Sample records for cognitive image processing

  1. Conceptualization, Cognitive Process between Image and Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu


    Full Text Available The study explores the process of constituting and organizing the system of concepts. After a comparative analysis of image and concept, conceptualization is reconsidered through raising for discussion the relations of concept with image in general and with self-image mirrored in body schema in particular. Taking into consideration the notion of mental space, there is developed an articulated perspective on conceptualization which has the images of mental space at one pole and the categories of language and operations of thinking at the other pole. There are explored the explicative possibilities of the notion of Tversky’s diagrammatic space as an element which is necessary to understand the genesis of graphic behaviour and to define a new construct, graphic intelligence.

  2. Imaging a cognitive model of apraxia: the neural substrate of gesture-specific cognitive processes. (United States)

    Peigneux, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial; Garraux, Gaetan; Laureys, Steven; Degueldre, Christian; Aerts, Joel; Del Fiore, Guy; Moonen, Gustave; Luxen, Andre; Salmon, Eric


    The present study aimed to ascertain the neuroanatomical basis of an influential neuropsychological model for upper limb apraxia [Rothi LJ, et al. The Neuropsychology of Action. 1997. Hove, UK: Psychology Press]. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured in healthy volunteers using H2 15O PET during performance of four tasks commonly used for testing upper limb apraxia, i.e., pantomime of familiar gestures on verbal command, imitation of familiar gestures, imitation of novel gestures, and an action-semantic task that consisted in matching objects for functional use. We also re-analysed data from a previous PET study in which we investigated the neural basis of the visual analysis of gestures. First, we found that two sets of discrete brain areas are predominantly engaged in the imitation of familiar and novel gestures, respectively. Segregated brain activation for novel gesture imitation concur with neuropsychological reports to support the hypothesis that knowledge about the organization of the human body mediates the transition from visual perception to motor execution when imitating novel gestures [Goldenberg Neuropsychologia 1995;33:63-72]. Second, conjunction analyses revealed distinctive neural bases for most of the gesture-specific cognitive processes proposed in this cognitive model of upper limb apraxia. However, a functional analysis of brain imaging data suggested that one single memory store may be used for "to-be-perceived" and "to-be-produced" gestural representations, departing from Rothi et al.'s proposal. Based on the above considerations, we suggest and discuss a revised model for upper limb apraxia that might best account for both brain imaging findings and neuropsychological dissociations reported in the apraxia literature. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Body-image thought processes: The development and initial validation of the Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions. (United States)

    Jakatdar, Tejal A; Cash, Thomas F; Engle, Erin K


    No measures exist that specifically assess cognitive distortions related to body image per se, despite their theoretical and clinical significance. Most cognitive-distortion scales pertain to depression, anxiety, or eating disorders. Accordingly, the 37-item Assessment of Body-Image Cognitive Distortions (ABCD) was developed and validated in this study with a sample of 263 college women. The ABCD samples eight types of distorted thinking related to how persons process information about their physical appearance. Two 18-item parallel forms of the unidimensional measure were also constructed. All forms were highly internally consistent and relatively free from socially desirable responding. Convergent validity for all ABCD forms was established using several standardized measures of body image and eating attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the ABCD was predictable from body-image evaluation, investment, and overweight preoccupation. The ABCD uniquely predicted body-image quality of life and disturbed eating attitudes above and beyond other body-image predictors. Heavier women and White women were more prone to body-image cognitive distortions than were thinner women and Black women. Finally, limitations of this preliminary study, directions for future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Surgeons and cognitive processes. (United States)

    Hall, J C; Ellis, C; Hamdorf, J


    The surgical mind is geared to make important decisions and perform highly skilled tasks. The aim of this review is to explore the cognitive processes that link these actions. The core of this review is derived from a literature search of a computer database (Medline). The surgical image is one of action. However, the effective performance of surgery requires more than mere manual dexterity and it is evident that competent surgeons exhibit the cognitive traits that are held by all experts. The changes that are occurring in surgery indicate a need to place greater emphasis on the cognitive processes that underpin the practice of surgery. It is important that surgeons do not become victims of their own cult image. Copyright 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cognitive processes in CBT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.


    Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by

  6. Towards cognitive image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Nikolov, S.G.; Lewis, J.; Dixon, T.; Bull, D.; Canagarajah, N.


    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much

  7. Towards cognitive image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Nikolov, S.G.; Lewis, J.J.; Dixon, T.D.; Bull, D.R.; Canagarajah, C.N.


    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much

  8. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Blanken, Henk; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L; Feng, L.


    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by

  9. The Effects of Image-Based Concept Mapping on the Learning Outcomes and Cognitive Processes of Mobile Learners (United States)

    Yen, Jung-Chuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, I-Jung


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different teaching strategies (text-based concept mapping vs. image-based concept mapping) on the learning outcomes and cognitive processes of mobile learners. Eighty-six college freshmen enrolled in the "Local Area Network Planning and Implementation" course taught by the first author…

  10. Changes in neuronal correlates of body image processing by means of cognitive-behavioural body image therapy for eating disorders: a randomized controlled fMRI study. (United States)

    Vocks, S; Schulte, D; Busch, M; Grönemeyer, D; Herpertz, S; Suchan, B


    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities in visual body image processing in anorexia and bulimia nervosa, possibly underlying body image disturbance in these disorders. Although cognitive behavioural interventions have been shown to be successful in improving body image disturbance in eating disorders, no randomized controlled study has yet analysed treatment-induced changes in neuronal correlates of visual body image processing. Altogether, 32 females with eating disorders were randomly assigned either to a manualized cognitive behavioural body image therapy consisting of 10 group sessions, or to a waiting list control condition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses to viewing photographs of one's own and another female's body taken from 16 standardized perspectives while participants were wearing a uniform bikini were acquired before and after the intervention and the waiting time, respectively. Data indicate a general blood oxygen level dependent signal enhancement in response to looking at photographs of one's own body from pre- to post-treatment, whereas exclusively in the control group activation decreases from pre- to post-waiting time were observed. Focused activation increases from pre- to post-treatment were found in the left middle temporal gyrus covering the coordinates of the extrastriate body area and in bilateral frontal structures including the middle frontal gyrus. Results point to a more intense neuronal processing of one's own body after the cognitive behavioural body image therapy in cortical regions that are responsible for the visual processing of the human body and for self-awareness. © Cambridge University Press 2010

  11. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Bambini, Valentina; Gentili, Claudio; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bertinetto, Pier Marco; Pietrini, Pietro


    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience led us to a consideration of metaphor as supported by a distributed and bilateral network; on the other hand, we based on the accounts of figurative language put forward in pragmatics and cognitive science to postulate a decomposition of such a network into multiple sub-systems. During scanning, participants implicitly processed metaphorical (familiar and unfamiliar) and non-metaphorical passages, while being explicitly involved in an adjective matching task to be performed after reading the target passages. Several regions showed greater activity to metaphors as compared to non-metaphors, including left and right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and anterior cingulate. This pattern of activations, markedly bilateral, can be decomposed into circumscribed functional sub-systems mediating different aspects of metaphor resolution, as foreseen in the pragmatic and cognitive literature: (a) the conceptual/pragmatic machinery in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus, which supports the integration of linguistic material and world knowledge in context; (b) the attentional component in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal areas, which is set to monitor and filter for the relevant aspects of context and for the appropriate meanings; (c) the Theory of Mind system along the right superior temporal sulcus, which deals with the recognition of speakers' communicative intentions and is more extensively activated by unfamiliar metaphors. The results have several implications for the field of neuropragmatics

  12. Cognitive-motivational model of obesity. Motivational mechanisms and cognitive biases underlying the processing of food-related images by people with excess body weight. (United States)

    Pawłowska, Monika; Kalka, Dorota


    Obesity is a constantly escalating problem in all age groups. In the face of ubiquitous images of food, colourful advertisements of high-calorie meals and beverages, it is necessary to examine the role of the memory and attention mechanism in the processing of these stimuli. Knowledge regarding this subject will surely significantly contribute to the improvement of prevention and management of obesity programs designed to prevent secondary psychological difficulties, including depression. This paper presents cognitive-motivational model of obesity, according to which the description of mechanisms of eating disorders occurrence should include not only motivational factors but also the cognitive ones. The paper shows theoretical perspectives on the problem of obesity irrespective of its origin, as well as the latest empirical reports in this field. The presented survey demonstrates the lack of explicit research findings related to the processing of high and low-calorie food images by persons with excess weight. It seems that the knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the processing of these stimuli and the exploration of this phenomenon will allow to improve programs whose objective is to prevent obesity.

  13. The shifting appearance/disappearance of holographic images and the dynamic ontology of perceptual and cognitive processes (United States)

    Boissonnet, Philippe


    The French philosopher M Merleau-Ponty captured the dynamic of perception with his idea of the intertwining of perceiver and perceived. Light is what links them. In the case of holographic images, not only is spatial and colour perception the pure product of light, but this light information is always in the process of self-construction with our eyes, according to our movements and the point of view adopted. According to the aesthetic reception of a work of art, Holographic images vary greatly from those of cinema, photography and even every kind of digital 3D animation. This particular image's status truly makes perceptually apparent the "co-emergence" of light and our gaze. But holography never misleads us with respect to the precarious nature of our perceptions. We have no illusion as to the limits of our empirical understanding of the perceived reality. Holography, like our knowledge of the visible, thus brings to light the phenomenon of reality's "co-constitution" and contributes to a dynamic ontology of perceptual and cognitive processes. The cognitivist Francico Varela defines this as the paradigm of enaction,i which I will adapt and apply to the appearance/disappearance context of holographic images to bring out their affinities on a metaphorical level.

  14. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk; Ravesloot, Cécile J.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L.; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Schaik, Jan P J


    Rationale and Objectives: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional

  15. Volumetric and two-dimensional image interpretation show different cognitive processes in learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, Anouk|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648907; Ravesloot, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362749663; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; van der Schaaf, Irene C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29133489X; Huige, Josephine C B M; Vincken, Koen L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143101722; Ten Cate, Olle Th J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068931204; van Schaik, JPJ|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070114811


    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In current practice, radiologists interpret digital images, including a substantial amount of volumetric images. We hypothesized that interpretation of a stack of a volumetric data set demands different skills than interpretation of two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cognitive Processing in Young Adults with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Jacola, Lisa M.; Byars, Anna W.; Chalfonte-Evans, Melinda; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Hickey, Fran; Patterson, Bonnie; Hotze, Stephanie; Vannest, Jennifer; Chiu, Chung-Yiu; Holland, Scott K.; Schapiro, Mark B.


    The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation during a semantic-classification/object-recognition task in 13 persons with Down syndrome and 12 typically developing control participants (age range = 12-26 years). A comparison between groups suggested atypical patterns of brain activation for the…

  17. Body image-related cognitive fusion as a main mediational process between body-related experiences and women's quality of life. (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A


    Although the experience of body image has been considered an important indicator of women's psychological quality of life (QoL), it has also been suggested that the impact of unwanted body-related experiences on QoL may be mediated by emotional regulation processes. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore for the first time the role of body image-related cognitive fusion on these associations. This study comprised 779 young females who completed self-report measures. A path analysis was conducted to explore whether BMI, body dissatisfaction and feelings of inferiority based on physical appearance would impact on psychological QoL through body image-related cognitive fusion. The model explained 39% of psychological health, and revealed an excellent fit. Results showed that BMI did not directly impact on psychological health. Furthermore, the effects of increased body dissatisfaction and feelings of inferiority based on physical appearance on psychological health were fully and partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion, respectively. These findings suggest that the presence of body image-related negative experiences does not necessarily lead to impairment in women's QoL, which is rather dependent upon one's ability to observe these unwanted experiences as transient and subjective. Therefore, intervention programmes aiming at increasing women's QoL should focus on targeting emotional regulation processes in order to develop the ability to pursue life goals and values, even in the presence of unwanted experiences concerning body image.

  18. The study of cognitive processes in the brain EEG during the perception of bistable images using wavelet skeleton (United States)

    Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Zhuravlev, Maksim O.; Pysarchik, Alexander N.; Khramova, Marina V.; Grubov, Vadim V.


    In the paper we study the appearance of the complex patterns in human EEG data during a psychophysiological experiment by stimulating cognitive activity with the perception of ambiguous object. A new method based on the calculation of the maximum energy component for the continuous wavelet transform (skeletons) is proposed. Skeleton analysis allows us to identify specific patterns in the EEG data set, appearing in the perception of ambiguous objects. Thus, it becomes possible to diagnose some cognitive processes associated with the concentration of attention and recognition of complex visual objects. The article presents the processing results of experimental data for 6 male volunteers.

  19. Cognitive processes in scientific visualization (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Rosenberg, Robert O.; Trafton, Greg


    What makes a graphic image a good visualization. Why is one visualization better than another. Why are 3D visualizations better than 2D visualizations in some cases but not others. How does the size of the display, color, contrast level, brightness or frame rate affect the usability of the visualization, and how do these 'physical' quantities affect the type and amount of information that can be extracted from the visualization by the user. These are just a few of the questions that a multi-disciplinary effort at the NRL are trying to answer. By combining visualization experts, physicist and cognitive scientists, awe are trying to understand the cognitive processes carried out in the minds of scientists at the time they perform a visual analysis of their data. The results from this project are being used for the design of visualization methodologies and basic cognitive work. In this paper, we present a general description of our project and a brief discussion of the results obtained trying to understand why 3D visualizations are sometimes better than 2D, as most of the attempts at studying this problem have resulted in theories that are either to vague or under-specified, or not informative across different contexts.

  20. Information processing, computation, and cognition. (United States)

    Piccinini, Gualtiero; Scarantino, Andrea


    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both - although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use 'computation' and 'information processing' to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are the same thing. In this paper, we address this unsatisfactory state of affairs by presenting a general and theory-neutral account of computation and information processing. We also apply our framework by analyzing the relations between computation and information processing on one hand and classicism, connectionism, and computational neuroscience on the other. We defend the relevance to cognitive science of both computation, at least in a generic sense, and information processing, in three important senses of the term. Our account advances several foundational debates in cognitive science by untangling some of their conceptual knots in a theory-neutral way. By leveling the playing field, we pave the way for the future resolution of the debates' empirical aspects.

  1. 1st International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dewen; Liu, Huaping


    "Foundations and Practical Applications of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing" presents selected papers from the First International Conference on Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, held in Beijing, China on December 15-17, 2012 (CSIP2012). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in artificial cognitive systems and advanced information processing, and to present new findings and perspectives on future development. This book introduces multidisciplinary perspectives on the subject areas of Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, including cognitive sciences and technology, autonomous vehicles, cognitive psychology, cognitive metrics, information fusion, image/video understanding, brain-computer interfaces, visual cognitive processing, neural computation, bioinformatics, etc. The book will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners in the fields of Cognitive Science, Computer Science and Cogni...

  2. Image Processing Research (United States)


    Picture Processing," USCEE Report No. 530, 1974, pp. 11-19. 4.7 Spectral Sensitivity Estimation of a Color Image Scanner Clanton E. Mancill and William...Projects: the improvement of image fidelity and presentation format; (3) Image Data Extraction Projects: the recognition of objects within pictures ...representation; (5) Image Proc- essing Systems Projects: the development of image processing hardware and software support systems. 14. Key words : Image

  3. Cognitive Processes in Spelling. (United States)

    Frith, Uta, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to encourage a more serious study of spelling by discussing it as both a skill and a problem and by highlighting some previously ill-understood processes involved in learning to spell. The 22 chapters are arranged under the following eight categories: spelling instruction and spelling reform, spelling and language,…

  4. Resource-adaptive cognitive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Crocker, Matthew W


    This book investigates the adaptation of cognitive processes to limited resources. The central topics of this book are heuristics considered as results of the adaptation to resource limitations, through natural evolution in the case of humans, or through artificial construction in the case of computational systems; the construction and analysis of resource control in cognitive processes; and an analysis of resource-adaptivity within the paradigm of concurrent computation. The editors integrated the results of a collaborative 5-year research project that involved over 50 scientists. After a mot

  5. Hyperspectral image processing methods (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  6. Signal processing for cognitive radios

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaweera, Sudharman K


    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, and it can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces the specific type of CR that has gained the most research attention in recent years: the CR for Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). Provides signal processing solutions to each task by relating the tasks to materials covered in Part II. Specialized chapters then discuss specific signal processing algorithms required for DSA and DSS cognitive radios  

  7. Medical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff


    This book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. This book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to e

  8. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin


    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  9. Multiplicative processes in visual cognition (United States)

    Credidio, H. F.; Teixeira, E. N.; Reis, S. D. S.; Moreira, A. A.; Andrade, J. S.


    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is certainly one of the most important results in the field of statistics. The simple fact that the addition of many random variables can generate the same probability curve, elucidated the underlying process for a broad spectrum of natural systems, ranging from the statistical distribution of human heights to the distribution of measurement errors, to mention a few. An extension of the CLT can be applied to multiplicative processes, where a given measure is the result of the product of many random variables. The statistical signature of these processes is rather ubiquitous, appearing in a diverse range of natural phenomena, including the distributions of incomes, body weights, rainfall, and fragment sizes in a rock crushing process. Here we corroborate results from previous studies which indicate the presence of multiplicative processes in a particular type of visual cognition task, namely, the visual search for hidden objects. Precisely, our results from eye-tracking experiments show that the distribution of fixation times during visual search obeys a log-normal pattern, while the fixational radii of gyration follow a power-law behavior.

  10. The image processing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C


    Now in its fifth edition, John C. Russ's monumental image processing reference is an even more complete, modern, and hands-on tool than ever before. The Image Processing Handbook, Fifth Edition is fully updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field. Written by an expert with unequalled experience and authority, it offers clear guidance on how to create, select, and use the most appropriate algorithms for a specific application. What's new in the Fifth Edition? ·       A new chapter on the human visual process that explains which visual cues elicit a response from the vie

  11. Cognitive components of rural tourism destination images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along with their eff......This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image focusing on TDI cognitive components. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, the cognitive components of the area's TDI were identified along......; (3) visitors can be classified in four clusters according the cognitive factors; (4) tourists' clusters differ in terms of age, education and income as well as number of visits and perception of the area's attractiveness. Such findings point towards the need of both a new strategy for the area...

  12. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.


    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  13. Image processing occupancy sensor (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.


    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  14. Onboard image processing (United States)

    Martin, D. R.; Samulon, A. S.


    The possibility of onboard geometric correction of Thematic Mapper type imagery to make possible image registration is considered. Typically, image registration is performed by processing raw image data on the ground. The geometric distortion (e.g., due to variation in spacecraft location and viewing angle) is estimated by using a Kalman filter updated by correlating the received data with a small reference subimage, which has known location. Onboard image processing dictates minimizing the complexity of the distortion estimation while offering the advantages of a real time environment. In keeping with this, the distortion estimation can be replaced by information obtained from the Global Positioning System and from advanced star trackers. Although not as accurate as the conventional ground control point technique, this approach is capable of achieving subpixel registration. Appropriate attitude commands can be used in conjunction with image processing to achieve exact overlap of image frames. The magnitude of the various distortion contributions, the accuracy with which they can be measured in real time, and approaches to onboard correction are investigated.

  15. Robots and image processing (United States)

    Peterson, C. E.


    Developments in integrated circuit manufacture are discussed, with attention given to the current expectations of industrial automation. It is shown that the growing emphasis on image processing is a natural consequence of production requirements which have generated a small but significant range of vision applications. The state of the art in image processing is discussed, with the main research areas delineated. The main areas of application will be less in welding and diecasting than in assembly and machine tool loading, with vision becoming an ever more important facet of the installation. The two main approaches to processing images in a computer (depending on the aims of the project) are discussed. The first involves producing a system that does a specific task, the second is to achieve an understanding of some basic issues in object recognition.

  16. Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschool Children (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Paradise, Matthew; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Lange, Garrett


    The core processes of emotion understanding, emotion control, cognitive understanding, and cognitive control and their association with early indicators of social and academic success were examined in a sample of 141 3-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized four-factor model of emotion and cognition in early…

  17. Geology And Image Processing (United States)

    Daily, Mike


    The design of digital image processing systems for geological applications will be driven by the nature and complexity of the intended use, by the types and quantities of data, and by systems considerations. Image processing will be integrated with geographic information systems (GIS) and data base management systems (DBMS). Dense multiband data sets from radar and multispectral scanners (MSS) will tax memory, bus, and processor architectures. Array processors and dedicated-function chips (VLSI/VHSIC) will allow the routine use of FFT and classification algorithms. As this geoprocessing capability becomes available to a larger segment of the geological community, user friendliness and smooth interaction will become a major concern.

