition from the other. The aim of this commentary is to consider the defining characteristics of Type 1 and Type 2 processing that have been proposed and to suggest that the evidence can be taken to support quantitative differences rather than qualitatively distinct processes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Is conflict monitoring supramodal? Spatiotemporal dynamics of cognitive control processes in an auditory Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Liotti, Mario; Perez, Rick; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2011-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of conflict processing and cognitive control have been well characterized for the visual modality in paradigms such as the Stroop task. Much less is known about corresponding processes in the auditory modality. Here, electroencephalographic recordings of brain activity were measured during an auditory Stroop task, using three different forms of behavioral response (Overt verbal, Covert verbal, and Manual), that closely paralleled our previous visual-Stroop study. As expected, behavioral responses were slower and less accurate for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Neurally, incongruent trials showed an enhanced fronto-central negative-polarity wave (Ninc), similar to the N450 in visual-Stroop tasks, with similar variations as a function of behavioral response mode, but peaking ~150 ms earlier, followed by an enhanced positive posterior wave. In addition, sequential behavioral and neural effects were observed that supported the conflict-monitoring and cognitive-adjustment hypothesis. Thus, while some aspects of the conflict detection processes, such as timing, may be modality-dependent, the general mechanisms would appear to be supramodal. PMID:21964643

  9. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  10. The Effect of Visual Representation Style in Problem-Solving: A Perspective from Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamsuren, Enkhbold; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2013-01-01

    Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving. PMID:24260415

  11. The effect of visual representation style in problem-solving: a perspective from cognitive processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkhbold Nyamsuren

    Full Text Available Using results from a controlled experiment and simulations based on cognitive models, we show that visual presentation style can have a significant impact on performance in a complex problem-solving task. We compared subject performances in two isomorphic, but visually different, tasks based on a card game of SET. Although subjects used the same strategy in both tasks, the difference in presentation style resulted in radically different reaction times and significant deviations in scanpath patterns in the two tasks. Results from our study indicate that low-level subconscious visual processes, such as differential acuity in peripheral vision and low-level iconic memory, can have indirect, but significant effects on decision making during a problem-solving task. We have developed two ACT-R models that employ the same basic strategy but deal with different presentations styles. Our ACT-R models confirm that changes in low-level visual processes triggered by changes in presentation style can propagate to higher-level cognitive processes. Such a domino effect can significantly affect reaction times and eye movements, without affecting the overall strategy of problem solving.

  12. Investigation of Laser Welding of Ti Alloys for Cognitive Process Parameters Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding of titanium alloys is attracting increasing interest as an alternative to traditional joining techniques for industrial applications, with particular reference to the aerospace sector, where welded assemblies allow for the reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio, compared to other traditional mechanical joining techniques. In this research work, an investigation on laser welding of Ti–6Al–4V alloy plates is carried out through an experimental testing campaign, under different process conditions, in order to perform a characterization of the produced weld bead geometry, with the final aim of developing a cognitive methodology able to support decision-making about the selection of the suitable laser welding process parameters. The methodology is based on the employment of artificial neural networks able to identify correlations between the laser welding process parameters, with particular reference to the laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance, and the weld bead geometric features, on the basis of the collected experimental data.

  13. Investigation of Laser Welding of Ti Alloys for Cognitive Process Parameters Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-04-20

    Laser welding of titanium alloys is attracting increasing interest as an alternative to traditional joining techniques for industrial applications, with particular reference to the aerospace sector, where welded assemblies allow for the reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio, compared to other traditional mechanical joining techniques. In this research work, an investigation on laser welding of Ti⁻6Al⁻4V alloy plates is carried out through an experimental testing campaign, under different process conditions, in order to perform a characterization of the produced weld bead geometry, with the final aim of developing a cognitive methodology able to support decision-making about the selection of the suitable laser welding process parameters. The methodology is based on the employment of artificial neural networks able to identify correlations between the laser welding process parameters, with particular reference to the laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance, and the weld bead geometric features, on the basis of the collected experimental data.

  14. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  15. Distributed Cognition and Process Management Enabling Individualized Translational Research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Amanda E; Draper, David; Lee, Elizabeth; Guzman, Jessica; Valivullah, Zaheer; Maduro, Valerie; Lebedev, Vlad; Didenko, Maxim; Tomlin, Garrick; Brudno, Michael; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Haendel, Melissa A; Mungall, Christopher J; Smedley, Damian; Hochheiser, Harry; Arnold, Andrew M; Coessens, Bert; Verhoeven, Steven; Bone, William; Adams, David; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  16. The process of cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: which changes in perpetuating cognitions and behaviour are related to a reduction in fatigue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, Marianne J; Knoop, Hans; Burk, William J; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can significantly reduce fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but little is known about the process of change taking place during CBT. Based on a recent treatment model (Wiborg et al. J Psych Res 2012), we examined how (changes in) cognitions and behaviour are related to the decrease in fatigue. We included 183 patients meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for CFS, aged 18 to 65 years, starting CBT. We measured fatigue and possible process variables before treatment; after 6, 12 and 18 weeks; and after treatment. Possible process variables were sense of control over fatigue, focusing on symptoms, self-reported physical functioning, perceived physical activity and objective (actigraphic) physical activity. We built multiple regression models, explaining levels of fatigue during therapy by (changes in) proposed process variables. We observed large individual variation in the patterns of change in fatigue and process variables during CBT for CFS. Increases in the sense of control over fatigue, perceived activity and self-reported physical functioning, and decreases in focusing on symptoms explained 20 to 46% of the variance in fatigue. An increase in objective activity was not a process variable. A change in cognitive factors seems to be related to the decrease in fatigue during CBT for CFS. The pattern of change varies considerably between patients, but changes in process variables and fatigue occur mostly in the same period. © 2013.

  17. Decision Making and Ratio Processing in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Benke, Thomas; Zamarian, Laura; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Making advantageous decisions is important in everyday life. This study aimed at assessing how patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) make decisions under risk. Additionally, it investigated the relationship between decision making, ratio processing, basic numerical abilities, and executive functions. Patients with MCI (n = 22) were compared with healthy controls (n = 29) on a complex task of decision making under risk (Game of Dice Task-Double, GDT-D), on two tasks evaluating basic decision making under risk, on a task of ratio processing, and on several neuropsychological background tests. Patients performed significantly lower than controls on the GDT-D and on ratio processing, whereas groups performed comparably on basic decision tasks. Specifically, in the GDT-D, patients obtained lower net scores and lower mean expected values, which indicate a less advantageous performance relative to that of controls. Performance on the GDT-D correlated significantly with performance in basic decision tasks, ratio processing, and executive-function measures when the analysis was performed on the whole sample. Patients with MCI make sub-optimal decisions in complex risk situations, whereas they perform at the same level as healthy adults in simple decision situations. Ratio processing and executive functions have an impact on the decision-making performance of both patients and healthy older adults. In order to facilitate advantageous decisions in complex everyday situations, information should be presented in an easily comprehensible form and cognitive training programs for patients with MCI should focus--among other abilities--on executive functions and ratio processing.

  18. Cognitive Load in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pupillometric Assessment of Multiple Attentional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Hershaw Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Medical Psychology Graduate Program Uniformed Services University of the Health ...system while completing a task. The amount of mental effort and cognitive resources required to complete a task depends on cognitive load. Thus, the...load and require greater mental effort for people with mild TBI. PUPILLOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE LOAD Differences in cognitive load in

  19. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  20. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Valentina; Gentili, Claudio; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Pietrini, Pietro

    2011-10-10

    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience led us to a consideration of metaphor as supported by a distributed and bilateral network; on the other hand, we based on the accounts of figurative language put forward in pragmatics and cognitive science to postulate a decomposition of such a network into multiple sub-systems. During scanning, participants implicitly processed metaphorical (familiar and unfamiliar) and non-metaphorical passages, while being explicitly involved in an adjective matching task to be performed after reading the target passages. Several regions showed greater activity to metaphors as compared to non-metaphors, including left and right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and anterior cingulate. This pattern of activations, markedly bilateral, can be decomposed into circumscribed functional sub-systems mediating different aspects of metaphor resolution, as foreseen in the pragmatic and cognitive literature: (a) the conceptual/pragmatic machinery in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus, which supports the integration of linguistic material and world knowledge in context; (b) the attentional component in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal areas, which is set to monitor and filter for the relevant aspects of context and for the appropriate meanings; (c) the Theory of Mind system along the right superior temporal sulcus, which deals with the recognition of speakers' communicative intentions and is more extensively activated by unfamiliar metaphors. The results have several implications for the field of neuropragmatics

  1. Gist-based conceptual processing of pictures remains intact in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G; Hussey, Erin P; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-03-01

    The picture superiority effect, better memory for pictures compared to words, has been found in young adults, healthy older adults, and, most recently, in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the picture superiority effect is widely found, there is still debate over what drives this effect. One main question is whether it is enhanced perceptual or conceptual information that leads to the advantage for pictures over words. In this experiment, we examined the picture superiority effect in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to better understand the role of gist-based conceptual processing. We had participants study three exemplars of categories as either words or pictures. In the test phase, participants were again shown pictures or words and were asked to determine whether the item was in the same category as something they had studied earlier or whether it was from a new category. We found that all participants demonstrated a robust picture superiority effect, better performance for pictures than for words. These results suggest that the gist-based conceptual processing of pictures is preserved in patients with MCI. While in healthy older adults preserved recollection for pictures could lead to the picture superiority effect, in patients with MCI it is most likely that the picture superiority effect is a result of spared conceptually based familiarity for pictures, perhaps combined with their intact ability to extract and use gist information.

