WorldWideScience

Sample records for cognitive process application

  1. Clinical cognition and diagnostic error: applications of a dual process model of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskerry, Pat

    2009-09-01

    Both systemic and individual factors contribute to missed or delayed diagnoses. Among the multiple factors that impact clinical performance of the individual, the caliber of cognition is perhaps the most relevant and deserves our attention and understanding. In the last few decades, cognitive psychologists have gained substantial insights into the processes that underlie cognition, and a new, universal model of reasoning and decision making has emerged, Dual Process Theory. The theory has immediate application to medical decision making and provides an overall schema for understanding the variety of theoretical approaches that have been taken in the past. The model has important practical applications for decision making across the multiple domains of healthcare, and may be used as a template for teaching decision theory, as well as a platform for future research. Importantly, specific operating characteristics of the model explain how diagnostic failure occurs.

  2. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  3. Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...

  4. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  5. Cognitive functions and their effect on disability in learning process and knowledge application in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Yanovska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension (AH is one of the most important medical and social problems due to the high incidence, disability and mortality of the population in Ukraine. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of cognitive functions on disability in learning process and knowledge application in patients with hypertension. Materials and methods. 139 patients with essential AH of II and III st. (with the consequences of a stroke at the age of 30–59 were examined. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the first group – patients with AH, stage II (29 patients and the second group – patients with AH, stage III (110 patients. An average age of the patients with stage II was 43.1 ± 3.1, with stage III – 45.3 ± 5.6. Psychological examination and disability tests were carried out according to generally accepted methods. Statistical processing was performed in Microsoft Excel and Ascess, the results of the correlation analysis were described at a confidence level of P < 0.05. Results. Light cognitive impairments were detected in all patients with stage II, stage III AH patients had moderate impairments – 25.8 % of cases and light ones – 74.2 % of cases. Significant cognitive functions affects among patients with AH stage II and stage III were determined in memory (44.4 and 97.3 %, attention (77.8 and 90.6 %, intellect (44.4 and 75.6 % and mental process (44.4 and 64.9 % of cases. Patients with stage III AH after a stroke had significant problems with their eyesight and hearing, concentration of attention and process of thinking, solving simple and complex problems. Moreover, a number of the following factors have contributed to the above-mentioned condition: emotional instability, nonconformity, desire to present themselves in a "favorable light", anxiety, depressive and paranoid tendencies, sensitive, egocentric, anosognotic response to the disease, exacerbation of accentuation of an excitable nature and low work efficiency

  6. A Unified Brain Architecture for Perception and Cognition With Applications to Information Processing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpenter, Gail

    2004-01-01

    .... It does this by mathematically characterizing and quantitatively simulating key brain mechanisms underlying higher-order human information processing as carried out within the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex...

  7. Information processing, computation, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.

  8. Equilibrium relations and bipolar cognitive mapping for online analytical processing with applications in international relations and strategic decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar logic, bipolar sets, and equilibrium relations are proposed for bipolar cognitive mapping and visualization in online analytical processing (OLAP) and online analytical mining (OLAM). As cognitive models, cognitive maps (CMs) hold great potential for clustering and visualization. Due to the lack of a formal mathematical basis, however, CM-based OLAP and OLAM have not gained popularity. Compared with existing approaches, bipolar cognitive mapping has a number of advantages. First, bipolar CMs are formal logical models as well as cognitive models. Second, equilibrium relations (with polarized reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity), as bipolar generalizations and fusions of equivalence relations, provide a theoretical basis for bipolar visualization and coordination. Third, an equilibrium relation or CM induces bipolar partitions that distinguish disjoint coalition subsets not involved in any conflict, disjoint coalition subsets involved in a conflict, disjoint conflict subsets, and disjoint harmony subsets. Finally, equilibrium energy analysis leads to harmony and stability measures for strategic decision and multiagent coordination. Thus, this work bridges a gap for CM-based clustering and visualization in OLAP and OLAM. Basic ideas are illustrated with example CMs in international relations.

  9. Constructive processes in person cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, K

    1993-12-01

    The notion of constructive memory processes is imported from research on eyewitness memory to the area of social cognition. Mere questioning about the applicability of personality attributes to a target person is shown to affect subsequent memory-based judgements of that person. These constructive influences are to be distinguished, conceptually, from the global notion of priming effects. In Expt 1, the target person was first described as an extravert; afterwards, subjects had to indicate whether either desirable aspects of extraversion (self-confidence) or undesirable aspects (exhibitionism) apply to the target or not. Mere questioning resulted in a congruent judgment bias towards the questioned attributes that did not generalize to a global halo effect. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that this phenomenon is independent of a generation effect (i.e. the memory advantage of self-generated inferences). These results are interpreted in terms of (a) a reframing of the categorical distribution representing the information about the target person in memory and (b) a regressive tendency to assume intermediate default values rather than extreme values for questioned attributes under uncertainty. Alternative explanations in terms of demand effects or a conformation bias cannot provide sufficient accounts. The relevance of constructive processes to understanding self-fulfilling prophecies and other phenomena in social interaction is discussed.

  10. Resource-adaptive cognitive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Crocker, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    This book investigates the adaptation of cognitive processes to limited resources. The central topics of this book are heuristics considered as results of the adaptation to resource limitations, through natural evolution in the case of humans, or through artificial construction in the case of computational systems; the construction and analysis of resource control in cognitive processes; and an analysis of resource-adaptivity within the paradigm of concurrent computation. The editors integrated the results of a collaborative 5-year research project that involved over 50 scientists. After a mot

  11. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  12. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  13. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  14. Transdiagnostic cognitive processes in high trait anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John M

    2011-03-01

    Trait anger is a personality construct that refers to stable individual differences in the propensity to experience anger as an emotional state. The objective of this paper is to review relevant empirical studies in order to determine whether the transdiagnostic cognitive processes that have been identified across the DSM-IV Axis I disorders (specifically, selective attention, memory biases, reasoning biases and recurrent negative thinking) are also an underlying characteristic of high trait anger. On the basis of the review it is concluded that, whilst the research base is limited, there is good evidence that high trait anger is associated with selective attention to hostile social cues, the tendency to interpret the behaviour of others as indicating potential hostility and the tendency to ruminate over past anger-provoking experiences. The range of cognitive processes identified in high trait anger is consistent with those identified in the Axis I disorders. It is concluded that these findings provide support for (i) the broad applicability of the transdiagnostic approach as a theoretical framework for understanding a range of psychological conditions, not limited to the Axis I disorders, and (ii) the validity of conceptualising high trait anger as an aspect of personality functioning that is maintained, at least in part, by cognitive processes. Cognitive and motivational factors (specifically, beliefs and goals) that may underlie the hostile information-processing biases and recurrent negative thinking associated with high trait anger are discussed, and consideration is given to the clinical relevance of the findings of the review. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett

    2008-01-01

    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  16. Cognitive networks applications and deployments

    CERN Document Server

    Lloret Mauri, Jaime; Rawat, Danda B; Perez, Javier Manuel Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONEfficient Spectrum Management: Challenges and Solutions; Tarek M. Salem, Sherine M. Abdel-Kader, Salah M. Abdel-MaGeid, and Mohamed ZakiA Survey on Joint Routing and Dynamic spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianzhong Xie, Helin Yang, and Athanasios V. VasilakosNeighbor Discovery for Cognitive Radio Networks; Athar Ali Khan, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, and Yasir SaleemSPECTRUM SENSINGTime-Domain Cognitive Sensor Networking; Stefano Busanelli, Gianluigi Ferrari, Alessandro Colazzo, and Jean-Michel DricotSpectrum Sensing in Cognitive Wireless Networks; Danda B. Rawat and Chan

  17. Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozzolo, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and Cognitive Processes in Reading explores reading and reading disabilities within the context of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Emphasis is on the roles of brain mechanisms in reading and reading disturbances. In the areas of perception and cognition, theoretical models of the reading process are used to highlight the various psychological processes involved in the act of skilled reading. Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental processes of reading, giving particular attention to a psychological theory that builds on two concepts: that the basic processes of reading are few in number, and that they are separable from one another. A useful and testable information-processing model of reading that consists of three separable, fundamental processes - decoding, word meaning, and sentence comprehension - is described. Subsequent chapters deal with some of the external and internal factors involved in reading; a model of disorders of readi...

  18. Rhythms of EEG and cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova S.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive processes is regarded to be more effective if it combines a psychological approach with a neurophysiological one. This approach makes it possible to come closer to understanding of the basic mechanisms of different cognitive processes, to describe the patterns of forming these mechanisms in ontogenesis, to investigate the origin of cognitive impairments, and to develop intervention techniques. The promising way of investigating the mechanisms of cognitive functions is the electroencephalography (EEG. This is a non-invasive, safe, and relatively cheap method of research of the functional condition of the brain. The characteristics of EEG rhythms, recorded with different cognitive loads, reflect the processes of functional modulation of neural network activity of the cortex, which serves the neurophysiologic basis for attention, memory and other cognitive processes. The article provides an overview of works containing the analysis of the alpha and theta rhythms’ dynamics in various states of wakefulness. It also introduces the substantiation of methodology of functional regulatory approach to the interpretation of behaviors of EEG rhythms.

  19. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  20. Cognitive processing of a child with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Čížková, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe cognitive processing of a child with autistic spectrum disorder, to pause on its mechanisms and causes. The first part of the work presents a theoretical background for following interpretation of the data acquired in the research. Firstly it briefly defines autistic spectrum disorders, cognitive functioning of individuals with the disorder and above all two main psychological theories of autism: Theory of Mind (S. B. Cohen) and Weak Central Coherence Theor...

  1. Antecedent characteristics of online cancer information seeking among rural breast cancer patients: an application of the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Bret R; Dubenske, Lori L; Han, Jeong Yeob; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Bush, Nigel; Gustafson, David H; McTavish, Fiona

    2008-06-01

    Little research has examined the antecedent characteristics of patients most likely to seek online cancer information. This study employs the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) model as a framework to understand what psychosocial characteristics precede online cancer-related information seeking among rural breast cancer patients who often have fewer health care providers and limited local support services. Examining 144 patients who were provided free computer hardware, Internet access, and training for how to use an interactive cancer communication system, pretest survey scores indicating patients' psychosocial status were correlated with specific online cancer information seeking behaviors. Each of the factors specified by the C-SHIP model had significant relationships with online cancer information seeking behaviors, with the strongest findings emerging for cancer-relevant encodings and self-construals, cancer-relevant beliefs and expectancies, and cancer-relevant self-regulatory competencies and skills. Specifically, patients with more negative appraisals in these domains were more likely to seek out online cancer information. Additionally, antecedent variables associated with the C-SHIP model had more frequent relationships with experiential information as compared with to didactic information. This study supports the applicability of the model to discern why people afflicted with cancer may seek online information to cope with their disease.

  2. Antecedent Characteristics of Online Cancer Information Seeking Among Rural Breast Cancer Patients: An Application of the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Bret R.; DuBenske, Lori L.; Han, Jeong Yeob; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Bush, Nigel; Gustafson, David H.; McTavish, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Little research has examined the antecedent characteristics of patients most likely to seek online cancer information. This study employs the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) model as a framework to understand what psychosocial characteristics precede online cancer-related information seeking among rural breast cancer patients who often have fewer healthcare providers and limited local support services. Examining 144 patients who were provided free computer hardware, Internet access and training for how to use an Interactive Cancer Communication System, pre-test survey scores indicating patients’ psychosocial status were correlated with specific online cancer information seeking behaviors. Each of the factors specified by the C-SHIP model had significant relationships with online cancer information seeking behaviors with the strongest findings emerging for cancer-relevant encodings and self-construals, cancer-relevant beliefs and expectancies and cancer-relevant self-regulatory competencies and skills. Specifically, patients with more negative appraisals in these domains were more likely to seek out online cancer information. Additionally, antecedent variables associated with the C-SHIP model had more frequent relationships with experiential information as compared to didactic information. This study supports the applicability of the model to discern why people afflicted with cancer may seek online information to cope with their disease. PMID:18569368

  3. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  4. Scaffolding Cognitive Processes in a Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, John

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of improving the cognitive processes of students in business studies today. When developing a curriculum in business studies at higher education level, thorough consideration should be given to all components of the learning and assessment processes. They should be tailored to real world dynamics so that they…

  5. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2008-01-01

    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  6. Effects of Chewing on Cognitive Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and…

  7. Cognitive Process of Development in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddington, Eulalee N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  8. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Sexual Assault Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resick, Patricia A.; Schnicke, Monica K.

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen sexual assault survivors received cognitive processing therapy in group format to help deal with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following rape. Compared to 20-subject waiting list control group, participants improved significantly from pre- to posttreatment on PTSD and depression measures and maintained their improvement for 6…

  9. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  10. Stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMPEAU, SERGE; LIBERZON, ISRAEL; MORILAK, DAVID; RESSLER, KERRY

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the major discussion points of a symposium on stress modulation of cognitive and affective processes, which was held during the 2010 workshop on the neurobiology of stress (Boulder, CO, USA). The four discussants addressed a number of specific cognitive and affective factors that are modulated by exposure to acute or repeated stress. Dr David Morilak discussed the effects of various repeated stress situations on cognitive flexibility, as assessed with a rodent model of attentional set-shifting task, and how performance on slightly different aspects of this test is modulated by different prefrontal regions through monoaminergic neurotransmission. Dr Serge Campeau summarized the findings of several studies exploring a number of factors and brain regions that regulate habituation of various autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to repeated audiogenic stress exposures. Dr Kerry Ressler discussed a body of work exploring the modulation and extinction of fear memories in rodents and humans, especially focusing on the role of key neurotransmitter systems including excitatory amino acids and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Dr Israel Liberzon presented recent results on human decision-making processes in response to exogenous glucocorticoid hormone administration. Overall, these discussions are casting a wider framework on the cognitive/affective processes that are distinctly regulated by the experience of stress and some of the brain regions and neurotransmitter systems associated with these effects. PMID:21790481

  11. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  12. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  13. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cognitive facilities of governance of transformations processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-03-01

    For example, each of levels of organization of the both realized and subconscious, facilities of cognition includes the dependent numerical, voice, coloured and concept facilities correlative. As for the system of the realized and subconscious facilities of transformations, their basis is made by the ascending and descending forms of organization of motion of matter, energy, information and organization of elements of life. Fixed in basis of research of mul’timodal’na logician allowed to expose dialectical nature of mechanisms of bifurcations, synthesis, freymuvannya and clusterizations as main condition of forming on principle of new control system by processes development of man, state and society, on the way of mastering of space.

  15. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  16. Applicability Evaluation of Simplified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhu, Zhipei; Fang, Fang; Shen, Yuan; Liu, Na; Li, Chunbo

    2018-04-25

    We have developed a structured cognitive behavioral therapy manual for anxiety disorder in China, and the present study evaluated the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy based on our previous research. To evaluate the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy (SCBT) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by conducting a multi-center controlled clinical trial. A multi-center controlled clinical trial of SCBT was conducted on patients with GAD, including institutions specializing in mental health and psychiatry units in general hospitals. The participants were divided into 3 groups: SCBT group, SCBT with medication group and medication group. The drop-out rates of these three groups, the therapy satisfaction of patients who received SCBT and the evaluation of SCBT from therapists were compared. (1) There was no significant difference among the drop-out rates in the three groups. (2) Only the duration and times of therapy were significantly different between the two groups of patients who received the SCBT, and the therapy satisfaction of the SCBT group was higher than that of the SCBT with medication group. (3) Eighteen therapists who conducted the SCBT indicated that the manual was easy to comprehend and operate, and this therapy could achieve the therapy goals. The applicability of SCBT for patients with GAD is relatively high, and it is hopeful that SCBT can become a psychological treatment which can be applied in medical institutions of various levels.

  17. Cognitive Processes Underlying the Artistic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Wah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the field of aesthetics, for centuries philosophers and more recently scientists have been concerned with understanding the artistic experience focusing on emotional responses to the perception of artworks. By contrast, in the last decades, evolutionary biology has been concerned with explaining the artistic experience by focusing on the cognitive processes underlying this experience. Up until now, the cognitive mechanisms that allow humans to experience objects and events as art remain largely unexplored and there is still no conventional use of terms for referring to the processes which may explain why the artistic experience is characteristically human and universal to human beings (Dissanayake, 1992, p. 24; Donald, 2006, p. 4. In this paper, I will first question whether it is productive to understand the artistic experience in terms of perception and emotion, and I will subsequently propose a possible alternative explanation to understand this experience. Drawing upon the work of Ellen Dissanayake (1992, 2000, 2015, Merlin Donald (2001, 2006, 2013, Antonio Damasio (1994, 2000, 2003, 2010, Barend van Heusden (2004, 2009, 2010, and Alejandra Wah (2014, I will argue that this experience is characterized by particular degrees of imagination and consciousness.

  18. Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Martha Ann; Wolfe, Christy D.

    2004-01-01

    Regulatory aspects of development can best be understood by research that conceptualizes relations between cognition and emotion. The neural mechanisms associated with regulatory processes may be the same as those associated with higher order cognitive processes. Thus, from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective, emotion and cognition…

  19. Toward cognitively constrained models of language processing : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Margreet; Mills, Anne C.; Reitter, David; van Rij, Jacolien; Hendriks, Petra; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2017-01-01

    Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained

  20. Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Nievelstein, Fleurie; Giesbers, Bas; Fred, Paas

    2009-01-01

    Van Gog, T., Kester, L., Nievelstein, F., Giesbers, B., & Paas, F. (2009). Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 325-331.

  1. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  2. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology: Design and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732

  3. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  4. Cognitive processes associated with child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-08-01

    To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.

  5. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  6. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  7. Cognitive load effects on early visual perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Forte, Jason; Sewell, David; Carter, Olivia

    2018-05-01

    Contrast-based early visual processing has largely been considered to involve autonomous processes that do not need the support of cognitive resources. However, as spatial attention is known to modulate early visual perceptual processing, we explored whether cognitive load could similarly impact contrast-based perception. We used a dual-task paradigm to assess the impact of a concurrent working memory task on the performance of three different early visual tasks. The results from Experiment 1 suggest that cognitive load can modulate early visual processing. No effects of cognitive load were seen in Experiments 2 or 3. Together, the findings provide evidence that under some circumstances cognitive load effects can penetrate the early stages of visual processing and that higher cognitive function and early perceptual processing may not be as independent as was once thought.

  8. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  9. Cognitive approaches for patterns analysis and security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Marek R.; Ogiela, Lidia

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented new opportunities for developing innovative solutions for semantic pattern classification and visual cryptography, which will base on cognitive and bio-inspired approaches. Such techniques can be used for evaluation of the meaning of analyzed patterns or encrypted information, and allow to involve such meaning into the classification task or encryption process. It also allows using some crypto-biometric solutions to extend personalized cryptography methodologies based on visual pattern analysis. In particular application of cognitive information systems for semantic analysis of different patterns will be presented, and also a novel application of such systems for visual secret sharing will be described. Visual shares for divided information can be created based on threshold procedure, which may be dependent on personal abilities to recognize some image details visible on divided images.

  10. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  11. The Role of Cognitive Content and Cognitive Processes in Chronic Pain: An Important Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Thorn, Beverly E; Carmody, James; Keefe, Francis J; Burns, John W

    2018-05-01

    Pain-related cognitive content (what people think about pain) and cognitive processes (how people think about pain; what they do with their pain-related thoughts) and their interaction are hypothesized to play distinct roles in patient function. However, questions have been raised regarding whether it is possible or practical to assess cognitive content and cognitive process as distinct domains. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which measures that seem to assess mostly pain-related cognitive content, cognitive processes, and content and process, are relatively independent from each other and contribute unique variance to the prediction of patient function. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N=165) participating in an ongoing RCT were administered measures of cognitions, pain, and function (depressive symptoms and pain interference) pretreatment. Analyses provided support for the hypothesis that cognitive content and cognitive process, while related, can be assessed as distinct components. However, the measure assessing a cognitive process-mindfulness-evidenced relatively weak associations with function, especially compared with the stronger and more consistent findings for the measures of content (catastrophizing and self-efficacy). The results provide preliminary evidence for the possibility that mindfulness could have both benefits and costs. Research to evaluate this possibility is warranted.

  12. Application of a cognitive neuroscience perspective of cognitive control to late-life anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Reynolds, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a negative association between anxiety and cognitive control. Given age-related reductions in some cognitive abilities and the relation of late life anxiety to cognitive impairment, this negative association may be particularly relevant to older adults. This critical review conceptualizes anxiety and cognitive control from cognitive neuroscience and cognitive aging theoretical perspectives and evaluates the methodological approaches and measures used to assess cognitive control. Consistent with behavioral investigations of young adults, the studies reviewed implicate specific and potentially negative effects of anxiety on cognitive control processes in older adults. Hypotheses regarding the role of both aging and anxiety on cognitive control, the bi-directionality between anxiety and cognitive control, and the potential for specific symptoms of anxiety (particularly worry) to mediate this association, are specified and discussed. PMID:23602352

  13. Cognitive marital therapy : the process of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.; van Linden van den Heuvell, C.; Sanderman, R.; Scholing, A.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to comments made by N. Epstein and D. H. Baucom (see record 1989-16434-001) concerning the present authors' (see record 1989-16433-001) study of communication skills training and cognitive therapy for distressed couples. The reliable assessment of cognitions in outcome studies is discussed.

  14. Applications of Stochastic Analyses for Collaborative Learning and Cognitive Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soller, Amy; Stevens, Ron

    2007-01-01

    .... Examples ranging from fields as diverse as defense analysis, cognitive science, and instruction are illustrated throughout to demonstrate the variety of applications that benefit from such stochastic...

  15. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  16. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  17. Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews a diverse set of proposals for dual processing in higher cognition within largely disconnected literatures in cognitive and social psychology. All these theories have in common the distinction between cognitive processes that are fast, automatic, and unconscious and those that are slow, deliberative, and conscious. A number of authors have recently suggested that there may be two architecturally (and evolutionarily) distinct cognitive systems underlying these dual-process accounts. However, it emerges that (a) there are multiple kinds of implicit processes described by different theorists and (b) not all of the proposed attributes of the two kinds of processing can be sensibly mapped on to two systems as currently conceived. It is suggested that while some dual-process theories are concerned with parallel competing processes involving explicit and implicit knowledge systems, others are concerned with the influence of preconscious processes that contextualize and shape deliberative reasoning and decision-making.

  18. The impact of moods and cognitive processing on framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ravndal, Mathias; Sjøbakken, Hallvard

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mood and cognitive processing on risky choice framing. A mixed between- and within-subject lab experimental design was conducted to investigate our hypotheses. As predicted, the results indicate that cognitive processing moderated the effects of scenario framing, with higher levels of intuitive processing leading to classical framing effects, whereas higher levels of analytical processing leading to no such framing effects. Self-reported valence, as in self-...

  19. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... mobile device to read online. ... This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive- ... adherence: Application and relevance in ..... haemoglobin level in persons with type 2 diabetes[PhD thesis].

  20. Cognitive process-based subtypes of developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the cognitive subtypes demonstrated by children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) using the Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive Processing (PASS) theory and the Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS). Participants were 108 children aged 5- and 6-years old, 54 with DCD and 54 without DCD, all attending typical kindergartens. They were examined on 31 cognitive-motor variables. Hierarchical-agglomerative and iterative partitioning cluster analyses including 9 motor and 7 cognitive variables revealed the following six subtypes: o C1 = children at risk (having considerable difficulty with jumping and minor difficulty with manual dexterity and simultaneous coding); o C2 = children on the mean (all cognitive-motor scores close to the mean); o C3 = free from cognitive-motor problems (all scores above average); o C4 = manual dexterity, planning and simultaneous coding difficulties; o C5 = manual dexterity, dynamic balance, and planning difficulties; o C6 = generalized cognitive-motor dysfunction (all scores considerably below average). It is well known that DCD is a heterogeneous condition. However, whenever cognitive processes were lower than average, cognitive-motor relationship was evident in subgroups C1, C4, C5 and C6. Early identification of task-specific cognitive-motor difficulties may be essential for early educational intervention practices in order to anticipate and improve learning, academic and performing difficulties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Facial affect processing and depression susceptibility: cognitive biases and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L; Ingram, Rick E; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-11-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal experience, cognition, and social behavior. We therefore review the burgeoning depressive facial affect processing literature and examine its potential for integrating disciplines, theories, and research. In particular, we evaluate studies in which information processing or cognitive neuroscience paradigms were used to assess facial affect processing in depressed and depression-susceptible populations. Most studies have assessed and supported cognitive models. This research suggests that depressed and depression-vulnerable groups show abnormal facial affect interpretation, attention, and memory, although findings vary based on depression severity, comorbid anxiety, or length of time faces are viewed. Facial affect processing biases appear to correspond with distinct neural activity patterns and increased depressive emotion and thought. Biases typically emerge in depressed moods but are occasionally found in the absence of such moods. Indirect evidence suggests that childhood neglect might cultivate abnormal facial affect processing, which can impede social functioning in ways consistent with cognitive-interpersonal and interpersonal models. However, reviewed studies provide mixed support for the social risk model prediction that depressive states prompt cognitive hypervigilance to social threat information. We recommend prospective interdisciplinary research examining whether facial affect processing abnormalities promote-or are promoted by-depressogenic attachment experiences, negative thinking, and social dysfunction.

  2. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further research is also needed on the reasons why low cognitive demands are made in the teaching of Technology. .... the NCS (Department of Basic Education, 2011), and the topics ..... In the quantitative phase each lesson objective was classified according .... involves the retrieving (listing) of knowledge from memory (at.

  3. Meaning of cognitive processes for creating artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Pangrác, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis brings an integral view at cognitive processes connected with artificial intelligence systems, and makes a comparison with the processes observed in nature, including human being. A historical background helps us to look at the whole issue from a certain point of view. The main axis of interest comes after the historical overview and includes the following: environment -- stimulations -- processing -- reflection in the cognitive system -- reaction to stimulation; I balance...

  4. Organizational Change, Leadership and Learning: Culture as Cognitive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    Examines the claim that it is necessary to change an organization's culture in order to bring about organizational change. Considers the purported causal relationship between the role of the leader and organizational learning and develops the notion of culture as cognitive process based on research in cultural anthropology and cognitive science.…

  5. Neurobiological correlates of cognitions in fear and anxiety: a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Ellard, Kristen K; Siegle, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    We review likely neurobiological substrates of cognitions related to fear and anxiety. Cognitive processes are linked to abnormal early activity reflecting hypervigilance in subcortical networks involving the amygdala, hippocampus, and insular cortex, and later recruitment of cortical regulatory resources, including activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and prefrontal cortex to implement avoidant response strategies. Based on this evidence, we present a cognitive-neurobiological information-processing model of fear and anxiety, linking distinct brain structures to specific stages of information processing of perceived threat.

  6. Positive emotion impedes emotional but not cognitive conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Obermeier, Christian; Kanske, Philipp; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. Participants categorized either spoken vowels (cognitive task) or their emotional valence (emotional task) and ignored the visual stimulus dimension. Behaviorally, a positive target showed no influence on cognitive conflict processing, but impeded emotional conflict processing. In the emotional task, response time conflict costs were higher for positive than for neutral targets. In the EEG, we observed an interaction of emotion by congruence in the P200 and N200 ERP components in emotional but not in cognitive conflict processing. In the emotional conflict task, the P200 and N200 conflict effect was larger for emotional than neutral targets. Thus, our results show that emotion affects conflict processing differently as a function of conflict type and emotional valence. This suggests that there are conflict- and valence-specific mechanisms modulating executive control.

  7. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Fukuda, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  8. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  9. Memory Indexing: A Novel Method for Tracing Memory Processes in Complex Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkewitz, Frank; Jahn, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We validate an eye-tracking method applicable for studying memory processes in complex cognitive tasks. The method is tested with a task on probabilistic inferences from memory. It provides valuable data on the time course of processing, thus clarifying previous results on heuristic probabilistic inference. Participants learned cue values of…

  10. Nursing's ways of knowing and dual process theories of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John; Cheyne, Helen; Dalgleish, Len; Duncan, Edward A S; Niven, Catherine A

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a comparison of nursing's patterns of knowing with the systems identified by cognitive science, and evaluates claims about the equal-status relation between scientific and non-scientific knowledge. Ever since Carper's seminal paper in 1978, it has been taken for granted in the nursing literature that there are ways of knowing, or patterns of knowing, that are not scientific. This idea has recently been used to argue that the concept of evidence, typically associated with evidence-based practice, is inappropriately restricted because it is identified exclusively with scientific research. The paper reviews literature in psychology which appears to draw a comparable distinction between rule-based, analytical cognitive processes and other forms of cognitive processing which are unconscious, holistic and intuitive. There is a convincing parallel between the 'patterns of knowing' distinction in nursing and the 'cognitive processing' distinction in psychology. However, there is an important difference in the way the relation between different forms of knowing (or cognitive processing) is depicted. In nursing, it is argued that the different patterns of knowing have equal status and weight. In cognitive science, it is suggested that the rule-based, analytical form of cognition has a supervisory and corrective function with respect to the other forms. Scientific reasoning and evidence-based knowledge have epistemological priority over the other forms of nursing knowledge. The implications of this claim for healthcare practice are briefly indicated.

  11. Applications of Social Cognitive Theory to Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Virginia H.

    2008-01-01

    Social cognitive theory emphasizes a dynamic interactive process to explain human functioning. This theory ascribes a central role to cognitive processes in which the individual can observe others and the environment, reflect on that in combination with his or her own thoughts and behaviors, and alter his or her own self-regulatory functions…

  12. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Prasad Joshi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  13. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  14. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  15. Application of Cognitive and Socio-Cultural Theories in CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın Güngör

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since it is quite difficult in traditional learning atmospheres for the learners to be exposed to the target language adequately in foreign language acquisition, CALL in which virtual environment is designed in more appropriate way has given rise. Two main paradigms, cognitive model and socio-cultural theory, have also been adopted in CALL. Moreover, rather than applying one theory, combination of these paradigms is unavoidable. However, application of this combination is challenging in practice, as these two theories have different principles. Furthermore, when it comes to online education, it turns into more challenging process. In this poster this combination is presented with the help of sample applications from Gazi University.

  16. Volumetric image interpretation in radiology: scroll behavior and cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Larissa; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Vincken, Koen L; Mol, Chris P; Stuijfzand, Bobby G; van der Gijp, Anouk

    2018-05-16

    The interpretation of medical images is a primary task for radiologists. Besides two-dimensional (2D) images, current imaging technologies allow for volumetric display of medical images. Whereas current radiology practice increasingly uses volumetric images, the majority of studies on medical image interpretation is conducted on 2D images. The current study aimed to gain deeper insight into the volumetric image interpretation process by examining this process in twenty radiology trainees who all completed four volumetric image cases. Two types of data were obtained concerning scroll behaviors and think-aloud data. Types of scroll behavior concerned oscillations, half runs, full runs, image manipulations, and interruptions. Think-aloud data were coded by a framework of knowledge and skills in radiology including three cognitive processes: perception, analysis, and synthesis. Relating scroll behavior to cognitive processes showed that oscillations and half runs coincided more often with analysis and synthesis than full runs, whereas full runs coincided more often with perception than oscillations and half runs. Interruptions were characterized by synthesis and image manipulations by perception. In addition, we investigated relations between cognitive processes and found an overall bottom-up way of reasoning with dynamic interactions between cognitive processes, especially between perception and analysis. In sum, our results highlight the dynamic interactions between these processes and the grounding of cognitive processes in scroll behavior. It suggests, that the types of scroll behavior are relevant to describe how radiologists interact with and manipulate volumetric images.