  18. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo


    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  19. Introduction to computer image processing (United States)

    Moik, J. G.


    Theoretical backgrounds and digital techniques for a class of image processing problems are presented. Image formation in the context of linear system theory, image evaluation, noise characteristics, mathematical operations on image and their implementation are discussed. Various techniques for image restoration and image enhancement are presented. Methods for object extraction and the problem of pictorial pattern recognition and classification are discussed.

  20. Introduction to digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, William K


    CONTINUOUS IMAGE CHARACTERIZATION Continuous Image Mathematical Characterization Image RepresentationTwo-Dimensional SystemsTwo-Dimensional Fourier TransformImage Stochastic CharacterizationPsychophysical Vision Properties Light PerceptionEye PhysiologyVisual PhenomenaMonochrome Vision ModelColor Vision ModelPhotometry and ColorimetryPhotometryColor MatchingColorimetry ConceptsColor SpacesDIGITAL IMAGE CHARACTERIZATION Image Sampling and Reconstruction Image Sampling and Reconstruction ConceptsMonochrome Image Sampling SystemsMonochrome Image Reconstruction SystemsColor Image Sampling SystemsImage QuantizationScalar QuantizationProcessing Quantized VariablesMonochrome and Color Image QuantizationDISCRETE TWO-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR PROCESSING Discrete Image Mathematical Characterization Vector-Space Image RepresentationGeneralized Two-Dimensional Linear OperatorImage Statistical CharacterizationImage Probability Density ModelsLinear Operator Statistical RepresentationSuperposition and ConvolutionFinite-Area Superp...

  1. A Review on Image Processing


    Amandeep Kour; Vimal Kishore Yadav; Vikas Maheshwari; Deepak Prashar


    Image Processing includes changing the nature of an image in order to improve its pictorial information for human interpretation, for autonomous machine perception. Digital image processing is a subset of the electronic domain wherein the image is converted to an array of small integers, called pixels, representing a physical quantity such as scene radiance, stored in a digital memory, and processed by computer or other digital hardware. Interest in digital image processing methods stems from...

  2. scikit-image: image processing in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfan van der Walt


    Full Text Available scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image. More information can be found on the project homepage,

  3. scikit-image: image processing in Python. (United States)

    van der Walt, Stéfan; Schönberger, Johannes L; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Boulogne, François; Warner, Joshua D; Yager, Neil; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Yu, Tony


    scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image. More information can be found on the project homepage,

  4. The Assessment of Children's Cognitive Processing Capabilities. (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; Collis, Kevin F.

    This paper reports the results of the second of a series of collaborative studies examining how children acquire the skills to represent and solve verbal addition and subtraction problems. The purpose of this study was to identify the cognitive processing capabilities of a group of Tasmanian (Australian) children. Fifteen cognitive tests were…

  5. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema (United States)

    McKenzie, Alex


    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  6. Cognitive Algorithms for Signal Processing (United States)


    L. I. Perlovsky, “Symbols: Integrated cognition and language . In R. Gudwin, J. Queiroz (Eds.). Semiotics and intelligent systems development...higher 18 functioning of the mind, to modeling language and cultures, to developing next generations of search engines, to modeling and diagnosing...wants. These references consider how to model language understanding (and learning). The inability so far to engineer natural language understanding

  7. Smart Image Enhancement Process (United States)

    Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)


    Contrast and lightness measures are used to first classify the image as being one of non-turbid and turbid. If turbid, the original image is enhanced to generate a first enhanced image. If non-turbid, the original image is classified in terms of a merged contrast/lightness score based on the contrast and lightness measures. The non-turbid image is enhanced to generate a second enhanced image when a poor contrast/lightness score is associated therewith. When the second enhanced image has a poor contrast/lightness score associated therewith, this image is enhanced to generate a third enhanced image. A sharpness measure is computed for one image that is selected from (i) the non-turbid image, (ii) the first enhanced image, (iii) the second enhanced image when a good contrast/lightness score is associated therewith, and (iv) the third enhanced image. If the selected image is not-sharp, it is sharpened to generate a sharpened image. The final image is selected from the selected image and the sharpened image.

  8. Image processing and recognition for biological images. (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi


    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Algorithmic errors. Cognitive processes and educational actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper we define the cognitive space of subtraction and place emphasis on procedural control and on the processes that need to be improved by the educa- tional framework for proper acquisition. We describe the theory behind error acquisi- tion. To do this, we consider the analysis of negative transfer processes induced from the educational context. The analysis is inscribed within the intersection between educational theory and cognitive theories of algorithmic learning.

  10. Image processing with ImageJ

    CERN Document Server

    Pascau, Javier


    The book will help readers discover the various facilities of ImageJ through a tutorial-based approach.This book is targeted at scientists, engineers, technicians, and managers, and anyone who wishes to master ImageJ for image viewing, processing, and analysis. If you are a developer, you will be able to code your own routines after you have finished reading this book. No prior knowledge of ImageJ is expected.

  11. Modulating the processing of emotional stimuli by cognitive demand. (United States)

    Kellermann, Tanja S; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Turetsky, Bruce I; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B


    Emotional processing is influenced by cognitive processes and vice versa, indicating a profound interaction of these domains. The investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying this interaction is not only highly relevant for understanding the organization of human brain function. Rather, it may also help in understanding dysregulated emotions in affective disorders and in elucidating the neurobiology of cognitive behavioural therapy (e.g. in borderline personality disorder), which aims at modulating dysfunctional emotion processes by cognitive techniques, such as restructuring. In the majority of earlier studies investigating the interaction of emotions and cognition, the main focus has been on the investigation of the effects of emotional stimuli or, more general, emotional processing, e.g. instituted by emotional material that needed to be processed, on cognitive performance and neural activation patterns. Here we pursued the opposite approach and investigated the modulation of implicit processing of emotional stimuli by cognitive demands using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging--study on a motor short-term memory paradigm with emotional interferences. Subjects were visually presented a finger-sequence consisting either of four (easy condition) or six (difficult condition) items, which they had to memorize. After a short pause positive, negative or neutral International affective picture system pictures or a green dot (as control condition) were presented. Subjects were instructed to reproduce the memorized sequence manually as soon as the picture disappeared. Analysis showed that with increasing cognitive demand (long relative to short sequences), neural responses to emotional pictures were significantly reduced in amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, the more difficult task evoked stronger activation in a widespread frontoparietal network. As stimuli were task-relevant go-cues and hence had to be processed perceptually, we

  12. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes. (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L


    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. DATA SOURCES: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. DATA SYNTHESIS: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning.

  13. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.


    Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537

  14. Hierarchical Heteroclinics in Dynamical Model of Cognitive Processes: Chunking (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Young, Todd R.; Rabinovich, Mikhail I.

    Combining the results of brain imaging and nonlinear dynamics provides a new hierarchical vision of brain network functionality that is helpful in understanding the relationship of the network to different mental tasks. Using these ideas it is possible to build adequate models for the description and prediction of different cognitive activities in which the number of variables is usually small enough for analysis. The dynamical images of different mental processes depend on their temporal organization and, as a rule, cannot be just simple attractors since cognition is characterized by transient dynamics. The mathematical image for a robust transient is a stable heteroclinic channel consisting of a chain of saddles connected by unstable separatrices. We focus here on hierarchical chunking dynamics that can represent several cognitive activities. Chunking is the dynamical phenomenon that means dividing a long information chain into shorter items. Chunking is known to be important in many processes of perception, learning, memory and cognition. We prove that in the phase space of the model that describes chunking there exists a new mathematical object — heteroclinic sequence of heteroclinic cycles — using the technique of slow-fast approximations. This new object serves as a skeleton of motions reflecting sequential features of hierarchical chunking dynamics and is an adequate image of the chunking processing.

  15. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R


    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  16. Eye Redness Image Processing Techniques (United States)

    Adnan, M. R. H. Mohd; Zain, Azlan Mohd; Haron, Habibollah; Alwee, Razana; Zulfaezal Che Azemin, Mohd; Osman Ibrahim, Ashraf


    The use of photographs for the assessment of ocular conditions has been suggested to further standardize clinical procedures. The selection of the photographs to be used as scale reference images was subjective. Numerous methods have been proposed to assign eye redness scores by computational methods. Image analysis techniques have been investigated over the last 20 years in an attempt to forgo subjective grading scales. Image segmentation is one of the most important and challenging problems in image processing. This paper briefly outlines the comprehensive of image processing and the implementation of image segmentation in eye redness.

  17. Sensory processing, neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia : Towards a cohesive cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.J.; de Gelder, B.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.


    Schizophrenia research has identified deficits in neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. Because a cohesive model of “disturbed cognitive machinery” is currently lacking, we built a conceptual model to integrate neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. In a

  18. Sensory processing, neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia: Towards a cohesive cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.S. de; Gelder, B.B. de; Hodiamont, P.P.G.


    Schizophrenia research has identified deficits in neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. Because a cohesive model of "disturbed cognitive machinery" is currently lacking, we built a conceptual model to integrate neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. In a

  19. Time models and cognitive processes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail eManiadakis


    Full Text Available The sense of time is an essential capacity of humans, with a major role in many of the cognitive processes expressed in our daily lifes. So far, in cognitive science and robotics research, mental capacities have been investigated in a theoretical and modelling framework that largely neglects the flow of time. Only recently there has been a small but constantly increasing interest in the temporal aspects of cognition, integrating time into a range of different models of perceptuo-motor capacities. The current paper aims to review existing works in the field and suggest directions for fruitful future work. This is particularly important for the newly developed field of artificial temporal cognition that is expected to significantly contribute in the development of sophisticated artificial agents seamlessly integrated into human societies.

  20. Cooperative processes in image segmentation (United States)

    Davis, L. S.


    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  1. Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta


    In this review we consider research on social cognition in which implicit processes can be compared and contrasted with explicit, conscious processes. In each case, their function is distinct, sometimes complementary and sometimes oppositional. We argue that implicit processes in social interaction...... are automatic and are often opposed to conscious strategies. While we are aware of explicit processes in social interaction, we cannot always use them to override implicit processes. Many studies show that implicit processes facilitate the sharing of knowledge, feelings, and actions, and hence, perhaps...

  2. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition. (United States)

    Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R


    Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction. (United States)

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.


    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  4. Industrial Applications of Image Processing (United States)

    Ciora, Radu Adrian; Simion, Carmen Mihaela


    The recent advances in sensors quality and processing power provide us with excellent tools for designing more complex image processing and pattern recognition tasks. In this paper we review the existing applications of image processing and pattern recognition in industrial engineering. First we define the role of vision in an industrial. Then a dissemination of some image processing techniques, feature extraction, object recognition and industrial robotic guidance is presented. Moreover, examples of implementations of such techniques in industry are presented. Such implementations include automated visual inspection, process control, part identification, robots control. Finally, we present some conclusions regarding the investigated topics and directions for future investigation

  5. Cognitive Process of Development in Children (United States)

    Boddington, Eulalee N.


    In this article we explored the theories of Arnold Gesell, Erik Erickson and Jean Piaget about how human beings development. In this component we will analyze the cognitive processes of how children perceive and develop, in particular children from a cross-cultural background. How learning takes place, and how the influences of culture, and…

  6. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and methodological approaches. This study sought to investigate and classify lesson objectives framed or implied by teachers in their lesson plans according to knowledge and cognitive process dimensions. The two-dimensional Taxonomy Table introduced by Krathwohl was adapted for Technology and formed the ...

  7. [Imaging center - optimization of the imaging process]. (United States)

    Busch, H-P


    Hospitals around the world are under increasing pressure to optimize the economic efficiency of treatment processes. Imaging is responsible for a great part of the success but also of the costs of treatment. In routine work an excessive supply of imaging methods leads to an "as well as" strategy up to the limit of the capacity without critical reflection. Exams that have no predictable influence on the clinical outcome are an unjustified burden for the patient. They are useless and threaten the financial situation and existence of the hospital. In recent years the focus of process optimization was exclusively on the quality and efficiency of performed single examinations. In the future critical discussion of the effectiveness of single exams in relation to the clinical outcome will be more important. Unnecessary exams can be avoided, only if in addition to the optimization of single exams (efficiency) there is an optimization strategy for the total imaging process (efficiency and effectiveness). This requires a new definition of processes (Imaging Pathway), new structures for organization (Imaging Center) and a new kind of thinking on the part of the medical staff. Motivation has to be changed from gratification of performed exams to gratification of process quality (medical quality, service quality, economics), including the avoidance of additional (unnecessary) exams. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Statistical Image Processing. (United States)


    spectral analysist texture image analysis and classification, __ image software package, automatic spatial clustering.ITWA domenit hi ba apa for...ICOLOR(256),IBW(256) 1502 FORMATO (30( CNO(N): fF12.1)) 1503 FORMAT(o *FMINo DMRGE:0f2E20.8) 1504 FORMAT(/o IMRGE:or15) 1505 FOR14ATV FIRST SUBIMAGE:v...1506 FORMATO ’ JOIN CLUSTER NL:0) 1507 FORMAT( NEW CLUSTER:O) 1508 FORMAT( LLBS.GE.600) 1532 FORMAT(15XoTHETA ,7X, SIGMA-SQUAREr3Xe MERGING-DISTANCE

  9. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan


    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  10. Image Processing and Geographic Information (United States)

    McLeod, Ronald G.; Daily, Julie; Kiss, Kenneth


    A Geographic Information System, which is a product of System Development Corporation's Image Processing System and a commercially available Data Base Management System, is described. The architecture of the system allows raster (image) data type, graphics data type, and tabular data type input and provides for the convenient analysis and display of spatial information. A variety of functions are supported through the Geographic Information System including ingestion of foreign data formats, image polygon encoding, image overlay, image tabulation, costatistical modelling of image and tabular information, and tabular to image conversion. The report generator in the DBMS is utilized to prepare quantitative tabular output extracted from spatially referenced images. An application of the Geographic Information System to a variety of data sources and types is highlighted. The application utilizes sensor image data, graphically encoded map information available from government sources, and statistical tables.

  11. SWNT Imaging Using Multispectral Image Processing (United States)

    Blades, Michael; Pirbhai, Massooma; Rotkin, Slava V.


    A flexible optical system was developed to image carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) photoluminescence using the multispectral capabilities of a typical CCD camcorder. The built in Bayer filter of the CCD camera was utilized, using OpenCV C++ libraries for image processing, to decompose the image generated in a high magnification epifluorescence microscope setup into three pseudo-color channels. By carefully calibrating the filter beforehand, it was possible to extract spectral data from these channels, and effectively isolate the SWNT signals from the background.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuss Ryszard


    Full Text Available This article discusses the current capabilities of automate processing of the image data on the example of using PhotoScan software by Agisoft . At present, image data obtained by various registration systems (metric and non - metric cameras placed on airplanes , satellites , or more often on UAVs is used to create photogrammetric products. Multiple registrations of object or land area (large groups of photos are captured are usually performed in order to eliminate obscured area as well as to raise the final accuracy of the photogrammetric product. Because of such a situation t he geometry of the resulting image blocks is far from the typical configuration of images . For fast images georeferencing automatic image matching algorithms are currently applied . They can create a model of a block in the local coordinate system or using initial exterior orientation and measured control points can provide image georeference in an external reference frame. In the case of non - metric image application, it is also possible to carry out self - calibration process at this stage . Image matching algorithm is also used in generation of dense point clouds reconstructing spatial shape of the object ( area. In subsequent processing steps it is possible to obtain typical photogrammetric products such as orthomosaic , DSM or DTM and a photorealistic solid model of an object . All aforementioned processing steps are implemented in a single program in contrary to standard commercial software dividing all steps into dedicated modules . I mage processing leading to final geo referenced products can be fully automated including sequential implementation of the processing steps at predetermined control parameters . The paper presents the practical results of the application fully automatic generation of othomosaic for both images obtained by a metric Vexell camera and a block of images acquired by a non - metric UAV system.

  13. Image processing for optical mapping. (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Gupta, Aditya


    Optical Mapping is an established single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, which has been used to gain a comprehensive understanding of genomic structure and to study structural variation of complex genomes. A critical component of Optical Mapping system is the image processing module, which extracts single molecule restriction maps from image datasets of immobilized, restriction digested and fluorescently stained large DNA molecules. In this review, we describe robust and efficient image processing techniques to process these massive datasets and extract accurate restriction maps in the presence of noise, ambiguity and confounding artifacts. We also highlight a few applications of the Optical Mapping system.

  14. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan


    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  15. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  16. Cognitive Processes and Societal Risk Taking (United States)


    Best Available Copy .. ^’PWBa^aarta^ftftwi^wiMMÄ’j ■■ ■ ■■ i»*1P»»"^""^""W^""l^^lT Cognitive Processes and Societal Risk Taking Paul Slovlc...Baruch Fischhoff and Sarah Lichtenstein Oregon Research Institute ■ rt-^wrtwr. CoRnltive Processes and Societal Risk Taking Paul Slovlc, Baruch...and use of psychological tests ( Meehl & Rosen, 1955). ifad>aiMllWl«WW»1[Wliil.lirMill««m^ 14 One additional Implication of the research on man’s

  17. Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed. (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru


    In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Fuzzy image processing in sun sensor (United States)

    Mobasser, S.; Liebe, C. C.; Howard, A.


    This paper will describe how the fuzzy image processing is implemented in the instrument. Comparison of the Fuzzy image processing and a more conventional image processing algorithm is provided and shows that the Fuzzy image processing yields better accuracy then conventional image processing.

  19. [Disintegration of social cognitive processes in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Karakuła, Hanna; Krukow, Paweł; Kalinowska, Joanna; Urbańska, Anna; Stelmach, Ewa; Kowal, Agnieszka


    Despite rapid development of research on social cognition (SC) impairments in schizophrenia, efforts are still made to generate new, broader theoretical models which include the neural network approach to those dysfunctions. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the structure of SC in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy subjects. The studied groups consisted of 55 subjects: 30 patients with paranoid schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, and 25 control healthy subjects matched for age, gender and education to the clinical group. In order to assess processes of SC, a battery of tests was administered: Theory of Mind Picture Stories to assess theory of mind, trials "Faces" (from Ekman and Friesen's set of emotional expressions) and "Figures" (from the publication by Argyle) to evaluate recognition of emotions from facial and gesture expression. The methods included also an assessment of self-criticism (insight) relating to the subject's processes of SC. The level of efficacy of SC was lower in the patients compared to the controls. In the clinical group, theory of mind was the most important factor for the overall level of SC and its impairments. There was inadequate, decreased patients' self-criticism regarding their execution of SC tests. The insight did not correlate with any other SC variables in the clinical group. In general, the group characterized by lower integration of social cognitive processes, also obtained lower scores in individual dimensions of SC. The structure of social cognitive processes in schizophrenic group, unlike in healthy subjects, shows characteristics of generalized disintegration.

  20. Differential morphology and image processing. (United States)

    Maragos, P


    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  1. Computational Intelligence in Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick


    Computational intelligence based techniques have firmly established themselves as viable, alternate, mathematical tools for more than a decade. They have been extensively employed in many systems and application domains, among these signal processing, automatic control, industrial and consumer electronics, robotics, finance, manufacturing systems, electric power systems, and power electronics. Image processing is also an extremely potent area which has attracted the atten­tion of many researchers who are interested in the development of new computational intelligence-based techniques and their suitable applications, in both research prob­lems and in real-world problems. Part I of the book discusses several image preprocessing algorithms; Part II broadly covers image compression algorithms; Part III demonstrates how computational intelligence-based techniques can be effectively utilized for image analysis purposes; and Part IV shows how pattern recognition, classification and clustering-based techniques can ...

  2. Image processing in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    This Ph.D project addresses image processing in medical ultrasound and seeks to achieve two major scientific goals: First to develop an understanding of the most significant factors influencing image quality in medical ultrasound, and secondly to use this knowledge to develop image processing...... methods for enhancing the diagnostic value of medical ultrasound. The project is an industrial Ph.D project co-sponsored by BK Medical ApS., with the commercial goal to improve the image quality of BK Medicals scanners. Currently BK Medical employ a simple conventional delay-and-sum beamformer to generate......-time data acquisition system. The system were implemented using the commercial available 2202 ProFocus BK Medical ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface and a standard PC. The main feature of the system is the possibility to acquire several seconds of interleaved data, switching between...