  2. Speech comprehension training and auditory and cognitive processing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Levitt, Harry

    2012-12-01

    To provide a brief history of speech comprehension training systems and an overview of research on auditory and cognitive aging as background to recommendations for future directions for rehabilitation. Two distinct domains were reviewed: one concerning technological and the other concerning psychological aspects of training. Historical trends and advances in these 2 domains were interrelated to highlight converging trends and directions for future practice. Over the last century, technological advances have influenced both the design of hearing aids and training systems. Initially, training focused on children and those with severe loss for whom amplification was insufficient. Now the focus has shifted to older adults with relatively little loss but difficulties listening in noise. Evidence of brain plasticity from auditory and cognitive neuroscience provides new insights into how to facilitate perceptual (re-)learning by older adults. There is a new imperative to complement training to increase bottom-up processing of the signal with more ecologically valid training to boost top-down information processing based on knowledge of language and the world. Advances in digital technologies enable the development of increasingly sophisticated training systems incorporating complex meaningful materials such as music, audiovisual interactive displays, and conversation.

  3. Preschool classroom processes as predictors of children's cognitive self-regulation skills development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; Farran, Dale C; Nesbitt, Kimberly Turner

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the associations between interactive processes of early childhood classrooms and gains in children's cognitive self-regulation (CSR) across the preschool year. Data from 803 children (45.8% female; M = 54 months; 39.1% Caucasian, 26.3% African American, 24.6% Hispanic, 9.9% Other) were collected at fall and spring of the preschool year, and classroom observations were conducted three times throughout the year. Multilevel models tested associations between classroom behaviors of teachers and students using the Classroom Observation in Preschool and the Teacher Observation in Preschool and gains children made in a CSR composite score (Dimensional Change Card Sort, Peg Tapping, Head Toes Knees Shoulders, Copy Design, and Corsi Blocks) across the preschool year. After controlling for demographic covariates and children's pretest scores, both affective and cognitive classroom processes were associated with gains. More teacher behavior approving, less disapproving, and more positive emotional tone were associated with gains. The proportion of observed time teachers spent delivering instruction as well as the proportion of time children were involved with mathematics and literacy were also related to CSR gains, as was the quality of teacher instruction. Although exploratory, these results highlight the potential for modifications in classroom practices to aid in children's CSR development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive processes associated with compulsive buying behaviours and related EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lee Matthew; Ciorciari, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2014-01-30

    The behavioural and cognitive phenomena associated with Compulsive Buying (CB) have been investigated previously but the underlying neurophysiological cognitive process has received less attention. This study specifically investigated the electrophysiology of CB associated with executive processing and cue-reactivity in order to reveal differences in neural connectivity (EEG Coherence) and distinguish it from characteristics of addiction or mood disorder. Participants (N=24, M=25.38 yrs, S.D.=7.02 yrs) completed the Sensitivity to Punishment Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and a visual memory task associated with shopping items. Sensitivities to reward and punishment were examined with EEG coherence measures for preferred and non-preferred items and compared to CB psychometrics. Widespread EEG coherence differences were found in numerous regions, with an apparent left shifted lateralisation for preferred and right shifted lateralisation for non-preferred items. Different neurophysiological networks presented with CB phenomena, reflecting cue reactivity and episodic memory, from increased arousal and attachment to items. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z; Khalid, M N

    2014-01-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  6. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults' Driving Mobility Across 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Edwards, Jerri D; O'Connor, Melissa L; Ball, Karlene K; Wadley, Virginia G; Vance, David E

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults' self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Older Adults’ Driving Mobility Across 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Ball, Karlene K.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Vance, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Multilevel models assessed the effects of cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) on older adults’ self-reported driving using intention-to-treat (ITT, randomization to training or control conditions) and dosage (treatment-received via number of training sessions) analyses across 5 years. Method. Participants randomized to SPT (n = 598) were compared with those randomized to either the no-contact control (n = 598) or memory training, which served as an active control (n = 610). Driving mobility (frequency, exposure, and space) was assessed over time. Results. No significant effects were found within the ITT analyses. However, number of SPT sessions did affect driving mobility outcomes. In the full sample (N = 1,806), higher SPT doses were associated with maintained driving frequency as compared with both control groups, but no effects were found for driving exposure or space. Subsample analyses (n = 315) revealed that persons at-risk for mobility declines (i.e., poor initial processing speed) who received additional booster SPT sessions reported greater maintenance of both driving frequency and exposure over time as compared with the no-contact and active control groups. Discussion. These results and prior research indicate that cognitive SPT transfers to prolonged driving mobility among older adults. Future research should investigate the mechanisms behind transfer effects to real-world activities, such as driving. PMID:25878053

  8. Toward a synthesis of cognitive biases: how noisy information processing can bias human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Martin

    2012-03-01

    A single coherent framework is proposed to synthesize long-standing research on 8 seemingly unrelated cognitive decision-making biases. During the past 6 decades, hundreds of empirical studies have resulted in a variety of rules of thumb that specify how humans systematically deviate from what is normatively expected from their decisions. Several complementary generative mechanisms have been proposed to explain those cognitive biases. Here it is suggested that (at least) 8 of these empirically detected decision-making biases can be produced by simply assuming noisy deviations in the memory-based information processes that convert objective evidence (observations) into subjective estimates (decisions). An integrative framework is presented to show how similar noise-based mechanisms can lead to conservatism, the Bayesian likelihood bias, illusory correlations, biased self-other placement, subadditivity, exaggerated expectation, the confidence bias, and the hard-easy effect. Analytical tools from information theory are used to explore the nature and limitations that characterize such information processes for binary and multiary decision-making exercises. The ensuing synthesis offers formal mathematical definitions of the biases and their underlying generative mechanism, which permits a consolidated analysis of how they are related. This synthesis contributes to the larger goal of creating a coherent picture that explains the relations among the myriad of seemingly unrelated biases and their potential psychological generative mechanisms. Limitations and research questions are discussed.

  9. Managing expectations: cognitive authority and experienced control in complex healthcare processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katherine J; May, Carl R

    2017-07-05

    Balancing the normative expectations of others (accountabilities) against the personal and distributed resources available to meet them (capacity) is a ubiquitous feature of social relations in many settings. This is an important problem in the management of long-term conditions, because of widespread problems of non-adherence to treatment regimens. Using long-term conditions as an example, we set out middle range theory of this balancing work. A middle-range theory was constructed four stages. First, a qualitative elicitation study of men with heart failure was used to develop general propositions about patient and care giver experience, and about the ways that the organisation and delivery of care affected this. Second, these propositions were developed and confirmed through a systematic review of qualitative research literature. Third, theoretical propositions and constructs were built, refined and presented as a logic model associated with two main theoretical propositions. Finally, a construct validation exercise was undertaken, in which construct definitions informed reanalysis of a set of systematic reviews of studies of patient and caregiver experiences of heart failure that had been included in an earlier meta-review. Cognitive Authority Theory identifies, characterises and explains negotiation processes in in which people manage their relations with the expectations of normative systems - like those encountered in the management of long-term conditions. Here, their cognitive authority is the product of an assessment of competence, trustworthiness and credibility made about a person by other participants in a healthcare process; and their experienced control is a function of the degree to which they successfully manage the external process-specific limiting factors that make it difficult to otherwise perform in their role. Cognitive Authority Theory assists in explaining how participants in complex social processes manage important relational aspects of

  10. Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2018-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual art therapy. PTSD Checklist–Military Version and Beck Depression Inventory–II scores improved with treatment in both groups with no significant difference in improvement between the experimental and control groups. Art therapy in conjunction with CPT was found to improve trauma processing and veterans considered it to be an important part of their treatment as it provided healthy distancing, enhanced trauma recall, and increased access to emotions. PMID:29332989

  11. A Guide in the Process of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKÝLÝ

    2012-04-01

    Discussion: When planning CBT for the treatment of OCD, the first and most important step is a good formulation created with the data obtained from a good evaluation process. Treatment planning in our case was planned on using cognitive restructing techniques for thought-action-fusion, anxiety intolerance and overestimated threat appraisals but the formulation was completed in the course of treatment when the patient could talk about his early experiences. As a result, the formulation is a roadmap that should be taken into consideration at every stage of therapy. Its presence is essential to reach the correct destination and it is a dynamic process needed to be updated according to the information from the patient. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 21-27

  12. Do Children and Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Display an Inefficient Cognitive Processing Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Lang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine neuropsychological processing in children and adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN. The relationship of clinical and demographic variables to neuropsychological functioning within the AN group was also explored.The performance of 41 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of AN were compared to 43 healthy control (HC participants on a number of neuropsychological measures.There were no differences in IQ between AN and HC groups. However, children and adolescents with AN displayed significantly more perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and lower Style and Central Coherence scores on the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test relative to HCs.Inefficient cognitive processing in the AN group was independent of clinical and demographic variables, suggesting it might represent an underlying trait for AN. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Approaches to the development of cognitive process dimensions in financial literacy: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Berková

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores various approaches to the development of cognitive process dimensions in financial literacy. It is based on the empirical research of the financial literacy levels among 1,207 fifteen-year-old Czech students compared with 18 countries worldwide (OECD, 2014a. Applying the regression model, the study has examined the strength of the relationship between the actual financial competence of 284 Czech students aged 17-18, studying economic disciplines, and their school performance. The research has produced the following conclusions: (a a weak dependence of actual skills on school performance; (b inherently associated consequence of school performance is not corresponding to the actual financial skills; (c a low level of financial competence in the dimensions - Remember, Understand and Apply. Proceeding from the research results, it will be desirable to focus on the transfer of economic methods and foreign practice into the learning process, thereby contributing to the improvement of the current situation in Czech Republic.

  14. The Choice Is Yours: The Role of Cognitive Processes for IT-Supported Idea Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeber, Isabella; Weber, Barbara; Maier, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    of selection direction and selection type. A laboratory experiment using eye-tracking will investigate variations in selection type and selection direction. Moreover, the experiment will test the effects on the decision-making process and the number and quality of ideas in a filtered set. Findings will provide......The selection of good ideas out of hundreds or even thousands has proven to be the next big challenge for organizations that conduct open idea contests for innovation. Cognitive load and attention loss hinder crowds to effectively run their idea selection process. Facilitation techniques...... for the reduction and clarification of ideas could help with such problems, but have not yet been researched in crowd settings that are prevalent in idea contests. This research-in-progress paper aims to contribute to this research gap by investigating IT-supported selection techniques that differ in terms...