  17. An Examination of Application of Artificial Neural Network in Cognitive Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Salau, H.; Onwuka, E. N.; Aibinu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advancement in software radio technology has led to the development of smart device known as cognitive radio. This type of radio fuses powerful techniques taken from artificial intelligence, game theory, wideband/multiple antenna techniques, information theory and statistical signal processing to create an outstanding dynamic behavior. This cognitive radio is utilized in achieving diverse set of applications such as spectrum sensing, radio parameter adaptation and signal classification. This paper contributes by reviewing different cognitive radio implementation that uses artificial intelligence such as the hidden markov models, metaheuristic algorithm and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Furthermore, different areas of application of ANNs and their performance metrics based approach are also examined.

  18. An Examination of Application of Artificial Neural Network in Cognitive Radios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salau, H Bello; Onwuka, E N; Aibinu, A M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancement in software radio technology has led to the development of smart device known as cognitive radio. This type of radio fuses powerful techniques taken from artificial intelligence, game theory, wideband/multiple antenna techniques, information theory and statistical signal processing to create an outstanding dynamic behavior. This cognitive radio is utilized in achieving diverse set of applications such as spectrum sensing, radio parameter adaptation and signal classification. This paper contributes by reviewing different cognitive radio implementation that uses artificial intelligence such as the hidden markov models, metaheuristic algorithm and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Furthermore, different areas of application of ANNs and their performance metrics based approach are also examined

  19. Some Cognitive Components of the Diagnostic Thinking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Identifies 14 cognitive components of the diagnostic thinking process in clinical problem solving. Analyzes the differences between medical students, hospital house officers, and hospital registrars in London, England, on the relative use of such thinking processes. Suggests that diagnostic thinking processes cannot be incorporated into medical…

  20. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  1. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a predictor of good clinical outcome ... This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some ... of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical ...

  2. How visual cognition influences process model comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2017-01-01

    Process analysts and other professionals extensively use process models to analyze business processes and identify performance improvement opportunities. Therefore, it is important that such models can be easily and properly understood. Previous research has mainly focused on two types of factors

  3. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual's cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a 'good-enough' response instead of deliberating for the 'best' response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included

  4. Cognitive radio application for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladić Suzana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of cognitive radio technology in vehicular ad-hoc networks aimed to improve the communications between vehicles themselves as well as between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. Due to dynamic approach of spectrum access, cognitive radio is a technology that enables more efficient usage of radio-frequency spectrum. We review actual approaches and discuss research challenges related to the use of cognitive radio technology in vehicular ad hoc networks with emphasis on architecture, spectrum management as well as QoS optimization. The researching on cognitive radio application in vehicular networks is still developing and there are not many experimental platforms due to their complex setups. Some related research projects and cognitive radio realizations are provided in this paper.

  5. A Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    in terms of levels of processing models (e.g., Craik and Lockhart , 1972; Craik and Tulving, 1975). A similarly counter-intuitive result from a novel...NJ.: Erlbaum. Craik ,F.I.M. & Lockhart ,R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal... processes or at least, a recognition of the correspondence betveen these symbols and external events. ( Craik , 1943, p. 50) Craik thus provides a

  6. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  7. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In “Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions,” published in Psychological Bulletin, Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so the authors outline a series of links between various constructs, such as fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, absorption, suggestibility, altered information-processin...

  8. Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception-cognition-action and i...... of categorical sensing and perception with the equally hierarchical issues of the "binding problem", "triadic causality", the "emergent interpretant" and the increasing semiotic freedom observed in biological and cognitive systems....

  9. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Rationality Debate: Application of Cognitive Psychology to Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leron, Uri; Hazzan, Orit

    2006-01-01

    Research in mathematics education usually attempts to look into students' learning and other mental processes. It could therefore be expected to build on knowledge acquired within the academic discipline of cognitive psychology. Our aim in this paper is to show how some recent developments in cognitive psychology can help interpret empirical…

  12. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing...

  13. Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Craik . F.I.M., & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11...task at both levels of performance, then one would, in both cases, postulate systems that had the ability to process symbols at the microscopic level ...821760s and early 70s. (cf. Atkinson & Shiffrin. 1968: Craik & Lockhart . 1972: Norman, Rumelhart, & LNR, 1975). This architecture is comprised of several

  14. Information Processing and Dynamics in Minimally Cognitive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D.; Williams, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we…

  15. The Process of Student Cognition in Constructing Mathematical Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astawa, I. Wayan Puja; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe the process of student cognition in constructing mathematical conjecture. Many researchers have studied this process but without giving a detailed explanation of how students understand the information to construct a mathematical conjecture. The researchers focus their analysis on how to construct and prove the…

  16. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  17. THE INTERNAL AUDIT AS COGNITIVE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The term AUDIT generally comes from the Latin word "audire" to listen and to inform others, from today's Anglo-Saxon countries, this term has the meaning of a revision of the accounting information and of those of a different nature, realized by an independent professional, in view of expressing an opinion regarding the regularity and honesty of the audited information (1 §tefan Craciun, Audit financiar §i audit intern, The Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2004, page 22. In a general register, an audit has the purpose to grant an entity added value by a systematic and methodic approach, evaluating the risk management processes, the control processes and the governing processes, all of which are materialized within an objective and professional report.

  18. Cognitive processes, models and metaphors in decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Newell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision research in psychology has traditionally been influenced by the extit{homo oeconomicus} metaphor with its emphasis on normative models and deviations from the predictions of those models. In contrast, the principal metaphor of cognitive psychology conceptualizes humans as `information processors', employing processes of perception, memory, categorization, problem solving and so on. Many of the processes described in cognitive theories are similar to those involved in decision making, and thus increasing cross-fertilization between the two areas is an important endeavour. A wide range of models and metaphors has been proposed to explain and describe `information processing' and many models have been applied to decision making in ingenious ways. This special issue encourages cross-fertilization between cognitive psychology and decision research by providing an overview of current perspectives in one area that continues to highlight the benefits of the synergistic approach: cognitive modeling of multi-attribute decision making. In this introduction we discuss aspects of the cognitive system that need to be considered when modeling multi-attribute decision making (e.g., automatic versus controlled processing, learning and memory constraints, metacognition and illustrate how such aspects are incorporated into the approaches proposed by contributors to the special issue. We end by discussing the challenges posed by the contrasting and sometimes incompatible assumptions of the models and metaphors.

  19. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Cognitive processing of currency: Euros and Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we evaluated whether the processing of currency was determined by familiarity of people with banknotes. In Experiment 1, participants who used the Euro currency named sequences of Euro banknotes and Dollar banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants showed an interference effect in the blocked context with Dollar banknotes but not with Euro banknotes. In Experiment 2, the interference effect was observed with Euro banknotes when participants were not familiar with the Euro currency. These results suggest that the semantic processing of banknotes depends on the participants' familiarity with currency. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  2. Cognitive conflict increases processing of negative, task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures. Participants responded to congruent (non-conflict) or to incongruent (conflict-eliciting) trials of a modified flanker task. Each response was followed by a presentation of a neutral or negative picture. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to picture presentation was used to assess the level of picture processing after conflict vs non-conflict trials. Connectivity between the DLPFC and attentional and perceptual areas during picture presentation was analysed to check if the DLPFC might be a source of these modulations. ERP results showed an effect of cognitive conflict only on processing of negative pictures: LPP in response to negative pictures was increased after conflict trials, whereas LPP in response to neutral pictures remained unchanged. Cortical connectivity analysis showed that conflict trials intensified information flow from the DLPFC towards attentional and perceptual regions. Results suggest that cognitive conflict increases processing of task-irrelevant stimuli; however, they must display high biological salience. Increase in cognitive control exerted by the DLPFC over attentional and perceptual regions is a probable mechanism of the effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Literacy processes cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    Reading and writing instruction require individuals--both students and teachers--to flexibly process many kinds of information, from a variety of sources. This is the first book to provide an in-depth examination of cognitive flexibility: how it develops across the lifespan; its role in specific literacy processes, such as phonemic awareness, word recognition, and comprehension; and implications for improving literacy instruction and teacher education. The contributors include leading researchers in literacy, psychology, and cognitive development, who summarize the current state of the science

  4. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  5. Visualization of decision processes using a cognitive architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Mark A.; Murugesan, Arthi; Brock, Derek; Frost, Wende K.; Perzanowski, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive architectures are computational theories of reasoning the human mind engages in as it processes facts and experiences. A cognitive architecture uses declarative and procedural knowledge to represent mental constructs that are involved in decision making. Employing a model of behavioral and perceptual constraints derived from a set of one or more scenarios, the architecture reasons about the most likely consequence(s) of a sequence of events. Reasoning of any complexity and depth involving computational processes, however, is often opaque and challenging to comprehend. Arguably, for decision makers who may need to evaluate or question the results of autonomous reasoning, it would be useful to be able to inspect the steps involved in an interactive, graphical format. When a chain of evidence and constraint-based decision points can be visualized, it becomes easier to explore both how and why a scenario of interest will likely unfold in a particular way. In initial work on a scheme for visualizing cognitively-based decision processes, we focus on generating graphical representations of models run in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Our visualization algorithm operates on a modified version of Polyscheme's output, which is accomplished by augmenting models with a simple set of tags. We provide example visualizations and discuss properties of our technique that pose challenges for our representation goals. We conclude with a summary of feedback solicited from domain experts and practitioners in the field of cognitive modeling.

  6. Analysis of operators' diagnosis tasks based on cognitive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yong; Zhang Li

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis tasks in nuclear power plants characterized as high-dynamic uncertainties are complex reasoning tasks. Diagnosis errors are the main causes for the error of commission. Firstly, based on mental model theory and perception/action cycle theory, a cognitive model for analyzing operators' diagnosis tasks is proposed. Then, the model is used to investigate a trip event which occurred at crystal river nuclear power plant. The application demonstrates typical cognitive bias and mistakes which operators may make when performing diagnosis tasks. They mainly include the strong confirmation tendency, difficulty to produce complete hypothesis sets, group mindset, non-systematic errors in hypothesis testing, and etc. (authors)

  7. Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2012-10-01

    One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences, it is therefore necessary to effectively control the secondary interference at the primary receivers. In this paper, a generalized framework for the interference analysis of a cognitive radio network where the different secondary transmitters may transmit with different powers and transmission probabilities, is presented and various applications of this interference model are demonstrated. The findings of the analytical performance analyses are confirmed through selected computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Laser applications in materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The seminar focused on laser annealing of semiconductors, laser processing of semiconductor devices and formation of coatings and powders, surface modification with lasers, and specialized laser processing methods. Papers were presented on the theoretical analysis of thermal and mass transport during laser annealing, applications of scanning continuous-wave and pulsed lasers in silicon technology, laser techniques in photovoltaic applications, and the synthesis of ceramic powders from laser-heated gas-phase reactants. Other papers included: reflectance changes of metals during laser irradiation, surface-alloying using high-power continuous lasers, laser growth of silicon ribbon, and commercial laser-shock processes

  9. Cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulation of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tomec

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences among secondary school students in cognitive and metacognitive processes in self-regulated learning (SRL according to year of education, learning program, sex and achievement. Beside this, the autors were interested in the relationship between (metacognitive components of self-regulated learning. The theoretical framework of the research was the four-component model of self-regulated learning by Hofer, Yu and Pintrich (1998. The focus was on the first part of the model which is about cognitive structure and cognitive strategies.Metacognitive awareness inventory (Shraw and Sperling Dennison, 1994 and Cognitive strategies awareness questionnaire (Pečjak, 2000, in Peklaj and Pečjak, 2002 were applied. In a sample of 321 students, differences in perception of importance of cognitive strategies among students attending different grades (1st and 4th, students attending different learning programs, students of different gender and students with different achievements emerged. Students' achievement in the whole sample was related to amount of metacognitive awareness. In the sample of 4-year students and students attending professional secondary schools, students' achievement was additionally related to appraisal of importance elaboration and organizational strategies. Further statistical analyses of relationship between components in SRL showed high positive correlation between cognitive and metacognitive components.

  10. Information processing and dynamics in minimally cognitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D; Williams, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we separately analyze the operation of this agent using the mathematical tools of information theory and dynamical systems theory. Information-theoretic analysis reveals how task-relevant information flows through the system to be combined into a categorization decision. Dynamical analysis reveals the key geometrical and temporal interrelationships underlying the categorization decision. Finally, we propose a framework for directly relating these two different styles of explanation and discuss the possible implications of our analysis for some of the ongoing debates in cognitive science. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. N-3 PUFAs and neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyrolle Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new nutritional approaches to prevent and delay the onset of cognitive decline. Neuroinflammatory processes contribute to neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performances and reduce the neuroinflammatory responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders. We will also discuss the mechanisms underlying n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids effect on neuroinflammation and memory decline.

  12. Conceptualization, Cognitive Process between Image and Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the process of constituting and organizing the system of concepts. After a comparative analysis of image and concept, conceptualization is reconsidered through raising for discussion the relations of concept with image in general and with self-image mirrored in body schema in particular. Taking into consideration the notion of mental space, there is developed an articulated perspective on conceptualization which has the images of mental space at one pole and the categories of language and operations of thinking at the other pole. There are explored the explicative possibilities of the notion of Tversky’s diagrammatic space as an element which is necessary to understand the genesis of graphic behaviour and to define a new construct, graphic intelligence.

  13. Industrial Applications of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-11-01

    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  14. Gamification of Cognitive Assessment and Cognitive Training: A Systematic Review of Applications and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Lawrence, Natalia S; Coyle, David; Munafò, Marcus R

    2016-07-15

    Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating, and repetitive, which often leads to participant disengagement. This, in turn, may negatively impact data quality and/or reduce intervention effects. However, gamification may provide a possible solution. If game design features can be incorporated into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then data quality, intervention effects, and participant engagement may be improved. This systematic review aims to explore and evaluate the ways in which gamification has already been used for cognitive training and assessment purposes. We hope to answer 3 questions: (1) Why have researchers opted to use gamification? (2) What domains has gamification been applied in? (3) How successful has gamification been in cognitive research thus far? We systematically searched several Web-based databases, searching the titles, abstracts, and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games) AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*). Searches included papers published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a range of disorders and cognitive domains. We identified 7 reasons for researchers opting to gamify their cognitive training and testing. We found that working memory and general executive functions were common targets for both gamified assessment and training. Gamified tests were typically validated successfully, although mixed-domain measurement was a problem. Gamified training appears to be highly engaging and does boost participant motivation, but mixed effects of gamification on task performance were reported. Heterogeneous study designs and typically small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both gamified training and testing. Nevertheless, careful application of gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and

  15. Dual-Process Theories of Higher Cognition: Advancing the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T; Stanovich, Keith E

    2013-05-01

    Dual-process and dual-system theories in both cognitive and social psychology have been subjected to a number of recently published criticisms. However, they have been attacked as a category, incorrectly assuming there is a generic version that applies to all. We identify and respond to 5 main lines of argument made by such critics. We agree that some of these arguments have force against some of the theories in the literature but believe them to be overstated. We argue that the dual-processing distinction is supported by much recent evidence in cognitive science. Our preferred theoretical approach is one in which rapid autonomous processes (Type 1) are assumed to yield default responses unless intervened on by distinctive higher order reasoning processes (Type 2). What defines the difference is that Type 2 processing supports hypothetical thinking and load heavily on working memory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Cognitive process modelling of controllers in en route air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoru; Furuta, Kazuo; Nakata, Keiichi; Kanno, Taro; Aoyama, Hisae; Brown, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, various efforts have been made in air traffic control (ATC) to maintain traffic safety and efficiency in the face of increasing air traffic demands. ATC is a complex process that depends to a large degree on human capabilities, and so understanding how controllers carry out their tasks is an important issue in the design and development of ATC systems. In particular, the human factor is considered to be a serious problem in ATC safety and has been identified as a causal factor in both major and minor incidents. There is, therefore, a need to analyse the mechanisms by which errors occur due to complex factors and to develop systems that can deal with these errors. From the cognitive process perspective, it is essential that system developers have an understanding of the more complex working processes that involve the cooperative work of multiple controllers. Distributed cognition is a methodological framework for analysing cognitive processes that span multiple actors mediated by technology. In this research, we attempt to analyse and model interactions that take place in en route ATC systems based on distributed cognition. We examine the functional problems in an ATC system from a human factors perspective, and conclude by identifying certain measures by which to address these problems. This research focuses on the analysis of air traffic controllers' tasks for en route ATC and modelling controllers' cognitive processes. This research focuses on an experimental study to gain a better understanding of controllers' cognitive processes in air traffic control. We conducted ethnographic observations and then analysed the data to develop a model of controllers' cognitive process. This analysis revealed that strategic routines are applicable to decision making.

  17. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Influence of empathetic pain processing on cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kesong; Lijffijt, Marijn; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Fan, Zhiwei; Shi, Hui; He, Shuchang

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in both empathy and cognition have been reported widely in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these deficits interact among such patients. In the present study, we used pain portraying pictures preceding a color-word Stroop task to investigate the effect of empathetic pain observation on cognition among patients with schizophrenia. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and twenty healthy controls were included. The control group showed increased Stroop facilitation and decreased interference during the empathetic pain condition compared with the non-empathetic condition. Although patients with schizophrenia exhibited deficits in cognition, they demonstrated a similar empathy effect to controls on Stroop facilitation, but a somewhat larger empathy effect on Stroop interference (a more decreased effect). In particular, the groups did not differ in either automatic or controlled processing during the non-empathetic condition, suggesting general rather than specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Together, we interpret our findings in terms of two opposing effects of empathy on cognition in schizophrenia, with possible neuromodulatory mechanism. Whereas prior studies showed empathy to be impaired, our outcomes indicate that at least some components of empathetic pain processing are preserved in such patients.

  19. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  20. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  1. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  2. Developmental Dynamics of Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.; Weaver, Jennifer Miner

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic relations during the preschool years across processes of control and understanding in the domains of emotion and cognition were examined. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers who were seen first when the children were 3 years old and again when they were 4. Results indicated dynamic dependence among the…

  3. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  4. Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Carlström, Christoffer; Johansson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct…

  5. Cognitive Process as a Basis for Intelligent Retrieval Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of the cognitive processes involved in online document-based information retrieval were conducted. These studies led to the development of five computational models of online document retrieval which were incorporated into the design of an "intelligent" document-based retrieval system. Both the system and the broader implications of…

  6. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  7. On Dual Processing and Heuristic Approaches to Moral Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the implications of dual-processing theories of cognition for the moral domain, with particular emphasis upon "System 1" theories: the Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt), moral heuristics (Sunstein), fast-and-frugal moral heuristics (Gigerenzer), schema accessibility (Lapsley & Narvaez) and moral expertise (Narvaez). We argue that these…

  8. The Study of the Relation between Comprehension Process and Cognitive Capacities of Students in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Poorang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the creation of substances for developing and thinking of cognitive levels in mathematics from elementary course and recognizing effective variables of all external factors of mathematics, researchers have considered through designing hypothesis and effort to find the relation of reading literacy level and cognitive levels in mathematics of fourth grade among girls and boys and cognitive capacities of them in Tehran. The evaluation of reading literacy with the definition of comprehension process as index in surface layers spectrum such as focusing and reviewing information that are be stated in text and directive induction has organized. On other hands, mathematics evaluation has implemented for both content and cognitive dimensions. Research process has formed with selecting eight schools and in two tests. Reading literacy tests with the aim of evaluation of comprehension process and math test with the aim of the evaluation of cognitive levels have implemented for two classes of each schools. Research hypotheses have tested based on researching positive correlative between surface layers of comprehension with cognitive levels in mathematics meaningfully that have organized in three levels of knowing, application and reasoning. Instrumentation of the performance of comprehension have included two literary-information texts of PIRLS test 2011 and the collection of two respected notebooks and instrumentation of performance of cognitive levels in mathematics such as on notebook of TIMSS 2011. The procedure of testing hypotheses with Spearman correlative coefficient method have performed that all hypotheses have accepted meaningfully. Therefore, there is significant and directive relation between comprehension processes as reading literacy with cognitive capacities of students in mathematics of fourth grade.

  9. Working memory span in mild cognitive impairment. Influence of processing speed and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often includes episodic memory impairment, but can also involve other types of cognitive decline. Although previous studies have shown poorer performance of MCI patients in working memory (WM) span tasks, different MCI subgroups were not studied. In the present exploratory study, 145 participants underwent extensive cognitive evaluation, which included three different WM span tasks, and were classified into the following groups: multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mda-MCI), single-domain amnestic MCI (sda-MCI), and controls. General linear model was conducted by considering the WM span tasks as the within-subject factor; the group (mda-MCI, sda-MCI, and controls) as the inter-subject factor; and processing speed, vocabulary and age as covariates. Multiple linear regression models were also used to test the influence of processing speed, vocabulary, and other cognitive reserve (CR) proxies. Results indicate different levels of impairment of WM, with more severe impairment in mda-MCI patients. The differences were still present when processing resources and CR were controlled. Between-group differences can be understood as a manifestation of the greater severity and widespread memory impairment in mda-MCI patients and may contribute to a better understanding of continuum from normal controls to mda-MCI patients. Processing speed and CR have a limited influence on WM scores, reducing but not removing differences between groups.

  10. Plasma processing: Technologies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to present the fundamentals of physics of plasmas, methods of generation, diagnostics, and applications for processing of materials. The first chapter defines plasma in general as well as its main parameters, the most important differential equations in plasma physics, and classifies the types of plasmas. the various methods and techniques to create and sustain plasma are presented in the second chapter. Chapter 3 focuses on plasma diagnostic methods and tools. While chapter 4 deals with applications of plasma processing such as; surface modification of materials, plasma ashing and etching, plasma cutting, and the environmental applications of plasma. Plasma polymerization and its various applications have been presented in more details in the last chapter. (Author)

  11. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  12. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  13. Commentary: cognitive-affective mechanisms and processes in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A

    2003-03-01

    This commentary highlights some of the interesting points to emerge from the preceding papers about the self, social, and directive functions of autobiographical memory. Additionally some cognitive functions are also considered and especially the way in which autobiographical memory supports, constrains, and maintains the goals of the self. Directions for future research into the self, social, directive, and cognitive-affective functions and processes of autobiographical memory are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on future research into the function of autobiographical memory in representations of attachment.

  14. Reviving Markov processes and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this dissertation we study a procedure which restarts a Markov process when the process is killed by some arbitrary multiplicative functional. The regenerative nature of this revival procedure is characterized through a Markov renewal equation. An interesting duality between the revival procedure and the classical killing operation is found. Under the condition that the multiplicative functional possesses an intensity, the generators of the revival process can be written down explicitly. An intimate connection is also found between the perturbation of the sample path of a Markov process and the perturbation of a generator (in Kato's sense). The applications of the theory include the study of the processes like piecewise-deterministic Markov process, virtual waiting time process and the first entrance decomposition (taboo probability)

  15. Pedagogical applications of cognitive research on musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert's use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback, and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  16. Pedagogical applications of the cognitive research on music improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIchele eBiasutti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the implementation of educational activities involving musical improvisation that is based on a review of the literature on the psychology of music. Psychology of music is a complex field of research in which quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed involving participants ranging from novices to expert performers. The cognitive research has been analyzed to propose a pedagogical approach to the development of processes rather than products that focus on an expert’s use of improvisation. The intention is to delineate a reflective approach that goes beyond the mere instruction of some current practices of teaching improvisation in jazz pedagogy. The review highlights that improvisation is a complex, multidimensional act that involves creative and performance behaviors in real-time in addition to processes such as sensory and perceptual encoding, motor control, performance monitoring, and memory storage and recall. Educational applications for the following processes are outlined: anticipation, use of repertoire, emotive communication, feedback and flow. These characteristics are discussed in relation to the design of a pedagogical approach to musical improvisation based on reflection and metacognition development.

  17. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglan Wang

    Full Text Available Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs. Accuracy (ACC, reaction time (RT, the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process

  18. The process of clinical assessment: cognitions of the evaluator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Ibáñez Aguirre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive paradigm of the past few decades opens several new possibilities for psychological evaluation.  The objective of this essay is to emphasize the possibilities related to the quality of self-evaluation, specifically professional self-assessment, meaning a critical analysis of one’s own evaluation process. In this essay, metacognition activities and strategies are examined, as are the ways in which these activities and strategies relate to metacognition and cognitive skills. The intent of this theoretical essay is to offer answers to the clinical evaluator’s professional experience. The results indicate that the clinical professional must consider strategies to improve metacognition and cognitive skills through reflection, self-analysis and self-criticism to improve the quality and efficiency of their work.

  19. Cognitive, Emotional, and Social Processes in Psychosis: Refining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Positive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa; Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Psychosis used to be thought of as essentially a biological condition unamenable to psychological interventions. However, more recent research has shown that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are on a continuum with normality and therefore might also be susceptible to adaptations of the cognitive behavioral therapies found useful for anxiety and depression. In the context of a model of cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis, the latest evidence for the putative psychological mechanisms that elicit and maintain symptoms is reviewed. There is now good support for emotional processes in psychosis, for the role of cognitive processes including reasoning biases, for the central role of appraisal, and for the effects of the social environment, including stress and trauma. We have also used virtual environments to test our hypotheses. These developments have improved our understanding of symptom dimensions such as distress and conviction and also provide a rationale for interventions, which have some evidence of efficacy. Therapeutic approaches are described as follows: a collaborative therapeutic relationship, managing dysphoria, helping service users reappraise their beliefs to reduce distress, working on negative schemas, managing and reducing stressful environments if possible, compensating for reasoning biases by using disconfirmation strategies, and considering the full range of evidence in order to reduce high conviction. Theoretical ideas supported by experimental evidence can inform the development of cognitive behavior therapy for persistent positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:16885206

  20. Cognitive Load Alters Neuronal Processing of Food Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Hensel, Sonja Maria; Sijben, Rik; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-10-31

    Obesity is a major health concern in modern societies. Although decreased physical activity and enhanced intake of high-caloric foods are important risk factors for developing obesity, human behavior during eating also plays a role. Previous studies have shown that distraction while eating increases food intake and leads to impaired processing of food stimuli. As olfaction is the most important sense involved in flavor perception, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to investigate the influence of cognitive memory load on olfactory perception and processing. Low- and high-caloric food odors were presented in combination with either low or high cognitive loads utilizing a memory task. The efficacy of the memory task was verified by a decrease in participant recall accuracy and an increase in skin conductance response during high cognitive load. Our behavioral data reveal a diminished perceived intensity for low- but not high-caloric food odors during high cognitive load. For low-caloric food odors, bilateral orbitofrontal (OFC) and piriform cortices (pirC) showed significantly lower activity during high compared with low cognitive load. For high-caloric food odors, a similar effect was established in pirC, but not in OFC. Insula activity correlates with higher intensity ratings found during the low cognitive load condition. We conclude lower activity in pirC and OFC to be responsible for diminished intensity perception, comparable to results in olfactory impaired patients and elderly. Further studies should investigate the influence of olfactory/gustatory intensities on food choices under distraction with special regards to low-caloric food. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. COGNITIVE SCIENCE DAN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT DALAM PEMROSESAN INFORMASI (INFORMATION PROCESSING PADAANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Prima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive science is a science which studies how human mental processes to influence one’s behavior. Principal major issue that needs to be known in the understanding of cognitive science and their development is related to how the initial state of cognitive science itself, the mind is adapted, the development process starting from the concrete to the abstract, the conceptual nature of the change, the difference between learning and development, format representation of the underlying changes in development, the role of implicit and explicit cognitions in the development, the role of the association and the rules in the development, the universal development, cognitive domain and how to influence the development of brain structure. There are three difference in the cognitive domain of the most common sense that domain as a module, as the domain of expertise, and domain as a model of mind.   Ilmu kognitif adalah suatu pengetahuan yang mempelajari tentang bagaimana proses mental manusia dalam mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang. Pokok pembahasan utama yang perlu diketahui dalam memahami ilmu kognitif dan perkembangannya yaitu terkait dengan bagaimana keadaan awal dari ilmu kognitif itu sendiri, pikiran yang teradaptasi, proses perkembangan mulai dari hal yang kongkrit sampai dengan abstrak, sifat konseptual dalam perubahan, perbedaan antara belajar dan pengembangan, format representasi yang mendasari perubahan dalam perkembangan, peran kognisi implisit dan eksplisit dalam perkembangan, peran asosiasi dan aturan dalam perkembangan, perkembangan secara universal, domain kognitif dan bagaimana struktur otak mempengaruhi perkembangan. Ada tiga perbedaan domain kognitif dari indera yang paling umum yaitu domain sebagai modul, domain sebagai bidang keahlian, dan domain sebagai model pikiran.

  2. Empirical processes: theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2003 Summer School in Statistics and Probability in Torgnon (Aosta, Italy) held by Prof. Jon A. Wellner and Prof. M. Banerjee. The topic presented was the theory of empirical processes with applications to statistics (m-estimation, bootstrap, semiparametric theory).

  3. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Fontenot, Stephanie; Correro, Anthony; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2013-01-01

    While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST) in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, psmartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries of cognitive and motor function in the elderly is discussed.

  4. The cognitive processing of the allomorphy in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explored cognitive status of suffix allomorphy of the masculine nouns in instrumental singular in Serbian language (eg. mišom-mišem; pužom-pužem. Allomorphy represents distinct variations in form of the morpheme which does not influence it’s function and meaning (cf. Lyons, 1968. Despite it’s frequent appearance in speech and language production, it has rarely been a subject of psycholinguistic explorations. First goal of this research was to determine whether the cognitive processing of allomorphic nouns has it’s specificities and second goal was to create the base for making and testing hypothesis regarding morphological and/or phonological factors that influence suffix alternation in forming of instrumental singular of masculine nouns. We conducted visual lexical decision experiment and applied a questionnaire created for the needs of investigating allomorphy in language production. Results showed that at least two processes influence cognitive processing of masculine nouns in instrumental singular: (a certain morpho-phonological restrictions that influence appearance of the suffix-em, and (b allomorphy - variations in suffix in instrumental singular. In addition, the findings indicate that allomorphy could be the consequence of the tendency to use more frequent suffix (-om, that eases the processing, and blocks the influence of the morpho-phonological restrictions.