  3. Digital processing of radiographic images (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.


    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  4. Smokers exhibit biased neural processing of smoking and affective images. (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E


    There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content. Electroencephalogram recordings were obtained throughout the task for extraction of event-related potentials (ERPs). Smokers exhibited differential processing of smoking cues across 3 different ERP indices compared with nonsmokers. Comparable effects were found for pleasant cues on 2 of these indices. Late cognitive processing of smoking and pleasant cues was associated with nicotine dependence and cigarette use. Results suggest that cognitive biases may extend across classes of stimuli among smokers. This raises important questions about the fundamental meaning of cognitive biases, and suggests the need to consider generalized cognitive biases in theories of drug use behavior and interventions based on cognitive bias modification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Image processing of galaxy photographs (United States)

    Arp, H.; Lorre, J.


    New computer techniques for analyzing and processing photographic images of galaxies are presented, with interesting scientific findings gleaned from the processed photographic data. Discovery and enhancement of very faint and low-contrast nebulous features, improved resolution of near-limit detail in nebulous and stellar images, and relative colors of a group of nebulosities in the field are attained by the methods. Digital algorithms, nonlinear pattern-recognition filters, linear convolution filters, plate averaging and contrast enhancement techniques, and an atmospheric deconvolution technique are described. New detail is revealed in images of NGC 7331, Stephan's Quintet, Seyfert's Sextet, and the jet in M87, via processes of addition of plates, star removal, contrast enhancement, standard deviation filtering, and computer ratioing to bring out qualitative color differences.

  6. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald


    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  7. Processed images in human perception: A case study in ultrasound breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Moi Hoon [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FH09, Ergonomics and Safety Research Institute, Holywell Park (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Edirisinghe, Eran [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, FJ.05, Garendon Wing, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Bez, Helmut [Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, Room N.2.26, Haslegrave Building, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)


    Two main research efforts in early detection of breast cancer include the development of software tools to assist radiologists in identifying abnormalities and the development of training tools to enhance their skills. Medical image analysis systems, widely known as Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADx) systems, play an important role in this respect. Often it is important to determine whether there is a benefit in including computer-processed images in the development of such software tools. In this paper, we investigate the effects of computer-processed images in improving human performance in ultrasound breast cancer detection (a perceptual task) and classification (a cognitive task). A survey was conducted on a group of expert radiologists and a group of non-radiologists. In our experiments, random test images from a large database of ultrasound images were presented to subjects. In order to gather appropriate formal feedback, questionnaires were prepared to comment on random selections of original images only, and on image pairs consisting of original images displayed alongside computer-processed images. We critically compare and contrast the performance of the two groups according to perceptual and cognitive tasks. From a Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, we conclude that the provision of computer-processed images alongside the original ultrasound images, significantly improve the perceptual tasks of non-radiologists but only marginal improvements are shown in the perceptual and cognitive tasks of the group of expert radiologists.

  8. Adolescents' risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes. (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; Padrón, Iván; de Vega, Manuel; Ferstl, Evelyn C


    This study examines by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents' risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old) read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug) or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog). Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right medial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind (ToM). In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active [right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral orbitofrontal cortex], whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (ventral striatum). Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC) and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole). Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in ToM related regions (bilateral MTG) and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area). Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others' perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in

  9. CMOS imagers from phototransduction to image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Etienne-Cummings, Ralph


    The idea of writing a book on CMOS imaging has been brewing for several years. It was placed on a fast track after we agreed to organize a tutorial on CMOS sensors for the 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2004). This tutorial defined the structure of the book, but as first time authors/editors, we had a lot to learn about the logistics of putting together information from multiple sources. Needless to say, it was a long road between the tutorial and the book, and it took more than a few months to complete. We hope that you will find our journey worthwhile and the collated information useful. The laboratories of the authors are located at many universities distributed around the world. Their unifying theme, however, is the advancement of knowledge for the development of systems for CMOS imaging and image processing. We hope that this book will highlight the ideas that have been pioneered by the authors, while providing a roadmap for new practitioners in this field to exploit exc...

  10. Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process (United States)

    Bell, Martha Ann; Wolfe, Christy D.


    Regulatory aspects of development can best be understood by research that conceptualizes relations between cognition and emotion. The neural mechanisms associated with regulatory processes may be the same as those associated with higher order cognitive processes. Thus, from a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective, emotion and cognition…

  11. Cognitive processing of emotions in anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Torres, Sandra; Guerra, Marina Prista; Lencastre, Leonor; Roma-Torres, António; Brandão, Isabel; Queirós, Cristina; Vieira, Filipa


    This study attempts to explore the cognitive processing of emotions in anorexia nervosa (AN), based on the study of emotions felt and the assessment of meta-emotional abilities. Eighty patients with AN and a control group of 80 healthy female participants were screened for anxiety, depression and alexithymia and completed an experimental task designed to analyse the emotional experience and meta-emotional abilities. Despite presenting higher levels of alexithymia, participants with AN demonstrated they were able to imagine emotions in hypothetical situations and to identify and label them. The group of patients with AN revealed feeling more intense and internally based negative emotions in comparison with the control group, but this emotional pattern tends to occur in situations associated with food and weight. Findings on meta-emotional abilities suggested no global deficit in emotional processing, but rather, specific sensitivities pertaining to situations relevant to AN. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Multimedia image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Guan, Ling


    As multimedia applications have become part of contemporary daily life, numerous paradigm-shifting technologies in multimedia processing have emerged over the last decade. Substantially updated with 21 new chapters, Multimedia Image and Video Processing, Second Edition explores the most recent advances in multimedia research and applications. This edition presents a comprehensive treatment of multimedia information mining, security, systems, coding, search, hardware, and communications as well as multimodal information fusion and interaction. Clearly divided into seven parts, the book begins w

  13. Dynamic links between emerging cognitive skills and brain processes. (United States)

    Molfese, Dennis L; Molfese, Victoria J; Beswick, Jennifer; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Molfese, Peter J; Key, Alexandra P F; Starkey, Gillian


    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether advanced cognitive skills in one domain impact the neural processing of unrelated skills in a different cognitive domain. This question is related to the broader issue of how cognitive-neurodevelopment proceeds as different skills are mastered. To address this goal, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to assess linkages between cognitive skills of preschool children as reflected in their performance on a pre-reading screening test (Get Ready To Read) and their neural responses while engaged in a geometric shape matching task. Sixteen children (10 males) participated in this study. The children ranged from 46 to 60 months (SD = 4.36 months). ERPs were recorded using a 128-electrode high-density array while children attended to presentations of matched and mismatched shapes (triangles, circles, or squares). ERPs indicated that children with more advanced pre-reading skills discriminated between matched and mismatched shapes earlier than children with poorer pre-readings skills. The earlier discrimination effect observed in the advanced group was localized over the occipital electrode sites whereas in the Low Group such effects were present over frontal, parietal, and occipital sites. Modeled magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the ERP component sources identified differences in neural generators between the two groups. Both sets of findings support the hypothesis that processing in a poorer-performing group is more distributed temporally and spatially across the scalp, and reflects the engagement of more distributed brain regions. These findings are seen as support for a theory of neural-cognitive development that is advanced in the present article.

  14. Linear Algebra and Image Processing (United States)

    Allali, Mohamed


    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  15. Clinical and imaging assessment of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocca, Maria A; Amato, Maria P; De Stefano, Nicola


    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However......, many aspects of cognitive impairment in patients with MS still need to be characterised. Standardised neuropsychological tests that are easy to administer and sensitive to disease-related abnormalities are needed to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting cognitive performance in patients...... with MS than exists at present. Imaging measures of the grey matter are necessary, but not sufficient to fully characterise cognitive decline in MS. Imaging measures of both lesioned and normal-appearing white matter lend support to the hypothesis of the existence of an underlying disconnection syndrome...

  16. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang


    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  17. Translation Meets Cognitive Science: The Imprint of Translation on Cognitive Processing (United States)

    Rojo, Ana


    Translation has long played a role in linguistic and literary studies research. More recently, the theoretical and methodological concerns of process research have given translation an additional role in cognitive science. The interest in the cognitive aspects of translation has led scholars to turn to disciplines such as cognitive linguistics,…

  18. Cognition in Children's Mathematical Processing: Bringing Psychology to the Classroom (United States)

    Witt, Marcus


    Introduction: The cognitive processes that underpin successful mathematical processing in children have been well researched by experimental psychologists, but are not widely understood among teachers of primary mathematics. This is a shame, as an understanding of these cognitive processes could be highly useful to practitioners. This paper…

  19. The Pain-Related Cognitive Processes Questionnaire: Development and Validation. (United States)

    Day, Melissa A; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Lang, Cathryne P; Newton-John, Toby R O; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P


    Cognitive processes may be characterized as how individuals think, whereas cognitive content constitutes what individuals think. Both cognitive processes and cognitive content are theorized to play important roles in chronic pain adjustment, and treatments have been developed to target both. However, the evaluation of treatments that target cognitive processes is limited because extant measures do not satisfactorily separate cognitive process from cognitive content. The current study aimed to develop a self-report inventory of potentially adaptive and presumed maladaptive attentional processes that may occur when someone is experiencing pain.  Scales were derived from a large item pool by successively applying confirmatory factor analysis to item data from two undergraduate samples (N = 393 and 233).  Items, which were generated to avoid confounding of cognitive content with cognitive processes, represented nine constructs: Suppression, Distraction, Enhancement, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Absorption, Rumination, Nonjudgment, and Acceptance. The resulting nine scales formed the Pain-Related Cognitive Process Questionnaire (PCPQ), and scale correlations produced four conceptually distinct composite scales: Pain Diversion, Pain Distancing, Pain Focus, and Pain Openness. Internal consistency reliabilities of the nine scales were adequate (α ≥ 0.70) to good, and the four composite scales had α values of 0.79 or higher. Correlations with pain-related criterion variables were generally consistent with putative constructs.  The developed PCPQ scales offer a comprehensive assessment of important cognitive processes specific to pain. Overall, the findings suggest that the PCPQ scales may prove useful for evaluating the role of pain-related cognitive processes in studies of chronic pain.

  20. Images of situated cognition: involvement and location

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nitsche, Martin


    Roč. 16, Suppl. 1 (2015), 'S76' ISSN 1612-4782. [Proceedings of the International Conference on Spatial Cognition /6./. 07.09.2015-11.09.2015, Rome] Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : psychology * meeting abstract Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Biomedical signal and image processing. (United States)

    Cerutti, Sergio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna; Caiani, Enrico; Contini, Davide; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Dercole, Fabio; Rienzo, Luca; Liberati, Diego; Mainardi, Luca; Ravazzani, Paolo; Rinaldi, Sergio; Signorini, Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro


    Generally, physiological modeling and biomedical signal processing constitute two important paradigms of biomedical engineering (BME): their fundamental concepts are taught starting from undergraduate studies and are more completely dealt with in the last years of graduate curricula, as well as in Ph.D. courses. Traditionally, these two cultural aspects were separated, with the first one more oriented to physiological issues and how to model them and the second one more dedicated to the development of processing tools or algorithms to enhance useful information from clinical data. A practical consequence was that those who did models did not do signal processing and vice versa. However, in recent years,the need for closer integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems emerged very clearly [1], [2]. This is not only true for training purposes(i.e., to properly prepare the new professional members of BME) but also for the development of newly conceived research projects in which the integration between biomedical signal and image processing (BSIP) and modeling plays a crucial role. Just to give simple examples, topics such as brain–computer machine or interfaces,neuroengineering, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the cardiovascular (CV) system,integration of sensory-motor characteristics aimed at the building of advanced prostheses and rehabilitation tools, and wearable devices for vital sign monitoring and others do require an intelligent fusion of modeling and signal processing competences that are certainly peculiar of our discipline of BME.

  2. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Wu


    Full Text Available In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extraction, image enhancement and segmentation, and image connection. At first, the captured color images were transformed into gray-scale images; followed by the inversion of gray-scale of the transformed images ; then the whole image was divided into several blocks. Thereafter, the subsequent step is to judge which image block contains the target foreign fiber image through image pre-decision. Then we segment the image block via OSTU which possibly contains target images after background eradication and image strengthening. Finally, we connect those relevant segmented image blocks to get an intact and clear foreign fiber target image. The experimental result shows that this method of segmentation has the advantage of accuracy and speed over the other segmentation methods. On the other hand, this method also connects the target image that produce fractures therefore getting an intact and clear foreign fiber target image.

  3. Social comparisons with media images are cognitively inefficient even for women who say they feel pressure from the media. (United States)

    Want, Stephen C; Saiphoo, Alyssa


    The present study investigated whether social comparisons with media images are cognitively efficient (demanding minimal mental effort) or cognitively effortful processes, in a sample of female undergraduate students (N=151) who reported feeling pressure from the media regarding their appearance. Two groups were shown 12 images of thin and attractive female models. One group was asked to memorize a complex 8-digit number during exposure to the images (Cognitively Busy condition), while the other memorized a much simpler number (Free View condition). A third group (Control condition) viewed images without people. Participants in the Free View condition demonstrated significantly increased negative mood and lowered appearance satisfaction from before to after exposure, while participants in the Cognitively Busy and Control conditions did not. We argue that these results suggest social comparisons with media images are at least somewhat cognitively effortful even among women who say they feel pressure from the media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital image processing mathematical and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Blackledge, J M


    This authoritative text (the second part of a complete MSc course) provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems, coupled with the principle techniques used for processing digital images. It is based on a course for postgraduates reading physics, electronic engineering, telecommunications engineering, information technology and computer science. This book relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the 'physics' of imaging systems. Case studies reinforce the methods discussed, with examples of current research

  5. Context Processing and Cognitive Control in Children and Young Adults (United States)

    Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Reimer, Jason F.


    T. S. Braver and colleagues (e.g., T. S. Braver, J. D. Cohen, & D. M. Barch, 2002) have provided a theory of cognitive control that focuses on the role of context processing. According to their theory, an underlying context-processing mechanism is responsible for the cognitive control functions of attention, inhibition, and working memory. In the…

  6. Processing, analysis, recognition, and automatic understanding of medical images (United States)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Ogiela, Marek R.


    Paper presents some new ideas introducing automatic understanding of the medical images semantic content. The idea under consideration can be found as next step on the way starting from capturing of the images in digital form as two-dimensional data structures, next going throw images processing as a tool for enhancement of the images visibility and readability, applying images analysis algorithms for extracting selected features of the images (or parts of images e.g. objects), and ending on the algorithms devoted to images classification and recognition. In the paper we try to explain, why all procedures mentioned above can not give us full satisfaction in many important medical problems, when we do need understand image semantic sense, not only describe the image in terms of selected features and/or classes. The general idea of automatic images understanding is presented as well as some remarks about the successful applications of such ideas for increasing potential possibilities and performance of computer vision systems dedicated to advanced medical images analysis. This is achieved by means of applying linguistic description of the picture merit content. After this we try use new AI methods to undertake tasks of the automatic understanding of images semantics in intelligent medical information systems. A successful obtaining of the crucial semantic content of the medical image may contribute considerably to the creation of new intelligent multimedia cognitive medical systems. Thanks to the new idea of cognitive resonance between stream of the data extracted form the image using linguistic methods and expectations taken from the representation of the medical knowledge, it is possible to understand the merit content of the image even if the form of the image is very different from any known pattern.

  7. Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli


    The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

  8. Technology as Teammate: Examining the Role of External Cognition in Support of Team Cognitive Processes. (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J


    In this paper we advance team theory by describing how cognition occurs across the distribution of members and the artifacts and technology that support their efforts. We draw from complementary theorizing coming out of cognitive engineering and cognitive science that views forms of cognition as external and extended and integrate this with theorizing on macrocognition in teams. Two frameworks are described that provide the groundwork for advancing theory and aid in the development of more precise measures for understanding team cognition via focus on artifacts and the technologies supporting their development and use. This includes distinctions between teamwork and taskwork and the notion of general and specific competencies from the organizational sciences along with the concepts of offloading and scaffolding from the cognitive sciences. This paper contributes to the team cognition literature along multiple lines. First, it aids theory development by synthesizing a broad set of perspectives on the varied forms of cognition emerging in complex collaborative contexts. Second, it supports research by providing diagnostic guidelines to study how artifacts are related to team cognition. Finally, it supports information systems designers by more precisely describing how to conceptualize team-supporting technology and artifacts. As such, it provides a means to more richly understand process and performance as it occurs within sociotechnical systems. Our overarching objective is to show how team cognition can both be more clearly conceptualized and more precisely measured by integrating theory from cognitive engineering and the cognitive and organizational sciences.

  9. The effects of aging on auditory processing and cognition. (United States)

    Tun, Patricia A; Williams, Victoria A; Small, Brent J; Hafter, Ervin R


    To briefly summarize existing data on effects of aging on auditory processing and cognition. A narrative review summarized previously reported data on age-related changes in auditory processing and in cognitive processes with a focus on spoken language comprehension and memory. In addition, recent data on effects of lifestyle engagement on cognitive processes are reviewed. There is substantial evidence for age-related declines in both auditory processes and cognitive abilities. Accumulating evidence supports the idea that the perceptual burden associated with hearing loss impacts the processing resources available for good comprehension and memory for spoken language, particularly in older adults with limited resources. However, many language abilities are well preserved in old age, and there is considerable variability among individuals in cognitive performance across the life span. The authors discuss how lifestyle factors and socioemotional engagement can help to offset declining abilities. It is clear that spoken language processing in adulthood and old age is affected by changes in perceptual, cognitive, and socioemotional processes as well as by interactions among these changes. Recommendations for further research include studying speech comprehension in complex conditions, including meaningful-connection spoken language, and tailoring clinical interventions based on patients' auditory processing and cognitive abilities along with their individual socioemotional demands.

  10. Statistical image processing and multidimensional modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Paul


    Images are all around us! The proliferation of low-cost, high-quality imaging devices has led to an explosion in acquired images. When these images are acquired from a microscope, telescope, satellite, or medical imaging device, there is a statistical image processing task: the inference of something - an artery, a road, a DNA marker, an oil spill - from imagery, possibly noisy, blurry, or incomplete. A great many textbooks have been written on image processing. However this book does not so much focus on images, per se, but rather on spatial data sets, with one or more measurements taken over

  11. Towards a shared ontology: A generic classification of cognitive processes in conceptual design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Hay; Alex H B Duffy; Chris McTeague; Laura M Pidgeon; Tijana Vuletic; Madeleine Grealy


    Towards addressing ontological issues in design cognition research, this paper presents the first generic classification of cognitive processes investigated in protocol studies on conceptual design cognition...

  12. Neural correlates of emotion-cognition interactions: A review of evidence from brain imaging investigations. (United States)

    Dolcos, Florin; Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda


    Complex dynamic behaviour involves reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition. On the one hand, emotion is a "double-edged sword" that may affect various aspects of our cognition and behaviour, by enhancing or hindering them and exerting both transient and long-term influences. On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of emotion regulation. Noteworthy, both of these reciprocal influences are subjective to individual differences that may affect the way we perceive, experience, and eventually remember emotional experiences, or respond to emotionally challenging situations. Understanding these relationships is critical, as unbalanced emotion-cognition interactions may lead to devastating effects, such as those observed in mood and anxiety disorders. The present review analyses the reciprocal relationships between emotion and cognition, based on evidence derived from brain imaging investigations focusing on three main topics: (1) the impact of emotion on cognition, (2) the impact of cognition on emotion, and (3) the role of individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions. This evidence will be discussed in the context of identifying aspects that are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and to understanding changes associated with affective disorders.

  13. User image mismatch in anaesthesia alarms: a cognitive systems analysis. (United States)

    Raymer, Karen E; Bergström, Johan


    In this study, principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering are used to better understand the human-machine interaction manifesting in the use of anaesthesia alarms. The hypothesis is that the design of the machine incorporates built-in assumptions of the user that are discrepant with the anaesthesiologist's self-assessment, creating 'user image mismatch'. Mismatch was interpreted by focusing on the 'user image' as described from the perspectives of both machine and user. The machine-embedded image was interpreted through document analysis. The user-described image was interpreted through user (anaesthesiologist) interviews. Finally, an analysis was conducted in which the machine-embedded and user-described images were contrasted to identify user image mismatch. It is concluded that analysing user image mismatch expands the focus of attention towards macro-elements in the interaction between man and machine. User image mismatch is interpreted to arise from complexity of algorithm design and incongruity between alarm design and tenets of anaesthesia practice. Cognitive system engineering principles are applied to enhance the understanding of the interaction between anaesthesiologist and alarm. The 'user image' is interpreted and contrasted from the perspectives of machine as well as the user. Apparent machine-user mismatch is explored pertaining to specific design features.