  15. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  16. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692

  17. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  18. Uncovering the cognitive processes underlying mental rotation: an eye-movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiguo; Li, Chunyong; Quan, Cheng; Lu, Yiming; Yue, Jingwei; Zhang, Chenggang

    2017-08-30

    Mental rotation is an important paradigm for spatial ability. Mental-rotation tasks are assumed to involve five or three sequential cognitive-processing states, though this has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we investigated how processing states alternate during mental-rotation tasks. Inference was carried out using an advanced statistical modelling and data-driven approach - a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) trained using eye-movement data obtained from an experiment consisting of two different strategies: (I) mentally rotate the right-side figure to be aligned with the left-side figure and (II) mentally rotate the left-side figure to be aligned with the right-side figure. Eye movements were found to contain the necessary information for determining the processing strategy, and the dHMM that best fit our data segmented the mental-rotation process into three hidden states, which we termed encoding and searching, comparison, and searching on one-side pair. Additionally, we applied three classification methods, logistic regression, support vector model and dHMM, of which dHMM predicted the strategies with the highest accuracy (76.8%). Our study did confirm that there are differences in processing states between these two of mental-rotation strategies, and were consistent with the previous suggestion that mental rotation is discrete process that is accomplished in a piecemeal fashion.

  19. A Cognition-based View of Decision Processes in Complex Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathi K. Beratan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis paper is intended to provide an overview of individual and collective decision-making processes that might serve as a theoretical foundation for a complexity-based approach to environmental policy design and natural resource management planning. Human activities are the primary drivers of change in the Earth's biosphere today, so efforts to shift the trajectory of social-ecological systems must focus on changes in individual and collective human behavior. Recent advances in understanding the biological basis of thought and memory offer insights of use in designing management and planning processes. The human brain has evolved ways of dealing with complexity and uncertainty, and is particularly attuned to social information. Changes in an individual's schemas, reflecting changes in the patterns of neural connections that are activated by particular stimuli, occur primarily through nonconsious processes in response to experiential learning during repeated exposure to novel situations, ideas, and relationships. Discourse is an important mechanism for schema modification, and thus for behavior change. Through discourse, groups of people construct a shared story - a collective model - that is useful for predicting likely outcomes of actions and events. In effect, good stories are models that filter and organize distributed knowledge about complex situations and relationships in ways that are readily absorbed by human cognitive processes. The importance of discourse supports the view that collaborative approaches are needed to effectively deal with environmental problems and natural resource management challenges. Methods derived from the field of mediation and dispute resolution can help us take advantage of the distinctly human ability to deal with complexity and uncertainty. This cognitive view of decision making supports fundamental elements of resilience management and adaptive co-management, including fostering social learning

  20. Dealing with feelings: characterization of trait alexithymia on emotion regulation strategies and cognitive-emotional processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Swart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. METHOD: Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing. RESULTS: The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. CONCLUSION: Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.

  1. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-09

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800 ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Granularity as a Cognitive Factor in the Effectiveness of Business Process Model Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschke, Oliver; Rake, Jannis; Levina, Olga

    Reusing design models is an attractive approach in business process modeling as modeling efficiency and quality of design outcomes may be significantly improved. However, reusing conceptual models is not a cost-free effort, but has to be carefully designed. While factors such as psychological anchoring and task-adequacy in reuse-based modeling tasks have been investigated, information granularity as a cognitive concept has not been at the center of empirical research yet. We hypothesize that business process granularity as a factor in design tasks under reuse has a significant impact on the effectiveness of resulting business process models. We test our hypothesis in a comparative study employing high and low granularities. The reusable processes provided were taken from widely accessible reference models for the telecommunication industry (enhanced Telecom Operations Map). First experimental results show that Recall in tasks involving coarser granularity is lower than in cases of finer granularity. These findings suggest that decision makers in business process management should be considerate with regard to the implementation of reuse mechanisms of different granularities. We realize that due to our small sample size results are not statistically significant, but this preliminary run shows that it is ready for running on a larger scale.

  4. How holistic processing of faces relates to cognitive control and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Isabel; Chua, Kao-Wei; Richler, Jennifer J

    2018-04-16

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Processing Test for faces (VHPT-F) is the first standard test designed to measure individual differences in holistic processing. The test measures failures of selective attention to face parts through congruency effects, an operational definition of holistic processing. However, this conception of holistic processing has been challenged by the suggestion that it may tap into the same selective attention or cognitive control mechanisms that yield congruency effects in Stroop and Flanker paradigms. Here, we report data from 130 subjects on the VHPT-F, several versions of Stroop and Flanker tasks, as well as fluid IQ. Results suggested a small degree of shared variance in Stroop and Flanker congruency effects, which did not relate to congruency effects on the VHPT-F. Variability on the VHPT-F was also not correlated with Fluid IQ. In sum, we find no evidence that holistic face processing as measured by congruency in the VHPT-F is accounted for by domain-general control mechanisms.

  5. The process of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment: A national survey of specialist physicians in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Svensson, Birthe Hjorth; Rohr, Gitte; Gottrup, Hanne; Vestergaard, Karsten; Høgh, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Background Although general recommendations for diagnostic disclosure of dementia are available, little is known about how these recommendations are implemented. The aim of the current study was to investigate the process and content of dementia diagnostic disclosure meetings, and to compare key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Method A total of 54 specialist physicians in Danish dementia diagnostic departments completed an online survey on their practices regarding diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The influence of respondent characteristics was assessed, and differences on key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment were analyzed. Results The results suggest that among Danish specialist physicians, there is a general consensus regarding the organization of diagnostic disclosure meetings. However, differences in employed terminology and information provided when disclosing a dementia diagnosis were evident. Significant differences were present on key aspects of the diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. For instance, 91% would use the term dementia during diagnostic disclosures compared to just 72% for mild cognitive impairment. Conclusion The range of practices reflected in the present study confirms the complexity of diagnostic disclosure and highlights the importance of preparation and follow-up strategies to tailor the disclosure process to the needs of individual patients with dementia and their caregivers. Due to earlier diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, more research is urgently needed on this aspect of the diagnostic process, especially to develop evidence-based models for the disclosure of mild cognitive impairment.

  6. Brain reflections: A circuit-based framework for understanding information processing and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    Here, I propose a view of the architecture of the human information processing system, and of how it can be adapted to changing task demands (which is the hallmark of cognitive control). This view is informed by an interpretation of brain activity as reflecting the excitability level of neural representations, encoding not only stimuli and temporal contexts, but also action plans and task goals. The proposed cognitive architecture includes three types of circuits: open circuits, involved in feed-forward processing such as that connecting stimuli with responses and characterized by brief, transient brain activity; and two types of closed circuits, positive feedback circuits (characterized by sustained, high-frequency oscillatory activity), which help select and maintain representations, and negative feedback circuits (characterized by brief, low-frequency oscillatory bursts), which are instead associated with changes in representations. Feed-forward activity is primarily responsible for the spread of activation along the information processing system. Oscillatory activity, instead, controls this spread. Sustained oscillatory activity due to both local cortical circuits (gamma) and longer corticothalamic circuits (alpha and beta) allows for the selection of individuated representations. Through the interaction of these circuits, it also allows for the preservation of representations across different temporal spans (sensory and working memory) and their spread across the brain. In contrast, brief bursts of oscillatory activity, generated by novel and/or conflicting information, lead to the interruption of sustained oscillatory activity and promote the generation of new representations. I discuss how this framework can account for a number of psychological and behavioral phenomena. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hostile jokes provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that hostile jokes are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes. The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing hostile jokes (HJs, non-hostile jokes (NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs and non-hostile sentences (NSs. Hostile jokes primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, non-hostile jokes primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC, amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of hostile jokes showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of non-hostile jokes displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. Hostile jokes versus non-hostile jokes primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas non-hostile jokes versus hostile jokes primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for hostile jokes and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for non-hostile jokes. Surprisingly, the neural correlates of hostile jokes were not perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation

  8. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor.

  9. Dopamine dynamics during emotional cognitive processing: Implications of the specific actions of clozapine compared with haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Masahiko; Oshibuchi, Hidehiro; Kawano, Takaaki; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Yamada, Makiko; Inada, Ken; Ishigooka, Jun

    2016-06-15

    Clozapine has improved efficacy relative to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment, particularly regarding emotional symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic benefits remain unclear. Using a methamphetamine-sensitised rat model, we measured changes in dopamine levels in the amygdalae in response to a fear-conditioned cue, serving as a biochemical marker of emotional cognitive processing disruption in psychosis, for analysing the biochemical mechanisms associated with the clinical benefits of clozapine. We also compared how clozapine and haloperidol affected basal dopamine levels and phasic dopamine release in response to the fear-conditioned cue. Extracellular dopamine was collected from the amygdalae of freely moving rats via microdialysis and was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clozapine or haloperidol was injected during microdialysis, followed by exposure to the fear-conditioned cue. We analysed the ratio of change in dopamine levels from baseline. Haloperidol treatment increased the baseline dopamine levels in both non-sensitised and sensitised rats. Conversely, clozapine only increased the basal dopamine levels in the non-sensitised rats, but not in the sensitised rats. Although both antipsychotics attenuated phasic dopamine release in both the non-sensitised and sensitised rats, the attenuation extent was greater for clozapine than for haloperidol under both dopaminergic conditions. Our findings indicate that stabilized dopamine release in the amygdalae is a common therapeutic mechanism of antipsychotic action during emotional processing. However, the specific dopaminergic state-dependent action of clozapine on both basal dopamine levels and stress-induced dopamine release may be the underlying mechanism for its superior clinical effect on emotional cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study of the categorization process among patients with eating disorders: a new cognitive approach to psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdapilleta, I; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Meunier, J M; Richard, J F