  5. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  6. Social cognition in schizophrenia: from social stimuli processing to social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eBilleke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition consists of several skills which allow us to interact with other humans. These skills include social stimuli processing, drawing inferences about others' mental states, and engaging in social interactions. In recent years, there has been growing evidence of social cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Apparently, these impairments are separable from general neurocognitive impairments, such as attention, memory and executive functioning. Moreover, social cognition seems to be a main determinant of functional outcome and could be used as a guide to elaborate new pharmacological and psychological treatments. However, most of these studies focus on individual mechanisms and observational perspectives; only few of them study schizophrenic patients during interactive situations. We first review evidences of social cognitive impairments both in social stimuli processing and in mental state attribution. We focus on the relationship between these functions and both general cognitive impairments and functional outcome. We next review recent game theory approaches to the study of how social engagement occurs in schizophrenic patients. The advantage of using game theory is that game-oriented tasks can assess social decision-making in an interactive everyday situation model. Finally, we review proposed theoretical models used to explain social alterations and their underlying biological mechanisms. Based on interactive studies, we propose a framework which takes into account the dynamic nature of social processes. Thus, understanding social skills as a result of dynamical systems could facilitate the development of both basic research and clinical applications oriented to psychiatric populations.

  7. Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2017-08-01

    New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (P<0.05) affected by all factors in the model except for sex that was not significant for some of the cognitive processes, and stimulus which was not significant (P<0.05) for all of them except for the coping style related ones. The interaction between all factors within the model was non-significant (P<0.05) for almost all cognitive processes. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral and social cognitive processes in preschool children's social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Roseth, Cary; Bohn-Gettler, Catherine; Dupuis, Danielle; Hickey, Meghan; Peshkam, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, naturalistic study addressed behavioral and social cognitive processes implicated in preschool children's social dominance. In the first objective, we examined the degree to which peer aggression, affiliation, and postaggression reconciliation predicted social dominance across a school year. Consistent with predictions, all three predicted dominance early in the year while only affiliation predicted dominance later in the year, suggesting that aggression, affiliation, and reconciliation were used to establish social dominance where affiliation was used to maintain it. In the second, exploratory, objective we tested the relative importance of social dominance and reconciliation (the Machiavellian and Vygotskian intelligence hypotheses, respectively) in predicting theory of mind/false belief. Results indicated that social dominance accounted for significant variance, beyond that related to reconciliation and affiliation, in predicting theory of mind/false belief status. Results are discussed in terms of specific behavioral and social cognitive processes employed in establishing and maintaining social dominance. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress and Cognitive Processes in Patients with Burns

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    A severe burn is one of the most traumatic injuries a person can experience. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is relatively common after burns, and can be devastating for the individual’s possibilities for recovery. The principal aims were to gain knowledge regarding posttraumatic stress symptoms and cognitive processes after burn and to evaluate methods for assessing symptoms of PTSD up to one year after burn. The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-...

  10. Exploring the Use of Electroencephalography to Gather Objective Evidence of Cognitive Processing During Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Thomas; Seery, Niall; Lynch, Raymond

    2018-04-01

    Currently, there is significant interest being directed towards the development of STEM education to meet economic and societal demands. While economic concerns can be a powerful driving force in advancing the STEM agenda, care must be taken that such economic imperative does not promote research approaches that overemphasize pragmatic application at the expense of augmenting the fundamental knowledge base of the discipline. This can be seen in the predominance of studies investigating problem solving approaches and procedures, while neglecting representational and conceptual processes, within the literature. Complementing concerns about STEM graduates' problem solving capabilities, raised within the pertinent literature, this paper discusses a novel methodological approach aimed at investigating the cognitive elements of problem conceptualization. The intention is to demonstrate a novel method of data collection that overcomes some of the limitations cited in classic problem solving research while balancing a search for fundamental understanding with the possibility of application. The methodology described in this study employs an electroencephalographic (EEG) headset, as part of a mixed methods approach, to gather objective evidence of students' cognitive processing during problem solving epochs. The method described provides rich evidence of students' cognitive representations of problems during episodes of applied reasoning. The reliability and validity of the EEG method is supported by the stability of the findings across the triangulated data sources. The paper presents a novel method in the context of research within STEM education and demonstrates an effective procedure for gathering rich evidence of cognitive processing during the early stages of problem conceptualization.

  11. Processing approaches to cognition: the impetus from the levels-of-processing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Gallo, David A; Geraci, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Processing approaches to cognition have a long history, from act psychology to the present, but perhaps their greatest boost was given by the success and dominance of the levels-of-processing framework. We review the history of processing approaches, and explore the influence of the levels-of-processing approach, the procedural approach advocated by Paul Kolers, and the transfer-appropriate processing framework. Processing approaches emphasise the procedures of mind and the idea that memory storage can be usefully conceptualised as residing in the same neural units that originally processed information at the time of encoding. Processing approaches emphasise the unity and interrelatedness of cognitive processes and maintain that they can be dissected into separate faculties only by neglecting the richness of mental life. We end by pointing to future directions for processing approaches.

  12. Cognitive processes in criminal profile construction: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Middledorp, Jenny; Try, Andrew C

    2005-12-01

    This study undertook an empirically based examination of the cognitive processes associated with the accurate construction of a criminal psychological profile. This was accomplished by comparing the abilities of profilers and nonprofilers in two simulated profiling exercises that measured both profile accuracy and an individual's performance on various tests of memory and comprehension related to the case materials presented in each exercise. The results of these experiments suggest that an incremental relationship exists between comprehension of the case materials and accuracy of the profiles generated. In addition, the findings provide some tentative indications that the comprehension of case material in a narrative (i.e., written) format is an integral cognitive function to proficient profiling.

  13. Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchow, Jordan W; Bourgin, David D; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2017-07-01

    Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioinformation processing a primer on computational cognitive science

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It begins with a general model of cognitive processes in a network of computational nodes, such as neurons, using a variety of tools from mathematics, computational science and neurobiology. It then moves on to solve the diffusion model from a low-level random walk point of view. It also demonstrates how this idea can be used in a new approach to solving the cable equation, in order to better understand the neural computation approximations. It introduces specialized data for emotional content, which allows a brain model to be built using MatLab tools, and also highlights a simple model of cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

  16. Cognitive load disrupts implicit theory-of-mind processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Lam, Rebecca; Bayliss, Andrew P; Dux, Paul E

    2012-08-01

    Eye movements in Sally-Anne false-belief tasks appear to reflect the ability to implicitly monitor the mental states of other individuals (theory of mind, or ToM). It has recently been proposed that an early-developing, efficient, and automatically operating ToM system subserves this ability. Surprisingly absent from the literature, however, is an empirical test of the influence of domain-general executive processing resources on this implicit ToM system. In the study reported here, a dual-task method was employed to investigate the impact of executive load on eye movements in an implicit Sally-Anne false-belief task. Under no-load conditions, adult participants displayed eye movement behavior consistent with implicit belief processing, whereas evidence for belief processing was absent for participants under cognitive load. These findings indicate that the cognitive system responsible for implicitly tracking beliefs draws at least minimally on executive processing resources. Thus, even the most low-level processing of beliefs appears to reflect a capacity-limited operation.

  17. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Affective and cognitive processes and the development and maintenance of anxiety and its disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Treffers, P.D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective review of research related to cognitive hypotheses and models of childhood anxiety. The cognitive behavioral approach and the information processing approach to childhood anxiety are explored. Cognitive developmental aspects of anxiety-related cognition, the typical patterns of

  19. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  20. Discrete stochastic processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    This unique text for beginning graduate students gives a self-contained introduction to the mathematical properties of stochastics and presents their applications to Markov processes, coding theory, population dynamics, and search engine design. The book is ideal for a newly designed course in an introduction to probability and information theory. Prerequisites include working knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and probability theory. The first part of the text focuses on the rigorous theory of Markov processes on countable spaces (Markov chains) and provides the basis to developing solid probabilistic intuition without the need for a course in measure theory. The approach taken is gradual beginning with the case of discrete time and moving on to that of continuous time. The second part of this text is more applied; its core introduces various uses of convexity in probability and presents a nice treatment of entropy.

  1. Cognitive processing speed is related to fall frequency in older adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Balantrapu, Swathi; Pilutti, Lara A; Sandroff, Brian M; Morrison, Steven; Motl, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    To examine mobility, balance, fall risk, and cognition in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) as a function of fall frequency. Retrospective, cross-sectional design. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling persons with MS (N=27) aged between 50 and 75 years were divided into 2 groups-single-time (n=11) and recurrent (n=16; >2 falls/12 mo) fallers-on the basis of fall history. Not applicable. Mobility was assessed using a variety of measures including Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, walking speed (Timed 25-Foot Walk test), endurance (6-Minute Walk test), and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test). Balance was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, posturography, and self-reported balance confidence. Fall risk was assessed with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Cognitive processing speed was quantified with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Recurrent fallers had slower cognitive processing speed than single-time fallers (P ≤.01). There was no difference in mobility, balance, or fall risk between recurrent and single-time fallers (P>.05). Results indicated that cognitive processing speed is associated with fall frequency and may have implications for fall prevention strategies targeting recurrent fallers with MS. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Chang of cognitions and feelings during the process of procrastination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohama, Shun

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.

  3. Nine human factors contributing to the user acceptance of telemedicine applications: a cognitive-emotional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is paid to the technical aspects of telemedicine in the development of new applications, but the enthusiasm about what is technically possible very often leads to the user acceptance of such products being neglected. The number of successful and sustainable telemedicine applications would be much higher if developers concentrated more on matters related to the cognitive-emotional situation of the users involved in telemedicine. The users include the care and cure providers, as well as the care and cure receivers. Based on an informal literature search and discussions with telemedicine implementation staff, nine factors have been identified which are essential for the user acceptance of telemedicine applications. All of them are connected more to the cognitive-emotional than to the cognitive-rational side of information processing. This suggests that in the future the cognitive-emotional side will need more attention. This in turn implies that the nine points mentioned above have to find their way into requirements engineering, development processes and product life cycles.

  4. Emotion and persuasion: cognitive and meta-cognitive processes impact attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.

  5. Poka-yoke process controller: designed for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R F; Sant, D

    1998-01-01

    Poka-yoke is a Japanese term meaning "error proofing." Poka-yoke techniques were developed to achieve zero defects in manufacturing and assembly processes. The application of these techniques tends to reduce both the physical and cognitive demands of tasks and thereby make them more accessible. Poka-yoke interventions create a dialogue between the worker and the process, and this dialogue provides the feedback necessary for workers to prevent errors. For individuals with cognitive impairments, weighing and counting tasks can be difficult or impossible. Interventions that provide sufficient feedback to workers without disabilities tend to be too subtle for workers with cognitive impairments; hence, the feedback must be enhanced. The Poka-Yoke Controller (PYC) was designed to assist individuals with counting and weighing tasks. The PYC interfaces to an Ohaus CT6000 digital scale for weighing parts and for counting parts by weight. It also interfaces to sensors and switches for object counting tasks. The PYC interfaces to a variety of programmable voice output devices so that voice feedback or prompting can be provided at specific points in the weighing or counting process. The PYC can also be interfaced to conveyor systems, indexed turntables, and other material handling systems for coordinated counting and material handling operations. In all of our applications to date, we have observed improved worker performance, improved process quality, and greater worker independence. These observed benefits have also significantly reduced the need for staff intervention. The process controller is described and three applications are presented: a weighing task and two counting applications.

  6. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  7. Examining Cognitive Processes and Drinking Urge in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Rachel L.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2018-01-01

    Despite their centrality to learning theories, strikingly little attention has been paid to the role of cognitions in efforts to understand associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine information processing pathways for trauma and alcohol information, and the effects of posttraumatic stress and trauma cue exposure on these pathways. Participants were college students (N = 232; 49% female; Mage = 19.56,SD = 1.44) categorized into three diagnostic groups based on current PTSD status determined by structured clinical interview. These students then were exposed to a personalized trauma or neutral cue script, followed by a Stroop task modified to include trauma, alcohol, and contrast words. Indices of mood and urge to drink alcohol were administered throughout the task. Findings revealed that those with PTSD who were exposed to the personalized trauma cue showed a general response slowing across all stimuli types on the Stroop task. Intriguingly, this slowing effect was significantly associated with urge to drink alcohol for only those PTSD participants who were exposed to the trauma cues. In contrast, we did not find support for the hypothesis that trauma cues would lead to attention bias to trauma and alcohol specific Stroop stimuli among participants with PTSD, nor did slower RT for specific word types predict unique variance in urge to drink alcohol. Findings suggest that individual (PTSD) and environmental (cue) circumstances may work conjointly to precipitate changes in cognitive processing - changes that may have implications for drinking motivation. Given the importance of cognition in the etiology of both PTSD and drinking, this is a mechanism that warrants further investigation. PMID:28073047

  8. Does physics instruction foster university students' cognitive processes?: A descriptive study of teacher activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Hessler, Monica G. M.; de Jong, Ton

    This study aims at giving a systematic description of the cognitive activities involved in teaching physics. Such a description of instruction in physics requires a basis in two models, that is, the cognitive activities involved in learning physics and the knowledge base that is the foundation of expertise in that subject. These models have been provided by earlier research. The model of instruction distinguishes three main categories of instruction process: presenting new information, integrating (i.e., bringing structure into) new knowledge, and connecting elements of new knowledge to prior knowledge. Each of the main categories has been divided into a number of specific instruction processes. Hereby any limited and specific cognitive teacher activity can be described along the two dimensions of process and type of knowledge. The model was validated by application to lectures and problem-solving classes of first year university courses. These were recorded and analyzed as to instruction process and type of knowledge. Results indicate that teachers are indeed involved in the various types of instruction processes defined. The importance of this study lies in the creation of a terminology that makes it possible to discuss instruction in an explicit and specific way.

  9. Medication errors in residential aged care facilities: a distributed cognition analysis of the information exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Amina; Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2013-05-01

    Medication safety is a pressing concern for residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies in RACF settings identify inadequate communication between RACFs, doctors, hospitals and community pharmacies as the major cause of medication errors. Existing literature offers limited insight about the gaps in the existing information exchange process that may lead to medication errors. The aim of this research was to explicate the cognitive distribution that underlies RACF medication ordering and delivery to identify gaps in medication-related information exchange which lead to medication errors in RACFs. The study was undertaken in three RACFs in Sydney, Australia. Data were generated through ethnographic field work over a period of five months (May-September 2011). Triangulated analysis of data primarily focused on examining the transformation and exchange of information between different media across the process. The findings of this study highlight the extensive scope and intense nature of information exchange in RACF medication ordering and delivery. Rather than attributing error to individual care providers, the explication of distributed cognition processes enabled the identification of gaps in three information exchange dimensions which potentially contribute to the occurrence of medication errors namely: (1) design of medication charts which complicates order processing and record keeping (2) lack of coordination mechanisms between participants which results in misalignment of local practices (3) reliance on restricted communication bandwidth channels mainly telephone and fax which complicates the information processing requirements. The study demonstrates how the identification of these gaps enhances understanding of medication errors in RACFs. Application of the theoretical lens of distributed cognition can assist in enhancing our understanding of medication errors in RACFs through identification of gaps in information exchange. Understanding

  10. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaric, Martin; Boutis, Kathy; Beckstead, Jason; Pusic, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online. To illustrate the big data component, they highlight the data available in a digital environment (time-stamped, click-level process data). Learning analytics were illustrated using algorithmic computer-enabled approaches to process-level feedback.For each phase, the authors were able to identify examples of potentially useful BD/LA measures. For orientation, the trackable behavior of re-reviewing the clinical history was associated with increased diagnostic accuracy. For searching/scanning, evidence of skipping views was associated with an increased false-negative rate. For feature detection, heat maps overlaid on the radiograph can provide a metacognitive visualization of common novice errors. For decision making, the measured influence of sequence effects can reflect susceptibility to bias, whereas computer-generated path maps can provide insights into learners' diagnostic strategies.In conclusion, the augmented collection and dynamic analysis of learning process data within a cognitive simulation can improve feedback and prompt more precise reflection on a novice clinician's skill development.

  11. Effect of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Holographic Reprocessing on Reduction of Posttraumatic Cognitions in Students Exposed to Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz molavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: This research was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing on the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions in students exposed to trauma. "nMethod: This was an experimental study with spread pretest-posttest randomized groups design. Statistical society of this research consisted of male freshman, junior and senior high school students of Uremia (N=10286. Utilizing Traumatic Events Screening Inventory, and SCL-90 R on 1000 randomly selected high school students, 129 students were recognized as having experienced traumatic events. Of the subjects, 60 were selected randomly. Then, clinical interview was conducted, and the selected sample was randomly assigned in to three groups of cognitive processing therapy, holographic reprocessing and control. These groups responded to Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory in pretest and post test. Differences of pre-post test scores were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Scheffe test. "nResults: The results demonstrated significant differences between the three groups in total score of the Posttraumatic Cognition Inventory. Difference was also observed in negative cognitions on self and self-blame dimensions. Furthermore, these two therapeutic methods were equally effective in the reduction of posttraumatic cognitions.   "nConclusion: It appears that cognitive processing therapy and holographic reprocessing which had been originally developed and tested for sexually assaulted females, can also be applied for the victims of other traumatic events, particularly  adolescents.

  12. Mild cognitive impairment: applicability of research criteria in a memory clinic and characterization of cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Arnold, Robert; Mitchell, Joanna; Nestor, Peter J; Hodges, John R

    2006-04-01

    We explored the applicability of recently proposed research criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a memory clinic and changes in case definition related to which memory tests are used and the status of general cognitive function in MCI. A total of 166 consecutive GP referrals to the Cambridge Memory Clinic underwent comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation. Of 166 cases, 42 were excluded (significant depression 8, established dementia 29 and other disorders 5). Of 124 non-demented, non-depressed patients, 72 fulfilled Petersen's criteria for amnestic MCI based upon verbal memory performance [the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)] and 90 met criteria if performance on verbal and/or non-verbal memory tests [the Rey figure recall or the Paired Associates Learning test (PAL)] was considered. Of the 90 broadly defined MCI cases, only 25 had pure amnesia: other subtle semantic and/or attention deficits were typically present. A further 12 were classed as non-amnestic MCI and 22 as 'worried well'. Definition of MCI varies considerably dependent upon the tests used for case definition. The majority have other cognitive deficits despite normal performance on the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and intact activities of daily living (ADL) and fit within multi-domain MCI. Pure amnesic MCI is rare.

  13. The cognitive processing of film and musical soundtracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2004-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musical soundtracks can influence the interpretation, emotional impact, and remembering of film information. The intent here was to examine how music is encoded into the cognitive system and subsequently represented relative to its accompanying visual action. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a set of music/film clips that were either congruent or incongruent in their emotional affects. Selective attending was also systematically manipulated by instructing viewers to attend to and remember the music, film, or both in tandem. The results from tune recognition, film recall, and paired discrimination tasks collectively revealed that mood-congruent pairs lead to a joint encoding of music/film information as well as an integrated memory code. Incongruent pairs, on the other hand, result in an independent encoding in which a given dimension, music or film, is only remembered well if it was selectively attended to at the time of encoding. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that tunes from mood-congruent pairs are better recognized when cued by their original scenes, while those from incongruent pairs are better remembered in the absence of scene information. These findings both support and extend the "Congruence Associationist Model" (A. J. Cohen, 2001), which addresses those cognitive mechanisms involved in the processing of music/film information.

  14. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  15. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  16. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  17. Image processing applications: From particle physics to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Citraro, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Giannetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present an embedded system for extremely efficient real-time pattern recognition execution, enabling technological advancements with both scientific and social impact. It is a compact, fast, low consumption processing unit (PU) based on a combination of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the full custom associative memory chip. The PU has been developed for real time tracking in particle physics experiments, but delivers flexible features for potential application in a wide range of fields. It has been proposed to be used in accelerated pattern matching execution for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (biomedical applications), in real time detection of space debris trails in astronomical images (space applications) and in brain emulation for image processing (cognitive image processing). We illustrate the potentiality of the PU for the new applications.

  18. Innovative Applications in Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vroom, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    program to look at applications of electron beam technology for environmental remediation was undertaken by Raychem Corporation from approximately 1992 to 1995. Early in the development cycle it was recognized that both low capital and operating costs would be the deciding factor for the viability of any processes developed. A project was initiated to develop a low cost, high power robust accelerator and liquids handling system that would operate automatically at remote locations and need little maintenance. Particular attention was paid to high electrical efficiency, high utilization of the electrons produced, simplicity of the high voltage generator and window life-time. The machine developed met the majority of the goals of the accelerator project. Basic design features will be presented. A parallel project investigating the chemistry of water remediation was also successful but pointed out the difficulties posed by small amounts of other chemical contaminants in the water that can influence the complex chemistry. The program was terminated because processing cost could never be reduced to a level where electron beam irradiation could successfully compete with demonstrated alternate water remediation technologies

  19. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  20. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Lex

    Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  1. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  2. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages.

  3. Cognitive control processes in paranoia: the impact of threat induction on strategic cognition and self-focused attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Laura; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stopa, Lusia

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical models emphasize certain cognitive processes in the maintenance of distressing paranoia. While a number of these processes have been examined in detail, the role of strategic cognition and self-focused attention remain under-researched. This study examined the deployment of cognitive strategies and self-focused attention in people with non-clinical paranoia. An experimental design was used to examine the impact of a threat activation task on these processes, in participants with high and low non-clinical paranoia. Twenty-eight people were recruited to each group, and completed measures of anxiety, paranoid cognition, strategic cognition and self-focused attention. The threat activation task was effective in increasing anxiety in people with high and low non-clinical paranoia. The high paranoia group experienced more paranoid cognitions following threat activation. This group also reported greater use of thought suppression, punishment and worry, and less use of social control strategies when under threat. No differences were found between the groups on measures of self-focused attention. This study shows that the threat activation task increased anxiety in people with high non-clinical paranoia, leading to increased paranoid thinking. The use of strategic cognition following threat activation varied dependent on level of non-clinical paranoia. If these differences are replicated in clinical groups, the strategies may be implicated in the maintenance of distressing psychosis, and may therefore be a valuable target for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.

    2016-01-01

    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  5. 7 CFR 1416.204 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.204 Section 1416.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Indemnity Program II § 1416.204 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to CCC a...

  6. 7 CFR 1709.114 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1709.114 Section 1709.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. The RUS will request applications for high energy cost grants on a competitive basis by...

  7. 7 CFR 760.1105 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 760.1105 Section 760.1105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) Participants must submit to FSA: (1) A completed application in accordance with § 760...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.703 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.703 Section 1416.703 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.703 Application process. (a) A complete application...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.103 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.103 Section 1416.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.103 Application process. (a) Applicants must submit to CCC...

  10. 7 CFR 760.907 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 760.907 Section 760.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Application process. (a) To apply for 2005-2007 LIP, submit a completed application to the administrative...

  11. 49 CFR 80.7 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 80.7 Section 80.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation CREDIT ASSISTANCE FOR SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS § 80.7 Application process. (a) Public and private applicants for credit assistance under this part...

  12. 49 CFR 262.11 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application process. 262.11 Section 262.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.11 Application process. (a) All grant applications for opportunities funded under...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.63 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1240.63 Section 1240.63 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Application process. (a) Form and fees. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the application...

  14. Levels of integration in cognitive control and sequence processing in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Korb, Franziska M; Gratton, Caterina; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control is necessary to flexibly act in changing environments. Sequence processing is needed in language comprehension to build the syntactic structure in sentences. Functional imaging studies suggest that sequence processing engages the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In contrast, cognitive control processes additionally recruit bilateral rostral lateral PFC regions. The present study aimed to investigate these two types of processes in one experimental paradigm. Sequence processing was manipulated using two different sequencing rules varying in complexity. Cognitive control was varied with different cue-sets that determined the choice of a sequencing rule. Univariate analyses revealed distinct PFC regions for the two types of processing (i.e. sequence processing: left ventrolateral PFC and cognitive control processing: bilateral dorsolateral and rostral PFC). Moreover, in a common brain network (including left lateral PFC and intraparietal sulcus) no interaction between sequence and cognitive control processing was observed. In contrast, a multivariate pattern analysis revealed an interaction of sequence and cognitive control processing, such that voxels in left lateral PFC and parietal cortex showed different tuning functions for tasks involving different sequencing and cognitive control demands. These results suggest that the difference between the process of rule selection (i.e. cognitive control) and the process of rule-based sequencing (i.e. sequence processing) find their neuronal underpinnings in distinct activation patterns in lateral PFC. Moreover, the combination of rule selection and rule sequencing can shape the response of neurons in lateral PFC and parietal cortex.

  15. Composite materials processing, applications, characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials are used as substitutions of metals/traditional materials in aerospace, automotive, civil, mechanical and other industries. The present book collects the current knowledge and recent developments in the characterization and application of composite materials. To this purpose the volume describes the outstanding properties of this class of advanced material which recommend it for various industrial applications.

  16. A content review of cognitive process measures used in pain research within adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M A; Lang, C P; Newton-John, T R O; Ehde, D M; Jensen, M P

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that measures of cognitive process may be confounded by the inclusion of items that also assess cognitive content. The primary aims of this content review were to: (1) identify the domains of cognitive processes assessed by measures used in pain research; and (2) determine if pain-specific cognitive process measures with adequate psychometric properties exist. PsychInfo, CINAHL, PsycArticles, MEDLINE, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched to identify the measures of cognitive process used in pain research. Identified measures were double coded and the measure's items were rated as: (1) cognitive content; (2) cognitive process; (3) behavioural/social; and/or (4) emotional coping/responses to pain. A total of 319 scales were identified; of these, 29 were coded as providing an un-confounded assessment of cognitive process, and 12 were pain-specific. The cognitive process domains assessed in these measures are Absorption, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, Acceptance, Rumination, Non-Judgment, and Enhancement. Pain-specific, un-confounded measures were identified for: Dissociation, Reappraisal, Distraction/Suppression, and Acceptance. Psychometric properties of all 319 scales are reported in supplementary material. To understand the importance of cognitive processes in influencing pain outcomes as well as explaining the efficacy of pain treatments, valid and pain-specific cognitive process measures that are not confounded with non-process domains (e.g., cognitive content) are needed. The findings of this content review suggest that future research focused on developing cognitive process measures is critical in order to advance our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie effective pain treatment. Many cognitive process measures used in pain research contain a 'mix' of items that assess cognitive process, cognitive content, and behavioural/emotional responses. Databases searched: PsychInfo, CINAHL, Psyc

  17. GPU applications for data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladymyrov, Mykhailo, E-mail: mykhailo.vladymyrov@cern.ch [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, Andrey [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RUS-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Tioukov, Valeri [INFN sezione di Napoli, I-80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    Modern experiments that use nuclear photoemulsion imply fast and efficient data acquisition from the emulsion can be performed. The new approaches in developing scanning systems require real-time processing of large amount of data. Methods that use Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) computing power for emulsion data processing are presented here. It is shown how the GPU-accelerated emulsion processing helped us to rise the scanning speed by factor of nine.

  18. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  19. Applicability of statistical process control techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, W.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the application of Process Control Techniques (PCTs) for the improvement of the technical performance of discrete production processes. Successful applications of these techniques, such as Statistical Process Control Techniques (SPC), can be found in the literature. However, some

  20. Application of wavelets in speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Farouk, Mohamed Hesham

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a survey on wide-spread of employing wavelets analysis  in different applications of speech processing. The author examines development and research in different application of speech processing. The book also summarizes the state of the art research on wavelet in speech processing.

  1. Mobile Learning Application Interfaces: First Steps to a Cognitive Load Aware System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning is a cognitively demanding application and more frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the nature of this use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where…

  2. Delivering cognitive processing therapy in a community health setting: The influence of Latino culture and community violence on posttraumatic cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Luana; Eustis, Elizabeth H; Dixon, Louise; Valentine, Sarah E; Borba, Christina P C; Simon, Naomi; Kaysen, Debra; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the applicability of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to addressing sequelae of a range of traumatic events, few studies have evaluated whether the treatment itself is applicable across diverse populations. The present study examined differences and similarities among non-Latino, Latino Spanish-speaking, and Latino English-speaking clients in rigid beliefs-or "stuck points"-associated with PTSD symptoms in a sample of community mental health clients. We utilized the procedures of content analysis to analyze stuck point logs and impact statements of 29 participants enrolled in a larger implementation trial for CPT. Findings indicated that the content of stuck points was similar across Latino and non-Latino clients, although fewer total stuck points were identified for Latino clients compared to non-Latino clients. Given that identification of stuck points is central to implementing CPT, difficulty identifying stuck points could pose significant challenges for implementing CPT among Latino clients and warrants further examination. Thematic analysis of impact statements revealed the importance of family, religion, and the urban context (e.g., poverty, violence exposure) in understanding how clients organize beliefs and emotions associated with trauma. Clinical recommendations for implementing CPT in community settings and the identification of stuck points are provided. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  4. Information processing speed as a mediator between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Hui F; Hamid, Tengku A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Haron, Sharifah A

    2018-01-01

    The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well. The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests. Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P cognition was found to be significant in men only, whereas the association between processing speed and global cognition was significant in men and women. Psychosocial stress may increase the likelihood that older adults will experience poor processing capacity, which could reduce their higher level cognition. Results indicate that there is a need to develop processing capacity intervention programmes for psychologically distressed older adults to prevent them from suffering cognitive decline. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan

    2012-02-01

    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  8. Investigation of Laser Welding of Ti Alloys for Cognitive Process Parameters Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding of titanium alloys is attracting increasing interest as an alternative to traditional joining techniques for industrial applications, with particular reference to the aerospace sector, where welded assemblies allow for the reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio, compared to other traditional mechanical joining techniques. In this research work, an investigation on laser welding of Ti–6Al–4V alloy plates is carried out through an experimental testing campaign, under different process conditions, in order to perform a characterization of the produced weld bead geometry, with the final aim of developing a cognitive methodology able to support decision-making about the selection of the suitable laser welding process parameters. The methodology is based on the employment of artificial neural networks able to identify correlations between the laser welding process parameters, with particular reference to the laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance, and the weld bead geometric features, on the basis of the collected experimental data.

  9. Investigation of Laser Welding of Ti Alloys for Cognitive Process Parameters Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-04-20

    Laser welding of titanium alloys is attracting increasing interest as an alternative to traditional joining techniques for industrial applications, with particular reference to the aerospace sector, where welded assemblies allow for the reduction of the buy-to-fly ratio, compared to other traditional mechanical joining techniques. In this research work, an investigation on laser welding of Ti⁻6Al⁻4V alloy plates is carried out through an experimental testing campaign, under different process conditions, in order to perform a characterization of the produced weld bead geometry, with the final aim of developing a cognitive methodology able to support decision-making about the selection of the suitable laser welding process parameters. The methodology is based on the employment of artificial neural networks able to identify correlations between the laser welding process parameters, with particular reference to the laser power, welding speed and defocusing distance, and the weld bead geometric features, on the basis of the collected experimental data.