  14. Examination of cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Genova, Helen M; Rajagopalan, Venkateswaran; Deluca, John; Das, Abhijit; Binder, Allison; Arjunan, Aparna; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Wylie, Glenn


    .... In Experiment 1, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine where in the brain BOLD activity covaried with "state" fatigue, assessed during performance of a task designed to induce cognitive fatigue while in the...

  15. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment. (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I


    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  16. Resource Analysis of Cognitive Process Flow Used to Achieve Autonomy (United States)


    after it has been created (i.e., post- fabrication program- ming). The von Neumann general purpose processing (GPP) architecture heavily shares (e.g...Cognitive Processing Architecture DHS Department of Homeland Security DoF Degrees of Freedom DSP Digital Signal Processors FPGA Field Programmable Gate...second part, we introduce and analyze a canonical architecture called context switching cognitive processing architecture that exploits heterogeneous

  17. Depressed Mood Mediates Decline in Cognitive Processing Speed in Caregivers (United States)

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; Zhang, Jianping; Young, Heather M.; Caswell, Lisa W.; Scanlan, James M.; Echeverria, Diana


    Purpose: Very few studies have examined cognitive decline in caregivers versus noncaregivers, and only 1 study has examined mediators of such decline. We evaluated the relationship between caregiver status and decline on the digit symbol test (DST; a measure of processing speed, attention, cognitive-motor translation, and visual scanning) and…

  18. Organizational Change, Leadership and Learning: Culture as Cognitive Process. (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele


    Examines the claim that it is necessary to change an organization's culture in order to bring about organizational change. Considers the purported causal relationship between the role of the leader and organizational learning and develops the notion of culture as cognitive process based on research in cultural anthropology and cognitive science.…

  19. Cognitive Development Includes Global and Domain-Specific Processes (United States)

    Kail, Robert V.


    Global accounts of cognitive development, best illustrated by Piaget's theory, dominated the field until the 1970s and 1980s, when they were gradually superseded by domain-specific accounts. In this article I present evidence suggesting that both global and domain-specific processes make important contributions to cognitive development, and I…

  20. Eliminating "Hotspots" in Digital Image Processing (United States)

    Salomon, P. M.


    Signals from defective picture elements rejected. Image processing program for use with charge-coupled device (CCD) or other mosaic imager augmented with algorithm that compensates for common type of electronic defect. Algorithm prevents false interpretation of "hotspots". Used for robotics, image enhancement, image analysis and digital television.

  1. Tensors in image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    De Luis García, Rodrigo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong


    Tensor signal processing is an emerging field with important applications to computer vision and image processing. This book presents the developments in this branch of signal processing, offering research and discussions by experts in the area. It is suitable for advanced students working in the area of computer vision and image processing.

  2. Introduction to image processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C


    ADJUSTING PIXEL VALUES Optimizing Contrast Color Correction Correcting Nonuniform Illumination Geometric Transformations Image Arithmetic NEIGHBORHOOD OPERATIONS Convolution Other Neighborhood Operations Statistical Operations IMAGE PROCESSING IN THE FOURIER DOMAIN The Fourier Transform Removing Periodic Noise Convolution and Correlation Deconvolution Other Transform Domains Compression BINARY IMAGES Thresholding Morphological Processing Other Morphological Operations Boolean Operations MEASUREMENTS Global Measurements Feature Measurements Classification APPENDIX: SOFTWARE REFERENCES AND LITERATURE INDEX.

  3. Applications Of Image Processing In Criminalistics (United States)

    Krile, Thomas F.; Walkup, John F.; Barsallo, Adonis; Olimb, Hal; Tarng, Jaw-Horng


    A review of some basic image processing techniques for enhancement and restoration of images is given. Both digital and optical approaches are discussed. Fingerprint images are used as examples to illustrate the various processing techniques and their potential applications in criminalistics.

  4. Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience (United States)

    Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann


    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

  5. Fuzzy image processing and applications with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Chaira, Tamalika


    In contrast to classical image analysis methods that employ ""crisp"" mathematics, fuzzy set techniques provide an elegant foundation and a set of rich methodologies for diverse image-processing tasks. However, a solid understanding of fuzzy processing requires a firm grasp of essential principles and background knowledge.Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB® presents the integral science and essential mathematics behind this exciting and dynamic branch of image processing, which is becoming increasingly important to applications in areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging,

  6. Optoelectronic imaging of speckle using image processing method (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Wang, Pengfei


    A detailed image processing of laser speckle interferometry is proposed as an example for the course of postgraduate student. Several image processing methods were used together for dealing with optoelectronic imaging system, such as the partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to reduce the effect of noise, the thresholding segmentation also based on heat equation with PDEs, the central line is extracted based on image skeleton, and the branch is removed automatically, the phase level is calculated by spline interpolation method, and the fringe phase can be unwrapped. Finally, the imaging processing method was used to automatically measure the bubble in rubber with negative pressure which could be used in the tire detection.

  7. Combining image-processing and image compression schemes (United States)

    Greenspan, H.; Lee, M.-C.


    An investigation into the combining of image-processing schemes, specifically an image enhancement scheme, with existing compression schemes is discussed. Results are presented on the pyramid coding scheme, the subband coding scheme, and progressive transmission. Encouraging results are demonstrated for the combination of image enhancement and pyramid image coding schemes, especially at low bit rates. Adding the enhancement scheme to progressive image transmission allows enhanced visual perception at low resolutions. In addition, further progressing of the transmitted images, such as edge detection schemes, can gain from the added image resolution via the enhancement.

  8. Mesh Processing in Medical Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The following topics are dealt with: mesh processing; medical image analysis; interactive freeform modeling; statistical shape analysis; clinical CT images; statistical surface recovery; automated segmentation; cerebral aneurysms; and real-time particle-based representation....

  9. Digital image processing techniques in archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santanam, K.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Tripati, S.

    Digital image processing involves the manipulation and interpretation of digital images with the aid of a computer. This form of remote sensing actually began in the 1960's with a limited number of researchers analysing multispectral scanner data...

  10. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jianglan Wang; Jiao Zhao; Shoujing Wang; Rui Gong; Zhong Zheng; Longqian Liu


    .... So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular...

  11. Programmable remapper for image processing (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor); Sampsell, Jeffrey B. (Inventor)


    A video-rate coordinate remapper includes a memory for storing a plurality of transformations on look-up tables for remapping input images from one coordinate system to another. Such transformations are operator selectable. The remapper includes a collective processor by which certain input pixels of an input image are transformed to a portion of the output image in a many-to-one relationship. The remapper includes an interpolative processor by which the remaining input pixels of the input image are transformed to another portion of the output image in a one-to-many relationship. The invention includes certain specific transforms for creating output images useful for certain defects of visually impaired people. The invention also includes means for shifting input pixels and means for scrolling the output matrix.

  12. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: Cognition, Mood, Daily Functioning, and Imaging Findings from a Small Pilot Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Baker


    Full Text Available Cerebral small vessel disease, a leading cause of cognitive decline, is considered a relatively homogeneous disease process, and it can co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging and neuropsychology testing for a small pilot sample of 14 patients are presented to illustrate disease characteristics through findings from structural and functional imaging and cognitive assessment. Participants showed some decreases in executive functioning, attention, processing speed, and memory retrieval, consistent with previous literature. An older subgroup showed lower age-corrected scores at a single time point compared to younger participants. Performance on a computer-administered cognitive measure showed a slight overall decline over a period of 8–28 months. For a case study with mild neuropsychology findings, the MRI report was normal while the SPECT report identified perfusion abnormalities. Future research can test whether advances in imaging analysis allow for identification of cerebral small vessel disease before changes are detected in cognition.

  13. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics. (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F


    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  14. Effects of musical valence on the cognitive processing of lyrics


    Fiveash, Anna


    The effects of music on the brain have been extensively researched, and numerous connections have been found between music and language, music and emotion, and music and cognitive processing. Despite this work, these three research areas have never before been drawn together in a single research paradigm. This is significant as their combination could lead to valuable insights into the effects of musical valence on the cognitive processing of lyrics. Based on the feelings-as-information theor...

  15. Image processing in diabetic related causes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit


    This book is a collection of all the experimental results and analysis carried out on medical images of diabetic related causes. The experimental investigations have been carried out on images starting from very basic image processing techniques such as image enhancement to sophisticated image segmentation methods. This book is intended to create an awareness on diabetes and its related causes and image processing methods used to detect and forecast in a very simple way. This book is useful to researchers, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.

  16. Developing embodied cognition: insights from children's concepts and language processing. (United States)

    Wellsby, Michele; Pexman, Penny M


    Over the past decade, theories of embodied cognition have become increasingly influential with research demonstrating that sensorimotor experiences are involved in cognitive processing; however, this embodied research has primarily focused on adult cognition. The notion that sensorimotor experience is important for acquiring conceptual knowledge is not a novel concept for developmental researchers, and yet theories of embodied cognition often do not fully integrate developmental findings. We propose that in order for an embodied cognition perspective to be refined and advanced as a lifelong theory of cognition, it is important to consider what can be learned from research with children. In this paper, we focus on development of concepts and language processing, and examine the importance of children's embodied experiences for these aspects of cognition in particular. Following this review, we outline what we see as important developmental issues that need to be addressed in order to determine the extent to which language and conceptual knowledge are embodied and to refine theories of embodied cognition.

  17. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Imaging in Small Vessel Disease: Microstructural Integrity and Microvascular Perfusion Related to Cognition. (United States)

    Zhang, C Eleana; Wong, Sau May; Uiterwijk, Renske; Staals, Julie; Backes, Walter H; Hoff, Erik I; Schreuder, Tobien; Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J


    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with cognitive impairment. This may be because of decreased microstructural integrity and microvascular perfusion, but data on these relationships are scarce. We determined the relationship between cognition and microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity in SVD patients, using intravoxel incoherent motion imaging-a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique designed to determine microvascular perfusion and microstructural integrity simultaneously. Seventy-three patients with SVD and 39 controls underwent intravoxel incoherent motion imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Parenchymal diffusivity D (a surrogate measure of microstructural integrity) and perfusion-related measure fD* were calculated for the normal appearing white matter, white matter hyperintensities, and cortical gray matter. The associations between cognitive performance and D and fD* were determined. In SVD patients, multivariable analysis showed that lower fD* in the normal appearing white matter and cortical gray matter was associated with lower overall cognition (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively), lower executive function (P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively), and lower information-processing speed (P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively). D was not associated with cognitive function. In controls, no association was found between D, fD*, and cognition. In SVD patients, lower cognitive performance is associated with lower microvascular perfusion in the normal appearing white matter and cortical gray matter. Our results support recent findings that both cortical gray matter and normal appearing white matter perfusion may play a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in SVD. URL: Unique identifier: NTR3786. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. On Cognition, Structured Sequence Processing, and Adaptive Dynamical Systems (United States)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus


    Cognitive neuroscience approaches the brain as a cognitive system: a system that functionally is conceptualized in terms of information processing. We outline some aspects of this concept and consider a physical system to be an information processing device when a subclass of its physical states can be viewed as representational/cognitive and transitions between these can be conceptualized as a process operating on these states by implementing operations on the corresponding representational structures. We identify a generic and fundamental problem in cognition: sequentially organized structured processing. Structured sequence processing provides the brain, in an essential sense, with its processing logic. In an approach addressing this problem, we illustrate how to integrate levels of analysis within a framework of adaptive dynamical systems. We note that the dynamical system framework lends itself to a description of asynchronous event-driven devices, which is likely to be important in cognition because the brain appears to be an asynchronous processing system. We use the human language faculty and natural language processing as a concrete example through out.

  19. Digital signal processing techniques and applications in radar image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bu-Chin


    A self-contained approach to DSP techniques and applications in radar imagingThe processing of radar images, in general, consists of three major fields: Digital Signal Processing (DSP); antenna and radar operation; and algorithms used to process the radar images. This book brings together material from these different areas to allow readers to gain a thorough understanding of how radar images are processed.The book is divided into three main parts and covers:* DSP principles and signal characteristics in both analog and digital domains, advanced signal sampling, and

  20. Semi-automated Image Processing for Preclinical Bioluminescent Imaging. (United States)

    Slavine, Nikolai V; McColl, Roderick W

    Bioluminescent imaging is a valuable noninvasive technique for investigating tumor dynamics and specific biological molecular events in living animals to better understand the effects of human disease in animal models. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a strategy behind automated methods for bioluminescence image processing from the data acquisition to obtaining 3D images. In order to optimize this procedure a semi-automated image processing approach with multi-modality image handling environment was developed. To identify a bioluminescent source location and strength we used the light flux detected on the surface of the imaged object by CCD cameras. For phantom calibration tests and object surface reconstruction we used MLEM algorithm. For internal bioluminescent sources we used the diffusion approximation with balancing the internal and external intensities on the boundary of the media and then determined an initial order approximation for the photon fluence we subsequently applied a novel iterative deconvolution method to obtain the final reconstruction result. We find that the reconstruction techniques successfully used the depth-dependent light transport approach and semi-automated image processing to provide a realistic 3D model of the lung tumor. Our image processing software can optimize and decrease the time of the volumetric imaging and quantitative assessment. The data obtained from light phantom and lung mouse tumor images demonstrate the utility of the image reconstruction algorithms and semi-automated approach for bioluminescent image processing procedure. We suggest that the developed image processing approach can be applied to preclinical imaging studies: characteristics of tumor growth, identify metastases, and potentially determine the effectiveness of cancer treatment.

  1. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several fingerprint matching algorithms have been developed for minutiae or template matching of fingerprint templates. The efficiency of these fingerprint matching algorithms depends on the success of the image processing and features extraction steps employed. Fingerprint image processing and analysis is hence an ...

  2. [Cognitive mechanisms and self-acceptance of body image]. (United States)

    Anuel, Adriana; Bracho, Angie; Brito, Nereida; Rondón, José Eduardo; Sulbarán, Dimas


    This research proposed to investigate the effect of an intervention program to strengthen self-acceptance (positive), and a cognitive intervention program on body image. Specifically, it is based on the idea of prevention of risk factors for eating disorders from the perspective of normalcy in the prevention of body dissatisfaction. We used a 2×2 factorial design with 120 participants of both sexes, aged between 10 and 12 years, selected by stratification. To evaluate the hypothesis, we used two-way analysis of variance. The results concluded that only the cognitive intervention program affected the dependent variable body image, maintaining its statistical significance, which is revealed both in the general two-way ANOVA and when controlling the effect of the covariates, age and sex.

  3. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías


    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  4. Cognitive Design for Learning: Cognition and Emotion in the Design Process (United States)

    Hasebrook, Joachim


    We are so used to accept new technologies being the driver of change and innovation in human computer interfaces (HCI). In our research we focus on the development of innovations as a design process--or design, for short. We also refer to the entire process of creating innovations and putting them to use as "cognitive processes"--or…

  5. Processing bias: individual differences in the cognition of situations. (United States)

    Dworkin, R H; Goldfinger, S H


    An approach to investigating individual differences in the cognition of situations is presented. Situations are characterized in terms of Gibson's notion of affordances, and it is suggested that individuals differ in the extent to which they differentially process information specifying certain types of affordances rather than others. This differential cognitive processing of a situational affordance is termed a "processing bias." It is proposed that processing biases are manifest in an individual's anticipation, perception, and memory of situations. To illustrate the approach, a processing bias for social vs. nonsocial affordances is investigated within and among these three cognitive domains. The relationship of this processing bias to two facets of the personality trait dimension of sociability--overall level and self-schemata--is also examined. Such research on processing biases may help to clarify the role of cognition in person-situation interactions. The greatest strength of the approach is that its characterization of individual differences in cognition and behavior is complementary to a general approach to describing human environments.

  6. Communication in genetic counseling: cognitive and emotional processing. (United States)

    Ellington, Lee; Kelly, Kimberly M; Reblin, Maija; Latimer, Seth; Roter, Debra


    The profession of genetic counseling has received limited guidance from theoretical models in how to communicate complex health information so that clients can actively use the information. In this study of a national sample of 145 genetic counselors conducting sessions with simulated clients, we apply two different approaches for analyzing and describing verbal health communication. The Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS) and linguistic inquiry word count (LIWC) were used to identify evidence of communication behaviors consistent with tenets of the social cognitive processing model (SCPM). These tools revealed descriptive evidence of counselor facilitation of client emotional processing and, to a lesser extent, facilitation of client cognitive processing and understanding. Conversely, descriptive analysis of client communication revealed evidence of cognitive processing, but less affective processing. Second, we assessed whether genetic counselor facilitative communication predicted simulated client responses consistent with the cognitive and emotional processing inherent in SCPM. These analyses revealed that counselor attempts to promote emotional expression and client insight were positively associated with client word usage indicative of expression of negative affect and cognitive processing. This study is the first to our knowledge to apply RIAS and LIWC in tandem and gives us a description of current practices within genetic counseling within a theoretical framework. Additionally, it provides suggestions for education and communication goals to improve providers' responses to patient emotions as well as skills to engender patient understanding and personal meaning-making of complex medical information.

  7. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta


    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  8. An overview of medical image processing methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 14, 2010 ... images through computer simulations has already in- creased the interests of many researchers. 3D image rendering usually refers to the analysis of the ..... Digital Image Processing. Reading,. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Gose E, Johnsonbaugh R, Jost S (1996). Pattern Recognition and.

  9. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett


    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  10. [Limits of Cognition with Visual Parallax of Stereoscopic Images]. (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuki; Ohashi, Takumi; Kojima, Takehito; Honda, Yuma; Ishio, Hiromu; Takada, Masumi; Omori, Masako; Miyao, Masaru


    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) display technology have contributed significantly to society, particularly in the increasing use of stereoscopic characters. For example, 3D text information is utilized in digital signage. However, research on 3D characters is limited and discussion on the safety and comfort of 3D technology is lacking. According to the 3D Consortium Safety Guidelines in Japan, a comfortable visual parallax with 3D images is less than ±1.0°. However, 3D text must be shown in front of its associated content in order for it to be displayed simultaneously with that content. We carried out an experiments to verify the permissive limits of cognition in subjects regarding the parallax of 3D images. In the experiment, 94 subjects aged 18 to 81 viewed a 3D flat Maltess cross image having no depth and projected outward from a screen at a large parallax of 1.0° to 6.0°. Eighty-six percent of the subjects recognized the 3D flat image even when it protruded at a 2.0° parallax. These subjects viewed the image comfortably and without visual problems. This study concludes that people can cognitively recognize a 3D telop at a 2.0° parallax without feeling fatigued.

  11. Applied medical image processing a basic course

    CERN Document Server

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang


    A widely used, classroom-tested text, Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course delivers an ideal introduction to image processing in medicine, emphasizing the clinical relevance and special requirements of the field. Avoiding excessive mathematical formalisms, the book presents key principles by implementing algorithms from scratch and using simple MATLAB®/Octave scripts with image data and illustrations on an accompanying CD-ROM or companion website. Organized as a complete textbook, it provides an overview of the physics of medical image processing and discusses image formats and data storage, intensity transforms, filtering of images and applications of the Fourier transform, three-dimensional spatial transforms, volume rendering, image registration, and tomographic reconstruction.

  12. The cerebellum and cognition: evidence from functional imaging studies. (United States)

    Stoodley, Catherine J


    Evidence for a role of the human cerebellum in cognitive functions comes from anatomical, clinical and neuroimaging data. Functional neuroimaging reveals cerebellar activation during a variety of cognitive tasks, including language, visual-spatial, executive, and working memory processes. It is important to note that overt movement is not a prerequisite for cerebellar activation: the cerebellum is engaged during conditions which either control for motor output or do not involve motor responses. Resting-state functional connectivity data reveal that, in addition to networks underlying motor control, the cerebellum is part of "cognitive" networks with prefrontal and parietal association cortices. Consistent with these findings, regional differences in activation patterns within the cerebellum are evident depending on the task demands, suggesting that the cerebellum can be broadly divided into functional regions based on the patterns of anatomical connectivity between different regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor and association areas of the cerebral cortex. However, the distinct contribution of the cerebellum to cognitive tasks is not clear. Here, the functional neuroimaging evidence for cerebellar involvement in cognitive functions is reviewed and related to hypotheses as to why the cerebellum is active during such tasks. Identifying the precise role of the cerebellum in cognition-as well as the mechanism by which the cerebellum modulates performance during a wide range of tasks-remains a challenge for future investigations.