    2005-01-01

    Anorexic and bulimic patients have a highly distorted relationship with food and eating, even though they tend to be knowledgeable about diet and nutrition. The progress of this disease, as well as its complications and associated difficulties, are increasingly understood, while the etiopathogeny of eating disorders remains obscure. The approach that we are proposing involves the study of one of the most fundamental cognitive functions of human reasoning--the cognitive process of categorization. The purpose of this study is to understand the procedures used by these patients to construct representations of food. Categorization, one of the basic features of human cognition, allows individuals to organize their subjective experience of the surrounding environment by structuring its contents. This ability to group different objects into the same category based on their common characteristics is important for explaining the major cognitive activities of planning, memorization, communication and perception. Indeed, our categories reflect our conceptions of the world. They depend on our experiences and representations, as well as the expertise acquired in a specific field. The differences that appear in the categories created by subjects when they are asked to classify objects reveal the properties that are most salient to them and, as a result, the interests, values and ideas associated with these properties. There are three types of properties: perceptive properties, which describe the object's shape, color, odor and texture; structural properties, which relate to the object's components; and functional properties, which specify the way in which the object is used and provide an answer to the question, "What is it used for?". Subjects attribute these functional properties by means of knowledge or inference according to their representation of the object's role; such properties are especially likely to emerge during top-down (theory-driven) processing. The type of

  11. Elevated cognitive control over reward processing in recovered female patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stefan; Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Breier, Marion; Clas, Sabine; Weiss, Jessika; Marxen, Michael; Smolka, Michael N; Roessner, Veit; Kroemer, Nils B

    2015-09-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa are thought to exert excessive self-control to inhibit primary drives. This study used functional MRI (fMRI) to interrogate interactions between the neural correlates of cognitive control and motivational processes in the brain reward system during the anticipation of monetary reward and reward-related feedback. In order to avoid confounding effects of undernutrition, we studied female participants recovered from anorexia nervosa and closely matched healthy female controls. The fMRI analysis (including node-to-node functional connectivity) followed a region of interest approach based on models of the brain reward system and cognitive control regions implicated in anorexia nervosa: the ventral striatum, medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We included 30 recovered patients and 30 controls in our study. There were no behavioural differences and no differences in hemodynamic responses of the ventral striatum and the mOFC in the 2 phases of the task. However, relative to controls, recovered patients showed elevated DLPFC activity during the anticipation phase, failed to deactivate this region during the feedback phase and displayed greater functional coupling between the DLPFC and mOFC. Recovered patients also had stronger associations than controls between anticipation-related DLPFC responses and instrumental responding. The results we obtained using monetary stimuli might not generalize to other forms of reward. Unaltered neural responses in ventral limbic reward networks but increased recruitment of and connectivity with lateral-frontal brain circuitry in recovered patients suggests an elevated degree of selfregulatory processes in response to rewarding stimuli. An imbalance between brain systems subserving bottom-up and top-down processes may be a trait marker of the disorder.

  12. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC–dlPFC and midbrain–dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC–midbrain and amygdala–midbrain–NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor. PMID:27840604

  13. Get A&Wdicted! di Restoran Khas Amerika: Pengaruh Cognitive Learning dan Message Reception and Processing Terhadap Perubahan Sikap Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsye Rumondang Damanik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Article clarified a research on cognitive response effect on cognition, attitude, and purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cognitive learning and a set of message processing system to persuade consumers. Researcher obtained the data and information from literature study, media, and direct observation to A & W Restaurants located at Rawamangun, Kelapa Gading Mall, and Bina Nusantara University. The result shows that human thinking process relates to ego involvement which includes culture and living habit is influential to the way people process the message. Finally, it is concluded that it is important to understand how consumers do message processing in order to make marketers able to determine the right marketing strategy to influence their consumers’ attitudes. 

  14. The hippocampus supports multiple cognitive processes through relational binding and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Kathleen Olsen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in explicit long-term recognition memory. However, findings from amnesia, lesion and recording studies with non-human animals, eye-movement recording studies, and functional neuroimaging have recently converged upon a similar message: the functional reach of the hippocampus extends far beyond explicit recognition memory. Damage to the hippocampus affects performance on a number of cognitive tasks including recognition memory after short and long delays and visual discrimination. Additionally, with the advent of neuroimaging techniques that have fine spatial and temporal resolution, findings have emerged that show the elicitation of hippocampal responses within the first few hundred milliseconds of stimulus/task onset. These responses occur for novel and previously viewed information during a time when perceptual processing is traditionally thought to occur, and long before overt recognition responses are made. We propose that the hippocampus is obligatorily involved in the binding of disparate elements across both space and time, and in the comparison of such relational memory representations. Furthermore, the hippocampus supports relational binding and comparison with or without conscious awareness for the relational representations that are formed, retrieved and/or compared. It is by virtue of these basic binding and comparison functions that the reach of the hippocampus extends beyond long-term recognition memory and underlies task performance in multiple cognitive domains.

  15. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchert, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140) were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007).

  16. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96 using an online ball throwing game and measured displaced aggressive behavior - intensity and duration of an unpleasant noise administrated to a stranger. In Study 2 participants (n = 140 were rejected by a peer on the basis of an interview that they gave and then could retaliate by reducing peer's chance for getting a job. The results show that exclusion effect on displaced aggression was moderated by cognitive readiness for aggression, while rejection effect on retaliatory aggression was shaped by emotional and personality-immanent readiness for aggression as well as ego-depletion. The results were discussed in light of the strength model of self-control by Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice (2007.

  17. The power of emotional valence – From cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAltmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1 the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM, and (2 the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simulatiously liked, selectively engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  18. Impact of Cognitive Remediation Therapy on Neurocognitive Processing in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jenni; Adamson, James; Tchanturia, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe malnutrition as well as inefficiencies in neurocognitive functioning, which are believed to contribute to the maintenance of disordered eating. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of individual cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) on neurocognition in AN. A total of 145 adult women from an eating disorders inpatient program took part in the present study. All participants were given individual CRT in addition to treatment as usual. Neurocognitive processes were assessed at baseline and at the end of treatment using task-based and self-report measures. The task-based measures included the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test and the Brixton test, which were used to assess central coherence and set-shifting. The Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire was used to examine patients self-reported detail focus and cognitive flexibility. Participants showed significant improvement in task-based measures of neurocognition following CRT. There were no significant changes in self-report measures. These findings suggest that CRT may be an effective intervention targeting inefficiencies in neurocognition in AN. Future studies may benefit from assessing neural changes associated with these improvements and conducting randomized controlled trials to replicate these findings.

  19. Multivariate analysis of correlation between electrophysiological and hemodynamic responses during cognitive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Jan; Sudre, Gustavo; Vartiainen, Johanna; Liljeström, Mia; Mitchell, Tom; Salmelin, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Animal and human studies have frequently shown that in primary sensory and motor regions the BOLD signal correlates positively with high-frequency and negatively with low-frequency neuronal activity. However, recent evidence suggests that this relationship may also vary across cortical areas. Detailed knowledge of the possible spectral diversity between electrophysiological and hemodynamic responses across the human cortex would be essential for neural-level interpretation of fMRI data and for informative multimodal combination of electromagnetic and hemodynamic imaging data, especially in cognitive tasks. We applied multivariate partial least squares correlation analysis to MEG–fMRI data recorded in a reading paradigm to determine the correlation patterns between the data types, at once, across the cortex. Our results revealed heterogeneous patterns of high-frequency correlation between MEG and fMRI responses, with marked dissociation between lower and higher order cortical regions. The low-frequency range showed substantial variance, with negative and positive correlations manifesting at different frequencies across cortical regions. These findings demonstrate the complexity of the neurophysiological counterparts of hemodynamic fluctuations in cognitive processing. PMID:24518260

  20. The power of emotional valence—from cognitive to affective processes in reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C.; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy. PMID:22754519

  1. The power of emotional valence-from cognitive to affective processes in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Ulrike; Bohrn, Isabel C; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2012-01-01

    The comprehension of stories requires the reader to imagine the cognitive and affective states of the characters. The content of many stories is unpleasant, as they often deal with conflict, disturbance or crisis. Nevertheless, unpleasant stories can be liked and enjoyed. In this fMRI study, we used a parametric approach to examine (1) the capacity of increasing negative valence of story contents to activate the mentalizing network (cognitive and affective theory of mind, ToM), and (2) the neural substrate of liking negatively valenced narratives. A set of 80 short narratives was compiled, ranging from neutral to negative emotional valence. For each story mean rating values on valence and liking were obtained from a group of 32 participants in a prestudy, and later included as parametric regressors in the fMRI analysis. Another group of 24 participants passively read the narratives in a three Tesla MRI scanner. Results revealed a stronger engagement of affective ToM-related brain areas with increasingly negative story valence. Stories that were unpleasant, but simultaneously liked, engaged the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which might reflect the moral exploration of the story content. Further analysis showed that the more the mPFC becomes engaged during the reading of negatively valenced stories, the more coactivation can be observed in other brain areas related to the neural processing of affective ToM and empathy.

  2. Neural networks underlying language and social cognition during self-other processing in Autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Sartin, Emma B; Stevens, Carl; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Klein, Christopher; Klinger, Mark R; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2017-07-28

    The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD. Nineteen high-functioning male adults with ASD and 19 age-sex-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants made "yes" or "no" judgments of whether an adjective, presented visually, described them (self) or their favorite teacher (other). Both ASD and TD participants showed significantly increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during self and other processing relative to letter search. Analyses of group differences revealed significantly reduced activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) in ASD participants, relative to TD controls. ASD participants also showed significantly weaker functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with several brain areas while processing self-related words. The LIFG and IPL are important regions functionally at the intersection of language and social roles; reduced recruitment of these regions in ASD participants may suggest poor level of semantic and social processing. In addition, poor connectivity of the ACC may suggest the difficulty in meeting the linguistic and social demands of this task in ASD. Overall, this study provides new evidence of the altered recruitment of the neural networks underlying language and social cognition in ASD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Rational Adaptation under Task and Processing Constraints: Implications for Testing Theories of Cognition and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…

  4. The Influence of Thought Suppression and Cognitive Load on Intrusions and Memory Processes following an Analogue Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D. V.; Cain, Neralie; Nehmy, Thomas; Seymour, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Ironic Process Theory and the role of thought suppression have been used in part to explain the phenomenon of intrusive memories in various disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. How thought suppression interacts with other cognitive processes believed to be instrumental in the development of traumatic intrusive memory is unclear. In…

  5. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  6. Beyond cognitive framing processes: anger mediates the effects of responsibility framing on the preference for punitive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühne, R.J.; Weber, P.; Sommer, K.