  10. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke O. Adefolalu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adherence in chronic disease conditions is described as the extent to which a person‘s behaviour corresponds to the prescribed medical advice of the healthcare provider. This is not limited to medication intake only but also includes acts such as following instructions regarding dietary or fluid restrictions and taking medicines at the prescribed times and intervals. Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is a predictor of good clinical outcome among HIV-infected persons on ART, it is a major challenge and strict adherence is not very common. This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive-behavioural theories in antiretroviral therapy adherence Methods: After doing a thorough literature review, contemporary theories of health behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels referred to as cognitive-behavioural theories were explored. This review highlights some aspects of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical framework that could be used for organising thoughts about adherence and other health behaviours among patients on lifelong treatment such as ART. Results: Key concepts of these theories stipulate that behaviour is mediated by cognition i.e. knowledge and attitude affect the person’s action. In addition, cognitive-behavioural theories recognise knowledge alone as being insufficient to produce behavioural change; a person’s perception, motivation, skills and social environment are all influential in the process of behavioural change. Conclusion: Prediction of medication adherence is complex, and health-related knowledge and beliefs alone are insufficient to achieve behaviour change, especially in chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS. However, people can control or influence the events affecting their lives by integrating cognitive, social, and behavioural sub-skills related to beliefs of personal efficacy in performing these skills.

  11. Cognitive-behavioural theories and adherence: Application and relevance in antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefolalu, Adegoke O

    2018-01-01

    Adherence in chronic disease conditions is described as the extent to which a person's behaviour corresponds to the prescribed medical advice of the healthcare provider. This is not limited to medication intake only but also includes acts such as following instructions regarding dietary or fluid restrictions and taking medicines at the prescribed times and intervals. Although adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a predictor of good clinical outcome among HIV-infected persons on ART, it is a major challenge and strict adherence is not very common. This article aims to examine the application and relevance of some cognitive-behavioural theories in antiretroviral therapy adherence. After doing a thorough literature review, contemporary theories of health behaviour at the individual and interpersonal levels referred to as cognitive-behavioural theories were explored. This review highlights some aspects of the cognitive perspective of health behaviour theories as a good theoretical framework that could be used for organising thoughts about adherence and other health behaviours among patients on lifelong treatment such as ART. Key concepts of these theories stipulate that behaviour is mediated by cognition i.e. knowledge and attitude affect the person's action. In addition, cognitive-behavioural theories recognise knowledge alone as being insufficient to produce behavioural change; a person's perception, motivation, skills and social environment are all influential in the process of behavioural change. Prediction of medication adherence is complex, and health-related knowledge and beliefs alone are insufficient to achieve behaviour change, especially in chronic conditions such as HIV/AIDS. However, people can control or influence the events affecting their lives by integrating cognitive, social, and behavioural sub-skills related to beliefs of personal efficacy in performing these skills.

  12. Applicability of a cognitive questionnaire in the elderly and proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Areza Fegyveres

    Full Text Available Abstract The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly with the Proxy (IQCODE was developed as a screening tool for cognition alterations. Objectives: 1 To verify the applicability of IQCODE in the elderly with limited schooling, 2 To verify the reliability of the responses supplied by the aged and their proxies. Methods: Individuals of a Community Group were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, IQCODE and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. The IQCODE was applied to informants and proxies. Results: We analyzed 44 individuals, aged between 58-82 years (M=66.8, SD=5.97 with mean elderly-schooling level of 3.75, SD=2.82 and 44 proxies aged 44.5 (SD=13.3, with mean schooling level of 8.25 (SD=4.3. The mean GDS was 8.22, SD=4.90 and 13 participants presented a score suggestive of depressive symptoms. The mean elderly IQCODE score was 3.26, SD=0.69 and 3.21, SD=0.65, for proxy responses. There was no statistical difference between these means. On the MMSE, the mean score was 24.20, SD=4.14 and 18 participants presented scores below the cut-off. The IQCODE answers by the elderly in this latter group were more congruent with MMSE than the answers of proxies. Conclusions: The applicability of the IQCODE in a population with little schooling was verified in that the proxy-report was similar to the elderly report. We can affirm that the elderly answers were more accurate than the proxies, as they were closer to MMSE score. The inclusion of a greater number of participants from community-dwelling settings is necessary to confirm the results obtained in this study.

  13. Explicit and implicit cognition: a preliminary test of a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Brazy, Paige C; Shah, James Y; Teachman, Bethany A; Nosek, Brian A

    2007-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to test a dual-process theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression. According to this theory, implicit and explicit cognitive processes have differential effects on depressive reactions to stressful life events. Implicit processes are hypothesized to be critical in determining an individual's immediate affective reaction to stress whereas explicit cognitions are thought to be more involved in long-term depressive reactions. Consistent with hypotheses, the results of study 1 (cross-sectional; N=237) showed that implicit, but not explicit, cognitions predicted immediate affective reactions to a lab stressor. Study 2 (longitudinal; N=251) also supported the dual-process model of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Results showed that both the implicit and explicit measures interacted with life stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptoms, respectively. However, when both implicit and explicit predictors were entered into a regression equation simultaneously, only the explicit measure interacted with stress to remain a unique predictor of depressive symptoms over the five-week prospective interval.

  14. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Perez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1 to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2 to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3 to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  15. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L D; Venza, Erin E; Chapman, Sandra B

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28-79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations.

  16. Influential Cognitive Processes on Framing Biases in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alison M.; Spence, Jeffrey Scott; Kiel, L. D.; Venza, Erin E.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2018-01-01

    Factors that contribute to overcoming decision-making biases in later life pose an important investigational question given the increasing older adult population. Limited empirical evidence exists and the literature remains equivocal of whether increasing age is associated with elevated susceptibility to decision-making biases such as framing effects. Research into the individual differences contributing to decision-making ability may offer better understanding of the influence of age in decision-making ability. Changes in cognition underlying decision-making have been shown with increased age and may contribute to individual variability in decision-making abilities. This study had three aims; (1) to understand the influence of age on susceptibility to decision-making biases as measured by framing effects across a large, continuous age range; (2) to examine influence of cognitive abilities that change with age; and (3) to understand the influence of individual factors such as gender and education on susceptibility to framing effects. 200 individuals (28–79 years of age) were tested on a large battery of cognitive measures in the domains of executive function, memory and complex attention. Findings from this study demonstrated that cognitive abilities such as strategic control and delayed memory better predicted susceptibility to framing biases than age. The current findings demonstrate that age may not be as influential a factor in decision-making as cognitive ability and cognitive reserve. These findings motivate future studies to better characterize cognitive ability to determine decision-making susceptibilities in aging populations. PMID:29867641

  17. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B; Loewy, Rachel; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time. Lowess analysis, mixed models repeated measures analysis, and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine whether APS trajectories were moderated by age and illness duration, and mediated improvements in cognitive outcome measures. We observed significant improvements in APS from baseline to 20 hours of training (initial change), followed by a flat APS trajectory (plateau) at subsequent time-points. Participants showed interindividual variability in the steepness of the initial APS change and in the APS plateau achieved and sustained between 20 and 40 hours. We found that participants who achieved the fastest APS plateau, showed the greatest transfer effects to untrained cognitive domains. There is a significant association between an individual's ability to generate and sustain auditory processing efficiency and their degree of cognitive improvement after TCT, independent of baseline neurocognition. APS plateau may therefore represent a behavioral measure of target engagement mediating treatment response. Future studies should examine the optimal plateau of auditory processing efficiency required to induce significant cognitive improvements, in the context of interindividual differences in neural plasticity and sensory system efficiency that characterize schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Parallel processing in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Francisco Junqueira

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes some investigations on effective and scalable dynamic load-balancing mechanisms suitable for distributed-memory (loosely-coupled) MIMD systems. The selected implementation environment is composed of T800 transputers programed in the occam and C languages and an automatic routing package communication software mechanism (the virtual channel router). Tasks were generated, at execution time, using a multiple-spawning mechanism based on a set of remote procedure calls primitives. The objective is to improve maximum resource utilization. In particular, the investigation described here facilitate portability of the user application, since it concentrates on system-level load balancing mechanisms. The load-balancing mechanisms studies are also suitable for systems that can vary in size, concentrating on methods with potential for scalability. Two possible application examples, chosen from the nuclear area, where distributed-memory MIMD machines can be utilized, are mentioned. (author). 24 refs., 1 fig

  19. Cryogenics theory, processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Allyson E

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below -150 -C, -238 -F or 123 K) and the behaviour of materials at those temperatures. This book presents current research from across the globe in the study of cryogenics, including the effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of light weight alloys; the application of Fiber Bragg grating sensors at cryogenic temperatures; cryogenic grinding; liquid oxygen magnetohydrodynamics; and, genetic engineering techniques used to improve tolerance to cryopreservation.

  20. Electrospinning Materials, Processing, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wendorff, Joachim H; Greiner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bringing together the world's experts in the field, this book summarizes the state-of-the art in electrospinning with detailed coverage of the various techniques, material systems, and their resulting fiber structures and properties, theoretical aspects, and applications. Throughout the book, the current status of knowledge is introduced with a critical view on accomplishments and novel persepectives. An experimental section gives hands-on guidance to beginners and experts alike.

  1. Cognitive interference modeling with applications in power and admission control

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ø ien, Geir Egil

    2012-01-01

    One of the key design challenges in a cognitive radio network is controlling the interference generated at coexisting primary receivers. In order to design efficient cognitive radio systems and to minimize their unwanted consequences

  2. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  3. Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Processes: Implications for School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations have been found in cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. These cognitive processes improve during the day and decrease during the night and early hours of the morning. Sleep deprivation further decreases these cognitive…

  4. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  5. 7 CFR 1416.602 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.602 Section 1416.602 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Nursery Disaster Program § 1416.602 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits...

  6. 8 CFR 240.63 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 240.63 Section 240.63 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE... Cancellation of Removal Under Section 203 of Pub. L. 105-100 § 240.63 Application process. (a) Form and fees...

  7. 7 CFR 1416.403 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.403 Section 1416.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Fruit and Vegetable Disaster Program § 1416.403 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.303 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.303 Section 1416.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Citrus Disaster Program § 1416.303 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive benefits...

  9. 7 CFR 1416.503 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1416.503 Section 1416.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.503 Application process. (a) Producers wishing to receive...

  10. 7 CFR 1717.161 - Application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application process. 1717.161 Section 1717.161 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Consolidations of Electric Borrowers § 1717.161 Application process. (a) Borrowers are responsible for ensuring...

  11. 7 CFR 774.19 - Processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing applications. 774.19 Section 774.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.19 Processing applications...

  12. Cognitive Task Analysis of the Battalion Level Visualization Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leedom, Dennis K; McElroy, William; Shadrick, Scott B; Lickteig, Carl; Pokorny, Robet A; Haynes, Jacqueline A; Bell, James

    2007-01-01

    ... position or as a battalion Operations Officer or Executive Officer. Bases on findings from the cognitive task analysis, 11 skill areas were identified as potential focal points for future training development...

  13. A cognitive model for visual attention and its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a cognitive model for visual attention is introduced. The cognitive model is part of the design of a software agent that supports a naval warfare officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. An executable formal specification of the cognitive model

  14. A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Puiu F; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The "cognitive advantage" given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process.

  15. A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiu F Balan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM, to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The cognitive advantage given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR and cognitive enhancement (CE using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain’s capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process.

  16. The evolution of cognitive load theory and its application to medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leppink, Jimmie; van den Heuvel, Angelique

    Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has started to find more applications in medical education research. Unfortunately, misconceptions such as lower cognitive load always being beneficial to learning and the continued use of dated concepts and methods can result in improper applications of CLT principles in

  17. Process-driven applications with BPMN

    CERN Document Server

    Stiehl, Volker

    2014-01-01

    How can we optimize differentiating business processes and exploit their full potential? Here Volker Stiehl provides answers, utilizing the various options that the BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) standard offers for planning, implementing and monitoring processes. The book presents an approach for implementing an architecture for applications that strives to find a balance between development and maintenance costs, sustainability, scalability and fault tolerance; that meets flexibility requirements without becoming inordinately complex itself; and that keeps the end application a

  18. Cognitive Processes and Learner Strategies in the Acquisition of Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    children: Capacity or processing deficits? Memory and Cognition, 1976, 4, 559-S72. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework...learning and memory research. In F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing and theories of memory. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1978...functions. Cognitive activities are described at a highly theoretical (technical) level as well as in a pragmatic manner. Differences in processing

  19. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  20. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-11-01

    5.\tHow successful has gamification been in cognitive testing and training thus far? Method: Using several online databases, we searched the titles, abstracts and keywords of database entries using the search strategy (gamif* OR game OR games AND (cognit* OR engag* OR behavi* OR health* OR attention OR motiv*. Searches included articles published in English between January 2007 and October 2015. Non-peer reviewed studies such as abstracts or conference posters were excluded. Furthermore, due to the specific focus on cognitive assessment and training we excluded several other common uses of gamification including: gamification for education purposes, advertising purposes, disease management, health promotion, physical activity promotion, exposure therapy or rehabilitation. We also excluded studies that were merely used virtual reality or a 3D environment without involving any game mechanics: engagement had to be the primary reason for using a game-like design. Results: Our review identified 33 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and frequency of use by designers. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Gamified assessments were typically validated successfully; however the efficacy of game-like cognitive training is more difficult to interpret due to several poor quality studies. High heterogeneity of study designs and small sample sizes highlight the need for further research in both training and testing. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that gamified cognitive training is motivating for users, though not necessarily an effective intervention. Nevertheless, gamification can provide a way to develop

  1. Cognitive Radio Application for Evaluating Coexistence with Cognitive Radars: A Software User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    with both conventional wireless systems as well as other types of cognitive RF systems (e.g., cognitive radar). The radio hardware for this...the base stations are at fixed positions and often elevated and operating with relatively high power compared with mobiles, it is straightforward...for cognitive RF systems to detect the base station’s transmissions and avoid activity that would harm this downlink. By contrast, the mobile

  2. Image processing and applications based on visualizing navigation service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chyi-Wen

    2015-07-01

    When facing the "overabundant" of semantic web information, in this paper, the researcher proposes the hierarchical classification and visualizing RIA (Rich Internet Application) navigation system: Concept Map (CM) + Semantic Structure (SS) + the Knowledge on Demand (KOD) service. The aim of the Multimedia processing and empirical applications testing, was to investigating the utility and usability of this visualizing navigation strategy in web communication design, into whether it enables the user to retrieve and construct their personal knowledge or not. Furthermore, based on the segment markets theory in the Marketing model, to propose a User Interface (UI) classification strategy and formulate a set of hypermedia design principles for further UI strategy and e-learning resources in semantic web communication. These research findings: (1) Irrespective of whether the simple declarative knowledge or the complex declarative knowledge model is used, the "CM + SS + KOD navigation system" has a better cognition effect than the "Non CM + SS + KOD navigation system". However, for the" No web design experience user", the navigation system does not have an obvious cognition effect. (2) The essential of classification in semantic web communication design: Different groups of user have a diversity of preference needs and different cognitive styles in the CM + SS + KOD navigation system.

  3. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  4. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispen Murungweni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of both direct and indirect feedbacks and can be used to explore the vulnerabilities of livelihoods to identified hazards. We studied characteristics and drivers of rural livelihoods in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in southern Africa to assess the vulnerability of inhabitants to the different hazards they face. The process involved four steps: (1 surveys and interviews to identify the major livelihood types; (2 description of specific livelihood types in a system format using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs, a semi-quantitative tool that models systems based on people's knowledge; (3 linking variables and drivers in FCMs by attaching weights; and (4 defining and applying scenarios to visualize the effects of drought and changing park boundaries on cash and household food security. FCMs successfully gave information concerning the nature (increase or decrease and magnitude by which a livelihood system changed under different scenarios. However, they did not explain the recovery path in relation to time and pattern (e.g., how long it takes for cattle to return to desired numbers after a drought. Using FCMs revealed that issues of policy, such as changing situations at borders, can strongly aggravate effects of climate change such as drought. FCMs revealed hidden knowledge and gave insights that improved the understanding of the complexity of livelihood systems in a way that is better appreciated by stakeholders.

  5. Introduction [Radiation processing: Environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the world. Population growth, higher standards of living, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities all contribute to environmental degradation. For example, fossil fuels - including coal. natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen - are the main primary sources of heat and electrical energy production, and are responsible for a large number and amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry. power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. All of these fuels are composed of major constituents such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and other components including sulphur and nitrogen compounds and metals. During the combustion process, different pollutants are emitted, such as fly ash (containing diverse trace elements (heavy metals)), SO x (including SO 2 and SO 3 ). NO x (including NO 2 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollution caused by particulate matter and other pollutants not only directly impacts the atmospheric environment but also contaminates water and soil, leading to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of the environment. These phenomena have a negative impact on human health and on vegetation

  6. Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stenlund, Therese; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  7. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean

    1993-01-01

    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary

  8. Brain insulin signaling: a key component of cognitive processes and a potential basis for cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C.; Recknagel, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the role of insulin in the brain has gradually expanded, from initial conceptions of the brain as insulin-insensitive through identification of a role in regulation of feeding to recent demonstration of insulin as a key component of hippocampal memory processes. Conversely, systemic insulin resistance such as that seen in type 2 diabetes is associated with a range of cogntive and neural deficits. Here we review the evidence for insulin as a cognitive and neural modulator, including potential effector mechanisms, and examine the impact that type 2 diabetes has on these mechanisms in order to identify likely bases for the cognitive impairments seen in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:21907815

  9. Passion’s Slave? : Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processes in Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Field, M.; Stacy, A.W.; Sher, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on cognitive processes in substance use disorders from a dual-process perspective. In dual-process models, behavior is viewed as the joint outcome of "impulsive" and "reflective" processes. Reflective processes rely on a single limited capacity mechanism and can

  10. Identifying potential misfit items in cognitive process of learning engineering mathematics based on Rasch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataei, Sh; Mahmud, Z; Khalid, M N

    2014-01-01

    The students learning outcomes clarify what students should know and be able to demonstrate after completing their course. So, one of the issues on the process of teaching and learning is how to assess students' learning. This paper describes an application of the dichotomous Rasch measurement model in measuring the cognitive process of engineering students' learning of mathematics. This study provides insights into the perspective of 54 engineering students' cognitive ability in learning Calculus III based on Bloom's Taxonomy on 31 items. The results denote that some of the examination questions are either too difficult or too easy for the majority of the students. This analysis yields FIT statistics which are able to identify if there is data departure from the Rasch theoretical model. The study has identified some potential misfit items based on the measurement of ZSTD where the removal misfit item was accomplished based on the MNSQ outfit of above 1.3 or less than 0.7 logit. Therefore, it is recommended that these items be reviewed or revised to better match the range of students' ability in the respective course.

  11. Application of the cognitive therapy model to initial crisis assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Patricia; Palmer, Christine

    2003-03-01

    This article provides a background to the development of cognitive therapy and cognitive therapeutic skills with a specific focus on the treatment of a depressive episode. It discusses the utility of cognitive therapeutic strategies to the model of crisis theory and initial crisis assessment currently used by the Community Assessment & Treatment Team of Waitemata District Health Board on the North Shore of Auckland, New Zealand. A brief background to cognitive therapy is provided, followed by a comprehensive example of the use of the Socratic questioning method in guiding collaborative assessment and treatment of suicidality by nurses during the initial crisis assessment.

  12. Creative Design of Digital Cognitive Games: Application of Cognitive Toys and Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedig, Kamran; Haworth, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Digital cognitive games (DCGs) are games whose primary purpose is to mediate (i.e., support, develop, and enhance) cognitive activities such as problem solving, decision making, planning, and critical reasoning. As these games increase in popularity and usage, more attention should be paid to their design. Currently, there is a lack of design…

  13. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  14. Conceptual Transformation and Cognitive Processes in Origami Paper Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbrink, Thora; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on problem solving typically does not address tasks that involve following detailed and/or illustrated step-by-step instructions. Such tasks are not seen as cognitively challenging problems to be solved. In this paper, we challenge this assumption by analyzing verbal protocols collected during an Origami folding task. Participants…

  15. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  16. Exploring Flipped Classroom Effects on Second Language Learners' Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…

  17. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  18. Radar signal processing and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Robert; Stoica, Petre; Zelnio, Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Radar Signal Processing and Its Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In twelve selected chapters, it describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of radar signal processing. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. This work, originally published as Volume 14, Numbers 1-3 of the journal, Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing, will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of radar signal processing. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  19. Fuzzy image processing and applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to classical image analysis methods that employ ""crisp"" mathematics, fuzzy set techniques provide an elegant foundation and a set of rich methodologies for diverse image-processing tasks. However, a solid understanding of fuzzy processing requires a firm grasp of essential principles and background knowledge.Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB® presents the integral science and essential mathematics behind this exciting and dynamic branch of image processing, which is becoming increasingly important to applications in areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging,

  20. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Brouillette

    Full Text Available While considerable knowledge has been gained through the use of established cognitive and motor assessment tools, there is a considerable interest and need for the development of a battery of reliable and validated assessment tools that provide real-time and remote analysis of cognitive and motor function in the elderly. Smartphones appear to be an obvious choice for the development of these "next-generation" assessment tools for geriatric research, although to date no studies have reported on the use of smartphone-based applications for the study of cognition in the elderly. The primary focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a smartphone-based application for the assessment of cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 57 non-demented elderly individuals were administered a newly developed smartphone application-based Color-Shape Test (CST in order to determine its utility in measuring cognitive processing speed in the elderly. Validity of this novel cognitive task was assessed by correlating performance on the CST with scores on widely accepted assessments of cognitive function. Scores on the CST were significantly correlated with global cognition (Mini-Mental State Exam: r = 0.515, p<0.0001 and multiple measures of processing speed and attention (Digit Span: r = 0.427, p<0.0001; Trail Making Test: r = -0.651, p<0.00001; Digit Symbol Test: r = 0.508, p<0.0001. The CST was not correlated with naming and verbal fluency tasks (Boston Naming Test, Vegetable/Animal Naming or memory tasks (Logical Memory Test. Test re-test reliability was observed to be significant (r = 0.726; p = 0.02. Together, these data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using a smartphone-based application for the purpose of assessing cognitive function in the elderly. The importance of these findings for the establishment of smartphone-based assessment batteries

  1. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insights into numerical cognition: considering eye-fixations in number processing and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, J; Huber, S; Klein, E; Moeller, K

    2016-05-01

    Considering eye-fixation behavior is standard in reading research to investigate underlying cognitive processes. However, in numerical cognition research eye-tracking is used less often and less systematically. Nevertheless, we identified over 40 studies on this topic from the last 40 years with an increase of eye-tracking studies on numerical cognition during the last decade. Here, we review and discuss these empirical studies to evaluate the added value of eye-tracking for the investigation of number processing. Our literature review revealed that the way eye-fixation behavior is considered in numerical cognition research ranges from investigating basic perceptual aspects of processing non-symbolic and symbolic numbers, over assessing the common representational space of numbers and space, to evaluating the influence of characteristics of the base-10 place-value structure of Arabic numbers and executive control on number processing. Apart from basic results such as reading times of numbers increasing with their magnitude, studies revealed that number processing can influence domain-general processes such as attention shifting-but also the other way round. Domain-general processes such as cognitive control were found to affect number processing. In summary, eye-fixation behavior allows for new insights into both domain-specific and domain-general processes involved in number processing. Based thereon, a processing model of the temporal dynamics of numerical cognition is postulated, which distinguishes an early stage of stimulus-driven bottom-up processing from later more top-down controlled stages. Furthermore, perspectives for eye-tracking research in numerical cognition are discussed to emphasize the potential of this methodology for advancing our understanding of numerical cognition.

  3. Applying pause analysis to explore cognitive processes in the copying of sentences by second language users

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Putri Afzan Maria Binti

    2013-01-01

    Pause analysis is a method that investigates processes of writing by measuring the amount of time between pen strokes. It provides the field of second language studies with a means to explore the cognitive processes underpinning the nature of writing. This study examined the potential of using free handwritten copying of sentences as a means of investigating components of the cognitive processes of adults who have English as their Second Language (ESL).\\ud \\ud A series of one pilot and three ...

  4. Heuristic and Analytic Processing: Age Trends and Associations with Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokis, Judite V.; Macpherson, Robyn; Toplak, Maggie E.; West, Richard F.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined developmental and individual differences in tendencies to favor analytic over heuristic responses in three tasks (inductive reasoning, deduction under belief bias conditions, probabilistic reasoning) in children varying in age and cognitive ability. Found significant increases in analytic responding with development on first two tasks.…

  5. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  6. Reviewing the Role of Cognitive Load, Expertise Level, Motivation, and Unconscious Processing in Working Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Human cognitive capacity is unavailable for conscious processing of every amount of instructional messages. Aligning an instructional design with learner expertise level would allow better use of available working memory capacity in a cognitive learning task. Motivating students to learn consciously is also an essential determinant of the capacity…

  7. A Dual Coding Model of Processing Chinese as a Second Language: A Cognitive-Load Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Diana Po Lan

    2002-01-01

    The research was conducted in Sydney and Hong Kong using students, from grades 5 to 9, whose first language or teaching medium was English, learning to read Chinese as second language. According to cognitive load theory, the processing of single Chinese characters accompanied by pictures should impose extraneous cognitive load and thus hinders…

  8. Dancing Thoughts: An Examination of Children's Cognition and Creative Process in Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine children's cognition within the creative process in dance and to examine how dance making affects cognitive development in children. Data on children's thinking were gathered from fifth graders participating in an artist-in-residence program in a public school in Pennsylvania. Both the inquiry and the data…

  9. Parallel Distributed Processing at 25: Further Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; McClelland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue of "Cognitive Science" initiated on the 25th anniversary of the publication of "Parallel Distributed Processing" (PDP), a two-volume work that introduced the use of neural network models as vehicles for understanding cognition. The collection surveys the core commitments of the PDP…

  10. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  11. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  12. 7 CFR 1942.2 - Processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Processing applications. 1942.2 Section 1942.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... agency under Public Law 103-354 may be requested by the applicant under subpart B of part 1900 of this...

  13. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  14. Cognitive rehabilitation: the role of theoretical rationales and respect for the maturational process needed for our evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Leslie J

    2006-01-01

    The challenge to presenters at the Galveston Brain Injury Conference held in April 2005 was to discuss examples of the use of theory to motivate the design of treatments for cognitive deficits resulting from traumatic brain injury. This article considers the role of theoretical rationales as well as the new optimism embracing neurorehabilitation today. However, caution to respect the maturational process needed to adequately prepare treatment evidence for clinical application is affected.

  15. The Assessment of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Sensory Processing Sensitivity and Anxiety Sensitivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeil Soleymani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotional regulation strategies, sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people. Materials and Methods: Statistical population of this study was all of patients with multiple sclerosis that referred to M.S association of Iran in the tehran. Sample of this study was 30 individuals of patients with multiple sclerosis selected by available sampling method and were matched with 30 individuals of normal people. Two groups completed cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity questionnaires. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated that there is significant difference between two groups in view of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in which the mean of scores of patients with multiple sclerosis in maladaptive strategies of self- blame, catastrophizing and other blame were more than normal people and mean of scores of them in adaptive strategies of positive refocusing, positive reappraisal and putting into perspective were less than normal people. The results also indicated that there is a significant difference between two groups in anxiety sensitivity and sensory processing sensitivity. Conclusion: The most of emotional problems in patients with multiple sclerosis can be the result of more application of maladaptive strategies of cognitive emotion regulation, high sensory processing sensitivity and high anxiety sensitivity.

  16. The Application of Cognitive Therapy for Command Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alisa R.; Addington, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective treatment for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia yet there are few cognitive therapists in North America who are specialized to work with this patient population. There is a need for further dissemination of CT for schizophrenia in order to increase its…

  17. Gamification of cognitive assessment and cognitive training: A systematic review of applications, approaches and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lumsden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive tasks are typically viewed as effortful, frustrating and repetitive, and these factors may lead participants to disengage with the task at hand. This, in turn, may negatively impact our data quality and reduce any intervention effects. Gamification may provide a solution. If we can successfully import game design elements into cognitive tasks without undermining their scientific value, then we may be able improve the quality of data, increase the effectiveness of our interventions, and maximise participant engagement. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature of gamified cognitive testing and training tasks to identify where, how and why gamification has been used, and whether it has been successful. We searched several online databases, from January 2007 to January 2015, and screened 33,000 articles that matched our search terms. Our review identified 34 relevant studies, covering 31 gamified cognitive tasks used across a wide range of disorders and cognitive domains. Gamified cognitive training to relieve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms was particularly prominent. We also found that the majority of gamified cognitive tasks were validated successfully and were rated as enjoyable or engaging by the study participants. Despite this, the heterogeneity of study designs and typically small sample sizes highlights the need for further research. We describe the game mechanics used in gamified cognitive tasks, their effectiveness and how they relate to several models of player engagement. In conclusion the evidence suggests that gamification can provide a way to develop engaging and scientifically valid cognitive tasks, but that no single game can be engaging to every participant and therefore gamification is not a silver-bullet for all motivational problems in psychological research.

  18. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Sensory processing and cognitive development of preterm and full term infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ribeiro Cavalcanti Buffone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Current studies show the repercussion of sensory processing disorder in infant neurodevelopment. Little is known about the influence of these disorders in the infant’s cognitive development, however, it is known that they negatively interfere on daily life activities and remain during life course. Objective:To evaluate the relationship between sensory processing and cognitive development in infants and the association between prematurity and sensory processing in this population. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Childcare Outpatient Department of the Hospital das Clínicas, Federal Universidade de Pernambuco, from December 2009 to August 2010. The sample consisted of 182 infants from 8 to 15 months, of which 54 (29.7% were born preterm with the prematurity age correction made to 40 weeks of gestational age. We used the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants (TSFI to evaluate the sensory processing and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III to assess cognitive development. Results: There was a significantly higher frequency of at risk and deficient sensory processing among preterm infants (37% when compared to term infants (21.9%. Cognitive delay was significantly higher (8.3% in infants with at risk and deficient sensory processing when compared to those with normal sensory processing (1.5%. Conclusion: Prematurity was a risk factor for sensory processing disorder, and infants diagnosed with this disorder showed cognitive delay more frequently. Prematurity alone was not associated with cognitive delay.

  20. COMT val108/158 met genotype affects neural but not cognitive processing in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Need, Anna C; LaBar, Kevin S; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496-1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output.

  1. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  2. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling di...

  3. Cognitive processes in post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımlı, Gamze; Tosun, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) consists of a pattern of symptoms that include cognitive, affective, sensory and behavioral systems. In PTSD, the individual experiences disturbing emotions and sensations such as anxiety, panic, depression, anger, tension, high startle response and hyper-vigilance as a result of re-experiencing traumatic memories, flashbacks, attention difficulties, memory loss, nightmares and intrusive thoughts. To get rid of these emotions, he avoids all stimuli that r...