  13. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance...

  14. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement (United States)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel


    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  15. Quantitative image processing in fluid mechanics (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Helman, James; Ning, Paul


    The current status of digital image processing in fluid flow research is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to a comprehensive approach to the extraction of quantitative data from multivariate databases and examples of recent developments. The discussion covers numerical simulations and experiments, data processing, generation and dissemination of knowledge, traditional image processing, hybrid processing, fluid flow vector field topology, and isosurface analysis using Marching Cubes.

  16. Water surface capturing by image processing (United States)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  17. Automatic processing, analysis, and recognition of images (United States)

    Abrukov, Victor S.; Smirnov, Evgeniy V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy G.


    New approaches and computer codes (A&CC) for automatic processing, analysis and recognition of images are offered. The A&CC are based on presentation of object image as a collection of pixels of various colours and consecutive automatic painting of distinguished itself parts of the image. The A&CC have technical objectives centred on such direction as: 1) image processing, 2) image feature extraction, 3) image analysis and some others in any consistency and combination. The A&CC allows to obtain various geometrical and statistical parameters of object image and its parts. Additional possibilities of the A&CC usage deal with a usage of artificial neural networks technologies. We believe that A&CC can be used at creation of the systems of testing and control in a various field of industry and military applications (airborne imaging systems, tracking of moving objects), in medical diagnostics, at creation of new software for CCD, at industrial vision and creation of decision-making system, etc. The opportunities of the A&CC are tested at image analysis of model fires and plumes of the sprayed fluid, ensembles of particles, at a decoding of interferometric images, for digitization of paper diagrams of electrical signals, for recognition of the text, for elimination of a noise of the images, for filtration of the image, for analysis of the astronomical images and air photography, at detection of objects.

  18. Image processing and communications challenges 5

    CERN Document Server


    This textbook collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods  of image processing, computer vision  is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered. In conclusion, the edited book comprises papers on diverse aspects of image processing  and communications systems. There are theoretical aspects as well as application papers.

  19. Sensory processing, neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia: towards a cohesive cognitive model. (United States)

    de Jong, J J; de Gelder, B; Hodiamont, P Paul P G


    Schizophrenia research has identified deficits in neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. Because a cohesive model of "disturbed cognitive machinery" is currently lacking, we built a conceptual model to integrate neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. In a cross-sectional study, the cognitive performance of participants was measured. In accordance with the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the participants were assigned to either the schizophrenia group or the non-schizophrenic psychosis group. Exclusion criteria included substance abuse, serious somatic/neurological illness, and perceptual handicap. The male/female ratio, educational level, and handedness did not differ significantly between the groups. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Based upon the results of all possible pairwise models correlating neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing, three omnibus models were analyzed. A statistical analysis of a pairwise model-fit (χ(2), CFI, and RMSEA statistics) revealed poor interrelatedness between sensory processing and neurocognition in schizophrenia patients compared with healthy control participants. The omnibus model that predicted disintegration between sensory processing and neurocognition was statistically confirmed as superior for the schizophrenia group (χ(2)(53) of 56.62, p=0.341, RMSEA=0.04, CFI=0.95). In healthy participants, the model predicting maximal interrelatedness between sensory processing/neurocognition and neurocognition/social cognition gave the best fit (χ(2)(52) of 53.74, p=0.408, RMSEA=0.03, CFI=0.97). The performance of the patients with non-schizophrenic psychosis fell between the schizophrenia patients and control participants. These findings suggest increasing separation between sensory processing and neurocognition along the continuum from mental health to schizophrenia. Our results support a conceptual model that posits disintegration

  20. Cognitive processes in history: learners' explanation of the causes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite enormous growth in the study of learners' cognitive processes, relatively little is known about how learners reason about social phenomena and issues involved in disciplines, such as history. Yet, according to scholars the process could hardly be more important, and it demands redress and scientific explanation.

  1. Some Viable Techniques for Assessing and Counselling Cognitive Processing Weakness (United States)

    Haruna, Abubakar Sadiq


    Cognitive Processing weakness (CPW) is a psychological problem that impedes students' ability to learn effectively in a normal school setting. Such weakness may include; auditory, visual, conceptual, sequential, speed and attention processing. This paper therefore examines the basic assessment or diagnostic approaches such as Diagnosis by…

  2. Cognitive and Emotion Regulation Change Processes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder. (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia S; Mennin, Douglas S; Hougaard, Esben; Zachariae, Robert; Rosenberg, Nicole K


    The objective of the study was to investigate variables, derived from both cognitive and emotion regulation conceptualizations of social anxiety disorder (SAD), as possible change processes in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for SAD. Several proposed change processes were investigated: estimated probability, estimated cost, safety behaviours, acceptance of emotions, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants were 50 patients with SAD, receiving a standard manualized CBT program, conducted in groups or individually. All variables were measured pre-therapy, mid-therapy and post-therapy. Lower level mediation models revealed that while a change in most process measures significantly predicted clinical improvement, only changes in estimated probability and cost and acceptance of emotions showed significant indirect effects of CBT for SAD. The results are in accordance with previous studies supporting the mediating role of changes in cognitive distortions in CBT for SAD. In addition, acceptance of emotions may also be a critical component to clinical improvement in SAD during CBT, although more research is needed on which elements of acceptance are most helpful for individuals with SAD. The study's lack of a control condition limits any conclusion regarding the specificity of the findings to CBT. Change in estimated probability and cost, and acceptance of emotions showed an indirect effect of CBT for SAD. Cognitive distortions appear relevant to target with cognitive restructuring techniques. Finding acceptance to have an indirect effect could be interpreted as support for contemporary CBT approaches that include acceptance-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Imaging episodic memory: implications for cognitive theories and phenomena. (United States)

    Nyberg, L


    Functional neuroimaging studies are beginning to identify neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive functions. This paper presents results relevant to several theories and phenomena of episodic memory, including component processes of episodic retrieval, encoding specificity, inhibition, item versus source memory, encoding-retrieval overlap, and the picture-superiority effect. Overall, by revealing specific activation patterns, the results provide support for existing theoretical views and they add some unique information which may be important to consider in future attempts to develop cognitive theories of episodic memory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleven Khrismawan


    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigates students’ perceptions about paraphrasing and their cognitive and meta-cognitive processes in paraphrasing. Four Indonesian advanced EFL students enrolled in Applied Linguistics course of a graduate program in English Language Teaching of a state university in Malang were voluntarily willing to participate in thestudy. These four subjects did a paraphrasing task requiring them to do concurrent verbal reports whileparaphrasing three sentences and one paragraph.Following this, the subjects responded to a questionnaire and then participated in a retrospective interview. The data from the questionnaires were described qualitatively, whereas the verbal reports were transcribed andanalyzed for identification of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies based on the framework of learning strategies by Chamot and Kupper (1989. The subjects’ perceptions about paraphrasing appeared to be in line with the widely accepted definition and criteria of proper paraphrases. Additionally, the results of verbal reports show that the subjects used 21 cognitive and seven meta-cognitive strategies, reflecting the fact that most of the cognitive strategies used in the sentence level were applied in the paragraph level with some additions of strategies specific to paragraph development and synthesis such as finding the main idea and summarizing.

  5. Digital radiography image quality: image processing and display. (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Williams, Mark B; Andriole, Katherine; Strauss, Keith J; Applegate, Kimberly; Wyatt, Margaret; Bjork, Sandra; Seibert, J Anthony


    This article on digital radiography image processing and display is the second of two articles written as part of an intersociety effort to establish image quality standards for digital and computed radiography. The topic of the other paper is digital radiography image acquisition. The articles were developed collaboratively by the ACR, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine. Increasingly, medical imaging and patient information are being managed using digital data during acquisition, transmission, storage, display, interpretation, and consultation. The management of data during each of these operations may have an impact on the quality of patient care. These articles describe what is known to improve image quality for digital and computed radiography and to make recommendations on optimal acquisition, processing, and display. The practice of digital radiography is a rapidly evolving technology that will require timely revision of any guidelines and standards.

  6. Cognitive processes, models and metaphors in decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Newell


    Full Text Available Decision research in psychology has traditionally been influenced by the extit{homo oeconomicus} metaphor with its emphasis on normative models and deviations from the predictions of those models. In contrast, the principal metaphor of cognitive psychology conceptualizes humans as `information processors', employing processes of perception, memory, categorization, problem solving and so on. Many of the processes described in cognitive theories are similar to those involved in decision making, and thus increasing cross-fertilization between the two areas is an important endeavour. A wide range of models and metaphors has been proposed to explain and describe `information processing' and many models have been applied to decision making in ingenious ways. This special issue encourages cross-fertilization between cognitive psychology and decision research by providing an overview of current perspectives in one area that continues to highlight the benefits of the synergistic approach: cognitive modeling of multi-attribute decision making. In this introduction we discuss aspects of the cognitive system that need to be considered when modeling multi-attribute decision making (e.g., automatic versus controlled processing, learning and memory constraints, metacognition and illustrate how such aspects are incorporated into the approaches proposed by contributors to the special issue. We end by discussing the challenges posed by the contrasting and sometimes incompatible assumptions of the models and metaphors.

  7. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn. (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J


    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Image processing for cameras with fiber bundle image relay. (United States)

    Olivas, Stephen J; Arianpour, Ashkan; Stamenov, Igor; Morrison, Rick; Stack, Ron A; Johnson, Adam R; Agurok, Ilya P; Ford, Joseph E


    Some high-performance imaging systems generate a curved focal surface and so are incompatible with focal plane arrays fabricated by conventional silicon processing. One example is a monocentric lens, which forms a wide field-of-view high-resolution spherical image with a radius equal to the focal length. Optical fiber bundles have been used to couple between this focal surface and planar image sensors. However, such fiber-coupled imaging systems suffer from artifacts due to image sampling and incoherent light transfer by the fiber bundle as well as resampling by the focal plane, resulting in a fixed obscuration pattern. Here, we describe digital image processing techniques to improve image quality in a compact 126° field-of-view, 30 megapixel panoramic imager, where a 12 mm focal length F/1.35 lens made of concentric glass surfaces forms a spherical image surface, which is fiber-coupled to six discrete CMOS focal planes. We characterize the locally space-variant system impulse response at various stages: monocentric lens image formation onto the 2.5 μm pitch fiber bundle, image transfer by the fiber bundle, and sensing by a 1.75 μm pitch backside illuminated color focal plane. We demonstrate methods to mitigate moiré artifacts and local obscuration, correct for sphere to plane mapping distortion and vignetting, and stitch together the image data from discrete sensors into a single panorama. We compare processed images from the prototype to those taken with a 10× larger commercial camera with comparable field-of-view and light collection.

  9. Higher-order cognitive training effects on processing speed-related neural activity: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Motes, Michael A; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S; Rypma, Bart; Chapman, Sandra B


    Higher-order cognitive training has shown to enhance performance in older adults, but the neural mechanisms underlying performance enhancement have yet to be fully disambiguated. This randomized trial examined changes in processing speed and processing speed-related neural activity in older participants (57-71 years of age) who underwent cognitive training (CT, N = 12) compared with wait-listed (WLC, N = 15) or exercise-training active (AC, N = 14) controls. The cognitive training taught cognitive control functions of strategic attention, integrative reasoning, and innovation over 12 weeks. All 3 groups worked through a functional magnetic resonance imaging processing speed task during 3 sessions (baseline, mid-training, and post-training). Although all groups showed faster reaction times (RTs) across sessions, the CT group showed a significant increase, and the WLC and AC groups showed significant decreases across sessions in the association between RT and BOLD signal change within the left prefrontal cortex (PFC). Thus, cognitive training led to a change in processing speed-related neural activity where faster processing speed was associated with reduced PFC activation, fitting previously identified neural efficiency profiles. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellular automata in image processing and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Sun, Xianfang


    The book presents findings, views and ideas on what exact problems of image processing, pattern recognition and generation can be efficiently solved by cellular automata architectures. This volume provides a convenient collection in this area, in which publications are otherwise widely scattered throughout the literature. The topics covered include image compression and resizing; skeletonization, erosion and dilation; convex hull computation, edge detection and segmentation; forgery detection and content based retrieval; and pattern generation. The book advances the theory of image processing, pattern recognition and generation as well as the design of efficient algorithms and hardware for parallel image processing and analysis. It is aimed at computer scientists, software programmers, electronic engineers, mathematicians and physicists, and at everyone who studies or develops cellular automaton algorithms and tools for image processing and analysis, or develops novel architectures and implementations of mass...

  11. On some applications of diffusion processes for image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfu, S., E-mail: smorfu@u-bourgogne.f [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Informatique et Image (LE2i), UMR Cnrs 5158, Aile des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)


    We propose a new algorithm inspired by the properties of diffusion processes for image filtering. We show that purely nonlinear diffusion processes ruled by Fisher equation allows contrast enhancement and noise filtering, but involves a blurry image. By contrast, anisotropic diffusion, described by Perona and Malik algorithm, allows noise filtering and preserves the edges. We show that combining the properties of anisotropic diffusion with those of nonlinear diffusion provides a better processing tool which enables noise filtering, contrast enhancement and edge preserving.

  12. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh


    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  13. Applications of Digital Image Processing 11 (United States)

    Cho, Y. -C.


    A new technique, digital image velocimetry, is proposed for the measurement of instantaneous velocity fields of time dependent flows. A time sequence of single-exposure images of seed particles are captured with a high-speed camera, and a finite number of the single-exposure images are sampled within a prescribed period in time. The sampled images are then digitized on an image processor, enhanced, and superimposed to construct an image which is equivalent to a multiple exposure image used in both laser speckle velocimetry and particle image velocimetry. The superimposed image and a single-exposure Image are digitally Fourier transformed for extraction of information on the velocity field. A great enhancement of the dynamic range of the velocity measurement is accomplished through the new technique by manipulating the Fourier transform of both the single-exposure image and the superimposed image. Also the direction of the velocity vector is unequivocally determined. With the use of a high-speed video camera, the whole process from image acquisition to velocity determination can be carried out electronically; thus this technique can be developed into a real-time capability.

  14. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu


    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  15. Literacy processes cognitive flexibility in learning and teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, Kelly B


    Reading and writing instruction require individuals--both students and teachers--to flexibly process many kinds of information, from a variety of sources. This is the first book to provide an in-depth examination of cognitive flexibility: how it develops across the lifespan; its role in specific literacy processes, such as phonemic awareness, word recognition, and comprehension; and implications for improving literacy instruction and teacher education. The contributors include leading researchers in literacy, psychology, and cognitive development, who summarize the current state of the science

  16. Visual and cognitive processing of face information in schizophrenia: detection, discrimination and working memory. (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Norton, Daniel; McBain, Ryan; Ongur, Dost; Heckers, Stephan


    Face recognition involves several physiological and psychological processes, including those in visual, cognitive and affective domains. Studies have found that schizophrenia patients are deficient at recognizing facial emotions, yet visual and cognitive processing of facial information in this population has not been systematically examined. In this study, we examined visual detection, perceptual discrimination and working memory of faces as well as non-face visual objects in patients. Visual detection was measured by accuracy when detecting the presence of a briefly displayed face, image which contained only the basic configural information of a face. Perceptual discrimination was measured by discriminability scores for individual facial identity images, in which the degree of similarity between images was systematically varied via morphing. Working memory was measured by the discriminability scores when two comparison face images were separated by 3 or 10 s. All measurements were acquired using a psychophysical method (two-alternative forced choice). Relative to controls, patients showed significantly reduced accuracy in visual detection of faces (p=0.003), moderately degraded performance in perceptual discrimination of faces (p=0.065), and significantly impaired performance in working memory of faces (pface versions of these tasks, while degraded, was not correlated with performance on face recognition. This pattern of results indicates that greater signal strength is required for visual and cognitive processing of facial information in schizophrenia.

  17. Imaging process and VIP engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana


    Full Text Available It's often quoted that celebrity endorsement advertising has been recognized as "an ubiquitous feature of the modern marketing". The researches have shown that this kind of engagement has been producing significantly more favorable reactions of consumers, that is, a higher level of an attention for the advertising messages, a better recall of the message and a brand name, more favorable evaluation and purchasing intentions of the brand, in regard to engagement of the non-celebrity endorsers. A positive influence on a firm's profitability and prices of stocks has also been shown. Therefore marketers leaded by the belief that celebrities represent the effective ambassadors in building of positive brand image or company image and influence an improvement of the competitive position, invest enormous amounts of money for signing the contracts with them. However, this strategy doesn't guarantee success in any case, because it's necessary to take into account many factors. This paper summarizes the results of previous researches in this field and also the recommendations for a more effective use of this kind of advertising.

  18. Visualization of decision processes using a cognitive architecture (United States)

    Livingston, Mark A.; Murugesan, Arthi; Brock, Derek; Frost, Wende K.; Perzanowski, Dennis


    Cognitive architectures are computational theories of reasoning the human mind engages in as it processes facts and experiences. A cognitive architecture uses declarative and procedural knowledge to represent mental constructs that are involved in decision making. Employing a model of behavioral and perceptual constraints derived from a set of one or more scenarios, the architecture reasons about the most likely consequence(s) of a sequence of events. Reasoning of any complexity and depth involving computational processes, however, is often opaque and challenging to comprehend. Arguably, for decision makers who may need to evaluate or question the results of autonomous reasoning, it would be useful to be able to inspect the steps involved in an interactive, graphical format. When a chain of evidence and constraint-based decision points can be visualized, it becomes easier to explore both how and why a scenario of interest will likely unfold in a particular way. In initial work on a scheme for visualizing cognitively-based decision processes, we focus on generating graphical representations of models run in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Our visualization algorithm operates on a modified version of Polyscheme's output, which is accomplished by augmenting models with a simple set of tags. We provide example visualizations and discuss properties of our technique that pose challenges for our representation goals. We conclude with a summary of feedback solicited from domain experts and practitioners in the field of cognitive modeling.

  19. Hormones as Difference Makers in Cognitive and Socioemotional Aging Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner


    Full Text Available Aging is associated with well-recognized alterations in brain function, some of which are reflected in cognitive decline. While less appreciated, there is also considerable evidence of socioemotional changes later in life, some of which are beneficial. In this review, we examine age-related changes and individual differences in four neuroendocrine systems—cortisol, estrogen, testosterone, and oxytocin—as difference makers in these processes. This suite of interrelated hormonal systems actively coordinates regulatory processes in brain and behavior throughout development, and their level and function fluctuate during the aging process. Despite these facts, their specific impact in cognitive and socioemotional aging has received relatively limited study. It is known that chronically elevated levels of the stress hormone cortisol exert neurotoxic effects on the aging brain with negative impacts on cognition and socioemotional functioning. In contrast, the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone appear to have neuroprotective effects in cognitive aging, but may decrease prosociality. Higher levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin benefit socioemotional functioning, but little is known about the effects of oxytocin on cognition or about age-related changes in the oxytocin system. In this paper, we will review the role of these hormones in the context of cognitive and socioemotional aging. In particular, we address the aforementioned gap in the literature by: 1 examining both singular actions and interrelations of these four hormonal systems; 2 exploring their correlations and causal relationships with aspects of cognitive and socioemotional aging; and 3 considering multilevel internal and external influences on these hormone systems within the framework of explanatory pluralism. We conclude with a discussion of promising future research directions.

  20. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune


    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  1. Crack Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal, Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better than that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  2. Algorithms for image processing and computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, J R


    A cookbook of algorithms for common image processing applications Thanks to advances in computer hardware and software, algorithms have been developed that support sophisticated image processing without requiring an extensive background in mathematics. This bestselling book has been fully updated with the newest of these, including 2D vision methods in content-based searches and the use of graphics cards as image processing computational aids. It's an ideal reference for software engineers and developers, advanced programmers, graphics programmers, scientists, and other specialists wh

  3. Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhled S. AL-TARAWNEH


    Full Text Available Recently, image processing techniques are widely used in several medical areas for image improvement in earlier detection and treatment stages, where the time factor is very important to discover the abnormality issues in target images, especially in various cancer tumours such as lung cancer, breast cancer, etc. Image quality and accuracy is the core factors of this research, image quality assessment as well as improvement are depending on the enhancement stage where low pre-processing techniques is used based on Gabor filter within Gaussian rules. Following the segmentation principles, an enhanced region of the object of interest that is used as a basic foundation of feature extraction is obtained. Relying on general features, a normality comparison is made. In this research, the main detected features for accurate images comparison are pixels percentage and mask-labelling.