    2015-01-01

    A new stream of research indicates that framing effects are based on emotional as well as cognitive processes. However, it is not entirely clear whether emotions mediate framing effects and what the moderators of emotional mediation processes are. To address these questions, we conducted an

  7. An Integrative Process Approach on Judgment and Decision Making: The Impact of Arousal, Affect, Motivation, and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roets, Arne; Van Hiel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate the findings from various research traditions on human judgment and decision making, focusing on four process variables: arousal, affect, motivation, and cognitive capacity/ability. We advocate a broad perspective referred to as the integrative process approach (IPA) of decision making, in which these process…

  8. Cognitive processing of visual images in migraine populations in between headache attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickleborough, Marla J S; Chapman, Christine M; Toma, Andreea S; Handy, Todd C

    2014-09-25

    People with migraine headache have altered interictal visual sensory-level processing in between headache attacks. Here we examined the extent to which these migraine abnormalities may extend into higher visual processing such as implicit evaluative analysis of visual images in between migraine events. Specifically, we asked two groups of participants--migraineurs (N=29) and non-migraine controls (N=29)--to view a set of unfamiliar commercial logos in the context of a target identification task as the brain electrical responses to these objects were recorded via event-related potentials (ERPs). Following this task, participants individually identified those logos that they most liked or disliked. We applied a between-groups comparison of how ERP responses to logos varied as a function of hedonic evaluation. Our results suggest migraineurs have abnormal implicit evaluative processing of visual stimuli. Specifically, migraineurs lacked a bias for disliked logos found in control subjects, as measured via a late positive potential (LPP) ERP component. These results suggest post-sensory consequences of migraine in between headache events, specifically abnormal cognitive evaluative processing with a lack of normal categorical hedonic evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative attention bias and processing deficits during the cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotions in HIV+ women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Tartar, Jaime L; Widmayer, Susan; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing may be attributed to HIV disease or comorbid psychiatric disorders. Electrocortical markers of emotional attention, i.e., amplitude of the P2 and late positive potential (LPP), were compared between 26 HIV+ women and 25 healthy controls during an emotional regulation paradigm. HIV+ women showed early attention bias to negative stimuli indexed by greater P2 amplitude. In contrast, compared with the passive viewing of unpleasant images, HIV+ women demonstrated attenuation of the early and late LPP during positive reappraisal. This interaction remained significant after adjusting for individual differences in apathy, anxiety, and depression. Post hoc analyses implicated time since HIV diagnosis with LPP attenuation during positive reappraisal. Advancing HIV disease may disrupt neural generators associated with the cognitive reappraisal of emotions independent of psychiatric function.

  10. Cognitive processing therapy versus supportive counseling for acute stress disorder following assault: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D V

    2012-12-01

    The study tested the efficacy and tolerability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for survivors of assault with acute stress disorder. Participants (N=30) were randomly allocated to CPT or supportive counseling. Therapy comprised six individual weekly sessions of 90-min duration. Independent diagnostic assessment for PTSD was conducted at posttreatment. Participants completed self-report measures of posttraumatic stress, depression, and negative trauma-related beliefs at pre-, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that both interventions were successful in reducing symptoms at posttreatment with no statistical difference between the two; within and between-group effect sizes and the proportion of participants not meeting PTSD criteria was greater in CPT. Treatment gains were maintained for both groups at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cognitive processing load across a wide range of listening conditions: insights from pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E

    2014-03-01

    The pupil response to speech masked by interfering speech was assessed across an intelligibility range from 0% to 99% correct. In total, 37 participants aged between 18 and 36 years and with normal hearing were included. Pupil dilation was largest at intermediate intelligibility levels, smaller at high intelligibility, and slightly smaller at very difficult levels. Participants who reported that they often gave up listening at low intelligibility levels had smaller pupil dilations in these conditions. Participants who were good at reading masked text had relatively large pupil dilation when intelligibility was low. We conclude that the pupil response is sensitive to processing load, and possibly reflects cognitive overload in difficult conditions. It seems affected by methodological aspects and individual abilities, but does not reflect subjective ratings. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Perceptual category learning and visual processing: An exercise in computational cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, George; Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory

    2017-05-01

    The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning. Using bitmap images as inputs and by adjusting only a couple of learning-rate parameters, the new HMAX/COVIS model provides impressively good fits to human category-learning data from two qualitatively different experiments that used different types of category structures and different types of visual stimuli. Overall, the model provides a comprehensive neural and behavioral account of basal ganglia-mediated learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L G; Kendal, R L; Schapiro, S J; Thierry, B; Laland, K N

    2012-03-02

    The remarkable ecological and demographic success of humanity is largely attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture, with knowledge and technology accumulating over time, yet the social and cognitive capabilities that have enabled cumulative culture remain unclear. In a comparative study of sequential problem solving, we provided groups of capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and children with an experimental puzzlebox that could be solved in three stages to retrieve rewards of increasing desirability. The success of the children, but not of the chimpanzees or capuchins, in reaching higher-level solutions was strongly associated with a package of sociocognitive processes-including teaching through verbal instruction, imitation, and prosociality-that were observed only in the children and covaried with performance.

  14. Changing Beliefs about Trauma: A Qualitative Study of Cognitive Processing Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer L; MacDonald, Helen Z; Adair, Kathryn C; Koerner, Naomi; Monson, Candice M

    2016-03-01

    Controlled qualitative methods complement quantitative treatment outcome research and enable a more thorough understanding of the effects of therapy and the suspected mechanisms of action. Thematic analyses were used to examine outcomes of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a randomized controlled trial of individuals diagnosed with military-related PTSD (n = 15). After sessions 1 and 11, participants wrote "impact statements" describing their appraisals of their trauma and beliefs potentially impacted by traumatic events. Trained raters coded each of these statements using a thematic coding scheme. An analysis of thematic coding revealed positive changes over the course of therapy in participants' perspective on their trauma and their future, supporting the purported mechanisms of CPT. Implications of this research for theory and clinical practice are discussed.

  15. Thought disorder in schizophrenia: impairment in contextual processing via integrative failures in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patniyot, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    Formal thought disorder is a critical dysfunction in schizophrenia whose cause remains uncertain, but whose explanation may greatly further our understanding of the disease. Thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia has been hypothesized to involve a disturbance in the internal representation of context. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia attributable to thought disorder display a lack of organization that may be accounted for by an absence of normal contextual processing occurring within the operations of the executive system. But the precise nature and pervasiveness of the deficient cognitive operation remain undistinguished. It is proposed here that the assimilatory functions of the brain appear to lack the ability to perform a particular type of integrative operation when presented with heterogeneous information. This deficit involves committing cognitive misattributions through a confusion of mental terms via a process in thought analogous to a linguistic failure to correctly interpret deictic referents. Both proposed deficits in mental deixis and analogous "metarepresentational" deficits in schizophrenia potentially involve a failure to draw information for a conclusion from a separate framework of relations in integrative fashion. These deficits appear to involve a failure to take an interpreted piece of information as an output from a particular mental task and incorporate it into a new operational scheme, and a central attribute to the deficit is that there is a loss of an effective or adequate integration of separate strata of information. Potential neurobiological correlates to such a system based on current knowledge about schizophrenia neurocircuitry, as well as implications for testing, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Change Factors in the Process of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Hilbert, S; Schubert, C; Schlegl, S; Freyer, T; Löwe, B; Osen, B; Voderholzer, U

    2017-05-01

    While there is a plethora of evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), studies on change factors of the therapeutic process that account for this success are scarce. In the present study, 155 participants with primary OCD were investigated during CBT inpatient treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-SR served as a measure of symptom severity. In addition, the following process change factors were measured: therapeutic relationship, experience of self-esteem during therapy, experience of mastery, problem actualization and clarification. All variables were assessed on a weekly basis for seven weeks. Linear mixed growth curve analyses were conducted to model the decrease of symptoms over time and to analyse whether the change factors predicted symptom reduction. The analyses revealed a linear decrease of symptoms with high inter-individual variation. Results further showed that increase in self-esteem and mastery experiences as well as the initial score on mastery experience and clarification predicted decrease on the Y-BOCS. We conclude that CBT therapists should focus on clarification in the very first sessions, and try to boost self-esteem and self-efficacy, which is related to mastery, throughout the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Increase in mastery and self-esteem experiences are associated with symptom decrease in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Initial score of mastery experiences and problem clarification predict symptom decrease in OCD during CBT. CBT therapists should focus on problem clarification in the very first sessions and try to boost self-esteem and self-efficacy throughout the treatment of OCD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Unravelling the influence of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) on cognitive-linguistic processing: a comparative group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive-linguistic deficits often accompany traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can negatively impact communicative competency. The linguistic sequelae underpinning mild TBI (MTBI) remain largely unexplored in contemporary literature. The present research methods aim to provide group evidence pertaining to the influence of MTBI on linguistic and higher-level language processing. Extrapolating on the findings of recent case reports, it is hypothesized that performance of the MTBI patients will be significantly reduced compared to normal controls performance on the employed high-level linguistic tasks. Sixteen patients with MTBI and 16 age- and education-matched normal control participants were assessed using a comprehensive battery of cognitive-linguistic assessments. The results demonstrated statistically significant differences between MTBI and normal control group performance across a number of higher-level linguistic, general cognitive and general language tasks. MTBI group performance was significantly lower than the normal control group on tasks requiring complex lexical semantic operations and memory demands, including: Recall, organization, making inferences, naming and perception/discrimination. These outcomes confer that post-MTBI, cognitive, high-level language and isolated general language performance (e.g. naming) is significantly reduced in MTBI patients, compared to normal controls. Furthermore, the detailed cognitive-linguistic profile offered provides a necessary direction for the identification of areas of linguistic decline in MTBI and targets for therapeutic intervention of impaired cognitive-linguistic processes to ultimately improve communicative outcomes in MTBI.