  4. Protein engineering of enzymes for process applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John M

    2013-01-01

    opportunities will be targeted on modification to enable process application. This article discusses the challenges involved in enzyme modification focused on process requirements, such as the need to fulfill reaction thermodynamics, specific activity under the required conditions, kinetics at required...... concentrations, and stability. Finally, future research directions are discussed, including the integration of biocatalysis with neighboring chemical steps....

  5. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  6. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes; La radiotherapie affecte la cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-10-15

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  7. Application of biohydrometallurgy to uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiantang

    1989-01-01

    The development on application of biohydrometallargy to uranium ore processing is briefly introduced. The device designed for oxidizing ferrous ions in solution by using biomembrane, several bacterial leaching methods and the experimental results are given in this paper. The presented biohydrometallurgical process for recovering uranium includes bacterial leaching following by adsorption using tertiary amine resin 351 and oxidation of ferrous ions in the device with biomembranes. This process brings more economical benefits for treating silicate type original ores. The prospects on application of biogydrometallyurgy to solution mining is also discussed

  8. Screening of synfuel processes for HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The aim of this study is to select for further study, the several synfuel processes which are the most attractive for application of HTGR heat and energy. In pursuing this objective, the Working Group identified 34 candidate synfuel processes, cut the number of processes to 16 in an initial screening, established 11 prime criteria with weighting factors for use in screening the remaining processes, developed a screening methodology and assumptions, collected process energy requirement information, and performed a comparative rating of the processes. As a result of this, three oil shale retorting processes, two coal liquefaction processes and one coal gasification process were selected as those of most interest for further study at this time

  9. Applications of Parallel Processing in Mobile Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of mobile banking will be represented by such applications that support mobile, Internet banking and EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer transactions in a single user interface. In such a way, the mobile banking will be able to cover all the types of applications demanded at the market level. The parallel processing of credit card bank transactions could be performed with the help of a grid network. Excluding some limitations, the grid processing offers huge opportunities to exploit the parallelism. For this reason, a lot of applications of waiting queues in grid processing were developed in the last years. Grid networks represent a distinctive and very modern field of the parallel and distributed processing.

  10. The impact of translation-memory (TM) technology on cognitive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The use of Translation-Memory (TM) technology and other translation software is bound to influence translators' cognitive processes. Unfortunately we still lack empirically founded knowledge of this. Our paper therefore presents and discusses the theoretical background, setup and preliminary...

  11. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  12. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitive study using cognitive interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  13. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was

  14. Applicant Perspectives on the Otolaryngology Residency Application Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Matthew; Pingree, Christian; Laury, Adrienne M; Bowe, Sarah N

    2017-08-01

    It has been nearly 25 years since medical students were queried regarding their perspectives on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) residency selection. Understanding this viewpoint is critical to improving the current application process. To evaluate the perceptions of 2016 OHNS residency applicants regarding the application process and offer suggestions for reform. In this cross-sectional study of anonymous online survey data, a 14-question survey was designed based on resources obtained from a computerized PubMed, Ovid, and GoogleScholar database search of the English language from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015, was conducted using the following search terms: (medical student OR applicant) AND (application OR match) AND otolaryngology. The survey was administered to 2016 OHNS residency applicants to examine 4 primary areas: current attitudes toward the match, effect of the new Otolaryngology Program Directors Organization personal statement mandate, sources of advice and information, and suggestions for improvement. In January 2016, an email was sent to 100 program directors asking them to distribute the survey to current OHNS applicants at their institution. One follow-up reminder email was sent in February 2016. A link to the survey was posted on the Otomatch.com homepage on January 28, 2016, with the last response received on March 28, 2016. Survey responses regarding the residency application process. A total of 150 of 370 residency applicants (40.5%) responded to the survey. Of these, 125 respondents (90.6%) noted applying to programs in which they had no specific interest simply to improve their chances of matching. Applicants intended to apply to more programs than they actually did (63.6 vs 60.8; r = 0.19; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.40). Program directors advised fewer applications than other sources; however, 58 respondents (38.7%) did not receive advice from a program director. A total of 121 respondents (80.7%) found online program

  15. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  16. Memory biases in remitted depression: the role of negative cognitions at explicit and automatic processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive models propose that depression is caused by dysfunctional schemas that endure beyond the depressive episode, representing vulnerability factors for recurrence. However, research testing negative cognitions linked to dysfunctional schemas in formerly depressed individuals is still scarce. Furthermore, negative cognitions are presumed to be linked to biases in recalling negative self-referent information in formerly depressed individuals, but no studies have directly tested this association. In the present study, we evaluated differences between formerly and never-depressed individuals in several experimental indices of negative cognitions and their associations with the recall of emotional self-referent material. Formerly (n = 30) and never depressed individuals (n = 40) completed measures of explicit (i.e., scrambled sentence test) and automatic (i.e., lexical decision task) processing to evaluate negative cognitions. Furthermore participants completed a self-referent incidental recall task to evaluate memory biases. Formerly compared to never depressed individuals showed greater negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing. Results also showed greater recall of negative self-referent information in formerly compared to never-depressed individuals. Finally, individual differences in negative cognitions at both explicit and automatic levels of processing predicted greater recall of negative self-referent material in formerly depressed individuals. Analyses of the relationship between explicit and automatic processing indices and memory biases were correlational and the majority of participants in both groups were women. Our findings provide evidence of negative cognitions in formerly depressed individuals at both automatic and explicit levels of processing that may confer a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for a neural dual-process account for adverse effects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Nicolas; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Colzato, Lorenza; Beste, Christian

    2018-06-09

    Advantageous effects of cognitive control are well-known, but cognitive control may also have adverse effects, for example when it suppresses the implicit processing of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings that could benefit task performance. Yet, the neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical structures associated with adverse effects of cognitive control are poorly understood. We used an extreme group approach to compare individuals who exhibit adverse effects of cognitive control to individuals who do not by combining event-related potentials (ERPs), source localization, time-frequency analysis and network analysis methods. While neurophysiological correlates of cognitive control (i.e. N2, N450, theta power and theta-mediated neuronal network efficiency) and task-set updating (P3) both reflect control demands and implicit information processing, differences in the degree of adverse cognitive control effects are associated with two independent neural mechanisms: Individuals, who show adverse behavioral effects of cognitive control, show reduced small-world properties and thus reduced efficiency in theta-modulated networks when they fail to effectively process implicit information. In contrast to this, individuals who do not display adverse control effects show enhanced task-set updating mechanism when effectively processing implicit information, which is reflected by the P3 ERP component and associated with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, BA 40) and medial frontal gyrus (MFG; BA 8). These findings suggest that implicit S-R contingencies, which benefit response selection without cognitive control, are always 'picked up', but may fail to be integrated with task representations to guide response selection. This provides evidence for a neurophysiological and functional neuroanatomical "dual-process" account of adverse cognitive control effects.

  18. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  19. Advances in cognitive-socialpersonality theory : applications to sport psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories and intervention techniques in sport psychology have a cognitive-behavioral emphasis, and sport psychologists have long been interested in individual differences. Recent developments in cognitive social personality theory offer new opportunities for understanding sport behavior. The finding of stable individual differences in situationbehavior relations has helped resolve the person-situation debate of past years, and idiographically-distinct behavioral signatures have now been ...

  20. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility: evidence for the theory of attentional inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Introzzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to discriminate the differential contribution of different inhibitory processes -perceptual, cognitive and behavioral inhibition- to switching cost effect associated with alternation cognitive tasks. A correlational design was used. Several experimental paradigms (e.g., Stop signal, visual search, Stemberg´s experimental and Simon paradigm were adapted and included in a computerized program called TAC (Introzzi & Canet Juric, 2014 to the assessment of the different cognitive processes. The final sample consisted of 45 adults (18-50 years. Perceptual and behavioral inhibition shows moderate and low correlations with attentional cost, cognitive inhibition shows no relation with flexibility and only perceptual inhibition predicts switching costs effects, suggesting that different inhibitory processes contribute differentially to switch cost. This could be interpreted as evidence to Attentional Inertia Theory main argument which postulates that inhibition plays an essential role in the ability to flexibly switch between tasks and/or representations.

  2. The Structure of Social Cognition: In(ter)dependence of Sociocognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Cook, Jennifer L; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-03

    Social cognition is a topic of enormous interest and much research, but we are far from having an agreed taxonomy or factor structure of relevant processes. The aim of this review is to outline briefly what is known about the structure of social cognition and to suggest how further progress can be made to delineate the in(ter)dependence of core sociocognitive processes. We focus in particular on several processes that have been discussed and tested together in typical and atypical (notably autism spectrum disorder) groups: imitation, biological motion, empathy, and theory of mind. We consider the domain specificity/generality of core processes in social learning, reward, and attention, and we highlight the potential relevance of dual-process theories that distinguish systems for fast/automatic and slow/effortful processing. We conclude with methodological and conceptual suggestions for future progress in uncovering the structure of social cognition.

  3. A Conceptual Model of the Cognitive Processing of Environmental Distance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montello, Daniel R.

    I review theories and research on the cognitive processing of environmental distance information by humans, particularly that acquired via direct experience in the environment. The cognitive processes I consider for acquiring and thinking about environmental distance information include working-memory, nonmediated, hybrid, and simple-retrieval processes. Based on my review of the research literature, and additional considerations about the sources of distance information and the situations in which it is used, I propose an integrative conceptual model to explain the cognitive processing of distance information that takes account of the plurality of possible processes and information sources, and describes conditions under which particular processes and sources are likely to operate. The mechanism of summing vista distances is identified as widely important in situations with good visual access to the environment. Heuristics based on time, effort, or other information are likely to play their most important role when sensory access is restricted.

  4. Application engineering for process computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.

    1975-01-01

    The variety of tasks for process computers in nuclear power stations necessitates the centralization of all production stages from the planning stage to the delivery of the finished process computer system (PRA) to the user. This so-called 'application engineering' comprises all of the activities connected with the application of the PRA: a) establishment of the PRA concept, b) project counselling, c) handling of offers, d) handling of orders, e) internal handling of orders, f) technical counselling, g) establishing of parameters, h) monitoring deadlines, i) training of customers, j) compiling an operation manual. (orig./AK) [de

  5. DATA AND PROCESSING IN DEVELOPING ECCONOMIC APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN GHENCEA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic Informatics originates in the industry economy and the electronic processing of information. A clear distinction is made between IT and economic informatics, and further between general and particular economic informatics (the particular economic informatics meaning administration, industrial informatics etc. Economic informatics is deemed to be an applicative science relating to the conception, working modality and representation of IT and communication systems, oriented towards companies which are using electronic computers. This paper pursues to integrate applications allowing the information systems to interconnect at informational level, by information sharing, and at service level, considering the control of the related processes in real time.

  6. Cognitive Radio and its Application for Next Generation Cellular and Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to Cognitive Radio, which attempts to mimic human cognition and reasoning applied to Software Defined Radio and reconfigurable radio over wireless networks.  It provides readers with significant technical and practical insights into different aspects of Cognitive Radio, starting from a basic background, the principle behind the technology, the inter-related technologies and application to cellular and vehicular networks, the technical challenges, implementation and future trends.  The discussion balances theoretical concepts and practical implementation. Wherever feasible, the different concepts explained are linked to application of the corresponding scheme in a particular wireless standard.     This book has two sections: the first section begins with an introduction to cognitive radio and discusses in detail various, inter-dependent technologies such as network coding, software-based radio, dirty RF, etc. and their relation to cognitive radio. The second section ...

  7. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Kabaywe Yumba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC. This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC and individual listeners’ responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men, aged 33–80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89, with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1 linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP, (2 linear amplification with noise reduction (NR, and (3 non-linear amplification without NR (“fast-acting compression”. The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise. We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  8. Parallel processing for fluid dynamics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of parallel processing on computational science and, in particular, on computational fluid dynamics is growing rapidly. In this paper, particular emphasis is given to developments which have occurred within the past two years. Parallel processing is defined and the reasons for its importance in high-performance computing are reviewed. Parallel computer architectures are classified according to the number and power of their processing units, their memory, and the nature of their connection scheme. Architectures which show promise for fluid dynamics applications are emphasized. Fluid dynamics problems are examined for parallelism inherent at the physical level. CFD algorithms and their mappings onto parallel architectures are discussed. Several example are presented to document the performance of fluid dynamics applications on present-generation parallel processing devices

  9. Ion exchange process: History, evolution and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Carturan, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Sglavo, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review on some aspects and applications of ion exchange process in glasses, ferroelectric and polymers in the fields of optics, nanotechnology, gas sensors and chemical strengthening. The formation of nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses, as effect of ion or laser irradiation, is discussed. A discussion on the potentialities of ion exchange process in comparison to ion implantation in optical devices and nanotechnology is also introduced. Analytical techniques applied to the study of the ion exchange process are illustrated. The studies of ion exchange process in “Natural materials” constitute the content of a specific paragraph, for applications in water cleaning. Some initial considerations on the “old age” of this technique are introduced.

  10. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N

    2014-08-01

    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5) as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling disorder and the promise for translating the neurobiological understanding into treatment advances remains largely unrealized. Here we review the neurocognitive underpinnings of gambling disorder with a view to improving prevention, treatment, and policy efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CREATIVE MEDITATION CENTERED ON NATURAL ELEMENTS: CONSEQUENCES ON COGNITIVE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores some of the effects of a creative meditation centered on a natural element (fire on different aspects of cognitive functioning, commonly associated with well-being, either positively (self-esteem, or negatively (automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. The results showed that while self-esteem improves after the creative meditation, automatic negative thinking and thought suppression do not decrease significantly. The conclusion is that the creative meditation helps in getting in touch with Self, supporting a healthy self-esteem when taking into consideration the social standards, but this also means accepting both positive and negative aspects of self, including the automatic negative thinking and thought suppression. This recommends the technique as a useful tool for psychotherapeutic and personal development use, as the vulnerabilities may become the focus without unnecessary self-blame, but with an intuitive solution in mind to turn them into personal resources.

  13. Cognition About the Creative Process – Interview With Dr Andrew P. Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between the creative process and cognition and perception? Lynda Loughnane, a master’s student in Art and Process in Crawford College of Art and Design, Cork, Ireland interviewed Dr Andrew P. Allen about the subject. Areas covered include mindfulness, Type 1 and Type 2 thinking, stage theories of creativity, engagement with the art process and the artwork, phenomenology and consciousness with and without self report. The interview was constructed to cover a wide range of subject matter, so as to gather as much information as possible in layman's language about the cognitive process in relation to creativity and interaction with art.

  14. When cognitive biases lead to business process management issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razavian, M.; Turetken, O.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Dumas, M.; Fantinato, M.

    2017-01-01

    There is a broad consensus that design decision making is important for Business Process Management success. Despite many business process design approaches and practices that are available, the quality of business process analysis and design relies heavily on human factors. Some of these factors

  15. Cognitive Structures in Vocational Information Processing and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Dorothy D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Tested the assumptions that the structural features of vocational schemas affect vocational information processing and career self-efficacy. Results indicated that effective vocational information processing was facilitated by well-integrated systems that processed information along fewer dimensions. The importance of schematic organization on the…

  16. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants' neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward.

  17. Concept of a cognitive-numeric plant and process modelizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterkind, D.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve automatic modeling of plant distrubances and failure limitation procedures, first the system's hardware and the present media (water, steam, coolant fluid) are formalized into fully computable matrices, called topographies. Secondly a microscopic cellular automation model, using lattice gases and state transition rules, is combined with a semi - microscopic cellular process model and with a macroscopic model, too. In doing this, at semi-microscopic level there are acting a cellular data compressor, a feature detection device and the Intelligent Physical Element's process dynamics. At macroscopic level the Walking Process Elements, a process evolving module, a test-and-manage device and abstracting process net are involved. Additionally, a diagnosis-coordinating and a counter measurements coordinating device are used. In order to automatically get process insights, object transformations, elementary process functions and associative methods are used. Developments of optoelectronic hardware language components are under consideration

  18. Stagewise cognitive development: an application of catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, H L; Molenaar, P C

    1992-07-01

    In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria correspond to distinct methods used in cognitive developmental research. Such criteria are, for instance, the detection of spurts in development, bimodality of test scores, and increased variability of responses during transitional periods. When a genuine stage transition is present, these criteria are expected to be satisfied. A revised catastrophe model accommodating these criteria is proposed for the stage transition in cognitive development from the preoperational to the concrete operational stage.

  19. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition –the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships– is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger’s syndrome (AS (DSM-V. However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a assess multiple social cognition domains, (b examine executive functions, (c follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012 addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients’ performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia. Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

  20. Digital Learning As Enhanced Learning Processing? Cognitive Evidence for New insight of Smart Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Dina; Ranieri, Jessica; Lacasa, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Large use of technology improved quality of life across aging and favoring the development of digital skills. Digital skills can be considered an enhancing to human cognitive activities. New research trend is about the impact of the technology in the elaboration information processing of the children. We wanted to analyze the influence of technology in early age evaluating the impact on cognition. We investigated the performance of a sample composed of n. 191 children in school age distributed in two groups as users: high digital users and low digital users. We measured the verbal and visuoperceptual cognitive performance of children by n. 8 standardized psychological tests and ad hoc self-report questionnaire. Results have evidenced the influence of digital exposition on cognitive development: the cognitive performance is looked enhanced and better developed: high digital users performed better in naming, semantic, visual memory and logical reasoning tasks. Our finding confirms the data present in literature and suggests the strong impact of the technology using not only in the social, educational and quality of life of the people, but also it outlines the functionality and the effect of the digital exposition in early age; increased cognitive abilities of the children tailor digital skilled generation with enhanced cognitive processing toward to smart learning.

  1. Enactivism, Radical Enactivism and Predictive Processing: What is Radical in Cognitive Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gärtner Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Enactivism, cognition should be understood in terms of a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. Further, this view holds that organisms do not passively receive information from this environment, they rather selectively create this environment by engaging in interaction with the world. Radical Enactivism adds that basic cognition does so without entertaining representations and hence that representations are not an essential constituent of cognition. Some proponents think that getting rid of representations amounts to a revolutionary alternative to standard views about cognition. To emphasize the impact, they claim that this ‘radicalization’ should be applied to all enactivist friendly views, including, another current and potentially revolutionary approach to cognition: predictive processing. In this paper, we will show that this is not the case. After introducing the problem (section 2, we will argue (section 3 that ‘radicalizing’ predictive processing does not add any value to this approach. After this (section 4, we will analyze whether or not radical Enactivism can count as a revolution within cognitive science at all and conclude that it cannot. Finally, in section 5 we will claim that cognitive science is better off when embracing heterogeneity.

  2. The Application of Teacher Cognition in the Classroom: A New Teaching Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the role of teacher cognition in teaching and critically examines methods of its assessment. Research investigations of three aspects of teachers' thought processes that may have implications for educational practice are examined. The inclusion of cognitive competencies in a teacher's repertoire of skills is discussed. (IAH)

  3. 7 CFR 1942.104 - Application processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Application processing. 1942.104 Section 1942.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... with subpart B of part 1900 of this chapter. The following statement will also be made on all...

  4. Application of Fuzzy theory with neutral network and cognitive map on decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hla Aung; Tin Maung

    2001-01-01

    The format reasoning involves establishment of causal relationships among concepts. These are commonly represented by cognitive maps. However, the concepts and their relationships could be fuzzy. In this paper we review some properties of fuzzy cognitive maps. This paper shows that one of the solutions is to introduce the idea of disconcepts along with concepts to arrive at reasonings that are intuitively satisfying. A neutral network architecture based on associative memory and a framework for fuzzy cognitive maps based knowledge processing tool has also been proposed. The proposed method is tested on a cognitive map of a publishing company. (author)

  5. Integrating automatic and controlled processes into neurocognitive models of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Ajay B; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2006-03-24

    Interest in the neural systems underlying social perception has expanded tremendously over the past few decades. However, gaps between behavioral literatures in social perception and neuroscience are still abundant. In this article, we apply the concept of dual-process models to neural systems in an effort to bridge the gap between many of these behavioral studies and neural systems underlying social perception. We describe and provide support for a neural division between reflexive and reflective systems. Reflexive systems correspond to automatic processes and include the amygdala, basal ganglia, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex. Reflective systems correspond to controlled processes and include lateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe region. This framework is considered to be a working model rather than a finished product. Finally, the utility of this model and its application to other social cognitive domains such as Theory of Mind are discussed.

  6. Cognitive processing for step precision increases beta and gamma band modulation during overground walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Arguissain, Federico Gabriel; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (N...... activity in cognitive, motor and sensorimotor areas may be relevant to produce patterned and safe locomotion through challenging paths.......The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive processing for defining step precision during walking could induce changes in electrocortical activity. Ten healthy adults (21-36 years) were asked to walk overground in three different conditions: (1) normal walking in a straight path (NW....../sensorimotor regions, a phase in the gait cycle in which participants define the correct foot placement for the next step. These results suggest that greater cognitive demands during precision stepping influences electrocortical dynamics especially towards step transitions. Therefore, increased electrocortical...

  7. Journaling about stressful events: effects of cognitive processing and emotional expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    The effects of two journaling interventions, one focusing on emotional expression and the other on both cognitive processing and emotional expression, were compared during 1 month of journaling about a stressful or traumatic event. One hundred twenty-two students were randomly assigned to one of three writing conditions: (a) focusing on emotions related to a trauma or stressor, (b) focusing on cognitions and emotions related to a trauma or stressor, or (c) writing factually about media events. Writers focusing on cognitions and emotions developed greater awareness of the positive benefits of the stressful event than the other two groups. This effect was apparently mediated by greater cognitive processing during writing. Writers focusing on emotions alone reported more severe illness symptoms during the study than those in other conditions. This effect appeared to be mediated by a greater focus on negative emotional expression during writing.

  8. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M.; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD:…

  9. Effects of attribute framing on cognitive processing and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaas, Bård; Selart, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Whereas there is extensive documentation that attribute framing influences the content of people’s thought, we generally know less about how it affects the processes assumed to precede those thoughts. While existing explanations for attribute framing effects rely completely on valence-based associative processing, the results obtained in the present study are also consistent with the notion that negative framing stimulates more effortful and thorough information processing than positive frami...

  10. HTR's role in process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    Advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors create a number of new opportunities for nuclear process heat applications. These opportunities are based on the high-temperature heat available, smaller reactor sizes, and enhanced safety features that allow siting close to process plants. Major sources of value include the displacement of premium fuels and the elimination of CO 2 emissions from combustion of conventional fuels and their use to produce hydrogen. High value applications include steam production and cogeneration, steam methane reforming, and water splitting. Market entry by advanced high-temperature reactor technology is challenged by the evolution of nuclear licensing requirements in countries targeted for early applications, by the development of a customer base not familiar with nuclear technology and related issues, by convergence of oil industry and nuclear industry risk management, by development of public and government policy support, by resolution of nuclear waste and proliferation concerns, and by the development of new business entities and business models to support commercialization. New HTR designs may see a larger opportunity in process heat niche applications than in power given competition from larger advanced light water reactors. Technology development is required in many areas to enable these new applications, including the commercialization of new heat exchangers capable of operating at high temperatures and pressures, convective process reactors and suitable catalysts, water splitting system and component designs, and other process-side requirements. Key forces that will shape these markets include future fuel availability and pricing, implementation and monetization of CO 2 emission limits, and the formation of international energy and environmental policy that will support initiatives to provide the nuclear licensing frameworks and risk distribution needed to support private investment. This paper was developed based on a plenary

  11. The Effect of an Enrichment Reading Program on the Cognitive Processes and Neural Structures of Children Having Reading Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gül KURUYER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to explain the effect of an enrichment reading program on the cognitive processes and neural structures of children experiencing reading difficulties. The current study was carried out in line with a single-subject research method and the between-subjects multiple probe design belonging to this method. This research focuses on a group of eight students with reading difficulties. Within the context of the study, memory capacities, attention spans, reading-related activation and white matter pathways of the students were determined before and after the application of the enrichment reading program. This determination process was carried out in two stages. Neuro-imaging was performed in the first stage and in the second stage the students’ cognitive processes and neural structures were investigated in terms of focusing attention and memory capacities by using the following tools: Stroop Test TBAG Form, Auditory Verbal Digit Span Test-Form B, Cancellation Test and Number Order Learning Test. The results obtained show that the enrichment reading program resulted in an improvement in the reading profiles of the students having reading difficulties in terms of their cognitive processes and neural structures.

  12. Selective visual attention to drive cognitive brain machine interfaces: from concepts to neurofeedback and rehabilitation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine eAstrand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI using motor cortical activity to drive an external effector like a screen cursor or a robotic arm have seen enormous success and proven their great rehabilitation potential. An emerging parallel effort is now directed to BMIs controlled by endogenous cognitive activity, also called cognitive BMIs. While more challenging, this approach opens new dimensions to the rehabilitation of cognitive disorders. In the present work, we focus on BMIs driven by visuospatial attention signals and we provide a critical review of these studies in the light of the accumulated knowledge about the psychophysics, anatomy and neurophysiology of visual spatial attention. Importantly, we provide a unique comparative overview of the several studies, ranging from noninvasive to invasive human and non-human primates studies, that decode attention-related information from ongoing neuronal activity. We discuss these studies in the light of the challenges attention-driven cognitive BMIs have to face. In a second part of the review, we discuss past and current attention-based neurofeedback studies, describing both the covert effects of neurofeedback onto neuronal activity and its overt behavioral effects. Importantly, we compare neurofeedback studies based on the amplitude of cortical activity to studies based on the enhancement of cortical information content. Last, we discuss several lines of future research and applications for attention-driven cognitive BCIs, including the rehabilitation of cognitive deficits, restored communication in locked-in patients, and open-field applications for enhanced cognition in normal subjects. The core motivation of this work is the key idea that the improvement of current cognitive BMIs for therapeutic and open field applications needs to be grounded in a proper interdisciplinary understanding of the physiology of the cognitive function of interest, be it spatial attention, working memory or any other

  13. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  14. EEG-based cognitive load of processing events in 3D virtual worlds is lower than processing events in 2D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Interacting with 2D displays, such as computer screens, smartphones, and TV, is currently a part of our daily routine; however, our visual system is built for processing 3D worlds. We examined the cognitive load associated with a simple and a complex task of learning paper-folding (origami) by observing 2D or stereoscopic 3D displays. While connected to an electroencephalogram (EEG) system, participants watched a 2D video of an instructor demonstrating the paper-folding tasks, followed by a stereoscopic 3D projection of the same instructor (a digital avatar) illustrating identical tasks. We recorded the power of alpha and theta oscillations and calculated the cognitive load index (CLI) as the ratio of the average power of frontal theta (Fz.) and parietal alpha (Pz). The results showed a significantly higher cognitive load index associated with processing the 2D projection as compared to the 3D projection; additionally, changes in the average theta Fz power were larger for the 2D conditions as compared to the 3D conditions, while alpha average Pz power values were similar for 2D and 3D conditions for the less complex task and higher in the 3D state for the more complex task. The cognitive load index was lower for the easier task and higher for the more complex task in 2D and 3D. In addition, participants with lower spatial abilities benefited more from the 3D compared to the 2D display. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive processing associated with 2D and 3D worlds and for employing stereoscopic 3D technology over 2D displays in designing emerging virtual and augmented reality applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping in Livelihood Vulnerability Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Andersson, J.A.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback mechanisms are important in the analysis of vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems, as well as in the analysis of livelihoods, but how to evaluate systems with direct feedbacks has been a great challenge. We applied fuzzy cognitive mapping, a tool that allows analysis of

  16. Piagetian Cognitive Development and Primary Process Thinking in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulach, James S.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-seven middle-class white children, ages 5-8, were tested on eight Piagetian tasks and the Rorschach test, and divided into preoperational, transitional, and concrete operational groups. Measures of primary process vs. secondary process thinking were found to be related to the Piagetian stages of development. (GDC)

  17. The Role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in Cognitive Control Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Purificación; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:26648901

  18. The role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in cognitive control processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación eCheca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI in individuals’ cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed

  19. Deconstructing the sensation of pain: The influence of cognitive processes on pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, Katja

    2016-11-04

    Phenomena such as placebo analgesia or pain relief through distraction highlight the powerful influence cognitive processes and learning mechanisms have on the way we perceive pain. Although contemporary models of pain acknowledge that pain is not a direct readout of nociceptive input, the neuronal processes underlying cognitive modulation are not yet fully understood. Modern concepts of perception-which include computational modeling to quantify the influence of cognitive processes-suggest that perception is critically determined by expectations and their modification through learning. Research on pain has just begun to embrace this view. Insights into these processes promise to open up new avenues to pain prevention and treatment by harnessing the power of the mind. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. The relative contributions of processing speed and cognitive load to working memory accuracy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Lengenfelder, Jean; Moore, Nancy B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include processing-speed deficits and working memory impairment. The precise manner in which these deficits interact in individuals with MS remains to be explicated. We hypothesized that providing more time on a complex working memory task would result in performance benefits for individuals with MS relative to healthy controls. Fifty-three individuals with clinically definite MS and 36 matched healthy controls performed a computerized task that systematically manipulated cognitive load. The interval between stimuli presentations was manipulated to provide increasing processing time. The results confirmed that individuals with MS who have processing-speed deficits significantly improve in performance accuracy when given additional time to process the information in working memory. Implications of these findings for developing appropriate cognitive rehabilitation interventions are discussed.

  1. Evidence for shared cognitive processing of pitch in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Fedorenko, Evelina G; Vinke, Louis; Gibson, Edward; Dilley, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Language and music epitomize the complex representational and computational capacities of the human mind. Strikingly similar in their structural and expressive features, a longstanding question is whether the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these abilities are shared or distinct--either from each other or from other mental processes. One prominent feature shared between language and music is signal encoding using pitch, conveying pragmatics and semantics in language and melody in music. We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals' pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions. These results provide behavioral evidence, based on patterns of individual differences, that is consistent with the hypothesis that cognitive mechanisms for pitch processing may be shared between language and music.

  2. Analogical Reasoning in the Engineering Design Process and Technology Education Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jenny; Mentzer, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    This synthesis paper discusses the research exploring analogical reasoning, the role of analogies in the engineering design process, and educational applications for analogical reasoning. Researchers have discovered that analogical reasoning is often a fundamental cognitive tool in design problem solving. Regarding the possible role of analogical…

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Benjamin T; Oehlert, Mary E; Krieshok, Thomas S; Lichtenberg, James W

    2018-04-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in conditions reflective of current clinical practice within the Veterans Health Administration. Method This study involved a retrospective review of 2030 charts. A total of 750 veterans from 10 U.S. states who received cognitive processing therapy or prolonged exposure in individual psychotherapy were included in the study (participants in cognitive processing therapy, N = 376; participants in prolonged exposure, N = 374). The main dependent variable was self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as measured by total scores on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The study used multilevel modeling to evaluate the absolute and relative effectiveness of both treatments and determine the relationship between patient-level variables and total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores during treatment. Results Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were equally effective at reducing total Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist scores. Veterans who completed therapy reported significantly larger reductions in the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist than patients who did not complete therapy. There were no significant differences in the improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with respect to age and three racial/ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure were shown to be effective in conditions highly reflective of clinical practice and with a highly diverse sample of veterans. Challenges related to dropout from trauma focused therapy should continue to be researched.