  4. Signal and image processing in medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Rahim, B Abdul; Kumar, D Sravan


    This book highlights recent findings on and analyses conducted on signals and images in the area of medicine. The experimental investigations involve a variety of signals and images and their methodologies range from very basic to sophisticated methods. The book explains how signal and image processing methods can be used to detect and forecast abnormalities in an easy-to-follow manner, offering a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, physicians and bioinformatics researchers alike.

  5. The NPS Virtual Thermal Image processing model


    Kenter, Yucel.


    A new virtual thermal image-processing model that has been developed at the Naval Postgraduate School is introduced in this thesis. This visualization program is based on an earlier work, the Visibility MRTD model, which is focused on predicting the minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD). The MRTD is a standard performance measure for forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imaging systems. It takes into account thermal imaging system modeling concerns, such as modulation transfer functions...

  6. Modulation of ongoing cognitive processes by emotionally intense words. (United States)

    Carretié, Luis; Hinojosa, José A; Albert, Jacobo; López-Martín, Sara; De La Gándara, Belén S; Igoa, José M; Sotillo, María


    Contrary to what occurs with negative pictures, negative words are, in general, not capable of interfering with performance in ongoing cognitive tasks in normal subjects. A probable explanation is the limited arousing power of linguistic material. Especially intense words (insults and compliments), neutral personal adjectives, and pseudowords were presented to 28 participants while they executed a lexical decision task. Insults were associated with the poorest performance in the task and compliments with the best. Amplitude of the late positive component of the event-related potentials, originating at parietal areas, was maximal in response to compliments and insults, but latencies were delayed in response to the latter. Results suggest that intense emotional words modulate ongoing cognitive processes through both bottom-up (attentional capture by insults) and top-down (facilitation of cognitive processing by arousing words) mechanisms.

  7. Cognitive issues in searching images with visual queries (United States)

    Yu, ByungGu; Evens, Martha W.


    In this paper, we propose our image indexing technique and visual query processing technique. Our mental images are different from the actual retinal images and many things, such as personal interests, personal experiences, perceptual context, the characteristics of spatial objects, and so on, affect our spatial perception. These private differences are propagated into our mental images and so our visual queries become different from the real images that we want to find. This is a hard problem and few people have tried to work on it. In this paper, we survey the human mental imagery system, the human spatial perception, and discuss several kinds of visual queries. Also, we propose our own approach to visual query interpretation and processing.

  8. Digital Image Processing in Private Industry. (United States)

    Moore, Connie


    Examines various types of private industry optical disk installations in terms of business requirements for digital image systems in five areas: records management; transaction processing; engineering/manufacturing; information distribution; and office automation. Approaches for implementing image systems are addressed as well as key success…

  9. Mapping spatial patterns with morphological image processing (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Kurt H. Riitters; Christine Estreguil; Jacek Kozak; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham


    We use morphological image processing for classifying spatial patterns at the pixel level on binary land-cover maps. Land-cover pattern is classified as 'perforated,' 'edge,' 'patch,' and 'core' with higher spatial precision and thematic accuracy compared to a previous approach based on image convolution, while retaining the...

  10. Selections from 2017: Image Processing with AstroImageJ (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.AstroImageJ: Image Processing and Photometric Extraction for Ultra-Precise Astronomical Light CurvesPublished January2017The AIJ image display. A wide range of astronomy specific image display options and image analysis tools are available from the menus, quick access icons, and interactive histogram. [Collins et al. 2017]Main takeaway:AstroImageJ is a new integrated software package presented in a publication led byKaren Collins(Vanderbilt University,Fisk University, andUniversity of Louisville). Itenables new users even at the level of undergraduate student, high school student, or amateur astronomer to quickly start processing, modeling, and plotting astronomical image data.Why its interesting:Science doesnt just happen the momenta telescope captures a picture of a distantobject. Instead, astronomical images must firstbe carefully processed to clean up thedata, and this data must then be systematically analyzed to learn about the objects within it. AstroImageJ as a GUI-driven, easily installed, public-domain tool is a uniquelyaccessible tool for thisprocessing and analysis, allowing even non-specialist users to explore and visualizeastronomical data.Some features ofAstroImageJ:(as reported by Astrobites)Image calibration:generate master flat, dark, and bias framesImage arithmetic:combineimages viasubtraction, addition, division, multiplication, etc.Stack editing:easily perform operations on a series of imagesImage stabilization and image alignment featuresPrecise coordinate converters:calculate Heliocentric and Barycentric Julian DatesWCS coordinates:determine precisely where atelescope was pointed for an image by PlateSolving using Astronomy.netMacro and plugin support:write your own macrosMulti-aperture photometry

  11. Cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the Stroop task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akio; Iwama, Toru [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Gifu City (Japan); Nakashima, Toshihiko; Okumura, Ayumi; Shinoda, Jun [Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Chubu Medical Center for Prolonged Traumatic Brain Dysfunction, Department of Neurosurgery, Minokamo (Japan); Kuwata, Kazuo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Gifu (Japan)


    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in cognition, motor function, and emotion processing. However, little is known about how traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the ACC system. Our purpose was to compare, by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the patterns of cortical activation in patients with cognitive impairment after TBI and those of normal subjects. Cortical activation maps of 11 right-handed healthy control subjects and five TBI patients with cognitive impairment were recorded in response to a Stroop task during a block-designed fMRI experiment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) was used for individual subjects and group analysis. In TBI patients and controls, cortical activation, found in similar regions of the frontal, occipital, and parietal lobes, resembled patterns of activation documented in previous neuroimaging studies of the Stroop task in healthy controls. However, the TBI patients showed a relative decrease in ACC activity compared with the controls. Cognitive impairment in TBI patients seems to be associated with alterations in functional cerebral activity, especially less activation of the ACC. These changes are probably the result of destruction of neural networks after diffuse axonal injury and may reflect cortical disinhibition attributable to disconnection or compensation for an inefficient cognitive process. (orig.)

  12. Checking Fits With Digital Image Processing (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Geaslen, W. D.


    Computer-aided video inspection of mechanical and electrical connectors feasible. Report discusses work done on digital image processing for computer-aided interface verification (CAIV). Two kinds of components examined: mechanical mating flange and electrical plug.

  13. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus


    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  14. Influence of empathetic pain processing on cognition in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Hu, Kesong; Lijffijt, Marijn; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Fan, Zhiwei; Shi, Hui; He, Shuchang


    Deficits in both empathy and cognition have been reported widely in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about how these deficits interact among such patients. In the present study, we used pain portraying pictures preceding a color-word Stroop task to investigate the effect of empathetic pain observation on cognition among patients with schizophrenia. Twenty patients with schizophrenia and twenty healthy controls were included. The control group showed increased Stroop facilitation and decreased interference during the empathetic pain condition compared with the non-empathetic condition. Although patients with schizophrenia exhibited deficits in cognition, they demonstrated a similar empathy effect to controls on Stroop facilitation, but a somewhat larger empathy effect on Stroop interference (a more decreased effect). In particular, the groups did not differ in either automatic or controlled processing during the non-empathetic condition, suggesting general rather than specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Together, we interpret our findings in terms of two opposing effects of empathy on cognition in schizophrenia, with possible neuromodulatory mechanism. Whereas prior studies showed empathy to be impaired, our outcomes indicate that at least some components of empathetic pain processing are preserved in such patients.

  15. Recent developments in digital image processing at the Image Processing Laboratory of JPL. (United States)

    O'Handley, D. A.


    Review of some of the computer-aided digital image processing techniques recently developed. Special attention is given to mapping and mosaicking techniques and to preliminary developments in range determination from stereo image pairs. The discussed image processing utilization areas include space, biomedical, and robotic applications.

  16. Study on Processing Method of Image Shadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo


    Full Text Available In order to effectively remove disturbance of shadow and enhance robustness of information processing of computer visual image, this paper makes study on inspection and removal of image shadow. It makes study the continual removal algorithm of shadow based on integration, the illumination surface and texture, it respectively introduces their work principles and realization method, it can effectively carrying processing for shadow by test.

  17. Computational Models of Relational Processes in Cognitive Development (United States)

    Halford, Graeme S.; Andrews, Glenda; Wilson, William H.; Phillips, Steven


    Acquisition of relational knowledge is a core process in cognitive development. Relational knowledge is dynamic and flexible, entails structure-consistent mappings between representations, has properties of compositionality and systematicity, and depends on binding in working memory. We review three types of computational models relevant to…

  18. Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children with Autism (United States)

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Carlström, Christoffer; Johansson, Martin


    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct…

  19. [Fullerenes C60, antiamyloid action, the brain and cognitive processes]. (United States)

    Podol'skiĭ, I Ia; Poddubnaia, Z A; Godukhin, O V


    A short review of investigations along a new line: the antiamyloid action of fullerenes C60 and correction of disturbed cognitive processes is presented. The prospects for the development of drugs based on fullerenes acting on the key molecular mechanisms at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease are discussed.

  20. Processes of Moral Development: Cognitive or Social Disequilibrium? (United States)

    Haan, Norma


    Studies the processes of development in Kohlberg's (1981) moral systems and in Haan's (1983) interactional formulation, by comparing the effects of two curricular experiences for university students. The experiences were: discussion of hypothetical dilemmas which was designed to promote cognitive disequilibrium, and playing moral games, which was…

  1. System and method for cognitive processing for data fusion (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)


    A system and method for cognitive processing of sensor data. A processor array receiving analog sensor data and having programmable interconnects, multiplication weights, and filters provides for adaptive learning in real-time. A static random access memory contains the programmable data for the processor array and the stored data is modified to provide for adaptive learning.

  2. Developmental Dynamics of Emotion and Cognition Processes in Preschoolers (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.; Weaver, Jennifer Miner


    Dynamic relations during the preschool years across processes of control and understanding in the domains of emotion and cognition were examined. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers who were seen first when the children were 3 years old and again when they were 4. Results indicated dynamic dependence among the…

  3. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.


    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  4. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.


    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  5. Problem based learning: Cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. de Grave; H.P.A. Boshuizen (Henny); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)


    textabstractAn important phase of problem-based learning in a tutorial group is problem analysis. This article describes a study investigating the ongoing cognitive and metacognitive processes during problem analysis, by analysing the verbal communication among group members, and their thinking

  6. A Study of Facilitating Cognitive Processes with Authentic Support (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Liu, Tzu-Yu


    This study designed learning activity to enhance students' cognitive processes. Students could learn in class and then apply and analyze new knowledge to solve daily life problems by taking pictures of learning objects in familiar authentic context, describing them, and sharing their homework with peers. This study carried out an experiment and it…

  7. Impact of negative cognitions about body image on inflammatory status in relation to health. (United States)

    Černelič-Bizjak, Maša; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala


    Evidence suggests that body dissatisfaction may relate to biological processes and that negative cognitions can influence physical health through the complex pathways linking psychological and biological factors. The present study investigates the relationships between body image satisfaction, inflammation (cytokine levels), aerobic fitness level and obesity in 96 middle-aged men and women (48 normal and 48 overweight). All participants underwent measurements of body satisfaction, body composition, serological measurements of inflammation and aerobic capabilities assessment. Body image dissatisfaction uniquely predicted inflammation biomarkers, C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α, even when controlled for obesity indicators. Thus, body image dissatisfaction is strongly linked to inflammation processes and may promote the increase in cytokines, representing a relative metabolic risk, independent of most traditional risk factors, such as gender, body mass index and intra-abdominal (waist to hip ratio) adiposity. Results highlight the fact that person's negative cognitions need to be considered in psychologically based interventions and strategies in treatment of obesity, including strategies for health promotion. Results contribute to the knowledge base of the complex pathways in the association between psychological factors and physical illness and some important attempts were made to explain the psychological pathways linking cognitions with inflammation.

  8. Image quality dependence on image processing software in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Image post-processing gives computed radiography (CR) a considerable advantage over film-screen systems. After digitisation of information from CR plates, data are routinely processed using manufacturer-specific software. Agfa CR readers use MUSICA software, and an upgrade with significantly different ...

  9. Effects of cognitive training based on metamemory and mental images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bento Lima-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is scant research evidence regarding training effects among elderly with limited educational experience. Research indicating an association between metamemory and memory performance is based on samples of older adults with at least 12 years of education. Objectives: To test the efficacy of a cognitive training program based on the creation of mental images and changes in specific aspects of metamemory in individuals with 3 to 15 years of education (M=8.38, SD=4.24. Methods: 37 older adults participated in five training sessions (Training Group (TG and 32 control subjects completed only pre and post test assessments (Control Group (CG including the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB (naming and memorization of 10 pictures, animal category verbal fluency test, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, and the Picture and Story domains from the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ. Results: The TG showed significant improvement between pre and post tests on the delayed recall of the 10 pictures and in self-efficacy for the memorization of stories. These same changes were not found in the CG . Conclusions: Five-session cognitive training may lead to significant improvements in episodic memory and memory self-efficacy, an aspect of metamemory, in individuals with an average of 8 years of education.

  10. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology. (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia


    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Skin Tumor Detection from Microscopic Images through Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly

  12. Challenges in 3DTV image processing (United States)

    Redert, André; Berretty, Robert-Paul; Varekamp, Chris; van Geest, Bart; Bruijns, Jan; Braspenning, Ralph; Wei, Qingqing


    Philips provides autostereoscopic three-dimensional display systems that will bring the next leap in visual experience, adding true depth to video systems. We identified three challenges specifically for 3D image processing: 1) bandwidth and complexity of 3D images, 2) conversion of 2D to 3D content, and 3) object-based image/depth processing. We discuss these challenges and our solutions via several examples. In conclusion, the solutions have enabled the market introduction of several professional 3D products, and progress is made rapidly towards consumer 3DTV.

  13. Rotation Covariant Image Processing for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Skibbe


    Full Text Available With the advent of novel biomedical 3D image acquisition techniques, the efficient and reliable analysis of volumetric images has become more and more important. The amount of data is enormous and demands an automated processing. The applications are manifold, ranging from image enhancement, image reconstruction, and image description to object/feature detection and high-level contextual feature extraction. In most scenarios, it is expected that geometric transformations alter the output in a mathematically well-defined manner. In this paper we emphasis on 3D translations and rotations. Many algorithms rely on intensity or low-order tensorial-like descriptions to fulfill this demand. This paper proposes a general mathematical framework based on mathematical concepts and theories transferred from mathematical physics and harmonic analysis into the domain of image analysis and pattern recognition. Based on two basic operations, spherical tensor differentiation and spherical tensor multiplication, we show how to design a variety of 3D image processing methods in an efficient way. The framework has already been applied to several biomedical applications ranging from feature and object detection tasks to image enhancement and image restoration techniques. In this paper, the proposed methods are applied on a variety of different 3D data modalities stemming from medical and biological sciences.

  14. The Dark Energy Survey Image Processing Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, E.; et al.


    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a five-year optical imaging campaign with the goal of understanding the origin of cosmic acceleration. DES performs a 5000 square degree survey of the southern sky in five optical bands (g,r,i,z,Y) to a depth of ~24th magnitude. Contemporaneously, DES performs a deep, time-domain survey in four optical bands (g,r,i,z) over 27 square degrees. DES exposures are processed nightly with an evolving data reduction pipeline and evaluated for image quality to determine if they need to be retaken. Difference imaging and transient source detection are also performed in the time domain component nightly. On a bi-annual basis, DES exposures are reprocessed with a refined pipeline and coadded to maximize imaging depth. Here we describe the DES image processing pipeline in support of DES science, as a reference for users of archival DES data, and as a guide for future astronomical surveys.

  15. The Cognitive Complexity in Modelling the Group Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics


    Full Text Available The paper investigates for some basic contextual factors (such
    us the problem complexity, the users' creativity and the problem space complexity the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the group decision processes (GDP in e-meetings. The analysis is done by conducting a socio-simulation experiment for an envisioned collaborative software tool that acts as a stigmergic environment for modelling the GDP. The simulation results revels some interesting design guidelines for engineering some contextual functionalities that minimize the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the GDP.

  16. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  17. Logical Form as a Determinant of Cognitive Processes (United States)

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    We discuss a research program on reasoning patterns in subjects with autism, showing that they fail to engage in certain forms of non-monotonic reasoning that come naturally to neurotypical subjects. The striking reasoning patterns of autists occur both in verbal and in non-verbal tasks. Upon formalising the relevant non-verbal tasks, one sees that their logical form is the same as that of the verbal tasks. This suggests that logical form can play a causal role in cognitive processes, and we suggest that this logical form is actually embodied in the cognitive capacity called 'executive function'.

  18. Corner-point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers (United States)

    Landeau, Stéphane; Pigois, Laurent; Foing, Jean-Paul; Deshors, Gilles; Swiathy, Greggory


    Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points. This paper presents an approach based on a Corner-Point (CP) resolution criterion, derived from the Probability of Correct Resolution (PCR) of binary fractal patterns. The fundamental principle lies in the respectful perception of the CP direction of one pixel minority value among the majority value of a 2×2 pixels block. The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth (GT). After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest. The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: a CP measurement for the highly non-linear part (imaging) with real signature test target and conventional methods for the more linear part (displaying). The application to

  19. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglan Wang

    Full Text Available Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs. Accuracy (ACC, reaction time (RT, the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process

  20. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia. (United States)

    Wang, Jianglan; Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Shoujing; Gong, Rui; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Longqian


    Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd) in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). Accuracy (ACC), reaction time (RT), the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process the same visual

  1. Cognitive processing of orientation discrimination in anisometropic amblyopia (United States)

    Wang, Jianglan; Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Shoujing; Gong, Rui; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Longqian


    Cognition is very important in our daily life. However, amblyopia has abnormal visual cognition. Physiological changes of the brain during processes of cognition could be reflected with ERPs. So the purpose of this study was to investigate the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing in orientation discrimination task during monocular and binocular viewing conditions of amblyopia and normal control as well as the corresponding eyes of the two groups with ERPs. We also sought to investigate whether the speed and the capacity of resource allocation in visual cognitive processing vary with target stimuli at different spatial frequencies (3, 6 and 9 cpd) in amblyopia and normal control as well as between the corresponding eyes of the two groups. Fifteen mild to moderate anisometropic amblyopes and ten normal controls were recruited. Three-stimulus oddball paradigms of three different spatial frequency orientation discrimination tasks were used in monocular and binocular conditions in amblyopes and normal controls to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). Accuracy (ACC), reaction time (RT), the latency of novelty P300 and P3b, and the amplitude of novelty P300 and P3b were measured. Results showed that RT was longer in the amblyopic eye than in both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye in control. Novelty P300 amplitude was largest in the amblyopic eye, followed by the fellow eye, and smallest in both eyes of amblyopia. Novelty P300 amplitude was larger in the amblyopic eye than non-dominant eye and was larger in fellow eye than dominant eye. P3b latency was longer in the amblyopic eye than in the fellow eye, both eyes of amblyopia and non-dominant eye of control. P3b latency was not associated with RT in amblyopia. Neural responses of the amblyopic eye are abnormal at the middle and late stages of cognitive processing, indicating that the amblyopic eye needs to spend more time or integrate more resources to process the same visual

  2. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander


    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  3. Turning eating psychopathology risk factors into action. The pervasive effect of body image-related cognitive fusion. (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A


    Body image dissatisfaction and unfavourable social comparisons are significant risk factors to eating psychopathology. Nevertheless, the impact of these negative experiences depends on the cognitive and emotional processes involved. Previous research has shown that cognitive fusion is a nuclear process linked to psychological inflexibility, but its role on body image and eating difficulties remains unclear. This study aims to explore a model of the mediational role of body image-related cognitive fusion (CF-BI) on the relationship between body dissatisfaction, unfavourable social comparisons, and eating psychopathology in a sample of 345 female students. Results from path analyses show that the impact of unfavourable social comparisons on eating psychopathology is fully mediated by CF-BI. Moreover, CF-BI also revealed a mediational effect on the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and the severity of eating symptoms, in spite of the fact that a direct effect of body dissatisfaction still exists. The tested model highlights the crucial role that cognitive fusion, in the specific domain of body image, plays in the relationship between risk factors and the severity of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Furthermore, these findings present empirical support for the relevance of addressing acceptance and cognitive defusion techniques to prevent and treat eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on cognitive, social and cultural processes of written communication. (United States)

    Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco


    This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.