  18. Driving to learn in a powered wheelchair: the process of learning joystick use in people with profound cognitive disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.

  19. Developmental Demands of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression in Children and Adolescents: Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Judy; Frankel, Sarah A; Herrington, Catherine G

    2016-01-01

    Although some treatments for depression in children and adolescents have been found to be efficacious, the effects sizes have tended to be modest. Thus, there is considerable room to improve upon existing depression treatments. Some children may respond poorly because they do not yet have the cognitive, social, or emotional maturity needed to understand and apply the skills being taught in therapy. Therefore, treatments for depression may need to be tailored to match children's ability to both comprehend and implement the therapeutic techniques. This review outlines the steps needed for such developmental tailoring: (a) Specify the skills being taught in depression treatments; (b) identify what cognitive, social, and emotional developmental abilities are needed to attain these skills; (c) describe the normative developmental course of these skills and how to determine a child's developmental level; and (d) use this information to design an individualized treatment plan. Possible approaches to intervening include: alter the therapy to meet the child's level of development, train the child on the skills needed to engage in the therapy, or apply a dynamic assessment approach that integrates evaluation into treatment and measures children's current abilities as well as their potential.

  20. Integrating automatic and controlled processes into neurocognitive models of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2006-03-24

    Interest in the neural systems underlying social perception has expanded tremendously over the past few decades. However, gaps between behavioral literatures in social perception and neuroscience are still abundant. In this article, we apply the concept of dual-process models to neural systems in an effort to bridge the gap between many of these behavioral studies and neural systems underlying social perception. We describe and provide support for a neural division between reflexive and reflective systems. Reflexive systems correspond to automatic processes and include the amygdala, basal ganglia, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex. Reflective systems correspond to controlled processes and include lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe region. This framework is considered to be a working model rather than a finished product. Finally, the utility of this model and its application to other social cognitive domains such as Theory of Mind are discussed.

  1. Fuzzy-trace theory: dual processes in memory, reasoning, and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory has evolved in response to counterintuitive data on how memory development influences the development of reasoning. The two traditional perspectives on memory-reasoning relations--the necessity and constructivist hypotheses--stipulate that the accuracy of children's memory for problem information and the accuracy of their reasoning are closely intertwined, albeit for different reasons. However, contrary to necessity, correlational and experimental dissociations have been found between children's memory for problem information that is determinative in solving certain problems and their solutions of those problems. In these same tasks, age changes in memory for problem information appear to be dissociated from age changes in reasoning. Contrary to constructivism, correlational and experimental dissociations also have been found between children's performance on memory tests for actual experience and memory tests for the meaning of experience. As in memory-reasoning studies, age changes in one type of memory performance do not seem to be closely connected to age changes in the other type of performance. Subsequent experiments have led to dual-process accounts in both the memory and reasoning spheres. The account of memory development features four other principles: parallel verbatim-gist storage, dissociated verbatim-gist retrieval, memorial bases of conscious recollection, and identity/similarity processes. The account of the development of reasoning features three principles: gist extraction, fuzzy-to-verbatim continua, and fuzzy-processing preferences. The fuzzy-processing preference is a particularly important notion because it implies that gist-based intuitive reasoning often suffices to deliver "logical" solutions and that such reasoning confers multiple cognitive advantages that enhance accuracy. The explanation of memory-reasoning dissociations in cognitive development then falls out of fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process models of memory and

  2. Visual function and cognitive speed of processing mediate age-related decline in memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Olivio J; Edwards, Jerri D; Ross, Lesley A; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Wadley, Virginia G; Roth, David L; Ball, Karlene K

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between sensory and cognitive decline, particularly with respect to speed of processing, memory span, and fluid intelligence. In addition, the common cause, sensory degradation and speed of processing hypotheses were compared. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the complex relationships among age-related decrements in these areas. Cross-sectional data analyses included 842 older adult participants (M = 73 years). After accounting for age-related declines in vision and processing speed, the direct associations between age and memory span and between age and fluid intelligence were nonsignificant. Older age was associated with visual decline, which was associated with slower speed of processing, which in turn was associated with greater cognitive deficits. The findings support both the sensory degradation and speed of processing accounts of age-related, cognitive decline. Furthermore, the findings highlight positive aspects of normal cognitive aging in that older age may not be associated with a loss of fluid intelligence if visual sensory functioning and processing speed can be maintained.

  3. Emotion and attention interactions in social cognition: brain regions involved in processing anger prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, David; Grandjean, Didier; Pourtois, Gilles; Schwartz, Sophie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Scherer, Klaus R; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2005-12-01

    Multiple levels of processing are thought to be involved in the appraisal of emotionally relevant events, with some processes being engaged relatively independently of attention, whereas other processes may depend on attention and current task goals or context. We conducted an event-related fMRI experiment to examine how processing angry voice prosody, an affectively and socially salient signal, is modulated by voluntary attention. To manipulate attention orthogonally to emotional prosody, we used a dichotic listening paradigm in which meaningless utterances, pronounced with either angry or neutral prosody, were presented simultaneously to both ears on each trial. In two successive blocks, participants selectively attended to either the left or right ear and performed a gender-decision on the voice heard on the target side. Our results revealed a functional dissociation between different brain areas. Whereas the right amygdala and bilateral superior temporal sulcus responded to anger prosody irrespective of whether it was heard from a to-be-attended or to-be-ignored voice, the orbitofrontal cortex and the cuneus in medial occipital cortex showed greater activation to the same emotional stimuli when the angry voice was to-be-attended rather than to-be-ignored. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed a strong correlation between orbitofrontal regions and sensitivity on a behavioral inhibition scale measuring proneness to anxiety reactions. Our results underscore the importance of emotion and attention interactions in social cognition by demonstrating that multiple levels of processing are involved in the appraisal of emotionally relevant cues in voices, and by showing a modulation of some emotional responses by both the current task-demands and individual differences.

  4. The effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty on information processing in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Hao, Leilei; Maguire, Phil; Hu, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive style and emotional trade-off difficulty (ETOD) on information processing in decision-making. Eighty undergraduates (73.75% female, M = 21.90), grouped according to their cognitive style (field-dependent or field-independent), conducted an Information Display Board (IDB) task, through which search time, search depth and search pattern were measured. Participants' emotional states were assessed both before and after the IDB task. The results showed that participants experienced significantly more negative emotion under high ETOD compared to those under low ETOD. While both cognitive style and ETOD had significant effects on search time and search depth, only ETOD significantly influenced search pattern; individuals in both cognitive style groups tended to use attribute-based processing under high ETOD and to use alternative-based processing under low ETOD. There was also a significant interaction between cognitive style and ETOD for search time and search depth. We propose that these results are best accounted for by the coping behaviour framework under high ETOD, and by the negative emotion hypothesis under low ETOD. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory, Processing Speed and Executive Function during Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-kun Shao

    Full Text Available Several studies have assessed the effects of computer-based cognitive programs (CCP in the management of age-related cognitive decline, but the role of CCP remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review evaluated the evidence on the efficacy of CCP for age-related cognitive decline in healthy older adults.Six electronic databases (through October 2014 were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The standardized mean difference (SMD and 95% confidence intervals (CI of a random-effects model were calculated. The heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified with the I2 index.Twelve studies were included in the current review and were considered as moderate to high methodological quality. The aggregated results indicate that CCP improves memory performance (SMD, 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45; p < 0.0001 and processing speed (SMD, 0.50; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.87; p = 0.007 but not executive function (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09; p = 0.27. Furthermore, there were long-term gains in memory performance (SMD, 0.59; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.05; p = 0.01.CCP may be a valid complementary and alternative therapy for age-related cognitive decline, especially for memory performance and processing speed. However, more studies with longer follow-ups are warranted to confirm the current findings.

  6. Cognitive Processes (Probably Stimulated By Using Digital Game "Dynamic Metabolic Diagram Virtual Krebs´ Cycle"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. P Azevedo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes some of the possible cognitive operations related to the use of an educational game type activity, which  is  part  of  the  software  e-metabolismo,  developed  to  improve  biochemical  learning.  This  interactive  activity, called  DMDV   – Dynamic  Metabolic  Diagram,  allows  participants  to  drag-and-drop  components  of  the  sequence  of chemical  reactions,  which describe  the  metabolic  route  under study.  It  also offers  to the students  quizzes  and texts about  the  subject.  The  suggestion  of  cognitive  processes  possibly  triggered  by  the  software,  which  must  improve effective learning, was based on Jean Piaget’s genetic epistemological ideas to explain the cognitive activity. One of these  processes  is  the  mere  act  of  playing  the  game,  which  Piaget  relates  to  humans  needs  of  learning  rules  of socialization.  It  also  can  be  seen  as  a  first  step  in  cognition  process,  the  so  called  adaptation  function  that  include assimilation and accommodation, interactive processes between intelligent activities and elements from the reality, to became part of the individual´s mental structures. Another example: drag and drop substracts and enzymes pieces in a  virtual  board,  each  one  corresponding  to  an  specific  place  in  a  metabolic  route.  This  operation  can  be  related  to motivation,  an  affective  element  proposed  by  Piaget  to  stimulate  curiosity  and  improve  construction  of  knowledge structures.  Besides  this  issue,  the  act  of  choosing  pieces  is  assumed  to  inform  the  student  previous  knowledge (previous  cognitive  structures,  which,  according  to  Piaget,  must  be  misbalanced  (equilibration  of  new  structures  is supposed to be part of the dynamic

  7. Relationship between Physical Activity and Age on the Main Categories of Cognitive Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot , Alexandra; Maillot , Pauline; Gagnon , Christine; Bertsch , Jean

    2011-01-01

    Many transversal studies show a positive relationship between physical activity and a large panel of cognitive functions. However, the majority of studies in this domain separately investigated categories of cognitive functions (e.g., attention, executive functions, visuospatial abilities). Studies simultaneously addressing the main categories of cognitive functions are rare. Moreover, assessment methods to measure physical activity are diverse (i.e., direct method with VO2max or indirect met...