  4. Neuro-cognition and social-cognition: application to exercise rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sooyeon

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons has been recognized as one of the major developments in neuroscience, with possible implications for the explanation of many important cognitive functions, including action and perception understanding, imitation, and empathy. In the mirror neuron system, action observation, imitation, and empathy are represented in the same basic motor circuit as action execution. The present paper presents basic neurophysiological findings about mirror neuron system and discu...

  5. Some applications on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oros, C.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art in laser material processing for a large types of lasers from IR (CO 2 laser, NdYAG laser) to UV (excimer laser) and different kinds of materials (metals, dielectrics) is given. Laser radiation has found a wide range of applications as machining tool for various kinds of materials processing. The machining geometry, the work piece geometry, the material properties and economic productivity claim for customized systems with special design for beam guiding, shaping and delivery in order to fully utilize the laser radiation for surface processing with optimum efficiency, maximum processing speed and high processing quality. The laser-material interaction involves complex processes of heating, melting, vaporization, ejection of atoms, ions, and molecules, shock waves, plasma initiation and plasma expansion. The interaction is dependent on the laser beam parameters (pulse duration, energy and wavelength), the solid target properties and the surrounding environments condition. Experimental results for laser surface melting and laser ablation are given. Also, assuming the applicability of a one dimensional model for short pulses used, and restricting condition to single-pulse exposure, the temperature rise on the target was calculated taking account of the finite optical absorption depth and pulse duration of the laser

  6. Finite Markov processes and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifescu, Marius

    2007-01-01

    A self-contained treatment of finite Markov chains and processes, this text covers both theory and applications. Author Marius Iosifescu, vice president of the Romanian Academy and director of its Center for Mathematical Statistics, begins with a review of relevant aspects of probability theory and linear algebra. Experienced readers may start with the second chapter, a treatment of fundamental concepts of homogeneous finite Markov chain theory that offers examples of applicable models.The text advances to studies of two basic types of homogeneous finite Markov chains: absorbing and ergodic ch

  7. Computer performance optimization systems, applications, processes

    CERN Document Server

    Osterhage, Wolfgang W

    2013-01-01

    Computing power performance was important at times when hardware was still expensive, because hardware had to be put to the best use. Later on this criterion was no longer critical, since hardware had become inexpensive. Meanwhile, however, people have realized that performance again plays a significant role, because of the major drain on system resources involved in developing complex applications. This book distinguishes between three levels of performance optimization: the system level, application level and business processes level. On each, optimizations can be achieved and cost-cutting p

  8. Cognitive Modeling and Task Analysis: Basic Processes and Individual Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    ... in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task conditions selected were those that involve basic processes of working memory, task monitoring, and differential loads on spatial reasoning and speed of perceiving...

  9. Cognitive Processes in Close Relationships: Recent Findings and Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that coinciding with recent growth of professional interest in relationship counseling has been emergence of important research on cognitive processes of persons in close relationships. Reviews selected findings from this literature which illuminates attributional, self-evaluation, and self-verification processes of participants in close…

  10. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  11. Image processing in radiology. Current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Bartolozzi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Few fields have witnessed such impressive advances as image processing in radiology. The progress achieved has revolutionized diagnosis and greatly facilitated treatment selection and accurate planning of procedures. This book, written by leading experts from many countries, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of how to use 2D and 3D processing tools in clinical radiology. The first section covers a wide range of technical aspects in an informative way. This is followed by the main section, in which the principal clinical applications are described and discussed in depth. To complete the picture, a third section focuses on various special topics. The book will be invaluable to radiologists of any subspecialty who work with CT and MRI and would like to exploit the advantages of image processing techniques. It also addresses the needs of radiographers who cooperate with clinical radiologists and should improve their ability to generate the appropriate 2D and 3D processing. (orig.)

  12. Cognitive model of image interpretation for artificial intelligence applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S.

    1988-01-01

    A cognitive model of imaging diagnosis was devised to aid in the development of expert systems that assist in the interpretation of diagnostic images. In this cognitive model, a small set of observations that are strongly predictive of a particular diagnosis lead to a search for other observations that would support this diagnosis but are not necessarily specific for it. Then a set of alternative diagnoses is considered. This is followed by a search for observations that might allow differentiation of the primary diagnostic consideration from the alternatives. The production rules needed to implement this model can be classified into three major categories, each of which have certain general characteristics. Knowledge of these characteristics simplifies the development of these expert systems

  13. Self-supervised, mobile-application based cognitive training of auditory attention: A behavioral and fMRI evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. Bless

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence of the validity of collecting data in natural settings using smartphone applications has opened new possibilities for psychological assessment, treatment, and research. In this study we explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using a mobile application for self-supervised training of auditory attention. In addition, we investigated the neural underpinnings of the training procedure with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, as well as possible transfer effects to untrained cognitive interference tasks. Subjects in the training group performed the training task on an iPod touch two times a day (morning/evening for three weeks; subjects in the control group received no training, but were tested at the same time interval as the training group. Behavioral responses were measured before and after the training period in both groups, together with measures of task-related neural activations by fMRI. The results showed an expected performance increase after training that corresponded to activation decreases in brain regions associated with selective auditory processing (left posterior temporal gyrus and executive functions (right middle frontal gyrus, indicating more efficient processing in task-related neural networks after training. Our study suggests that cognitive training delivered via mobile applications is feasible and improves the ability to focus attention with corresponding effects on neural plasticity. Future research should focus on the clinical benefits of mobile cognitive training. Limitations of the study are discussed including reduced experimental control and lack of transfer effects.

  14. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  15. NFC Enabled Smartphone Application For Instant Cognitive Support

    OpenAIRE

    Majoka, Muhammad Asif; Tahir, Naveed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Context: Advancement in mobile technology is truth of this Century. Mobile phone is used mainly for calling and Short Message Service, but Smartphone are advanced form of mobile phone which have multiple features. Smartphone can have Global Positioning System, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and Near Field Communication like features. These Smartphone devices are designed considering general public and can be difficult to use by people with limited cognition. But proper use of Smartphone features w...

  16. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  17. Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive bias modification on emotional vulnerability†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Ben; MacLeod, Colin; Rudaizky, Daniel; Holmes, Emily A; Salemink, Elske; Fox, Elaine; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-11-01

    If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al 's conclusions in light of these findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  18. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  19. Atmospheric plasma processes for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval, Volodymyr

    2012-01-01

    Plasma chemistry is a rapidly growing field which covers applications ranging from technological processing of materials, including biological tissues, to environmental remediation and energy production. The so called atmospheric plasma, produced by electric corona or dielectric barrier discharges in a gas at atmospheric pressure, is particularly attractive for the low costs and ease of operation and maintenance involved. The high concentrations of energetic and chemically active species (e.g...

  20. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs.

  1. Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

  2. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    and slower information processing capacities, however, might favor model-free strategies. Thus, the valence and preference of either system strongly depends on stressful experiences and individual cognitive capacities.

  3. The Development from Effortful to Automatic Processing in Mathematical Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Daniel B.; And Others

    This investigation capitalizes upon the information processing models that depend upon measurement of latency of response to a mathematical problem and the decomposition of reaction time (RT). Simple two term addition problems were presented with possible solutions for true-false verification, and accuracy and RT to response were recorded. Total…

  4. Motivation, Cognitive Processing and Achievement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Marjon

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report questionnaire on three different occasions. The…

  5. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  6. Motivation, cognitive processing and achievement in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the question of whether a student's expectancy, values and negative affect influenced their deep information processing approach and achievement at the end of the first and second academic year. Five hundred and sixty-five first-year students completed a self-report

  7. Applications of Radiation Processing in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing has long been known as commercially viable technology that can be beneficially used to enhance the characteristics of many materials. Several gamma irradiators and electron beam accelerators are operating worldwide which are utilized for various established industrial applications. These could be used for the following processes: a) radiation crosslinking e.g. crosslinking of wires and cables, heat shrinkable film and tube productions, manufacture of plastic bags and tubings for medical products, pre-curing of automobile tire components, curing of polymeric coatings, etc. b) radiation degradation e.g. Scrap Teflon (Polytetraflouroethylene) to form powders, disinfestations and pasteurization of agricultural products, sterilization of medical products, etc.; and c) radiation grafting e.g. grafted non-woven fabrics for metal adsorbent. Emerging applications for radiation processing include grafted membranes for fuel cell, electrodes, cell sheet for tissue engineering, nanoparticle production, polymer composite synthesis, and fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production. Current researches at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute consist of crosslinking of natural and synthetic polymers for medical application e.g. wound dressing, hemostats, and bioimplants for vesicouretal reflux (VUR); grafting of natural and synthetic fabrics for metal adsorbents; and radiation degradation of carrageenan as plant growth promoter. (author)

  8. Cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Yves; Borghgraef, Cindy; Beguin, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Devos, Martine; Doyen, Chantal; Dubruille, Stéphanie; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Liénard, Aurore; Merckaert, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Straetmans, Nicole; Van Den Neste, Eric; Bron, Dominique; Razavi, Darius

    2017-12-01

    Despite the well-known negative impacts of cancer and anticancer therapies on cognitive performance, little is known about the cognitive compensatory processes of older patients with cancer. This study was designed to investigate the cognitive compensatory processes of older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. We assessed 89 consecutive patients (age ≥ 65 y) without severe cognitive impairment and 89 age-, sex-, and education level-matched healthy controls. Cognitive compensatory processes were investigated by (1) comparing cognitive performance of patients and healthy controls in novel (first exposure to cognitive tasks) and non-novel (second exposure to the same cognitive tasks) contexts, and (2) assessing psychological factors that may facilitate or inhibit cognitive performance, such as motivation, psychological distress, and perceived cognitive performance. We assessed cognitive performance with the Trail-Making, Digit Span and FCSR-IR tests, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perceived cognitive performance with the FACT-Cog questionnaire. In novel and non-novel contexts, average cognitive performances of healthy controls were higher than those of patients and were associated with motivation. Cognitive performance of patients was not associated with investigated psychological factors in the novel context but was associated with motivation and psychological distress in the non-novel context. Older, clinically fit patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy demonstrated lower cognitive compensatory processes compared to healthy controls. Reducing distress and increasing motivation may improve cognitive compensatory processes of patients in non-novel contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Modeling the Covariance Structure of Complex Datasets Using Cognitive Models: An Application to Individual Differences and the Heritability of Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan J; Steyvers, Mark; Brown, Scott D

    2018-06-05

    Understanding individual differences in cognitive performance is an important part of understanding how variations in underlying cognitive processes can result in variations in task performance. However, the exploration of individual differences in the components of the decision process-such as cognitive processing speed, response caution, and motor execution speed-in previous research has been limited. Here, we assess the heritability of the components of the decision process, with heritability having been a common aspect of individual differences research within other areas of cognition. Importantly, a limitation of previous work on cognitive heritability is the underlying assumption that variability in response times solely reflects variability in the speed of cognitive processing. This assumption has been problematic in other domains, due to the confounding effects of caution and motor execution speed on observed response times. We extend a cognitive model of decision-making to account for relatedness structure in a twin study paradigm. This approach can separately quantify different contributions to the heritability of response time. Using data from the Human Connectome Project, we find strong evidence for the heritability of response caution, and more ambiguous evidence for the heritability of cognitive processing speed and motor execution speed. Our study suggests that the assumption made in previous studies-that the heritability of cognitive ability is based on cognitive processing speed-may be incorrect. More generally, our methodology provides a useful avenue for future research in complex data that aims to analyze cognitive traits across different sources of related data, whether the relation is between people, tasks, experimental phases, or methods of measurement. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Neural information processing in cognition: we start to understand the orchestra, but where is the conductor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther ePalm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article.

  11. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  12. Cognitive load privileges memory-based over data-driven processing, not group-level over person-level processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorich, Daniel P; Mavor, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    In the current paper, we argue that categorization and individuation, as traditionally discussed and as experimentally operationalized, are defined in terms of two confounded underlying dimensions: a person/group dimension and a memory-based/data-driven dimension. In a series of three experiments, we unconfound these dimensions and impose a cognitive load. Across the three experiments, two with laboratory-created targets and one with participants' friends as the target, we demonstrate that cognitive load privileges memory-based over data-driven processing, not group- over person-level processing. We discuss the results in terms of their implications for conceptualizations of the categorization/individuation distinction, for the equivalence of person and group processes, for the ultimate 'purpose' and meaningfulness of group-based perception and, fundamentally, for the process of categorization, broadly defined. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Using EEG/MEG Data of Cognitive Processes in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, David

    2008-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim at providing a non-muscular channel for sending commands to the external world using electroencephalographic (EEG) and, more recently, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of the brain function. Most of the current implementations of BCIs rely on EEG/MEG data of motor activities as such neural processes are well characterized, while the use of data related to cognitive activities has been neglected due to its intrinsic complexity. However, cognitive data usually has larger amplitude, lasts longer and, in some cases, cognitive brain signals are easier to control at will than motor signals. This paper briefy reviews the use of EEG/MEG data of cognitive processes in the implementation of BCIs. Specifically, this paper reviews some of the neuromechanisms, signal features, and processing methods involved. This paper also refers to some of the author's work in the area of detection and classifcation of cognitive signals for BCIs using variability enhancement, parametric modeling, and spatial fltering, as well as recent developments in BCI performance evaluation

  14. Neural processing associated with cognitive and affective Theory of Mind in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Catherine L; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Brito, Stephane A De; McCrory, Eamon J P; Viding, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute thoughts, intentions and beliefs to others. This involves component processes, including cognitive perspective taking (cognitive ToM) and understanding emotions (affective ToM). This study assessed the distinction and overlap of neural processes involved in these respective components, and also investigated their development between adolescence and adulthood. While data suggest that ToM develops between adolescence and adulthood, these populations have not been compared on cognitive and affective ToM domains. Using fMRI with 15 adolescent (aged 11-16 years) and 15 adult (aged 24-40 years) males, we assessed neural responses during cartoon vignettes requiring cognitive ToM, affective ToM or physical causality comprehension (control). An additional aim was to explore relationships between fMRI data and self-reported empathy. Both cognitive and affective ToM conditions were associated with neural responses in the classic ToM network across both groups, although only affective ToM recruited medial/ventromedial PFC (mPFC/vmPFC). Adolescents additionally activated vmPFC more than did adults during affective ToM. The specificity of the mPFC/vmPFC response during affective ToM supports evidence from lesion studies suggesting that vmPFC may integrate affective information during ToM. Furthermore, the differential neural response in vmPFC between adult and adolescent groups indicates developmental changes in affective ToM processing.

  15. Envisioning future cognitive telerehabilitation technologies: a co-design process with clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Tuck-Voon; Hwang, Amy S; Green, Robin E A; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Cognitive telerehabilitation is the concept of delivering cognitive assessment, feedback, or therapeutic intervention at a distance through technology. With the increase of mobile devices, wearable sensors, and novel human-computer interfaces, new possibilities are emerging to expand the cognitive telerehabilitation paradigm. This research aims to: (1) explore design opportunities and considerations when applying emergent pervasive computing technologies to cognitive telerehabilitation and (2) develop a generative co-design process for use with rehabilitation clinicians. Methods We conducted a custom co-design process that used design cards, probes, and design sessions with traumatic brain injury (TBI) clinicians. All field notes and transcripts were analyzed qualitatively. Results Potential opportunities for TBI cognitive telerehabilitation exist in the areas of communication competency, executive functioning, emotional regulation, energy management, assessment, and skill training. Designers of TBI cognitive telerehabilitation technologies should consider how technologies are adapted to a patient's physical/cognitive/emotional state, their changing rehabilitation trajectory, and their surrounding life context (e.g. social considerations). Clinicians were receptive to our co-design approach. Conclusion Pervasive computing offers new opportunities for life-situated cognitive telerehabilitation. Convivial design methods, such as this co-design process, are a helpful way to explore new design opportunities and an important space for further methodological development. Implications for Rehabilitation Designers of rehabilitation technologies should consider how to extend current design methods in order to facilitate the creative contribution of rehabilitation stakeholders. This co-design approach enables a fuller participation from rehabilitation clinicians at the front-end of design. Pervasive computing has the potential to: extend the duration and intensity of

  16. Modeling cognition dynamics and its application to human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Smidts, C.; Shen, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    For the past two decades, a number of approaches have been proposed for the identification and estimation of the likelihood of human errors, particularly for use in the risk and reliability studies of nuclear power plants. Despite the wide-spread use of the most popular among these methods, their fundamental weaknesses are widely recognized, and the treatment of human reliability has been considered as one of the soft spots of risk studies of large technological systems. To alleviate the situation, new efforts have focused on the development of human reliability models based on a more fundamental understanding of operator response and its cognitive aspects

  17. Sex differences in social cognition: The case of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2017-01-02

    Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned. In addition, we investigated how 400 different human faces were evaluated for arousal and valence dimensions by a group of healthy male and female University students. Stimuli were carefully balanced for sensory and perceptual characteristics, age, facial expression, and sex. As a whole, women judged all human faces as more positive and more arousing than men. Furthermore, they showed a preference for the faces of children and the elderly in the arousal evaluation. Regardless of face aesthetics, age, or facial expression, women rated human faces higher than men. The preference for opposite- vs. same-sex faces strongly interacted with facial age. Overall, both women and men exhibited differences in facial processing that could be interpreted in the light of evolutionary psychobiology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Integrating Process Mining and Cognitive Analysis to Study EHR Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Stephanie K; Burton, Matthew M; Grando, Adela; Larson, David W; Kaufman, David R

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous methods to study workflow. However, few produce the kinds of in-depth analyses needed to understand EHR-mediated workflow. Here we investigated variations in clinicians' EHR workflow by integrating quantitative analysis of patterns of users' EHR-interactions with in-depth qualitative analysis of user performance. We characterized 6 clinicians' patterns of information-gathering using a sequential process-mining approach. The analysis revealed 519 different screen transition patterns performed across 1569 patient cases. No one pattern was followed for more than 10% of patient cases, the 15 most frequent patterns accounted for over half ofpatient cases (53%), and 27% of cases exhibited unique patterns. By triangulating quantitative and qualitative analyses, we found that participants' EHR-interactive behavior was associated with their routine processes, patient case complexity, and EHR default settings. The proposed approach has significant potential to inform resource allocation for observation and training. In-depth observations helped us to explain variation across users.

  19. Understanding cognitive processes behind acceptance or refusal of phase I trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gorini, Alessandra; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Participation in phase I trials gives patients the chance to obtain control over their disease by trying an experimental therapy. The patients' vulnerability, the informed consent process aiming at understanding the purpose and potential benefits of the phase I trial, and the complexity of the studies may impact the patient's final decision. Emotionally difficult health conditions may induce patients to succumb to cognitive biases, allocating attention only on a part of the provided information. Filling the gap in patients' information process can foster the implementation of strategies to help physicians tailor clinical trials' communication providing personalized support and tailored medical information around patients' need, so avoiding cognitive biases in patients and improving informed shared decision quality. The aim of the present review article focuses on the analysis of cognitive and psychological factors that affect patients' decision to participate or not to early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Effect of topical application of melatonin cream 12.5% on cognitive parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is an increasing problem in modern dermatology. Earlier studies have shown protective effects against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin damage by topical treatment with melatonin. However, the potential sedative effects of full body topical application of melatonin...... have never been investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the degree of cognitive dysfunction when using melatonin cream as full body topical application. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study in healthy volunteers, the degree of cognitive...... dysfunction when using cream containing 12.5% melatonin as full body application was assessed. A group of ten volunteers had melatonin cream 12.5% applied on 80% of their body surface area, and degree of cognitive dysfunction was assessed using a test battery consisting of Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS...

  1. Cognition-based development and evaluation of ergonomic user interfaces for medical image processing and archiving systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, A M; Meinzer, H P

    1997-01-01

    Whether or not a computerized system enhances the conditions of work in the application domain, very much demands on the user interface. Graphical user interfaces seem to attract the interest of the users but mostly ignore some basic rules of visual information processing thus leading to systems which are difficult to use, lowering productivity and increasing working stress (cognitive and work load). In this work we present some fundamental ergonomic considerations and their application to the medical image processing and archiving domain. We introduce the extensions to an existing concept needed to control and guide the development of GUIs with respect to domain specific ergonomics. The suggested concept, called Model-View-Controller Constraints (MVCC), can be used to programmatically implement ergonomic constraints, and thus has some advantages over written style guides. We conclude with the presentation of existing norms and methods to evaluate user interfaces.

  2. Developmental Relations Among Motor and Cognitive Processes and Mathematics Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A K; Cameron, Claire E; Grissmer, David

    2018-03-01

    This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade. Implications of examining the hierarchical interrelations among processes underlying the development of children's mathematics skills are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S

    2017-08-01

    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  4. Specification and Compilation of Real-Time Stream Processing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the specification, compilation and corresponding temporal analysis of real-time stream processing applications that are executed on embedded multiprocessor systems. An example of such applications are software defined radio applications. These applications typically

  5. Transcranial Electrical Stimulation over Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Processing of Social Cognitive and Affective Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Recent neurofunctional studies suggested that lateral prefrontal cortex is a domain-general cognitive control area modulating computation of social information. Neuropsychological evidence reported dissociations between cognitive and affective components of social cognition. Here, we tested whether performance on social cognitive and affective tasks can be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. To this aim, we compared the effects of tDCS on explicit recognition of emotional facial expressions (affective task, and on one cognitive task assessing the ability to adopt another person's visual perspective. In a randomized, cross-over design, male and female healthy participants performed the two experimental tasks after bi-hemispheric tDCS (sham, left anodal/right cathodal, and right anodal/left cathodal applied over DLPFC. Results showed that only in male participants explicit recognition of fearful facial expressions was significantly faster after anodal right/cathodal left stimulation with respect to anodal left/cathodal right and sham stimulations. In the visual perspective taking task, instead, anodal right/cathodal left stimulation negatively affected both male and female participants' tendency to adopt another's point of view. These findings demonstrated that concurrent facilitation of right and inhibition of left lateral prefrontal cortex can speed-up males' responses to threatening faces whereas it interferes with the ability to adopt another's viewpoint independently from gender. Thus, stimulation of cognitive control areas can lead to different effects on social cognitive skills depending on the affective vs. cognitive nature of the task, and on the gender-related differences in neural organization of emotion processing.

  6. Integrated Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Cognitive Processing Therapy for Adults With Depression, Substance Use Disorder, and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Norman, Sonya B; Cummins, Kevin; Trim, Ryan S; Xu, Xiaomin; Cui, Ruifeng; Allard, Carolyn B; Brown, Sandra A; Tate, Susan R

    2016-03-01

    The comorbidity of substance use disorder (SUD), depression, and PTSD is common among veterans. Prior research has shown that among veterans with SUD and depression, those with PTSD did not maintain cognitive-behavioral treatment gains as well as those without PTSD. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate whether adding trauma-focused treatment following an initial group-based integrated cognitive behavioral treatment (ICBT) for SUD and depression improved treatment outcomes. Participants were 123 veterans (89% male) recruited from the VA San Diego Healthcare System. All participants received ICBT in twice weekly, group-delivered sessions for 12 weeks (Phase 1). Participants were then randomized to receive 12 sessions of individual follow-up sessions (Phase 2) utilizing either ICBT or cognitive processing therapy that was modified to integrate SUD treatment (CPT-M). Results indicated that PTSD and depression symptoms slightly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and further improved through Phase 2 individual treatment (except for participants without PTSD who received CPT-M), with treatment gains maintained one year later. Substance use significantly improved at the end of Phase 1 group ICBT and these improvements were maintained through Phase 2 and the one year follow-up. Participants in the trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (CPT-M) exhibited similar levels of symptom reduction and maintenance of treatment gains as those in the non-trauma-focused Phase 2 treatment (ICBT). However, there was a slight advantage for Phase 2 CPT-M over Phase 2 ICBT with respect to heavy drinking outcomes for individuals with PTSD. Overall, the combination of group ICBT followed by either CPT-M or ICBT individual therapy appears to be effective for veterans with depression, SUD, and trauma history. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Modelling and application of stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The subject of modelling and application of stochastic processes is too vast to be exhausted in a single volume. In this book, attention is focused on a small subset of this vast subject. The primary emphasis is on realization and approximation of stochastic systems. Recently there has been considerable interest in the stochastic realization problem, and hence, an attempt has been made here to collect in one place some of the more recent approaches and algorithms for solving the stochastic realiza­ tion problem. Various different approaches for realizing linear minimum-phase systems, linear nonminimum-phase systems, and bilinear systems are presented. These approaches range from time-domain methods to spectral-domain methods. An overview of the chapter contents briefly describes these approaches. Also, in most of these chapters special attention is given to the problem of developing numerically ef­ ficient algorithms for obtaining reduced-order (approximate) stochastic realizations. On the application side,...

  8. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Golonka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80, two components of error-related potential (ERP, error-related negativity (ERN, and error positivity (Pe, were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40, a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40. Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN and proactive and conscious (Pe aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe, showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  9. Psilocybin disrupts sensory and higher order cognitive processing but not pre-attentive cognitive processing-study on P300 and mismatch negativity in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravermanová, Anna; Viktorinová, Michaela; Tylš, Filip; Novák, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Korčák, Jakub; Horáček, Jiří; Balíková, Marie; Griškova-Bulanova, Inga; Danielová, Dominika; Vlček, Přemysl; Mohr, Pavel; Brunovský, Martin; Koudelka, Vlastimil; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT 2A receptors in information processing is less clear. We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT 2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers. Twenty subjects (10M/10F) were given 0.26 mg/kg of psilocybin orally in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. ERPs (P300, MMN) were registered during the peak of intoxication. Correlations between measured electrophysiological variables and psilocin serum levels and neuropsychological effects were also analyzed. Psilocybin induced robust psychedelic effects and psychotic-like symptoms, decreased P300 amplitude (p = 0.009) but did not affect the MMN. Psilocybin's disruptive effect on P300 correlated with the intensity of the psychedelic state, which was dependent on the psilocin serum levels. We also observed a decrease in N100 amplitude (p = 0.039) in the P300 paradigm and a negative correlation between P300 and MMN amplitude (p = 0.014). Even though pre-attentive cognition (MMN) was not affected, processing at the early perceptual level (N100) and in higher-order cognition (P300) was significantly disrupted by psilocybin. Our results have implications for the role of 5-HT 2A receptors in altered information processing in psychosis and schizophrenia.

  10. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor.

  11. Plasma technologies: applications to waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990's, plasma technologies have found applications in the processing of toxic wastes of military and industrial origin, like the treatment of contaminated solids and low level radioactive wastes, the decontamination of soils etc.. Since the years 2000, this development is becoming exponential, in particular for the processing of municipal wastes and the recovery of their synthesis gas. The advantage of thermal plasmas with respect to conventional combustion techniques are: a high temperature (more than 6000 K), a pyrolysis capability (CO formation instead of CO 2 ), about 90% of available energy above 1500 K (with respect to 23% with flames), a greater energy density, lower gas flow rates, and plasma start-up and shut-down times of only few tenth of seconds. This article presents: 1 - the present day situation of thermal plasmas development; 2 - some general considerations about plasma waste processing; 3 - the plasma processes: liquid toxic wastes, solid wastes (contaminated soils and low level radioactive wastes, military wastes, vitrification of incinerators fly ash, municipal wastes processing, treatment of asbestos fibers, treatment of chlorinated industrial wastes), metallurgy wastes (dusts, aluminium slags), medical and ship wastes, perspectives; 4 -conclusion. (J.S.)

  12. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  13. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  14. Application of artificial intelligence in process control

    CERN Document Server

    Krijgsman, A

    1993-01-01

    This book is the result of a united effort of six European universities to create an overall course on the appplication of artificial intelligence (AI) in process control. The book includes an introduction to key areas including; knowledge representation, expert, logic, fuzzy logic, neural network, and object oriented-based approaches in AI. Part two covers the application to control engineering, part three: Real-Time Issues, part four: CAD Systems and Expert Systems, part five: Intelligent Control and part six: Supervisory Control, Monitoring and Optimization.

  15. Micro Nano Replication Processes and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Shinill

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals and processes for micro and nano molding for plastic components. In addition to the basics, the book covers applications details and examples. The book helps both students and professionals to understand and work with the growing tools of molding and uses for micro and nano-sized plastic parts.Provides a comprehensive presentation on fundamentals and practices of manufacturing for micro / nano sized plastics partsCovers a relatively new but fast-growing field that is impacting any industry using plastic parts in their products (electronics, tele

  16. Foam process for application of decontamination agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.; Miller, J.R.; Frazier, R.S.; Walter, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results and observations of a study performed by the authors to parametrically evaluate the performance characteristics of a foam process for application of decontamination agents. The initial tests were established to assess foam quality. Subsequent tests determined the ability of the foam as a carrier of chemical systems, and established system operating parameters. The technique was then applied in an actual decontamination task to verify effectiveness of these established parameters and to determine decontamination reduction factors. 4 figures, 5 tables

  17. The Methodical Bases of Assessment of Innovation Processes in the Sphere of Power Generation with Use of Opportunities of Cognitive Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikhlyaeva Nataliya V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodical bases of assessing the innovation processes of power generating companies with use of opportunities of cognitive modeling. It is specified that the method of cognitive modeling allows to remove contradictions concerning the interrelationship of the factors determining the innovation processes of the energy generating companies that usually arise when the results of research on the elements of the innovation system are being coordinated. Based on the arguments and practical examples, provided in the article, it was concluded that application of the method of cognitive modeling in the process of assessing the innovative capabilities of energy-generating companies is a sufficiently flexible and effective tool for supporting decision-making on strategic directions of their development.