  5. Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception-cognition-action and i......This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception-cognition...... communication processes in living systems, including intracellular, intercellular, metabolic, physiological, cognitive and ecological levels. The main idea is to provide an account that considers the heterarchical embeddedness of many instances of CP and CS. This will take me to relate the hierarchical nature...... of categorical sensing and perception with the equally hierarchical issues of the "binding problem", "triadic causality", the "emergent interpretant" and the increasing semiotic freedom observed in biological and cognitive systems....

  6. Effects of a cell phone conversation on cognitive processing performances. (United States)

    Kemker, Brett E; Stierwalt, Julie A G; LaPointe, Leonard L; Heald, Gary R


    The ability to apportion cognitive resources to process multiple visual and auditory stimuli is essential for human communication in competing conditions. The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of a cell phone conversation on a battery of cognitive tests, using both timing (RT) and accuracy (A') as dependent measures. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted. Forty-two college-age (mean 22 yr) adult females with normal hearing and cognitive function participated in the study. In one condition (quiet), a standardized cognitive assessment battery was administered to participants in a quiet room. In the (cell phone) condition, subjects were formulating and responding to specific questions about their travel experiences during administration of the same cognitive assessment battery. The computer automatically records subject performance. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted using the Bonferroni approach. The alpha level was set at .05 for all data analysis. This method of analysis was repeated for each of the dependent measures, RT, and A'. The results revealed a consistent, significant effect on reaction time between the two conditions. The same analysis was also conducted to examine the effect of participation in a cell phone discussion on accuracy. As with RT, results revealed a consistent, significant affect on A' between the two conditions. Our study supports the notion that there are differential effects of auditory distracters across cognitive spheres. For simple automatic type visual cognitive tasks, the effect is minimal. However, as visual tasks increase in difficulty, the effect of the auditory distraction is magnified, particularly when the task requires extensive division of language resources.

  7. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Fadaei


    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. Methods: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly di-vided in two groups of intervention (n = 32 and control (n = 40. The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not re-ceive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44 and control (15 95 ± 4 66 groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395. The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11 compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27 after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001. Conclusions: Since a woman′s body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman′s favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the impor-tance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  8. The cognitive interface in processes of categorization and identity construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sirleidy de Lima Cordeiro


    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the identities attributed to social actors participating of Brazil’s Movimento Passe Livre (Free Pass Movement and to investigate the way these are categorized by the news talk. We are based on the argument that all categories are marked by a “constitutive instability”, in other words, they are transformed by the contexts (MONDADA; DUBOIS, 2003. About the context theme, we are based on the Socio-cognition assumptions. That provides that there is a cognitive interface between categorization and identity construction. We analyzed on-line news pieces about the Movimento Passe Livre. We realized that, even if there is a change in the categorization attributed to the movement’s social actors, the categories nominated by the news speeches have allowed a better social visibility of negative images of these groups. The context was considered as one of the key elements for the categorizations and identity attributions to occur.

  9. The theoretical cognitive process of visualization for science education. (United States)

    Mnguni, Lindelani E


    The use of visual models such as pictures, diagrams and animations in science education is increasing. This is because of the complex nature associated with the concepts in the field. Students, especially entrant students, often report misconceptions and learning difficulties associated with various concepts especially those that exist at a microscopic level, such as DNA, the gene and meiosis as well as those that exist in relatively large time scales such as evolution. However the role of visual literacy in the construction of knowledge in science education has not been investigated much. This article explores the theoretical process of visualization answering the question "how can visual literacy be understood based on the theoretical cognitive process of visualization in order to inform the understanding, teaching and studying of visual literacy in science education?" Based on various theories on cognitive processes during learning for science and general education the author argues that the theoretical process of visualization consists of three stages, namely, Internalization of Visual Models, Conceptualization of Visual Models and Externalization of Visual Models. The application of this theoretical cognitive process of visualization and the stages of visualization in science education are discussed.

  10. Eye-Head Coordination for Visual Cognitive Processing (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Nakashima, Ryoichi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi


    We investigated coordinated movements between the eyes and head (“eye-head coordination”) in relation to vision for action. Several studies have measured eye and head movements during a single gaze shift, focusing on the mechanisms of motor control during eye-head coordination. However, in everyday life, gaze shifts occur sequentially and are accompanied by movements of the head and body. Under such conditions, visual cognitive processing influences eye movements and might also influence eye-head coordination because sequential gaze shifts include cycles of visual processing (fixation) and data acquisition (gaze shifts). In the present study, we examined how the eyes and head move in coordination during visual search in a large visual field. Subjects moved their eyes, head, and body without restriction inside a 360° visual display system. We found patterns of eye-head coordination that differed those observed in single gaze-shift studies. First, we frequently observed multiple saccades during one continuous head movement, and the contribution of head movement to gaze shifts increased as the number of saccades increased. This relationship between head movements and sequential gaze shifts suggests eye-head coordination over several saccade-fixation sequences; this could be related to cognitive processing because saccade-fixation cycles are the result of visual cognitive processing. Second, distribution bias of eye position during gaze fixation was highly correlated with head orientation. The distribution peak of eye position was biased in the same direction as head orientation. This influence of head orientation suggests that eye-head coordination is involved in gaze fixation, when the visual system processes retinal information. This further supports the role of eye-head coordination in visual cognitive processing. PMID:25799510


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Prima


    Full Text Available Cognitive science is a science which studies how human mental processes to influence one’s behavior. Principal major issue that needs to be known in the understanding of cognitive science and their development is related to how the initial state of cognitive science itself, the mind is adapted, the development process starting from the concrete to the abstract, the conceptual nature of the change, the difference between learning and development, format representation of the underlying changes in development, the role of implicit and explicit cognitions in the development, the role of the association and the rules in the development, the universal development, cognitive domain and how to influence the development of brain structure. There are three difference in the cognitive domain of the most common sense that domain as a module, as the domain of expertise, and domain as a model of mind.   Ilmu kognitif adalah suatu pengetahuan yang mempelajari tentang bagaimana proses mental manusia dalam mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang. Pokok pembahasan utama yang perlu diketahui dalam memahami ilmu kognitif dan perkembangannya yaitu terkait dengan bagaimana keadaan awal dari ilmu kognitif itu sendiri, pikiran yang teradaptasi, proses perkembangan mulai dari hal yang kongkrit sampai dengan abstrak, sifat konseptual dalam perubahan, perbedaan antara belajar dan pengembangan, format representasi yang mendasari perubahan dalam perkembangan, peran kognisi implisit dan eksplisit dalam perkembangan, peran asosiasi dan aturan dalam perkembangan, perkembangan secara universal, domain kognitif dan bagaimana struktur otak mempengaruhi perkembangan. Ada tiga perbedaan domain kognitif dari indera yang paling umum yaitu domain sebagai modul, domain sebagai bidang keahlian, dan domain sebagai model pikiran.

  12. Fundamental Concepts of Digital Image Processing (United States)

    Twogood, R. E.


    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  13. Fundamental concepts of digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twogood, R.E.


    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  14. Traffic analysis and control using image processing (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ellappan, Vijayan; Arun, A. R.


    This paper shows the work on traffic analysis and control till date. It shows an approach to regulate traffic the use of image processing and MATLAB systems. This concept uses computational images that are to be compared with original images of the street taken in order to determine the traffic level percentage and set the timing for the traffic signal accordingly which are used to reduce the traffic stoppage on traffic lights. They concept proposes to solve real life scenarios in the streets, thus enriching the traffic lights by adding image receivers like HD cameras and image processors. The input is then imported into MATLAB to be used. as a method for calculating the traffic on roads. Their results would be computed in order to adjust the traffic light timings on a particular street, and also with respect to other similar proposals but with the added value of solving a real, big instance.

  15. Natural user interfaces in medical image analysis cognitive analysis of brain and carotid artery images

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R


    This unique text/reference highlights a selection of practical applications of advanced image analysis methods for medical images. The book covers the complete methodology for processing, analysing and interpreting diagnostic results of sample CT images. The text also presents significant problems related to new approaches and paradigms in image understanding and semantic image analysis. To further engage the reader, example source code is provided for the implemented algorithms in the described solutions. Features: describes the most important methods and algorithms used for image analysis; e

  16. Digital-image processing and image analysis of glacier ice (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan J.


    This document provides a methodology for extracting grain statistics from 8-bit color and grayscale images of thin sections of glacier ice—a subset of physical properties measurements typically performed on ice cores. This type of analysis is most commonly used to characterize the evolution of ice-crystal size, shape, and intercrystalline spatial relations within a large body of ice sampled by deep ice-coring projects from which paleoclimate records will be developed. However, such information is equally useful for investigating the stress state and physical responses of ice to stresses within a glacier. The methods of analysis presented here go hand-in-hand with the analysis of ice fabrics (aggregate crystal orientations) and, when combined with fabric analysis, provide a powerful method for investigating the dynamic recrystallization and deformation behaviors of bodies of ice in motion. The procedures described in this document compose a step-by-step handbook for a specific image acquisition and data reduction system built in support of U.S. Geological Survey ice analysis projects, but the general methodology can be used with any combination of image processing and analysis software. The specific approaches in this document use the FoveaPro 4 plug-in toolset to Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended but it can be carried out equally well, though somewhat less conveniently, with software such as the image processing toolbox in MATLAB, Image-Pro Plus, or ImageJ.

  17. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images. (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid


    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition (United States)

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen


    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  19. The cognitive processing of the allomorphy in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Tamara


    Full Text Available In this work, we explored cognitive status of suffix allomorphy of the masculine nouns in instrumental singular in Serbian language (eg. mišom-mišem; pužom-pužem. Allomorphy represents distinct variations in form of the morpheme which does not influence it’s function and meaning (cf. Lyons, 1968. Despite it’s frequent appearance in speech and language production, it has rarely been a subject of psycholinguistic explorations. First goal of this research was to determine whether the cognitive processing of allomorphic nouns has it’s specificities and second goal was to create the base for making and testing hypothesis regarding morphological and/or phonological factors that influence suffix alternation in forming of instrumental singular of masculine nouns. We conducted visual lexical decision experiment and applied a questionnaire created for the needs of investigating allomorphy in language production. Results showed that at least two processes influence cognitive processing of masculine nouns in instrumental singular: (a certain morpho-phonological restrictions that influence appearance of the suffix-em, and (b allomorphy - variations in suffix in instrumental singular. In addition, the findings indicate that allomorphy could be the consequence of the tendency to use more frequent suffix (-om, that eases the processing, and blocks the influence of the morpho-phonological restrictions.

  20. A brief review of digital image processing (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.


    The review is presented with particular reference to Skylab S-192 and Landsat MSS imagery. Attention is given to rectification (calibration) processing with emphasis on geometric correction of image distortions. Image enhancement techniques (e.g., the use of high pass digital filters to eliminate gross shading to allow emphasis of the fine detail) are described along with data analysis and system considerations (software philosophy).

  1. PCB Fault Detection Using Image Processing (United States)

    Nayak, Jithendra P. R.; Anitha, K.; Parameshachari, B. D., Dr.; Banu, Reshma, Dr.; Rashmi, P.


    The importance of the Printed Circuit Board inspection process has been magnified by requirements of the modern manufacturing environment where delivery of 100% defect free PCBs is the expectation. To meet such expectations, identifying various defects and their types becomes the first step. In this PCB inspection system the inspection algorithm mainly focuses on the defect detection using the natural images. Many practical issues like tilt of the images, bad light conditions, height at which images are taken etc. are to be considered to ensure good quality of the image which can then be used for defect detection. Printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication is a multidisciplinary process, and etching is the most critical part in the PCB manufacturing process. The main objective of Etching process is to remove the exposed unwanted copper other than the required circuit pattern. In order to minimize scrap caused by the wrongly etched PCB panel, inspection has to be done in early stage. However, all of the inspections are done after the etching process where any defective PCB found is no longer useful and is simply thrown away. Since etching process costs 0% of the entire PCB fabrication, it is uneconomical to simply discard the defective PCBs. In this paper a method to identify the defects in natural PCB images and associated practical issues are addressed using Software tools and some of the major types of single layer PCB defects are Pattern Cut, Pin hole, Pattern Short, Nick etc., Therefore the defects should be identified before the etching process so that the PCB would be reprocessed. In the present approach expected to improve the efficiency of the system in detecting the defects even in low quality images

  2. The neural bases of cognitive processes in gambling disorder (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.


    Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling disorder and the promise for translating the neurobiological understanding into treatment advances remains largely unrealized. Here we review the neurocognitive underpinnings of gambling disorder with an eye towards improving prevention, treatment and policy efforts. PMID:24961632

  3. Mathematical foundations of image processing and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinoli, Jean-Charles


    Mathematical Imaging is currently a rapidly growing field in applied mathematics, with an increasing need for theoretical mathematics. This book, the second of two volumes, emphasizes the role of mathematics as a rigorous basis for imaging sciences. It provides a comprehensive and convenient overview of the key mathematical concepts, notions, tools and frameworks involved in the various fields of gray-tone and binary image processing and analysis, by proposing a large, but coherent, set of symbols and notations, a complete list of subjects and a detailed bibliography. It establishes a bridg

  4. Adolescents’ risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José eRodrigo


    Full Text Available This study examines by means of fMRI the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents’ risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog. Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG, right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind. In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active (right ACC, bilateral DLPFC, bilateral OFC, whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (VS. Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole. Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in theory of mind related regions (bilateral middle temporal gyrus and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area. Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others’ perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in social contexts that incorporate the role of emotional and social cognition processes.

  5. Analyzing stochastic dependence of cognitive processes in multidimensional source recognition. (United States)

    Meiser, Thorsten


    Stochastic dependence among cognitive processes can be modeled in different ways, and the family of multinomial processing tree models provides a flexible framework for analyzing stochastic dependence among discrete cognitive states. This article presents a multinomial model of multidimensional source recognition that specifies stochastic dependence by a parameter for the joint retrieval of multiple source attributes together with parameters for stochastically independent retrieval. The new model is equivalent to a previous multinomial model of multidimensional source memory for a subset of the parameter space. An empirical application illustrates the advantages of the new multinomial model of joint source recognition. The new model allows for a direct comparison of joint source retrieval across conditions, it avoids statistical problems due to inflated confidence intervals and does not imply a conceptual imbalance between source dimensions. Model selection criteria that take model complexity into account corroborate the new model of joint source recognition.

  6. Iterative elimination algorithm for thermal image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Alkali


    Full Text Available Segmentation is employed in everyday image processing, in order to remove unwanted objects present in the image. There are scenarios where segmentation alone does not do the intended job automatically. In such cases, subjective means are required to eliminate the remnants which are time consuming especially when multiple images are involved. It is also not feasible when real-time applications are involved. This is even compounded when thermal imaging is involved as both foreground and background objects can have similar thermal distribution, thus making it impossible for straight segmentation to distinguish between the two. In this study, a real-time Iterative Elimination Algorithm (IEA was developed and it was shown that false foreground was removed in thermal images where segmentation failed to do so. The algorithm was tested on thermal images that were segmented using the inter-variance thresholding. The thermal images contained human subjects as foreground with some background objects having similar thermal distribution as the subject. Informed consent was obtained from the subject that voluntarily took part in the study. The IEA was only tested on thermal images and failed when false background object was connected to the foreground after segmentation.

  7. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean


    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  8. Dolphin Cognition: Representations and Processes in Memory and Perception


    Mercado III, Eduardo; DeLong, Caroline M.


    Many people agree that dolphins are sentient beings, but few would claim to know what being a dolphin is like. From a psychological perspective, a dolphin’s experiences are a function of its mental capacities, especially those processes that relate to memories, percepts, thoughts, and emotions. This paper reviews what is currently known about dolphins’ cognitive abilities, focusing on how they perceive and remember events. Experiments with captive dolphins show that they can flexibly access m...

  9. Writing In Efl: An Analysis Of Developing Cognitive Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tans Feliks


    Full Text Available This study aims at finding out a writer's developing cognitive processes in EFL writing. The data are analyzed based on the classic theory of Odell (1977. It was found that the writer develops better in using: 1 grammatical subjects; 2 connectors and superlative forms; 3 lexicons showing similarity, resemblance, and class; 4 physical words; and, 5 sequence. He is less developed or stagnant in using comparisons and negatives, syntaxes, lexicons showing difference, change, paradox, contrast and examples.

  10. Automated Problem Domain Cognition Process in Information Systems Design


    Loginov, Maxim; Mikov, Alexander


    An automated cognitive approach for the design of Information Systems is presented. It is supposed to be used at the very beginning of the design process, between the stages of requirements determination and analysis, including the stage of analysis. In the context of the approach used either UML or ERD notations may be used for model representation. The approach provides the opportunity of using natural language text documents as a source of knowledge for automated problem domain...

  11. Implicit cognitive processes in binge-eating disorder and obesity. (United States)

    Brauhardt, Anne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja


    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes, associated eating disorder and general psychopathology, and commonly occurs in obese individuals. Explicit self-esteem and explicit weight bias have been linked to BED, while little is known about implicit cognitive processes such as implicit self-esteem and implicit weight bias. Obese participants with BED and an individually matched obese only group (OB) and normal weight control group (CG; each N = 26) were recruited from the community to examine group differences and associations in explicit and implicit self-esteem and weight bias, as well as the impact of implicit cognitive processes on global eating disorder psychopathology. Implicit cognitive processes were assessed using the Implicit Association Test. Significantly lower explicit self-esteem, as well as higher exposure to explicit weight bias, compared to CG and OB was found in the BED group. All groups showed positive implicit self-esteem, however, it was significantly lower in BED when compared to CG. BED and CG demonstrated equally high implicit weight bias whereas OB did not. Explicit and implicit measures were not significantly correlated. Global eating disorder psychopathology was predicted by explicit and implicit self-esteem. The results of the present study add to the importance of implicit self-esteem and implicit weight bias beyond explicit measures in BED, while both were previously shown to be associated with onset and maintenance of BED. In conclusion, implicit cognitive processes should be focused on in interventions for BED to investigate their impact on psychological treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soldier Cognitive Processes: Supporting Teleoperated Ground Vehicle Operations (United States)


    result is not explained clearly--or at all--to novices . iv SOLDIER COGNITIVE PROCESSES: SUPPORTING TELEOPERATED GROUND VEHICLE OPERATIONS...objectives". A teacher or trainer might have a learning objective for students to solve algebra word problems dealing with work. However, such learning...that a novice needs to acquire. Thus, a task analysis can be crucial for identifying the needed information. The Task Analysis by Problem Solving

  13. A representation for mammographic image processing. (United States)

    Highnam, R; Brady, M; Shepstone, B


    Mammographic image analysis is typically performed using standard, general-purpose algorithms. We note the dangers of this approach and show that an alternative physics-model-based approach can be developed to calibrate the mammographic imaging process. This enables us to obtain, at each pixel, a quantitative measure of the breast tissue. The measure we use is h(int) and this represents the thickness of 'interesting' (non-fat) tissue between the pixel and the X-ray source. The thicknesses over the image constitute what we term the h(int) representation, and it can most usefully be regarded as a surface that conveys information about the anatomy of the breast. The representation allows image enhancement through removing the effects of degrading factors, and also effective image normalization since all changes in the image due to variations in the imaging conditions have been removed. Furthermore, the h(int) representation gives us a basis upon which to build object models and to reason about breast anatomy. We use this ability to choose features that are robust to breast compression and variations in breast composition. In this paper we describe the h(int) representation, show how it can be computed, and then illustrate how it can be applied to a variety of mammographic image processing tasks. The breast thickness turns out to be a key parameter in the computation of h(int), but it is not normally recorded. We show how the breast thickness can be estimated from an image, and examine the sensitivity of h(int) to this estimate. We then show how we can simulate any projective X-ray examination and can simulate the appearance of anatomical structures within the breast. We follow this with a comparison between the h(int) representation and conventional representations with respect to invariance to imaging conditions and the surrounding tissue. Initial results indicate that image analysis is far more robust when specific consideration is taken of the imaging process and

  14. Dictionary of computer vision and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Robert B; Dawson-Howe, Kenneth; Fitzgibbon, Andrew; Robertson, Craig; Trucco, Emanuele; Williams, Christopher K I


    Written by leading researchers, the 2nd Edition of the Dictionary of Computer Vision & Image Processing is a comprehensive and reliable resource which now provides explanations of over 3500 of the most commonly used terms across image processing, computer vision and related fields including machine vision. It offers clear and concise definitions with short examples or mathematical precision where necessary for clarity that ultimately makes it a very usable reference for new entrants to these fields at senior undergraduate and graduate level, through to early career researchers to help build u

  15. Practical image and video processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Oge


    "The book provides a practical introduction to the most important topics in image and video processing using MATLAB (and its Image Processing Toolbox) as a tool to demonstrate the most important techniques and algorithms. The contents are presented in a clear, technically accurate, objective way, with just enough mathematical detail. Most of the chapters are supported by figures, examples, illustrative problems, MATLAB scripts, suggestions for further reading, bibliographical references, useful Web sites, and exercises and computer projects to extend the understanding of their contents"--

  16. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning (United States)

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.