  8. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  9. The effects of frame, appeal, and outcome extremity of antismoking messages on cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshner, Glenn; Cheng, I-Huei

    2009-04-01

    Research on the impact of antismoking advertisements in countermarketing cigarette advertising is equivocal. Although many studies examined how different message appeal types influence people's attitudes and behavior, there have been few studies that have explored the mechanism of how individuals attend to and remember antismoking information. This study examined how message attributes of antismoking TV ads (frame, appeal type, and outcome extremity) interacted to influence people's attention (secondary task reaction time) and memory (recognition). Antismoking public service announcements were chosen that were either loss- or gain-framed, had either a health or social appeal, or had either a more or less extreme outcome described in the message. Among the key findings were that loss-framed messages with more extreme outcomes required the most processing resources (i.e., had the slowest secondary task reaction times) and were the best remembered (i.e., were best recognized). These findings indicate ways that different message attributes affect individuals' cognitive processing, and they are discussed in light of prior framing and persuasion research.

  10. Variability in proactive and reactive cognitive control processes across the adult lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frini eKarayanidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Task-switching paradigms produce a highly consistent age-related increase in mixing cost (longer RT on repeat trials in mixed-task than single task blocks but a less consistent age effect on switch cost (longer RT on switch than repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We use two approaches to examine the adult lifespan trajectory of control processes contributing to mixing cost and switch cost: latent variables derived from an evidence accumulation model of choice, and event-related potentials (ERP that temporally differentiate proactive (cue-driven and reactive (target-driven control processes. Under highly practiced and prepared task conditions, ageing was associated with increasing RT mixing cost but reducing RT switch cost. Both effects were largely due to the same cause: an age effect for mixed-repeat trials. In terms of latent variables, increasing age was associated with slower non-decision processes, slower rate of evidence accumulation about the target, and higher response criterion. Age effects on mixing costs were evident only on response criterion, the amount of evidence required to trigger a decision, whereas age effects on switch cost were present for all three latent variables. ERPs showed age-related increases in preparation for mixed-repeat trials, anticipatory attention, and post-target interference. Cue-locked ERPs that are linked to proactive control were associated with early emergence of age differences in response criterion. These results are consistent with age effects on strategic processes controlling decision caution. Consistent with an age-related decline in cognitive flexibility, younger adults flexibly adjusted response criterion from trial-to-trial on mixed-task blocks, whereas older adults maintained a high criterion for all trials.

  11. Sensory processes modulate differences in multi-component behavior and cognitive control between childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Krutika; Bluschke, Annet; Roessner, Veit; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Many everyday tasks require executive functions to achieve a certain goal. Quite often, this requires the integration of information derived from different sensory modalities. Children are less likely to integrate information from different modalities and, at the same time, also do not command fully developed executive functions, as compared to adults. Yet still, the role of developmental age-related effects on multisensory integration processes has not been examined within the context of multicomponent behavior until now (i.e., the concatenation of different executive subprocesses). This is problematic because differences in multisensory integration might actually explain a significant amount of the developmental effects that have traditionally been attributed to changes in executive functioning. In a system, neurophysiological approach combining electroencephaloram (EEG) recordings and source localization analyses, we therefore examined this question. The results show that differences in how children and adults accomplish multicomponent behavior do not solely depend on developmental differences in executive functioning. Instead, the observed developmental differences in response selection processes (reflected by the P3 ERP) were largely dependent on the complexity of integrating temporally separated stimuli from different modalities. This effect was related to activation differences in medial frontal and inferior parietal cortices. Primary perceptual gating or attentional selection processes (P1 and N1 ERPs) were not affected. The results show that differences in multisensory integration explain parts of transformations in cognitive processes between childhood and adulthood that have traditionally been attributed to changes in executive functioning, especially when these require the integration of multiple modalities during response selection. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4933-4945, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Walshe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and fall-risk. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation on gait. All dual-tasks elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater dual-task costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group, as hypothesized. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, a clear P3a peak was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. This may be indicative of the presence of some cortically-based compensatory process in this group, contributing to their reduced risk of falling. We argue that executive functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the role of higher cognition as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation.

  13. Study and comparison of the meta cognitive-emotional processing and drug therapy in modifying emotional, cognitive and social skills in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh bahrami

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapy for bipolor disorder has been very much neglected. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the meta cognitive, emotional processing training (MEPT with medical and standard therapy (drug in increasing emotional, cognitive and social skills, of the patients with bipolar disorders. Materials and Methods: This semi experimental study with control group was carried out on 32 females in the 16-40 age bracket, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by means of DSM - IV –R criteria selected among referrals from Isfahan hospitals and psychology clinics. One group randomly received medical therapy plus MEPT. The second group (control group received standard drug therapy. Data gathering instruments were a semi – structural interview based on DSM – IV – R criteria and the following questionnaires: Mania (Bech, et al, 1979, Depression (Hamilton, 1980, Emotional intelligence (Cooper, 1999, Self – control (Rosenbaum, 1980, Insigt (David, et al, 1992, Social function (Hurry, et al, 1983. And the Aconomic, social, cultural questionnaire was used to control social ststus of the subjects. this questionnaire was made by the researcher. Results: The MEPT method influenced on increasing all of the emotional skills, sub scales and total scales. And also influenced on cognitive scales such as: dysfunctional thought, (p=0. 000, insight (p=0. 05, self – control (p=0. 000. Social skills could be increased (p=0. 02 by use of MEPT. Conclusion: Using pschological treatment in addition to pharmacotherapy increases treatment efficay. Therefor an educational program about MEPT is necessary for therapists.

  14. Resting-state networks associated with cognitive processing show more age-related decline than those associated with emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Braskie, Meredith N; Mather, Mara

    2017-06-01

    Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks. In addition, we observed age-related decline in functional connectivity in 3 visual and 3 motor/visuospatial networks. Older adults showed greater functional connectivity in regions outside 4 out of the 5 identified cognitive networks, consistent with the dedifferentiation effect previously observed in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Both reduced within-network connectivity and increased out-of-network connectivity were correlated with poor cognitive performance, providing potential biomarkers for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on Motivation in Collaborative Learning: Moving beyond the Cognitive-Situative Divide and Combining Individual and Social Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvela, Sanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvenoja, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose that in order to advance our understanding of motivation in collaborative learning we should move beyond the cognitive-situative epistemological divide and combine individual and social processes. Our claim is that although recent research has recognized the importance of social aspects in emerging and sustained…

  16. The Cognitive, Social and Emotional Processes of Teacher Identity Construction in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates how three Government-funded Normal Students constructed and reconstructed their identities in a pre-service teacher education programme in China. Drawing upon data from interviews, field observation and the pre-service teachers' written reflections, the study explores the cognitive, social and emotional processes of…

  17. Black-White Differences in Cognitive Processing: A Study of the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive Theory of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Rojahn, Johannes; Matto, Holly C.; Aquilino, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have typically found a mean difference of about 15 points between Blacks and Whites on traditional measures of intelligence. Some have argued that the difference between Blacks and Whites would be smaller on measures of cognitive processing. This study examined Black (n = 298) and White (n = 1,691) children on Planning, Attention,…

  18. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and

  19. The Evaluation of the Cognitive Learning Process of the Renewed Bloom Taxonomy Using a Web Based Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the Web Based Expert System (WBES) which provides analyses and reports based on the cognitive processes of Renewed Bloom Taxonomy (RBT), and to put forward the impact of the supportive education provided in line with these reports, on the academic achievement and mastery learning state of the students. The study…

  20. A Comparison of Cognitive and Interpersonal-Process Group Therapies in the Treatment of Depression among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, James A.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    Compared cognitive and interpersonal-process group therapies in treatment of depression among college students to each other and to waiting-list control group. Both treatments led to significant reductions in depression and depressed thinking and to increments in self-esteem at midtreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up assessments but did not…

  1. Relationships among Career and Life Stress, Negative Career thoughts, and Career Decision State: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Peterson, Gary W.; Reardon, Robert C.; Leierer, Stephen J.; Reed, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    According to cognitive information processing theory, career thoughts mediate the relationship between career and life stress and the ensuing career decision state. Using a sample of 232 college students and structural equation modeling, this study found that an increase in career and life stress was associated with an increase in negative career…

  2. The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Esmeil Soleymani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.

  3. The Therapeutic Process and Outcome during Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children with Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Van Dyke, Marilyn Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the therapeutic process and outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy used to treat anxiety disorders in twenty-two elementary school-aged children (7- to 11-year-olds) who had autism spectrum disorder, by using child and parent verbalizations and behavior collected during a randomized controlled…

  4. The Process of Change in Cognitive Therapy for Depression when Combined with Antidepressant Medication: Predictors of Early Intersession Symptom Gains

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    Strunk, Daniel R.; Cooper, Andrew A.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Hollon, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression have examined therapist adherence and the therapeutic alliance as predictors of subsequent symptom change. However, little is known about these CT process variables when CT is delivered in combination with antidepressant medication. Method: In a sample of 176 depressed…

  5. A Case Study on Pre-Service Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Cognitive-Metacognitive Behaviours in Mathematical Modelling Process

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    Sagirli, Meryem Özturan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate pre-service secondary mathematics teachers' cognitive-metacognitive behaviours during the mathematical problem-solving process considering class level. The study, in which the case study methodology was employed, was carried out with eight pre-service mathematics teachers, enrolled at a university in…

  6. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

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    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  7. Effects of Cognitive Complexity and Emotional Upset on Processing Supportive Messages: Two Tests of a Dual-Process Theory of Supportive Communication Outcomes

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    Bodie, Graham D.; Burleson, Brant R.; Holmstrom, Amanda J.; McCullough, Jennifer D.; Rack, Jessica J.; Hanasono, Lisa K.; Rosier, Jennifer G.

    2011-01-01

    We report tests of hypotheses derived from a theory of supportive communication outcomes that maintains the effects of supportive messages are moderated by factors influencing the motivation and ability to process these messages. Participants in two studies completed a measure of cognitive complexity, which provided an assessment of processing…

  8. Implicit Social Cognitive Processes Underlying Victim Self and Identity: Evidence With College-Aged Adults.

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    Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.