  18. The Relationship between Central Auditory Processing, Language, and Cognition in Children Being Evaluated for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Lauren; Cash, Elizabeth; Chermak, Gail D; Guenette, Linda; Masters, Gay; Musiek, Frank E; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzegerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is frequently comorbid with other childhood disorders. However, few studies have examined the relationship between commonly used CAPD, language, and cognition tests within the same sample. The present study examined the relationship between diagnostic CAPD tests and "gold standard" measures of language and cognitive ability, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A retrospective study. Twenty-seven patients referred for CAPD testing who scored average or better on the CELF and low average or better on the WISC were initially included. Seven children who scored below the CELF and/or WISC inclusion criteria were then added to the dataset for a second analysis, yielding a sample size of 34. Participants were administered a CAPD battery that included at least the following three CAPD tests: Frequency Patterns (FP), Dichotic Digits (DD), and Competing Sentences (CS). In addition, they were administered the CELF and WISC. Relationships between scores on CAPD, language (CELF), and cognition (WISC) tests were examined using correlation analysis. DD and FP showed significant correlations with Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, and the DD left ear and the DD interaural difference measures both showed significant correlations with working memory. However, ∼80% or more of the variance in these CAPD tests was unexplained by language and cognition measures. Language and cognition measures were more strongly correlated with each other than were the CAPD tests with any CELF or WISC scale. Additional correlations with the CAPD tests were revealed when patients who scored in the mild-moderate deficit range on the CELF and/or in the borderline low intellectual functioning range on the WISC were included in the analysis. While both the DD and FP tests showed significant correlations with one or more cognition measures, the majority of the variance in these

  19. Sensitivity and applicability of the Brazilian version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vinícius Salgado

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive assessment in schizophrenia has traditionally used batteries that are long and complex or differ widely in their content. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS has been developed to cover the main cognitive deficits of schizophrenia as well as to be easily and briefly administered, portable, sensitive and reliable. Objectives: To investigate the applicability and sensitivity of the Brazilian Version of the BACS (Brazilian-BACS. Methods: Performance of 20 stable patients with schizophrenia on the Brazilian-BACS was compared to 20 matched healthy controls. Results: Applying the Brazilian-BACS required 43.4±8.4 minutes for patients and 40.5±5.7 minutes for controls (p=0.17. All tests demonstrated significant differences between controls and patients (P<0.01. Pearson's correlation analysis and Cronbach's a evidenced a high internal consistency for patient performance. The cognitive deficit in the patients was approximately 1.5 standard deviations below controls. These results were consistent with those reported in the validation of the original version and in meta-analyses of similar studies. Conclusions: The Brazilian-BACS displayed good applicability and sensitivity in assessing the major cognitive constructs that are impaired in schizophrenia. Thus, the Brazilian-BACS seems to be a promising tool for assessing cognition in patients with schizophrenia in Brazil.

  20. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  1. A Test of Two Alternative Cognitive Processing Models: Learning Styles and Dual Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Joshua; Dawson, Bryan L.

    2018-01-01

    This study tested two cognitive models, learning styles and dual coding, which make contradictory predictions about how learners process and retain visual and auditory information. Learning styles-based instructional practices are common in educational environments despite a questionable research base, while the use of dual coding is less…

  2. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  3. Imitation, Inspiration, and Creation: Cognitive Process of Creative Drawing by Copying Others' Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without…

  4. Processing Speed and Executive Functions in Cognitive Aging: How to Disentangle Their Mutual Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Cedric T.; Boucard, Geoffroy; Bouquet, Cedric; Audiffren, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The processing-speedtheory and the prefrontal-executivetheory are competing theories of cognitive aging. Here we used a theoretically and methodologically-driven framework to investigate the relationships among measures classically used to assess these two theoretical constructs. Twenty-eight young adults (18-32 years) and 39 healthy older adults…

  5. Test Every Senior Project: Evidence of Cognitive Processes Related to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardine, Frank E.

    Reported is a study designed to evaluate differences in cognitive processes related to science among (1) college bound high school students who had studied both physics and chemistry, (2) college bound students who had not studied either subject, and (3) non-college bound students who had not studied either subject. The test used to assess the…

  6. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  7. Creative thinking as orchestrated by semantic processing versus cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eAbraham

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is primarily investigated within the neuroscientific perspective as a unitary construct. While such an approach is beneficial when trying to infer the general picture regarding creativity and brain function, it is insufficient if the objective is to uncover the information processing brain mechanisms by which creativity occurs. As creative thinking emerges through the dynamic interplay between several cognitive processes, assessing the neural correlates of these operations would enable the development and characterization of an information processing framework from which to better understand this complex ability. This article focuses on two aspects of creative cognition that are central to generating original ideas. Conceptual expansion refers to the ability to widen one’s conceptual structures to include unusual or novel associations, while overcoming knowledge constraints refers to our ability to override the constraining influence imposed by salient or pertinent knowledge when trying to be creative. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence is presented to illustrate how semantic processing and cognitive control networks in the brain differentially modulate these critical facets of creative cognition.

  8. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: A review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  9. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  10. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  11. The role of networks in business model innovation : three shaping processes supporting cognitive shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, Inge; de Man, Ard-Pieter; Bossink, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholders and in particular customers are an important source for business model innovation. Especially for sustainable business models, stakeholder integration may radically change the business logic and help to revise the business model. In this process cognition plays a central role,

  12. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  13. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  14. Art Therapy and Cognitive Processing Therapy for Combat-Related PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Melissa; Decker, Kathleen P.; Kruk, Kerry; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine if art therapy in conjunction with Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) was more effective for reducing symptoms of combat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than CPT alone. Veterans (N = 11) were randomized to receive either individual CPT, or individual CPT in conjunction with individual…

  15. Collaborative Testing: Cognitive and Interpersonal Processes Related to Enhanced Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanoff, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that collaborative testing, working on tests in groups, leads to improved test scores but the mechanism by which this occurs has not been specified. Three factors were proposed as mediators: cognitive processes, interpersonal interactions and reduced test-anxiety. Thirty-three students completed a multiple-choice exam…

  16. Examiner Expectancy and Bias as a Function of the Referral Process in Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bruce T.; Vitro, Frank T.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the present study suggest that clinical cognitive assessment is not influenced by examiner bias as in experimental or nonclinical assessment. A bias effect was not observed as a result of the referral process. The halo effect demonstrated in previous studies was not observed in this study. (Author/BY)

  17. How to Reason with Economic Concepts: Cognitive Process of Japanese Undergraduate Students Solving Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tadayoshi; Yamaoka, Michio

    2015-01-01

    The authors administered a Japanese version of the Test of Understanding in College Economics, the fourth edition (TUCE-4) to assess the economic literacy of Japanese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2009. These two test results were combined to investigate students' cognitive process or reasoning with specific economic concepts and principles…

  18. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  19. Expectancy-Value and Cognitive Process Outcomes in Mathematics Learning: A Structural Equation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has yielded evidence to indicate that the expectancy-value theoretical model predicts students' learning in various achievement contexts. Achievement values and self-efficacy expectations, for example, have been found to exert positive effects on cognitive process and academic achievement outcomes. We tested a conceptual model…

  20. Model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Y.P.; Dijkstra, W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer-respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  1. A model of cognitive processes and conversational principles in survey interview interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, Yfke P.; Dijkstra, Wil

    In this paper we provide a model of interviewer–respondent interaction in survey interviews. Our model is primarily focused on the occurrence of problems within this interaction that seem likely to affect data quality. Both conversational principles and cognitive processes, especially where they do

  2. Investigating IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 : Relationships between cognitive writing processes, text quality, and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Lee, MinJin

    2017-01-01

    This project examined the cognitive processes and online behaviours of second language writers while performing IELTS Academic Writing Test Task 2, and the ways in which the online behaviours of test-takers relate to the quality of the text produced. An additional aim was to assess whether writing

  3. Elementary process theory axiomatic introduction and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2011-01-01

    Modern physics lacks a unitary theory that applies to all four fundamental interactions. This PhD thesis is a proposal for a single, complete, and coherent scheme of mathematically formulated elementary laws of nature. While the first chapter presents the general background, the second chapter addresses the method by which the main result has been developed. The next three chapters rigorously introduce the Elementary Process Theory, its mathematical foundations, and its applications to physics, cosmology and philosophy of mind. The final two chapters discuss the results and present the conclusions. Summarizing, the Elementary Process Theory is a scheme of seven well-formed closed expressions, written in the mathematical language of set matrix theory – a generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. In the physical world, these seven expressions can be interpreted as elementary principles governing the universe at supersmall scale. The author critically confronts the theory with Quantum Mechanics and Genera...

  4. Applications of radiation processing: SRI experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Shriram Applied Radiation Centre (SARC) is a part of Shriram Institute for Industrial Research (SRI), and was established in 1986, in collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). SARC was established with a objective to popularize the radiation processing technology for various applications. SARC is a fully automatic, computerized plant setup as per the design and norms of BRIT/AERB for round the clock fail safe operations. The capacity of SARC Irradiator is 800 kCi of Cobalt -60 source which can process up to 10,000 cubic meters of material (0.1g/cc) at 25 kGy level

  5. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  6. Role of dosimetry in radiation processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kishor

    2001-01-01

    Today, radiation processing is a growing technology offering potential technological advantages as well as enhanced safety and economy. It is expanding on two fronts: the variety of applications is exploding as well as the sources of radiation. And with that comes the necessary advances in dosimetry. However, the success of the technology still depends on the assertion that the irradiated products are reliable and safe, whether they are health care products or cables and wires. And this is best assured through quality assurance programmes. The key element in QA in radiation processing is a well-characterised, reliable dosimetry that is traceable to the international measurement system. Traceability is the foundation for international acceptance of the irradiated products; and with international trade of irradiated products on the rise, it becomes absolutely critical. It is thus vital that the industry recognises this pivotal position of good dosimetry and the role a national standards laboratory plays in that connection. (author)

  7. A Preliminary Application of Social Cognitive Theory to Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Rose, Alyssa

    2016-08-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between exposure to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and increased probability of engaging in the behavior, but few have endeavored to explain the mechanisms underlying the relationship. We drew on Social Cognitive Theory to argue that core cognitions, including NSSI outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies, moderate this relationship. We also explored whether knowledge about NSSI and attitudes toward the behavior played a role in this relationship. A sample of 389 university students (73.1 % female, M age = 20.90, SD = 2.36), completed online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest. Our findings support the application of Social Cognitive Theory to better understanding NSSI, with clear links between expectancies, self-efficacy and NSSI. Further, these cognitions moderated a number of exposure-NSSI relationships. Implications of these findings for theory, research and intervention are discussed.

  8. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces. PMID:29046625

  9. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Emilia Nicolae

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain.Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination. Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing.Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70–90% for all conditions and classification pairs.Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  10. Assessing the Depth of Cognitive Processing as the Basis for Potential User-State Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Irina-Emilia; Acqualagna, Laura; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Decoding neurocognitive processes on a single-trial basis with Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) techniques can reveal the user's internal interpretation of the current situation. Such information can potentially be exploited to make devices and interfaces more user aware. In this line of research, we took a further step by studying neural correlates of different levels of cognitive processes and developing a method that allows to quantify how deeply presented information is processed in the brain. Methods/Approach: Seventeen participants took part in an EEG study in which we evaluated different levels of cognitive processing (no processing, shallow, and deep processing) within three distinct domains (memory, language, and visual imagination). Our investigations showed gradual differences in the amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) and in the extend and duration of event-related desynchronization (ERD) which both correlate with task difficulty. We performed multi-modal classification to map the measured correlates of neurocognitive processing to the corresponding level of processing. Results: Successful classification of the neural components was achieved, which reflects the level of cognitive processing performed by the participants. The results show performances above chance level for each participant and a mean performance of 70-90% for all conditions and classification pairs. Significance: The successful estimation of the level of cognition on a single-trial basis supports the feasibility of user-state adaptation based on ongoing neural activity. There is a variety of potential use cases such as: a user-friendly adaptive design of an interface or the development of assistance systems in safety critical workplaces.

  11. An integrated model of clinical reasoning: dual-process theory of cognition and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James A

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reasoning is an important component for providing quality medical care. The aim of the present paper is to develop a model of clinical reasoning that integrates both the non-analytic and analytic processes of cognition, along with metacognition. The dual-process theory of cognition (system 1 non-analytic and system 2 analytic processes) and the metacognition theory are used to develop an integrated model of clinical reasoning. In the proposed model, clinical reasoning begins with system 1 processes in which the clinician assesses a patient's presenting symptoms, as well as other clinical evidence, to arrive at a differential diagnosis. Additional clinical evidence, if necessary, is acquired and analysed utilizing system 2 processes to assess the differential diagnosis, until a clinical decision is made diagnosing the patient's illness and then how best to proceed therapeutically. Importantly, the outcome of these processes feeds back, in terms of metacognition's monitoring function, either to reinforce or to alter cognitive processes, which, in turn, enhances synergistically the clinician's ability to reason quickly and accurately in future consultations. The proposed integrated model has distinct advantages over other models proposed in the literature for explicating clinical reasoning. Moreover, it has important implications for addressing the paradoxical relationship between experience and expertise, as well as for designing a curriculum to teach clinical reasoning skills. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Subliminally and consciously induced cognitive conflicts interact at several processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Friedrich, Julia; Beste, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Controlled behavior is susceptible to conflicts that can emerge from subliminal or consciously processed information. While research suggests that both sources of conflicting information may interact in their modulation of controlled behavior, it has remained unclear which cognitive sub-processes involved in controlled behavior are affected by this interaction; i.e., at which processing level subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts interact in modulating controlled behavior. Moreover, we investigated whether this interaction of subliminally and consciously induced response conflicts was due to a nexus between the two types of conflict like a common cognitive process or factor. For this, n = 38 healthy young subjects completed a paradigm which combines subliminal primes and consciously perceived flankers while an electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. We show that the interaction of subliminal and conscious sources of conflict is not restricted to the response selection level (N2) but can already be shown at the earliest stages of perceptual and attentional processing (P1). While the degree of early attentional processing of subliminal information seems to depend on the absence of consciously perceived response conflicts, conflicts during the stage of response selection may be either reduced or enhanced by subliminal priming. Moreover, the results showed that even though the two different sources of conflict interact at the response selection level, they clearly originate from two distinct processes that interact before they detrimentally affect cognitive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  14. Application of Electroporation Technique in Biofuel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels production is mostly oriented with fermentation process, which requires fermentable sugar as nutrient for microbial growth. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB represents the most attractive, low-cost feedstock for biofuel production, it is now arousing great interest. The cellulose that is embedded in the lignin matrix has an insoluble, highly-crystalline structure, so it is difficult to hydrolyze into fermentable sugar or cell protein. On the other hand, microbial lipid has been studying as substitute of plant oils or animal fat to produce biodiesel. It is still a great challenge to extract maximum lipid from microbial cells (yeast, fungi, algae investing minimum energy.Electroporation (EP of LCB results a significant increase in cell conductivity and permeability caused due to the application of an external electric field. EP is required to alter the size and structure of the biomass, to reduce the cellulose crystallinity, and increase their porosity as well as chemical composition, so that the hydrolysis of the carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved rapidly and with greater yields. Furthermore, EP has a great potential to disrupt the microbial cell walls within few seconds to bring out the intracellular materials (lipid to the solution. Therefore, this study aims to describe the challenges and prospect of application of EP technique in biofuels processing.

  15. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  16. COGNITIVE PROCESS IN ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING: A CASE STUDY OF THREE INDONESIAN COLUMNISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrus Zaman Fadhly

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at reconstructing cognitive processes experienced by Indonesian advancedwriters in five stages of writing: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Three Indonesian advanced writers were involved to be sources to reveal the noumena or under-meaning structures that make their works come into existence. This research reveals that various ways experienced by every single writer in exploring inspiration, starting to write, developing ideas and arguments, revising draft, and determining them as final drafts.Learning from advanced writers isfruitful effortsto evolve our writing competence. Experiences, cognitions, interests, values, stylistics, metaphors, and mechanics are influential aspects in enriching their works.

  17. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application process. (a) Definition. Competitive franchise applicant. For the purpose of this section, an applicant...

  18. Precision microwave applicators and systems for plasma and materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmussen, J.; Garard, R.

    1988-01-01

    Modern applications of microwave energy have imposed new requirements upon microwave processing systems. Interest in energy efficiency, processing uniformity and control of process cycles has placed new design conditions upon microwave power oscillators, microwave systems and microwave applicator design. One approach of meeting new application requirements is the use of single-mode or controlled multimode applicators. The use of a single-mode applicator for plasma generation and materials processing will be presented. Descriptions of actual applicator designs for heating, curing, and processing of solid materials and the generations of high and low pressure discharges will be given. The impact of these applicators on the total microwave system including the microwave power source will be described. Specific examples of applicator and associated microwave systems will be detailed for the applications of (1) plasma thin film deposition and (2) the precision processing and diagnosis of materials. Methods of process control and diagnosis, control of process uniformity and process scale up are discussed

  19. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localised, creative reasoning, including analogising and mental simulation. We analysed not just the short-term, localised effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing and information selection, but also its...... long-term impact on downstream creative processes. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent would engender: (1) immediate creative elaboration of that referent aimed at resolving uncertainty and determining information selection; and (2...

  20. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the subjectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results showed...

  1. The cognitive processing potential of infants: Exploring the impact of an early childhood development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Van Eeden

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many South African learners seem unprepared for formal education, and a need for intervention during early childhood has been identified. Aim: The present study explored the effect of infant exposure to an early childhood development programme aimed at the sensory developmental stage of the infant’s brain. Setting: Participants were recruited through local baby clinics and nursery schools in the Western Cape. Participants were from the middle-income sector and the sample consisted of 63 infants between the ages of 3 and 12 months – gender representation was approximately equal and 17% of the infants were of mixed race, 8% black and 75% white. Methods: A pretest–posttest design was used involving an intervention group (N = 29 and a control group (N = 34 of infants. There was no known bias in group allocation. Intervention was provided in the form of the Numbers in Nappies programme and cognitive performance was assessed with the BSID (III before and after the intervention for both groups. Results: The intervention group showed theory expectant increases, most notably on the Cognitive Scale and the Social-Emotional Scale of the BSID (III. The performance of the intervention and the control group on the cognitive subscales (Cognitive, Language and Motor was compared before and after the intervention. The only significant difference was on the Cognitive Scale after the intervention. Conclusion: The findings indicate that appropriate intervention taps into the cognitive processing potential of infants, thus increasing their cognitive ability and enhancing their social–emotional functioning. The stimulation provided by parents and primary caregivers is essential in enhancing this experience-dependent development and the Numbers in Nappies programme provides a cost-effective intervention suitable for a home environment.

  2. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  3. Experimental pain processing in individuals with cognitive impairment: current state of the science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defrin, R; Amanzio, Martina; de Tomasso, M

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment (CI) can develop during the course of ageing and is a feature of many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Many individuals with CI have substantial, sustained and complex healthcare needs which frequently include pain. However, individuals with CI can have difficulty...... of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders in which CI is typically present. Overall, the existing data suggest that pain processing is altered in most individuals with CI compared to cognitively intact matched controls. The precise nature of these alterations varies with the type of CI (or associated...... to cognitively unimpaired individuals. Our current understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning these alterations is limited, but may be enhanced through the use of animal models of CI which also exhibit alterations in nociceptive responding. Further research employing additional behavioural...

  4. The Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Post Event Processing Among Those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  5. Good-enough linguistic representations and online cognitive equilibrium in language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    We review previous research showing that representations formed during language processing are sometimes just "good enough" for the task at hand and propose the "online cognitive equilibrium" hypothesis as the driving force behind the formation of good-enough representations in language processing. Based on this view, we assume that the language comprehension system by default prefers to achieve as early as possible and remain as long as possible in a state of cognitive equilibrium where linguistic representations are successfully incorporated with existing knowledge structures (i.e., schemata) so that a meaningful and coherent overall representation is formed, and uncertainty is resolved or at least minimized. We also argue that the online equilibrium hypothesis is consistent with current theories of language processing, which maintain that linguistic representations are formed through a complex interplay between simple heuristics and deep syntactic algorithms and also theories that hold that linguistic representations are often incomplete and lacking in detail. We also propose a model of language processing that makes use of both heuristic and algorithmic processing, is sensitive to online cognitive equilibrium, and, we argue, is capable of explaining the formation of underspecified representations. We review previous findings providing evidence for underspecification in relation to this hypothesis and the associated language processing model and argue that most of these findings are compatible with them.

  6. Motivation as a factor affecting the efficiency of cognitive processes in elderly patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko, Yury P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to assess the role of motivation in the effective cognitive activity of elderly hypertension (HTN patients provided with antihypertensive treatment; 25 patients with HTN took part in the study, stage 1-2; their mean age was 67.6±6.1. The psychological examination program embraced a quantitative measurement of intelligence quotient (IQ with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and an investigation into the qualitative features of their cognitive processes, applying a pathopsychological study procedure (Zeigarnik, 1962, 1972 and the principles of psychological syndrome analysis (Vygotsky-Luria-Zeigarnik school. The results showed that within the psychological syndrome structure of cognitive disorders in HTN patients, the leading part is played by two syndrome-generating factors: a neurodynamic factor and a motivational factor. The patients with reduced motivation would achieve poor general test results, if compared with the group of highly motivated participants. A correlation analysis of the data revealed the interconnection between frequency disturbances in motivation and the frequency in occurrence of various signs of cognitive decline, such as low efficiency in memorization and delayed recall, as well as lower IQ test results. The data provide a strong argument to support the hypothesis that motivation is of particular importance as a factor in the generation of cognitive disorders in HTN patients.

  7. Beam-generated plasmas for processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meger, R. A.; Blackwell, D. D.; Fernsler, R. F.; Lampe, M.; Leonhardt, D.; Manheimer, W. M.; Murphy, D. P.; Walton, S. G.

    2001-05-01

    The use of moderate energy electron beams (e-beams) to generate plasma can provide greater control and larger area than existing techniques for processing applications. Kilovolt energy electrons have the ability to efficiently ionize low pressure neutral gas nearly independent of composition. This results in a low-temperature, high-density plasma of nearly controllable composition generated in the beam channel. By confining the electron beam magnetically the plasma generation region can be designated independent of surrounding structures. Particle fluxes to surfaces can then be controlled by the beam and gas parameters, system geometry, and the externally applied rf bias. The Large Area Plasma Processing System (LAPPS) utilizes a 1-5 kV, 2-10 mA/cm2 sheet beam of electrons to generate a 1011-1012cm-3 density, 1 eV electron temperature plasma. Plasma sheets of up to 60×60 cm2 area have been generated in a variety of molecular and atomic gases using both pulsed and cw e-beam sources. The theoretical basis for the plasma production and decay is presented along with experiments measuring the plasma density, temperature, and potential. Particle fluxes to nearby surfaces are measured along with the effects of radio frequency biasing. The LAPPS source is found to generate large-area plasmas suitable for materials processing.

  8. Materials, Applications and Processes in Photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, N.; Robert, D.; Herrmann, J.M.; Keller, V. (eds.)

    2007-04-15

    Catalysis Today publishes special issues only. The Journal focuses on the rapid publication of invited papers devoted to currently important topics in catalysis and related subjects. Both fundamental and applied aspects of catalysis are covered. While many of the issues are concerned with heterogeneous catalysis, subjects such as homogeneous catalysis and enzymatic catalysis may also be included. Subjects related to catalysis such as techniques, adsorption, process technology and others are included if there is a clear relationship with catalysis. This special issue concerns 21 papers on Materials, Applications and Processes in Photocatalysis: (1) Photoactive titania nanostructured thin films: Synthesis and characteristics of ordered helical nanocoil array; (2) The design of highly active rectangular column-structured titanium oxide photocatalysts and their application in purification systems; (3) Photosensitization of TiO{sub 2} by M{sub x}O{sub y} and M{sub x}S{sub y} nanoparticles for heterogeneous photocatalysis applications; (4) Oxidation of nauseous sulfur compounds by photocatalysis or photosensitization; (5) In situ characterization of the highly dispersed Mo{sup 6+}-oxide species supported onto various oxides and their photocatalytic reactivities; (6) The photocatalytic reforming of methanol; (7) Photocatalysis for new energy production: Recent advances in photocatalytic water splitting reactions for hydrogen production; (8) Visible light induced hydrogen evolution over the heterosystem Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}; (9) Modeling and optimizing irradiance on planar, folded, and honeycomb shapes to maximize photocatalytic air purification; (10) Dimensionless analysis of slurry photocatalytic reactors using two-flux and six-flux radiation absorption-scattering models; (11) Photoreactions occurring on metal-oxide surfaces are not all photocatalytic: Description of criteria and conditions for processes to be photocatalytic; (12) Temperature dependent

  9. Effects of Epistemological Beliefs and Topic-Specific Beliefs on Undergraduates' Cognitive and Strategic Processing of Dual-Positional Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardash, CarolAnne M.; Howell, Karen L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates effects of epistemological beliefs and topic-specific beliefs on undergraduates' (N=40) cognitive and strategic processing of a dual-positional text. Findings reveal that epistemological beliefs about the speed of learning affected the overall number of cognitive processes exhibited, whereas topic-specific beliefs interacted with the…

  10. Cognitive-emotive change management

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Research Question: The feasibility of applying cognitive-emotive techniques for change management. Methods: A theoretical analysis of the feasibility of the concepts of cognitive driven behavioural change for the change management in organizations. A cognitive-emotive change management process is proposed and a practical application for a case study is demonstrated that transfers existing psychological tools into the change management practice. Results: Cognitive-emotive concepts provide a th...

  11. Fluctuating Epistemic Uncertainty in a Design Team as a Metacognitive Driver for Creative Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous design research has demonstrated how epistemic uncertainty engenders localized, creative reasoning, including analogizing and mental simulation. Our analysis of the DTRS11 dataset examined not just the short-term, localized effects of epistemic uncertainty on creative processing...... and information selection, but also its long-term impact on downstream creative processes and decisions about what information to take forward. Our hypothesis was that heightened levels of uncertainty associated with a particular cognitive referent (i.e., a post-it note translated from Chinese end-users) would......, as predicted, found to engender subsequent attentive returns to cognitive referents at later points in the design process. Third, although epistemic uncertainty did not predict the information that was eventually selected to take forward in the design space, both immediate creative elaboration and subsequent...

  12. How does context affect intimate relationships? linking external stress and cognitive processes within marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2004-02-01

    Stressors external to the marriage frequently affect the way spouses evaluate their marital quality. To date, however, understanding of the interplay between external stress and internal relationship processes has been limited in two ways. First, research has generally examined only the short-term consequences of stress. Second, the mechanisms through which external stressors influence relationship outcomes are unclear. This study addressed both limitations by examining relationship cognitions that may mediate the effects of external stress throughout 4 years of marriage. Analyses confirmed that stressful experiences were associated with the trajectory of marital quality overtime. Furthermore, both the content and the organization of spouses' specific relationship cognitions mediated this effect. That is, stress negatively influenced the nature of spouses' marital perceptions as well as the way spouses interpreted and processed those perceptions. These findings draw attention to ways that the context of relationships shapes and constrains relationship processes.

  13. Document Examination: Applications of Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopainsky, B

    1989-12-01

    Dealing with images is a familiar business for an expert in questioned documents: microscopic, photographic, infrared, and other optical techniques generate images containing the information he or she is looking for. A recent method for extracting most of this information is digital image processing, ranging from the simple contrast and contour enhancement to the advanced restoration of blurred texts. When combined with a sophisticated physical imaging system, an image pricessing system has proven to be a powerful and fast tool for routine non-destructive scanning of suspect documents. This article reviews frequent applications, comprising techniques to increase legibility, two-dimensional spectroscopy (ink discrimination, alterations, erased entries, etc.), comparison techniques (stamps, typescript letters, photo substitution), and densitometry. Computerized comparison of handwriting is not included. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  14. Biomechanical microsystems design, processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Jurenas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the most important aspects of analysis of dynamical processes taking place on the human body surface. It provides an overview of the major devices that act as a prevention measure to boost a person‘s motivation for physical activity. A short overview of the most popular MEMS sensors for biomedical applications is given. The development and validation of a multi-level computational model that combines mathematical models of an accelerometer and reduced human body surface tissue is presented. Subsequently, results of finite element analysis are used together with experimental data to evaluate rheological properties of not only human skin but skeletal joints as well. Methodology of development of MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor and adaptation for real-time biological information monitoring, namely “ex vivo” and “in vitro” blood pulse type analysis, is described. Fundamental and conciliatory investigations, achieved knowledge and scientific experience about biologically adaptive mu...

  15. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Friedel

    2017-06-01

    stress exposure and slower information processing capacities, however, might favor model-free strategies. Thus, the valence and preference of either system strongly depends on stressful experiences and individual cognitive capacities.

  16. Aging of theory of mind: the influence of educational level and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wang, Fan; Tao, Qian; Xie, Yu; Cheng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of theory of mind (ToM) in old age have provided mixed results. We predicted that educational level and cognitive processing are two factors influencing the pattern of the aging of ToM. To test this hypothesis, a younger group who received higher education (mean age 20.46 years), an older group with an education level equal to that of the young group (mean age 76.29 years), and an older group with less education (mean age 73.52 years) were recruited. ToM tasks included the following tests: the second-order false-belief task, the faux-pas task, the eyes test, and tests of fundamental aspects of cognitive function that included two background tests (memory span and processing speed) and three subcomponents of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting). We found that the younger group and the older group with equally high education outperformed the older group with less education in false-belief and faux-pas tasks. However, there was no significant difference between the two former groups. The three groups of participants performed equivalently in the eyes test as well as in control tasks (false-belief control question, faux-pas control question, faux-pas control story, and Eyes Test control task). The younger group outperformed the other two groups in the cognitive processing tasks. Mediation analyses showed that difficulties in inhibition, memory span, and processing speed mediated the age differences in false-belief reasoning. Also, the variables of inhibition, updating, memory span, and processing speed mediated age-related variance in faux-pas. Discussion focused on the links between ToM aging, educational level, and cognitive processing. Supported by Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (number: 30870766) and Anhui Province Natural Science Foundation (number: 11040606M166).

  17. Monitoring cognitive and emotional processes through pupil and cardiac response during dynamic versus logical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, Mickaël; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Démonet, Jean François; Pastor, Josette

    2010-06-01

    The paper deals with the links between physiological measurements and cognitive and emotional functioning. As long as the operator is a key agent in charge of complex systems, the definition of metrics able to predict his performance is a great challenge. The measurement of the physiological state is a very promising way but a very acute comprehension is required; in particular few studies compare autonomous nervous system reactivity according to specific cognitive processes during task performance and task related psychological stress is often ignored. We compared physiological parameters recorded on 24 healthy subjects facing two neuropsychological tasks: a dynamic task that require problem solving in a world that continually evolves over time and a logical task representative of cognitive processes performed by operators facing everyday problem solving. Results showed that the mean pupil diameter change was higher during the dynamic task; conversely, the heart rate was more elevated during the logical task. Finally, the systolic blood pressure seemed to be strongly sensitive to psychological stress. A better taking into account of the precise influence of a given cognitive activity and both workload and related task-induced psychological stress during task performance is a promising way to better monitor operators in complex working situations to detect mental overload or pejorative stress factor of error.

  18. Localized atrophy of the thalamus and slowed cognitive processing speed in MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsland, Niels; Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph Hb

    2016-09-01

    Deep gray matter (DGM) atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but no studies have investigated surface-based structure changes over time with respect to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, the relationship between cognition and the spatio-temporal evolution of DGM atrophy is poorly understood. To explore DGM structural differences between MS and HCs over time in relation to neuropsychological (NP) outcomes. The participants were 44 relapsing-remitting and 20 secondary progressive MS patients and 22 HCs. All were scanned using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up. NP examination emphasized consensus standard tests of processing speed and memory. We performed both volumetric and shape analysis of DGM structures and assessed their relationships with cognition. Compared to HCs, MS patients presented with significantly smaller DGM volumes. For the thalamus and caudate, differences in shape were mostly localized along the lateral ventricles. NP outcomes were related to both volume and shape of the DGM structures. Over 3 years, decreased cognitive processing speed was related to localized atrophy on the anterior and superior surface of the left thalamus. These findings highlight the role of atrophy in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus and its relation to cognitive decline in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  19. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P. G.; Cardoso, Ricardo L.; Linhares, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making. PMID:29375440

  20. Imitation, Inspiration, and Creation: Cognitive Process of Creative Drawing by Copying Others' Artworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Kentaro

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without having seen another's work; and (c) copying another artist's work, then reproducing that artist's style independently. We discovered that through copying unfamiliar abstract drawings, participants were able to produce creative drawings qualitatively different from the model drawings. Process analyses suggested that participants' cognitive constraints became relaxed, and new perspectives were formed from copying another's artwork. Experiment 2 showed that exposure to styles of artwork considered unfamiliar facilitated creativity in drawing, while styles considered familiar did not do so. Experiment 3 showed that both copying and thoroughly viewing artwork executed using an unfamiliar style facilitated creativity in drawing, whereas merely thinking about alternative styles of artistic representation did not do so. These experiments revealed that deep encounters with unfamiliar artworks-whether through copying or prolonged observation-change people's cognitive representations of the act of drawing to produce novel artwork. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelihovschi, Ana P G; Cardoso, Ricardo L; Linhares, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT). Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper). These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  2. An Analysis of the Associations among Cognitive Impulsiveness, Reasoning Process, and Rational Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. G. Jelihovschi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity may lead to several unfortunate consequences and maladaptive behaviors for both clinical and nonclinical people. It has a key role in many forms of psychopathology. Although literature has discussed the negative impact of impulsivity, few have emphasized the relationship between cognitive impulsiveness and decision making. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cognitive impulsiveness on decision making and explore the strategies used by participants to solve problems. For this purpose, we apply two measures of impulsivity: the self-report Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and the performance based Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT. Moreover, we evaluate participants' reasoning processes employed to answer CRT questions based on the calculation expressions, data organization, and erasures they made while answering the CRT (note that we utilized the instruments using pen and paper. These reasoning processes are related to the role of executive functions in decision making, and its relationship with impulsiveness. The sample consists of 191 adults, who were either professionals or undergraduate students from the fields of business, management, or accounting. The results show that cognitive impulsiveness may negatively affect decision making, and that those who presented the calculation to answer the CRT questions made better decisions. Moreover, there was no difference in the strategies used by impulsive vs. nonimpulsive participants during decision making. Finally, people who inhibited their immediate answers to CRT questions performed better during decision making.

  3. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Buescher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative production technology for high-wage countries” at RWTH Aachen University which integrates several cognitive capabilities according to human cognition. This approach combines the advantages of automation with the flexibility of humans. In this paper the main principles of the system's core component—the cognitive control unit—are presented to underline its advantages with respect to traditional assembly systems. Based on this, the actual innovation of this paper is the development of key performance indicators. These refer to the ramp-up process as a main objective of such a system is to minimize the planning effort during ramp-up. The KPIs are also designed to show the impact on the main idea of the Cluster of Excellence in resolving the so-called Polylemma of Production.

  4. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MEDIATING COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION WITH VR 3D SKETCHING DURING CONCEPTUAL ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pour Rahimian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications for information synchronization during the conceptual design phase require designers to employ more intuitive digital design tools. This paper presents findings of a feasibility study for using VR 3D sketching interface in order to replace current non-intuitive CAD tools. We used a sequential mixed method research methodology including a qualitative case study and a cognitive-based quantitative protocol analysis experiment. Foremost, the case study research was conducted in order to understand how novice designers make intuitive decisions. The case study documented the failure of conventional sketching methods in articulating complicated design ideas and shortcomings of current CAD tools in intuitive ideation. The case study’s findings then became the theoretical foundations for testing the feasibility of using VR 3D sketching interface during design. The latter phase of study evaluated the designers’ spatial cognition and collaboration at six different levels: "physical-actions", "perceptualactions", "functional-actions", "conceptual-actions", "cognitive synchronizations", and "gestures". The results and confirmed hypotheses showed that the utilized tangible 3D sketching interface improved novice designers’ cognitive and collaborative design activities. In summary this paper presents the influences of current external representation tools on designers’ cognition and collaboration as well as providing the necessary theoretical foundations for implementing VR 3D sketching interface. It contributes towards transforming conceptual architectural design phase from analogue to digital by proposing a new VR design interface. The paper proposes this transformation to fill in the existing gap between analogue conceptual architectural design process and remaining digital engineering parts of building design process hence expediting digital design process.

  6. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  7. Internet of things cognitive transformation technology research trends and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu; Eisenhauer, Markus; Sundmaeker, Harald; Guillemin, Patrick; Serrano, Martin; Tragos, Elias Z.; Valino, Javier; van der Wees, Arthur; Gluhak, Alex; Bahr, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is changing how industrial and consumer markets are developing. Robotic devices, drones and autonomous vehicles, blockchains, augmented and virtual reality, digital assistants and machine learning (artificial intelligence or AI) are the technologies that will provide the next phase of development of IoT applications. The combination of these disciplines makes possible the development of autonomous systems combining robotics and machine learning for designing simil...

  8. Application of a model of social information processing to nursing theory: how nurses respond to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Ellington, Lee

    2008-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study to assess the applicability of a theoretical model of social information processing in expanding a nursing theory addressing how nurses respond to patients. Nursing communication affects patient outcomes such as anxiety, adherence to treatments and satisfaction with care. Orlando's theory of nursing process describes nurses' reactions to patients' behaviour as generating a perception, thought and feeling in the nurse and then action by the nurse. A model of social information processing describes the sequential steps in the cognitive processes used to respond to social cues and may be useful in describing the nursing process. Cognitive interviews were conducted in 2006 with a convenience sample of 5 nurses in the United States of America. The data were interpreted using the Crick and Dodge model of social information processing. Themes arising from cognitive interviews validated concepts of the nursing theory and the constructs of the model of social information processing. The interviews revealed that the support of peers was an additional construct involved in the development of communication skills, creation of a database and enhancement of self-efficacy. Models of social information processing enhance understanding of the process of how nurses respond to patients and further develop nursing theories further. In combination, the theories are useful in developing research into nurse-patient communication. Future research based on the expansion of nursing theory may identify effective and culturally appropriate nurse response patterns to specific patient interactions with implications for nursing care and patient outcomes.

  9. The influence of impaired processing speed on cognition in first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of neuropsychological tests to assess domains of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Composite scores were calculated, grouping tests into cognitive domains. RESULTS: There were significant differences between patients and healthy controls on global cognition and all cognitive domains, including verbal intelligence......BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a prominent feature of schizophrenia. To what extent the heterogeneous cognitive impairments can be accounted for by considering only a single underlying impairment or a small number of core impairments remains elusive. This study examined whether cognitive...... impairments in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients may be determined by a relative slower speed of information processing. METHOD: Forty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 48 matched healthy controls were administered a comprehensive battery...

  10. A software application for the processing of students results | Ukem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A software application for the processing of students results. ... In this work, a computer software application was developed to facilitate the automated processing of the results. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  12. Comparing the Cognitive Process of Circular Causality in Two Patients with Strokes through Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanrad, Seyed Alireza; Piven, Emily; Ghoochani, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC). Although considerable research has been devoted to study the brain dynamics by sophisticated computerized imaging techniques, less attention has been paid to study it through investigating the adaptation process of thoughts and behaviors. To explore how CPCC manifested thinking and behavioral patterns, a qualitative case study was conducted on two matched female participants with strokes, who were of comparable ages, affected sides, and other characteristics, except for their resilience and motivational behaviors. CPCC was compared by matrix analysis between two participants, using content analysis with pre-determined categories. Different patterns of thinking and behavior may have happened, due to disparate regulation of CPCC between two participants.

  13. Study and comparison of the meta cognitive-emotional processing and drug therapy in modifying emotional, cognitive and social skills in bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    fatemeh bahrami; seyed kamal Solati dehkordi; ali farhadi

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy for bipolor disorder has been very much neglected. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the meta cognitive, emotional processing training (MEPT) with medical and standard therapy (drug) in increasing emotional, cognitive and social skills, of the patients with bipolar disorders. Materials and Methods: This semi experimental study with control group was carried out on 32 females in the 16-40 age bracket, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by means of DSM - IV –R crite...

  14. Towards cognitive cities advances in cognitive computing and its application to the governance of large urban systems

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the readers to the new concept of cognitive cities. It demonstrates why cities need to become cognitive and why therefore a concept of cognitive city is needed. It highlights the main building blocks of cognitive cities and illustrates the concept by various cases. Following a concise introductory chapter the book features nine chapters illustrating various aspects and dimensions of cognitive cities. The logic of its structure proceeds from more general considerations to more specific illustrations. All chapters offer a comprehensive view of the different research endeavours about cognitive cities and will help pave the way for this new and innovative approach to governing cities in the future. .

  15. Frequency-Tunable and Pattern Diversity Antennas for Cognitive Radio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-tunable microstrip antennas, for cognitive radio applications, are proposed herein. The approach is based on tuning the operating frequency of a bandpass filter that is incorporated into a wideband antenna. The integration of an open loop resonator- (OLR- based adjustable bandpass filter into a wideband antenna to transform it into a tunable filter-antenna is presented. The same technique is employed to design a cognitive radio pattern diversity tunable filter-antenna. A good agreement between the simulated and measured results for the fabricated prototypes is obtained. The radiation characteristics of each designed tunable filter-antenna are included herein.

  16. Software engineering processes principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yingxu

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals of the Software Engineering ProcessIntroductionA Unified Framework of the Software Engineering ProcessProcess AlgebraProcess-Based Software EngineeringSoftware Engineering Process System ModelingThe CMM ModelThe ISO 9001 ModelThe BOOTSTRAP ModelThe ISO/IEC 15504 (SPICE) ModelThe Software Engineering Process Reference Model: SEPRMSoftware Engineering Process System AnalysisBenchmarking the SEPRM ProcessesComparative Analysis of Current Process ModelsTransformation of Capability Levels Between Current Process ModelsSoftware Engineering Process EstablishmentSoftware Process Establish

  17. Development and validation of the social information processing application: a Web-based measure of social information processing patterns in elementary school-age boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in 3rd through 5th grades. This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 244 boys ages 8 through 12 (M = 9.4) from public elementary schools in 3 states. The SIP-AP includes 8 videotaped vignettes, filmed from the first-person perspective, that depict common misunderstandings among boys. Each vignette shows a negative outcome for the victim and ambiguous intent on the part of the perpetrator. Boys responded to 16 Web-based questions representing the 5 social information processing mechanisms, after viewing each vignette. Parents and teachers completed measures assessing boys' antisocial behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a model positing the original 5 cognitive mechanisms fit the data well when the items representing prosocial cognitions were included on their own factor, creating a 6th factor. The internal consistencies for each of the 16 individual cognitions as well as for the 6 cognitive mechanism scales were excellent. Boys with elevated scores on 5 of the 6 cognitive mechanisms exhibited more antisocial behavior than boys whose scores were not elevated. These findings highlight the need for further research on the measurement of prosocial cognitions or cognitive strengths in boys in addition to assessing cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that the SIP-AP is a reliable and valid tool for use in future research of social information processing skills in boys.

  18. The Structured Process Modeling Theory (SPMT) : a cognitive view on why and how modelers benefit from structuring the process of process modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, J.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Gailly, F.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Poels, G.

    2015-01-01

    After observing various inexperienced modelers constructing a business process model based on the same textual case description, it was noted that great differences existed in the quality of the produced models. The impression arose that certain quality issues originated from cognitive failures

  19. Cognitive processes and neural basis of language switching: proposal of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-12-09

    Although studies on bilingualism are abundant, cognitive processes and neural foundations of language switching received less attention. The aim of our study is to provide new insights to this still open question: do dedicated region(s) for language switching exist or is this function underlain by a distributed circuit of interconnected brain areas, part of a more general cognitive system? On the basis of recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies, we propose an original 'hodological' model of language switching. This process might be subserved by a large-scale cortico-subcortical network, with an executive system (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus) controlling a more dedicated language subcircuit, which involves postero-temporal areas, supramarginal and angular gyri, Broca's area, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  20. Advancing the Assessment of Personality Pathology With the Cognitive-Affective Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Nelson, Sharon M

    2015-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) is a dynamic and expansive model of personality proposed by Mischel and Shoda (1995) that incorporates dispositional and processing frameworks by considering the interaction of the individual and the situation, and the patterns of variation that result. These patterns of cognition, affect, and behavior are generally defined through the use of if … then statements, and provide a rich understanding of the individual across varying levels of assessment. In this article, we describe the CAPS model and articulate ways in which it can be applied to conceptualizing and assessing personality pathology. We suggest that the CAPS model is an ideal framework that integrates a number of current theories of personality pathology, and simultaneously overcomes a number of limits that have been empirically identified in the past.

  1. Use of Speech Analyses within a Mobile Application for the Assessment of Cognitive Impairment in Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Alexandra; Satt, Aharon; Sorin, Alex; Hoory, Ran; Derreumaux, Alexandre; David, Renaud; Robert, Phillippe H

    2018-01-01

    Various types of dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are manifested as irregularities in human speech and language, which have proven to be strong predictors for the disease presence and progress ion. Therefore, automatic speech analytics provided by a mobile application may be a useful tool in providing additional indicators for assessment and detection of early stage dementia and MCI. 165 participants (subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), MCI patients, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mixed dementia (MD) patients) were recorded with a mobile application while performing several short vocal cognitive tasks during a regular consultation. These tasks included verbal fluency, picture description, counting down and a free speech task. The voice recordings were processed in two steps: in the first step, vocal markers were extracted using speech signal processing techniques; in the second, the vocal markers were tested to assess their 'power' to distinguish between SCI, MCI, AD and MD. The second step included training automatic classifiers for detecting MCI and AD, based on machine learning methods, and testing the detection accuracy. The fluency and free speech tasks obtain the highest accuracy rates of classifying AD vs. MD vs. MCI vs. SCI. Using the data, we demonstrated classification accuracy as follows: SCI vs. AD = 92% accuracy; SCI vs. MD = 92% accuracy; SCI vs. MCI = 86% accuracy and MCI vs. AD = 86%. Our results indicate the potential value of vocal analytics and the use of a mobile application for accurate automatic differentiation between SCI, MCI and AD. This tool can provide the clinician with meaningful information for assessment and monitoring of people with MCI and AD based on a non-invasive, simple and low-cost method. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    OpenAIRE

    Buescher, Christian; Hauck, Eckart; Schilberg, Daniel; Jeschke, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed wi...

  3. Emotional, Cognitive and Self-Enhancement Processes in Aggressive Behavior After Interpersonal Rejection and Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Rajchert

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between exclusion or rejection and aggression is already well documented, but there is still a debate about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. In two studies we focused on the propensity to react aggressively (readiness for aggression) on the bases of emotional, cognitive or self-enhancement (personality-immanent) processes. In both studies we first measured readiness for aggression and then ego-depleted participants. Next, in Study 1 we excluded participants (n = 96) ...

  4. Cognitive Dissonance, Confirmatory Bias and Inadequate Information Processing: Evidence from Experimental Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Ying; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Using psychological terms such as cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias, this study reveals how individual consumers inadequately process (food safety) information, pay limited attention to signals, and make purchase decisions that are bias towards their initial choices. While it is expected that reading extra information about potential risk associated with the food decreases consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), the magnitude of the impact varies across individuals. In general, consumer...

  5. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...

  6. Predictors of affect following treatment decision-making for prostate cancer: conversations, cognitive processing, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Kysa M; Meyerowitz, Beth E; Giedzinska-Simons, Antoinette; Gross, Mitchell; Agus, David B

    2009-05-01

    Research suggests that cancer patients who are more involved in treatment decision-making (TDM) report better quality of life following treatment. This study examines the association and possible mechanisms between prostate cancer patient's discussions about TDM and affect following treatment. We predicted that the length of time patients spent discussing treatment options with social networks and physicians prior to treatment would predict emotional adjustment after treatment. We further predicted that cognitive processing, coping, and patient understanding of treatment options would mediate this association. Fifty-seven patients completed questionnaires prior to treatment and at 1 and 6 months following treatment completion. Findings from the present study suggest that discussing treatment options with others, prior to beginning treatment for prostate cancer, significantly contributed to improvements in affect 1 and 6 months following treatment. Residualized regression analyses indicated that discussing treatment options with patient's social networks predicted a decrease in negative affect 1 and 6 months following treatment, while discussions with physicians predicted an increase in positive affect 1 month following treatment. Patients who spent more time discussing treatment options with family and friends also reported greater pre-treatment social support and emotional expression. Mediation analyses indicated that these coping strategies facilitated cognitive processing (as measured by a decrease in intrusive thoughts) and that cognitive processing predicted improvement in affect. Greater time spent talking with family and friends about treatment options may provide opportunities for patients to cope with their cancer diagnosis and facilitate cognitive processing, which may improve patient distress over time. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Neural predictors and mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy on threat processing in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Heide; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Phan, K Luan

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is "gold standard" psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Cognitive models posit that preferential processing of threat mediates excessive forms of anxiety, which is supported by exaggerated amygdala, insula, and cortical reactivity to threatening socio-emotional signals in SAD. However, little is known about neural predictors of CBT success or the mechanisms by which CBT exerts its therapeutic effects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during responses to social signals of threat (fearful/angry faces) against positive signals (happy faces) in 14 patients with SAD before and after 12 weeks of CBT. For comparison, 14 healthy control (HC) participants also underwent two fMRI scans, 12 weeks apart. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses showed therapeutic success was predicted by enhanced pre-treatment activation to threatening faces in higher-order visual (superior and middle temporal gyrus), cognitive, and emotion processing areas (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex). Moreover, a group by time interaction was revealed in prefrontal regions (dorsomedial, medial gyrus) and insula. The interaction was driven by relatively greater activity during threat processing in SAD, which significantly reduced after CBT but did not significantly predict response to CBT. Therefore, pre-treatment cortical hyperactivity to social threat signals may serve as a prognostic indicator of CBT success in SAD. Collectively, CBT-related brain changes involved a reduction in activity in insula, prefrontal, and extrastriate regions. Results are consistent with cognitive models, which associate decreases in threat processing bias with recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analogical Reasoning in the Engineering Design Process and Technology Education Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This synthesis paper discusses the research exploring analogical reasoning, the role of analogies in the engineering design process, and educational applications for analogical reasoning. Researchers have discovered that analogical reasoning is often a fundamental cognitive tool in design problem solving. Regarding the possible role of analogical reasoning in the context of technology education; analogies may be a useful tool to develop student’s design skills, teach abstract or complex conce...

  9. Hierarchical processing in the prefrontal cortex in a variety of cognitive domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ae eJeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review scrutinizes several findings on human hierarchical processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC in diverse cognitive domains. Converging evidence from previous studies has shown that the PFC, specifically Brodmann area (BA 44, may function as the essential region for hierarchical processing across the domains. In language fMRI studies, BA 44 was significantly activated for the hierarchical processing of center-embedded sentences and this pattern of activations was also observed in artificial grammar. The same pattern was observed in the visuo-spatial domain where BA44 was actively involved in the processing of hierarchy for the visual symbol. Musical syntax, which is the rule-based arrangement of musical sets, has also been construed as hierarchical processing as in the language domain such that the activation in BA44 was observed in a chord sequence paradigm. P600 ERP was also engendered during the processing of musical hierarchy. Along with a longstanding idea that a human’s number faculty is developed as a by-product of language faculty, BA44 was closely involved in hierarchical processing in mental arithmetic. This review extended its discussion of hierarchical processing to hierarchical behavior, that is, human action which has been referred to as being hierarchically composed. Several lesion and TMS studies supported the involvement of BA44 for hierarchical processing in the action domain. Lastly, the hierarchical organization of cognitive controls was discussed within the PFC, forming a cascade of top-down hierarchical processes operating along a posterior-to-anterior axis of the lateral PFC including BA44 within the network. It is proposed that PFC is actively involved in different forms of hierarchical processing and specifically BA44 may play an integral role in the process. Taking levels of proficiency and subcortical areas into consideration may provide further insight into the functional role of BA44 for hierarchical

  10. Need for Cognition and False Memory: Can One's Natural Processing Style Be Manipulated by External Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootan, Samantha S; Leding, Juliana K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to provide an enhanced understanding of need for cognition (NFC) and its influence on one's memory accuracy. People who are high in NFC tend to put more cognitive effort into their mental processes than their low-NFC counterparts. To determine whether one's natural processing tendencies, as determined by NFC, can be influenced by external factors, manipulations to levels of processing were added. Participants viewed word lists from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and were instructed to process half of the DRM lists deeply and the other half shallowly. After all the lists were presented, participants completed 3 successive recall tests. The deep processing condition produced higher rates of false memories for both NFC groups than the shallow processing condition. In addition, the high-NFC group produced higher rates of target recall in both the deep and shallow conditions than the low-NFC group. However, the high-NFC group also produced higher rates of false recall for the shallowly processed lists. These data indicate that high-NFC people exhibit enhanced target recall for word lists, which may come at the expense of overall accuracy due to the increase of false recall.

  11. Teaching Case: MiHotel--Applicant Processing System Design Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert E.; Dunn, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This teaching case describes the functionality of an applicant processing system designed for a fictitious hotel chain. The system detailed in the case includes a webform where applicants complete and submit job applications. The system also includes a desktop application used by hotel managers and Human Resources to track applications and process…

  12. Change in cognitive process during dance video game play with different appendages for motor output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Ono, Yumie; Shimada, Sotaro; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Noah, Jack Adam

    2018-02-01

    Playing a dance video game (DVG) requires fine temporal control of foot positions based on simultaneous visuoauditory integration. Despite the highly-demanding nature of its cognitive processes, DVG could offer promising exercise opportunities for elderly people to maintain their cognitive abilities due to its strong adherence. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we have previously shown that DVG play with the foot activates prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices. However, it is still in debate whether this brain-stimulatory effect of DVG could also be maintained in case that DVG is played with the hand by people who have difficulty to play DVG in a standing position. We therefore investigated the regional brain activity of 12 healthy, right-handed young-adults when they played DVG with their dominant hand and foot. We found that the DVG-related hemodynamic activity was comparable in the prefrontal area regardless of the appendages while that was significantly smaller in case of playing with the hand related to the foot in the left superior/middle temporal gyrus (S/MTG). A similar trend was also observed in the right S/MTG. These results suggest that the motor preparatory function mediated by the prefrontal cortices is equally employed regardless of appendages while more cognitive load is required in the temporal cortices with foot-played DVG, possibly to integrate visual, auditory, and proprioceptive information. Hand-played DVG may partially substitute foot-played DVG in the sense of cognitive training in the elderly.

  13. Influence of shift work on cognitive performance in male business process outsourcing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, Bijavara; Sudhakar, Honnamachanahalli

    2012-09-01

    India is a front runner in IT industry. Business process outsourcing (BPO) sector is a major part of IT industry with around 4.5 million employees. These employees are subjected to high work stress, odd working hours, and frequent shift changes leading to increased physical and mental health problems. To study the cognitive functions in male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts. Young BPO employees from various BPO companies of Bangalore were tested for cognitive functions. Fifty male BPO employees exposed to regular shifts were assessed for various cognitive functions including tests for speed, attention, learning and memory, and executive function. They were compared with 50 non-BPO employees not working in shifts. Statistical analysis - Data was analysed by t-test and Mann-Whitney test using SPSS V.13.0. BPO employees performed poorly compared to their controls in tests for mental speed, learning and memory, and response inhibition. No changes were seen between groups in tests for attention and working memory. Cognitive functions are impaired in BPO employees exposed to regular shift changes.

  14. Heart rate variability and cognitive processing: The autonomic response to task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Casado, Antonio; Perales, José C; Cárdenas, David; Sanabria, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated variations in heart rate variability (HRV) as a function of cognitive demands. Participants completed an execution condition including the psychomotor vigilance task, a working memory task and a duration discrimination task. The control condition consisted of oddball versions (participants had to detect the rare event) of the tasks from the execution condition, designed to control for the effect of the task parameters (stimulus duration and stimulus rate) on HRV. The NASA-TLX questionnaire was used as a subjective measure of cognitive workload across tasks and conditions. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, HRV varied as a function of task demands (with the lowest values in the working memory task). Second, and crucially, we found similar HRV values when comparing each of the tasks with its oddball control equivalent, and a significant decrement in HRV as a function of time-on-task. Finally, the NASA-TLX results showed larger cognitive workload in the execution condition than in the oddball control condition, and scores variations as a function of task. Taken together, our results suggest that HRV is highly sensitive to overall demands of sustained attention over and above the influence of other cognitive processes suggested by previous literature. In addition, our study highlights a potential dissociation between objective and subjective measures of mental workload, with important implications in applied settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Theory of mind and context processing in schizophrenia: the role of cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne-Lavau, Maud; Charest, Anick; Anselmo, Karyne; Rodriguez, Jean-Pierre; Blouin, Guy

    2012-12-30

    The present study sought to identify whether cognitive flexibility and context processing may impact theory of mind (ToM) ability in schizophrenia. Thirty two patients with schizophrenia and 29 matched healthy participants were tested individually on their ToM ability using a task involving attribution and comprehension of a speaker's ironic intent. This task made it possible to determine whether the degree of incongruity between contextual information and a target sentence has an impact on the attribution of ironic intent to the protagonists of a story. Participants were also assessed on their cognitive flexibility and working memory. The main results revealed that participants with schizophrenia correctly perceived contextual information cueing attribution of ironic intent to the protagonist of the stimulus, but they showed difficulty to correctly integrate this information, performing significantly worse than healthy participants when they attributed mental states. However, some participants with schizophrenia performed like healthy control participants on the ToM task while others did not. A lack of flexibility seems to differentiate the two schizophrenia subgroups thereby obtained, suggesting that cognitive flexibility has an impact on ToM performances in schizophrenia. These difficulties were not associated with clinical symptoms. Such results will have an impact on cognitive remediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relating Memory To Functional Performance In Normal Aging to Dementia Using Hierarchical Bayesian Cognitive Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, William R.; Pooley, James P.; Steyvers, Mark; Hara, Junko; Mangrola, Tushar; Reisberg, Barry; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD). 280 patients (normal or ADRD) received a total of 1,514 assessments using the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen (MCIS). A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing (HBCP) model was created by embedding a signal detection theory (SDT) model of the MCIS delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The SDT model used latent parameters of discriminability (memory process) and response bias (executive function) to predict, simultaneously, recognition memory performance for each patient and each FAST severity group. The observed recognition memory data did not distinguish the six FAST severity stages, but the latent parameters completely separated them. The latent parameters were also used successfully to transform the ordinal FAST measure into a continuous measure reflecting the underlying continuum of functional severity. HBCP models applied to recognition memory data from clinical practice settings accurately translated a latent measure of cognition to a continuous measure of functional severity for both individuals and FAST groups. Such a translation links two levels of brain information processing, and may enable more accurate correlations with other levels, such as those characterized by biomarkers. PMID:22407225

  17. Neural Temporal Dynamics of Facial Emotion Processing: Age Effects and Relationship to Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the effects of age on neural temporal dynamics of processing task-relevant facial expressions and their relationship to cognitive functions. Negative (sad, afraid, angry, and disgusted, positive (happy, and neutral faces were presented to 30 older and 31 young participants who performed a facial emotion categorization task. Behavioral and ERP indices of facial emotion processing were analyzed. An enhanced N170 for negative faces, in addition to intact right-hemispheric N170 for positive faces, was observed in older adults relative to their younger counterparts. Moreover, older adults demonstrated an attenuated within-group N170 laterality effect for neutral faces, while younger adults showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, older adults exhibited sustained temporo-occipital negativity deflection over the time range of 200–500 ms post-stimulus, while young adults showed posterior positivity and subsequent emotion-specific frontal negativity deflections. In older adults, decreased accuracy for labeling negative faces was positively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scores, and accuracy for labeling neutral faces was negatively correlated with age. These findings suggest that older people may exert more effort in structural encoding for negative faces and there are different response patterns for the categorization of different facial emotions. Cognitive functioning may be related to facial emotion categorization deficits observed in older adults. This may not be attributable to positivity effects: it may represent a selective deficit for the processing of negative facial expressions in older adults.

  18. Examination of the suitability of collecting in event cognitive processes using Think Aloud protocol in golf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elizabeth Whitehead

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined the use of think aloud (TA protocol as a means for collecting data of cognitive processes during performance in golf. In study 1, TA was employed to examine if different verbalisation (Level 2 or Level 3 TA instructions influence performance of high and low skilled golfers. Participants performed 30 putts using TA at either Level 2, Level 3, or no verbalization condition. Although Level 3 verbalization produced a higher volume of verbal data than Level 2, TA at either level 2 or 3 did not impair putting performance compared to no verbalization. Study 2 examined the congruence between data collected via TA at Level 3 and cued retrospective recall of cognitive processes during golf performance. Experienced golfers performed six holes of golf whilst engaging in Level 3 TA. After performance, three semi-structured retrospective interviews were conducted (ten minutes after performance, 24 hours after performance and 48 hours after performance. A comparison of the themes identified large discrepancies between the information reported during TA and at interview, with only 38-41% similarity in variables reported to influence decision making on each hole. Both studies suggest TA is a valuable method for recording cognitive processes of individuals during task performance. TA provides richer verbal data regarding decisions than cued retrospective recall, and TA does not negatively impact performance.

  19. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Cognitive and social processes predicting partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Ostroff, Jamie; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Winkel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    The diagnosis and subsequent treatment for early stage breast cancer is stressful for partners. Little is known about the role of cognitive and social processes predicting the longitudinal course of partners' psychosocial adaptation. This study evaluated the role of cognitive and social processing in partner psychological adaptation to early stage breast cancer, evaluating both main and moderator effect models. Moderating effects for meaning making, acceptance, and positive reappraisal on the predictive association of searching for meaning, emotional processing, and emotional expression on partner psychological distress were examined. Partners of women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were evaluated shortly after the ill partner's diagnosis (N=253), 9 (N=167), and 18 months (N=149) later. Partners completed measures of emotional expression, emotional processing, acceptance, meaning making, and general and cancer-specific distress at all time points. Lower satisfaction with partner support predicted greater global distress, and greater use of positive reappraisal was associated with greater distress. The predicted moderator effects for found meaning on the associations between the search for meaning and cancer-specific distress were found and similar moderating effects for positive reappraisal on the associations between emotional expression and global distress and for acceptance on the association between emotional processing and cancer-specific distress were found. Results indicate several cognitive-social processes directly predict partner distress. However, moderator effect models in which the effects of partners' processing depends upon whether these efforts result in changes in perceptions of the cancer experience may add to the understanding of partners' adaptation to cancer.