  9. Information Memory Processing and Retrieval: Relationships of Concrete Learning and Concrete and Abstract Cognitions.

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    Dean, Bonnie L.

    Reported is a study related to the Project on an Information Memory Model and designed to encompass the claims of Piaget and Inhelder on differences of kinds of cognition and recall done on figural sorting task cognition at the Project on an Information Memory Model. The work of Piaget and Inhelder has defined learning information flow and related…

  10. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes? : a descriptive study of teacher activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson - Hessler, M.G.M.; Jong, de T.

    1993-01-01

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of

  11. The Formation and Development of Cognitive Activity of Students in the Learning Process

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    Saparkyzy, Zhannat; Isatayeva, Gulzhan; Kozhabekova, Zahida; Zhakesheva, Aimzhan; Koptayeva, Gulzhamal; Agabekova, Gulzhan; Agabekova, Sholpan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we will discuss how the holding of a special and dedicated work helped to change the levels of formation of the major components of cognitive activity. Cognitive activity with the content aspect is a system of perceptual, mnemonic and intellectual activity and from the form--as an individual, joint, or pseudo-individual pseudo…

  12. Influence of English-Language Proficiency on the Cognitive Processing of Survey Questions

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    Park, Hyunjoo; Sha, M. Mandy; Willis, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    When recruiting respondents for cognitive interviews testing translated survey questionnaires, researchers often recommend interviewing monolingual non-English speakers because they are the likely users of the translations. However, these individuals are hard to recruit, and there is no standard definition of monolingual. Using cognitive interview…

  13. Influence of inhibitory tagging (IT) on emotional and cognitive conflict processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.

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    Zhao, Xudong; Li, Xiujun; Shi, Wendian

    2017-09-14

    Inhibitory tagging (IT), a flexible central control mechanism based on the current task goals, reduces the cognitive conflict effect at the cued location by blocking the incompatible stimulus-response (S-R) code. However, it is unknown whether IT has a similar effect on emotional conflict. Thus, we combined the face-word Stroop task with the manipulation of inhibition of return (IOR) and used event-related potential (ERP) technology to simultaneously examine the modulation effect of IT on emotional and cognitive conflict processing. At the cued location, we found that the two types of conflict effect were significantly reduced and that the conflict processing-related N450 effect was absent. Our data further revealed that IT had similar effects on emotional and cognitive conflict processing. Although a negative difference wave (Nd) was found in the time window of 160 and 220ms, which may reflect the impaired early perceptual processing of the target at the cued location, the effect of Nd was not affected by stimulus congruency. These results illustrate that the cueing effect of conflict processing does not arise from the early stage of perceptual processing, but rather results from the blocked S-R code of the distractors due to IT functioning during the later stage of processing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Decision Making Under Objective Risk Conditions-a Review of Cognitive and Emotional Correlates, Strategies, Feedback Processing, and External Influences.

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    Schiebener, Johannes; Brand, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    While making decisions under objective risk conditions, the probabilities of the consequences of the available options are either provided or calculable. Brand et al. (Neural Networks 19:1266-1276, 2006) introduced a model describing the neuro-cognitive processes involved in such decisions. In this model, executive functions associated with activity in the fronto-striatal loop are important for developing and applying decision-making strategies, and for verifying, adapting, or revising strategies according to feedback. Emotional rewards and punishments learned from such feedback accompany these processes. In this literature review, we found support for the role of executive functions, but also found evidence for the importance of further cognitive abilities in decision making. Moreover, in addition to reflective processing (driven by cognition), decisions can be guided by impulsive processing (driven by anticipation of emotional reward and punishment). Reflective and impulsive processing may interact during decision making, affecting the evaluation of available options, as both processes are affected by feedback. Decision-making processes are furthermore modulated by individual attributes (e.g., age), and external influences (e.g., stressors). Accordingly, we suggest a revised model of decision making under objective risk conditions.

  15. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight.

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    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  16. Distinguishing the cognitive processes of mindfulness: Developing a standardised mindfulness technique for use in longitudinal randomised control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Ben; Summers, Mathew J

    2017-07-01

    A capacity model of mindfulness is adopted to differentiate the cognitive faculty of mindfulness from the metacognitive processes required to cultivate this faculty in mindfulness training. The model provides an explanatory framework incorporating both the developmental progression from focussed attention to open monitoring styles of mindfulness practice, along with the development of equanimity and insight. A standardised technique for activating these processes without the addition of secondary components is then introduced. Mindfulness-based interventions currently available for use in randomised control trials introduce components ancillary to the cognitive processes of mindfulness, limiting their ability to draw clear causative inferences. The standardised technique presented here does not introduce such ancillary factors, rendering it a valuable tool with which to investigate the processes activated in mindfulness practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of acute inflammation on cognitive functioning and emotional processing in humans: A systematic review of experimental studies.

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    Bollen, Jessica; Trick, Leanne; Llewellyn, David; Dickens, Chris

    2017-03-01

    The cognitive neuropsychological model of depression proposes that negative biases in the processing of emotionally salient information have a central role in the development and maintenance of depression. We have conducted a systematic review to determine whether acute experimental inflammation is associated with changes to cognitive and emotional processing that are thought to cause and maintain depression. We identified experimental studies in which healthy individuals were administered an acute inflammatory challenge (bacterial endotoxin/vaccination) and standardised tests of cognitive function were performed. Fourteen references were identified, reporting findings from 12 independent studies on 345 participants. Methodological quality was rated strong or moderate for 11 studies. Acute experimental inflammation was triggered using a variety of agents (including endotoxin from E. coli, S. typhi, S. abortus Equi and Hepatitis B vaccine) and cognition was assessed over hours to months, using cognitive tests of i) attention/executive functioning, ii) memory and iii) social/emotional processing. Studies found mixed evidence that acute experimental inflammation caused changes to attention/executive functioning (2 of 6 studies showed improvements in attention executive function compared to control), changes in memory (3 of 5 studies; improved reaction time: reduced memory for object proximity: poorer immediate and delayed memory) and changes to social/emotional processing (4 of 5 studies; reduced perception of emotions, increased avoidance of punishment/loss experiences, and increased social disconnectedness). Acute experimental inflammation causes negative biases in social and emotional processing that could explain observed associations between inflammation and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Threat/reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality modulate cognitive-control and attentional neural processes to emotional stimuli.

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    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Hu, Xiaoqing; Nusslock, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Temperamental-traits (e.g. threat/reward-sensitivity) are found to modulate cognitive-control and attentional-processes. Yet, it is unclear exactly how these traits interact with emotional-stimuli in the modulation of cognitive-control, as reflected by the N2 event-related potential (ERP), and attentional-processes, as reflected by the P2 and P3 ERPs. Here in an ERP emotional-Go/NoGo task, 36 participants were instructed to inhibit their response to Fearful- and Happy-faces. Individual-differences in threat-sensitivity, reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality were assessed through self-report. Hypomanic-personality was assessed, given its relationship with reward-sensitivity and relevance to mood-disorder symptoms. Concerning cognitive-control, individuals with elevated threat-sensitivity displayed more-negative N2s to Happy-NoGo (relative to Fearful-NoGo) faces, whereas both individuals with elevated reward-sensitivity and hypomanic-personality displayed more-negative N2s to Fearful-NoGo (relative to Happy-NoGo) faces. Accordingly, when cognitive-control is required (during Go/NoGo), a mismatch between one's temperament and the valence of the NoGo-stimulus elevates detection of the need for cognitive-control. Conversely, the modulation of attentional-processing was specific to threat-sensitivity, as there was no relationship between either reward-sensitivity or hypomanic-personality and attentional-processing. Elevated threat-sensitivity was associated with enhanced early (P2s) and later (P3s) attentional-processing to Fearful-NoGo (relative to Happy-NoGo) faces. These latter findings support the negative attentional-bias model relating elevated threat-sensitivity with attentional-biases toward negative-stimuli and away from positive-stimuli. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) to understand cognitive processing.

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    Reinhart, Robert M G; Cosman, Josh D; Fukuda, Keisuke; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods are becoming increasingly common tools in the kit of the cognitive scientist. In particular, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is showing great promise as a tool to causally manipulate the brain and understand how information is processed. The popularity of this method of brain stimulation is based on the fact that it is safe, inexpensive, its effects are long lasting, and you can increase the likelihood that neurons will fire near one electrode and decrease the likelihood that neurons will fire near another. However, this method of manipulating the brain to draw causal inferences is not without complication. Because tDCS methods continue to be refined and are not yet standardized, there are reports in the literature that show some striking inconsistencies. Primary among the complications of the technique is that the tDCS method uses two or more electrodes to pass current and all of these electrodes will have effects on the tissue underneath them. In this tutorial, we will share what we have learned about using tDCS to manipulate how the brain perceives, attends, remembers, and responds to information from our environment. Our goal is to provide a starting point for new users of tDCS and spur discussion of the standardization of methods to enhance replicability.

  20. From data processing to mental organs: an interdisciplinary path to cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patharkar, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Human brain is a highly evolved coordinating mechanism in the species Homo sapiens. It is only in the last 100 years that extensive knowledge of the intricate structure and complex functioning of the human brain has been acquired, though a lot is yet to be known. However, from the beginning of civilisation, people have been conscious of a 'mind' which has been considered the origin of all scientific and cultural development. Philosophers have discussed at length the various attributes of consciousness. At the same time, most of the philosophical or scientific frameworks have directly or indirectly implied mind-body duality. It is now imperative that we develop an integrated approach to understand the interconnection between mind and consciousness on one hand and brain on the other. This paper begins with the proposition that the structure of the brain is analogous, at least to certain extent, to that of the computer system. Of course, it is much more sophisticated and complex. The second proposition is that the Chomskyean concept of 'mental organs' is a good working hypothesis that tries to characterise this complexity in terms of an innate cognitive framework. By following this dual approach, brain as a data processing system and brain as a superstructure of intricately linked mental organs, we can move toward a better understanding of 'mind' within the framework of empirical science. The one 'mental organ' studied extensively in Chomskyean terms is 'language faculty' which is unique in its relation to brain, mind and consciousness.