    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  17. Cognitive processing speed in older adults: relationship with white matter integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Kerchner

    Full Text Available Cognitive processing slows with age. We sought to determine the importance of white matter integrity, assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, at influencing cognitive processing speed among normal older adults, assessed using a novel battery of computerized, non-verbal, choice reaction time tasks. We studied 131 cognitively normal adults aged 55-87 using a cross-sectional design. Each participant underwent our test battery, as well as MRI with DTI. We carried out cross-subject comparisons using tract-based spatial statistics. As expected, reaction time slowed significantly with age. In diffuse areas of frontal and parietal white matter, especially the anterior corpus callosum, fractional anisotropy values correlated negatively with reaction time. The genu and body of the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were among the areas most involved. This relationship was not explained by gray or white matter atrophy or by white matter lesion volume. In a statistical mediation analysis, loss of white matter integrity mediated the relationship between age and cognitive processing speed.

  18. Cognitive and emotional information processing: protein synthesis and gene expression. (United States)

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Navakkode, Sheeja; Korz, Volker; Frey, Julietta U


    Recent findings suggest that functional plasticity phenomena such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) - cellular processes underlying memory - are restricted to functional dendritic compartments. It was also shown, however, that a relatively strong activation of a synaptic input can abolish compartment restrictions. Our data support these findings and we present one cellular pathway responsible for uncompartmentalization of the normally localized plasticity processes by the action of rolipram, an inhibitor of type 4 phosphodiesterases. In contrast with compartment-restricted information processing, uncompartmentalization requires transcription. In the search for system relevance of compartmentalization versus uncompartmentalization we describe firstly data which show that more cognitive information processing in rats' behaviour may follow rules of compartmentalization, whereas stressful, more life-threatening, inputs abolish compartment-restricted information processing involving transcription. Our findings allow us to suggest that consolidation of processes which take place during the cognitive event most probably depend on local protein synthesis, whereas stress immediately induces gene expression in addition, resulting in a compartment-unspecific up-regulation of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), providing the entire neuron with a higher level of 'reactiveness'. These data would provide a specific functional cellular mechanism to respond differentially and effectively to behaviourally weighted inputs.

  19. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Herrera, Perfecto; Grachten, Maarten; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier


    We present a review on perception and cognition models designed for or applicable to music. An emphasis is put on computational implementations. We include findings from different disciplines: neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and musicology. The article summarizes the methodology that these disciplines use to approach the phenomena of music understanding, the localization of musical processes in the brain, and the flow of cognitive operations involved in turning physical signals into musical symbols, going from the transducers to the memory systems of the brain. We discuss formal models developed to emulate, explain and predict phenomena involved in early auditory processing, pitch processing, grouping, source separation, and music structure computation. We cover generic computational architectures of attention, memory, and expectation that can be instantiated and tuned to deal with specific musical phenomena. Criteria for the evaluation of such models are presented and discussed. Thereby, we lay out the general framework that provides the basis for the discussion of domain-specific music models in Part II.

  20. Processing Images of Craters for Spacecraft Navigation (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Johnson, Andrew E.; Matthies, Larry H.


    A crater-detection algorithm has been conceived to enable automation of what, heretofore, have been manual processes for utilizing images of craters on a celestial body as landmarks for navigating a spacecraft flying near or landing on that body. The images are acquired by an electronic camera aboard the spacecraft, then digitized, then processed by the algorithm, which consists mainly of the following steps: 1. Edges in an image detected and placed in a database. 2. Crater rim edges are selected from the edge database. 3. Edges that belong to the same crater are grouped together. 4. An ellipse is fitted to each group of crater edges. 5. Ellipses are refined directly in the image domain to reduce errors introduced in the detection of edges and fitting of ellipses. 6. The quality of each detected crater is evaluated. It is planned to utilize this algorithm as the basis of a computer program for automated, real-time, onboard processing of crater-image data. Experimental studies have led to the conclusion that this algorithm is capable of a detection rate >93 percent, a false-alarm rate <5 percent, a geometric error <0.5 pixel, and a position error <0.3 pixel.

  1. Hardware implementation of machine vision systems: image and video processing (United States)

    Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe


    This contribution focuses on different topics covered by the special issue titled `Hardware Implementation of Machine vision Systems' including FPGAs, GPUS, embedded systems, multicore implementations for image analysis such as edge detection, segmentation, pattern recognition and object recognition/interpretation, image enhancement/restoration, image/video compression, image similarity and retrieval, satellite image processing, medical image processing, motion estimation, neuromorphic and bioinspired vision systems, video processing, image formation and physics based vision, 3D processing/coding, scene understanding, and multimedia.

  2. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor. (United States)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun


    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.




    In this paper, we describe some central mathematical problems in medical imaging. The subject has been undergoing rapid changes driven by better hardware and software. Much of the software is based on novel methods utilizing geometric partial differential equations in conjunction with standard signal/image processing techniques as well as computer graphics facilitating man/machine interactions. As part of this enterprise, researchers have been trying to base biomedical engineering principles on rigorous mathematical foundations for the development of software methods to be integrated into complete therapy delivery systems. These systems support the more effective delivery of many image-guided procedures such as radiation therapy, biopsy, and minimally invasive surgery. We will show how mathematics may impact some of the main problems in this area, including image enhancement, registration, and segmentation. PMID:23645963

  4. Simplified labeling process for medical image segmentation. (United States)

    Gao, Mingchen; Huang, Junzhou; Huang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris N


    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in many medical imaging applications by automatically locating the regions of interest. Typically supervised learning based segmentation methods require a large set of accurately labeled training data. However, thel labeling process is tedious, time consuming and sometimes not necessary. We propose a robust logistic regression algorithm to handle label outliers such that doctors do not need to waste time on precisely labeling images for training set. To validate its effectiveness and efficiency, we conduct carefully designed experiments on cervigram image segmentation while there exist label outliers. Experimental results show that the proposed robust logistic regression algorithms achieve superior performance compared to previous methods, which validates the benefits of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Digital image processing of vascular angiograms (United States)

    Selzer, R. H.; Beckenbach, E. S.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Brooks, S. H.


    The paper discusses the estimation of the degree of atherosclerosis in the human femoral artery through the use of a digital image processing system for vascular angiograms. The film digitizer uses an electronic image dissector camera to scan the angiogram and convert the recorded optical density information into a numerical format. Another processing step involves locating the vessel edges from the digital image. The computer has been programmed to estimate vessel abnormality through a series of measurements, some derived primarily from the vessel edge information and others from optical density variations within the lumen shadow. These measurements are combined into an atherosclerosis index, which is found in a post-mortem study to correlate well with both visual and chemical estimates of atherosclerotic disease.

  6. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor


    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  7. Optimisation in signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Siarry, Patrick


    This book describes the optimization methods most commonly encountered in signal and image processing: artificial evolution and Parisian approach; wavelets and fractals; information criteria; training and quadratic programming; Bayesian formalism; probabilistic modeling; Markovian approach; hidden Markov models; and metaheuristics (genetic algorithms, ant colony algorithms, cross-entropy, particle swarm optimization, estimation of distribution algorithms, and artificial immune systems).

  8. Image Processing in Amateur Astro-Photography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Image Processing in Amateur Astro-Photography. Anurag Garg. Classroom Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 170-175. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  9. Stochastic processes, estimation theory and image enhancement (United States)

    Assefi, T.


    An introductory account of stochastic processes, estimation theory, and image enhancement is presented. The book is primarily intended for first-year graduate students and practicing engineers and scientists whose work requires an acquaintance with the theory. Fundamental concepts of probability were reviewed that are required to support the main topics. The appendices discuss the remaining mathematical background.

  10. [Connectionist modeling of higher-level cognitive processes]. (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Takashi; Kawahara, Tetsuo; Kusumi, Takashi


    Connectionist modeling is one approach to understanding human intelligence using simulated networks of neuron-like processing units. In this article, we report on recent progress in connectionist models that simulate empirical data of higher-level cognitive processes, these being memory, learning, language, thinking, cognitive development, and social cognition. We also review and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these connectionist models. The computational framework of connectionist modeling has the potential to integrate specialized psychological findings of different areas using the same architectures and local functions of units and connections, inspired from neuroscience. In particular, the problems of dealing with structured information in distributed form, and doing tasks that require variable binding in connectionist networks are discussed from several different perspectives. As one possible solution to treat systematic mental representations properly, the symbolic connectionist model, which is a hybrid approach using symbolic representations and connectionist architectures, is explained. We argue that connectionist computer simulation offers significant benefits for today's psychological researches, and that connectionist modeling is likely to have an important influence on future studies.

  11. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.


    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  12. The number processing and calculation system: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology. (United States)

    Salguero-Alcañiz, M P; Alameda-Bailén, J R


    Cognitive neuropsychology focuses on the concepts of dissociation and double dissociation. The performance of number processing and calculation tasks by patients with acquired brain injury can be used to characterise the way in which the healthy cognitive system manipulates number symbols and quantities. The objective of this study is to determine the components of the numerical processing and calculation system. Participants consisted of 6 patients with acquired brain injuries in different cerebral localisations. We used Batería de evaluación del procesamiento numérico y el cálculo, a battery assessing number processing and calculation. Data was analysed using the difference in proportions test. Quantitative numerical knowledge is independent from number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Recodification is independent from qualitative numerical knowledge and calculation. Quantitative numerical knowledge and calculation are also independent functions. The number processing and calculation system comprises at least 4 components that operate independently: quantitative numerical knowledge, number transcoding, qualitative numerical knowledge, and calculation. Therefore, each one may be damaged selectively without affecting the functioning of another. According to the main models of number processing and calculation, each component has different characteristics and cerebral localisations. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

  14. Bioinformation processing a primer on computational cognitive science

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James K


    This book shows how mathematics, computer science and science can be usefully and seamlessly intertwined. It begins with a general model of cognitive processes in a network of computational nodes, such as neurons, using a variety of tools from mathematics, computational science and neurobiology. It then moves on to solve the diffusion model from a low-level random walk point of view. It also demonstrates how this idea can be used in a new approach to solving the cable equation, in order to better understand the neural computation approximations. It introduces specialized data for emotional content, which allows a brain model to be built using MatLab tools, and also highlights a simple model of cognitive dysfunction.

  15. Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and Bayesian Inference. (United States)

    Suchow, Jordan W; Bourgin, David D; Griffiths, Thomas L


    Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control: ERP correlates. (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; Xu, Shuang; Yang, Jiemin; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Antao; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong


    The present study investigated the impact of auditory-induced mood on brain processing of cognitive control using a Stroop color-word interference task. A total of 135 positive, negative, and neutral sounds (45 of each) were presented in separate blocks for a mood induction procedure, which was then followed by a Stroop color-word task in each trial. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for color-word congruent, incongruent and neutral (color-word irrelevant) words and subjects named the printed colors of the words by pressing the appropriate key (irrespective of word meaning). Response latency was delayed during incongruent vs. neutral trials, and this cost did not interact significantly with mood states. ERP data showed prolonged peak latencies in the P200 component and more negative deflections in the Late Positive Component (LPC, 450-550 ms) during incongruent vs. neutral conditions, regardless of mood states. Moreover, the negative deflections (N450) in the 450-550 ms interval of the incongruent- neutral difference waves, which index cognitive control effect in brain potentials, was more pronounced in the pleasant, but not in the unpleasant, mood state when compared with the neutral mood state. These data suggest that, pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control, in a situation requiring effective inhibition of task-irrelevant distracting information. In addition, N450 component serves as an affective marker, embodying not only cognitive control effect in the brain but also its interaction with mood states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Image processing analysis of traditional Gestalt vision experiments (United States)

    McCann, John J.


    In the late 19th century, the Gestalt Psychology rebelled against the popular new science of Psychophysics. The Gestalt revolution used many fascinating visual examples to illustrate that the whole is greater than the sum of all the parts. Color constancy was an important example. The physical interpretation of sensations and their quantification by JNDs and Weber fractions were met with innumerable examples in which two 'identical' physical stimuli did not look the same. The fact that large changes in the color of the illumination failed to change color appearance in real scenes demanded something more than quantifying the psychophysical response of a single pixel. The debates continues today with proponents of both physical, pixel-based colorimetry and perceptual, image- based cognitive interpretations. Modern instrumentation has made colorimetric pixel measurement universal. As well, new examples of unconscious inference continue to be reported in the literature. Image processing provides a new way of analyzing familiar Gestalt displays. Since the pioneering experiments by Fergus Campbell and Land, we know that human vision has independent spatial channels and independent color channels. Color matching data from color constancy experiments agrees with spatial comparison analysis. In this analysis, simple spatial processes can explain the different appearances of 'identical' stimuli by analyzing the multiresolution spatial properties of their surrounds. Benary's Cross, White's Effect, the Checkerboard Illusion and the Dungeon Illusion can all be understood by the analysis of their low-spatial-frequency components. Just as with color constancy, these Gestalt images are most simply described by the analysis of spatial components. Simple spatial mechanisms account for the appearance of 'identical' stimuli in complex scenes. It does not require complex, cognitive processes to calculate appearances in familiar Gestalt experiments.

  18. Subband/transform functions for image processing (United States)

    Glover, Daniel


    Functions for image data processing written for use with the MATLAB(TM) software package are presented. These functions provide the capability to transform image data with block transformations (such as the Walsh Hadamard) and to produce spatial frequency subbands of the transformed data. Block transforms are equivalent to simple subband systems. The transform coefficients are reordered using a simple permutation to give subbands. The low frequency subband is a low resolution version of the original image, while the higher frequency subbands contain edge information. The transform functions can be cascaded to provide further decomposition into more subbands. If the cascade is applied to all four of the first stage subbands (in the case of a four band decomposition), then a uniform structure of sixteen bands is obtained. If the cascade is applied only to the low frequency subband, an octave structure of seven bands results. Functions for the inverse transforms are also given. These functions can be used for image data compression systems. The transforms do not in themselves produce data compression, but prepare the data for quantization and compression. Sample quantization functions for subbands are also given. A typical compression approach is to subband the image data, quantize it, then use statistical coding (e.g., run-length coding followed by Huffman coding) for compression. Contour plots of image data and subbanded data are shown.

  19. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cognitive Control following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall S. Scheibel


    Full Text Available Novel and non-routine tasks often require information processing and behavior to adapt from moment to moment depending on task requirements and current performance. This ability to adapt is an executive function that is referred to as cognitive control. Patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI have been reported to exhibit impairments in cognitive control and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided evidence for TBI-related alterations in brain activation using various fMRI cognitive control paradigms. There is some support for greater and more extensive cognitive control-related brain activation in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI, relative to comparison subjects without TBI. In addition, some studies have reported a correlation between these activation increases and measures of injury severity. Explanations that have been proposed for increased activation within structures that are thought to be directly involved in cognitive control, as well as the extension of this over-activation into other brain structures, have included compensatory mechanisms, increased demand upon normal processes required to maintain adequate performance, less efficient utilization of neural resources, and greater vulnerability to cognitive fatigue. Recent findings are also consistent with the possibility that activation increases within some structures, such as the posterior cingulate gyrus, may reflect a failure to deactivate components of the default mode network (DMN and that some cognitive control impairment may result from ineffective coordination between the DMN and components of the salience network. Functional neuroimaging studies examining cognitive control-related activation following mild TBI (mTBI have yielded more variable results, with reports of increases, decreases, and no significant change. These discrepancies may reflect differences among the various mTBI samples under study, recovery of function in some

  20. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits]. (United States)

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E


    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  1. Driver drowsiness detection using ANN image processing (United States)

    Vesselenyi, T.; Moca, S.; Rus, A.; Mitran, T.; Tătaru, B.


    The paper presents a study regarding the possibility to develop a drowsiness detection system for car drivers based on three types of methods: EEG and EOG signal processing and driver image analysis. In previous works the authors have described the researches on the first two methods. In this paper the authors have studied the possibility to detect the drowsy or alert state of the driver based on the images taken during driving and by analyzing the state of the driver’s eyes: opened, half-opened and closed. For this purpose two kinds of artificial neural networks were employed: a 1 hidden layer network and an autoencoder network.

  2. Change processes in residential cognitive and interpersonal psychotherapy for social phobia: a process-outcome study. (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M


    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were analyzed with mixed models. Weekly changes in the process variables derived from the cognitive model (self-focus, estimated probability and estimated cost of negative social events, safety behaviors) predicted subsequent weekly changes in social anxiety. Changes in the interpersonal variable perceived acceptance by others also predicted subsequent changes in social anxiety. On the other hand, changes in social anxiety predicted changes in the four cognitive variables. There were no interactive effects of process with treatment. The cognitive variables decreased during treatment to a similar degree in both treatments. The results indicate that, to reduce social anxiety, therapy should target self-focus, estimated probability and cost of feared social events, safety behaviors, and perceived acceptance by others. The process of improvement may involve positive cycles in that a reduction of social anxiety, in turn, appeared to impact self-focus, probability, cost, and safety behaviors.

  3. Affective and cognitive processes and the development and maintenance of anxiety and its disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, P.J.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Treffers, P.D.A.


    Presents a selective review of research related to cognitive hypotheses and models of childhood anxiety. The cognitive behavioral approach and the information processing approach to childhood anxiety are explored. Cognitive developmental aspects of anxiety-related cognition, the typical patterns of

  4. About Cognitive Outcome Measures at Ecological Signal-to-Noise Ratios and Cognitive-Driven Hearing Aid Signal Processing. (United States)

    Lunner, Thomas


    The purpose of this article is to discuss 2 questions concerning how hearing aids interact with hearing and cognition: Can signal processing in hearing aids improve memory? Can attention be used for top-down control of hearing aids? Memory recall of sentences, presented at 95% correct speech recognition, was assessed with and without binary mask noise reduction. A short literature review was performed on recent findings on new brain-imaging techniques showing potential for hearing aid control. Two experiments indicate that it is possible to show improved memory with an experimental noise reduction algorithm at ecological signal-to-noise ratios and that it is possible to replicate these findings in a new language. The literature indicates that attention-controlled hearing aids may be developed in the future.

  5. Illuminating magma shearing processes via synchrotron imaging (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Cai, Biao; Coats, Rebecca; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Wallace, Paul A.; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Godinho, Jose; Dobson, Katherine; Atwood, Robert; Holness, Marian; Lee, Peter D.


    Our understanding of geomaterial behaviour and processes has long fallen short due to inaccessibility into material as "something" happens. In volcanology, research strategies have increasingly sought to illuminate the subsurface of materials at all scales, from the use of muon tomography to image the inside of volcanoes to the use of seismic tomography to image magmatic bodies in the crust, and most recently, we have added synchrotron-based x-ray tomography to image the inside of material as we test it under controlled conditions. Here, we will explore some of the novel findings made on the evolution of magma during shearing. These will include observations and discussions of magma flow and failure as well as petrological reaction kinetics.

  6. Advances in iterative multigrid PIV image processing (United States)

    Scarano, F.; Riethmuller, M. L.


    An image-processing technique is proposed, which performs iterative interrogation of particle image velocimetry (PIV) recordings. The method is based on cross-correlation, enhancing the matching performances by means of a relative transformation between the interrogation areas. On the basis of an iterative prediction of the tracers motion, window offset and deformation are applied, accounting for the local deformation of the fluid continuum. In addition, progressive grid refinement is applied in order to maximise the spatial resolution. The performances of the method are analysed and compared with the conventional cross correlation with and without the effect of a window discrete offset. The assessment of performance through synthetic PIV images shows that a remarkable improvement can be obtained in terms of precision and dynamic range. Moreover, peak-locking effects do not affect the method in practice. The velocity gradient range accessed with the application of a relative window deformation (linear approximation) is significantly enlarged, as confirmed in the experimental results.

  7. Automatic image analysis of multicellular apoptosis process. (United States)

    Ziraldo, Riccardo; Link, Nichole; Abrams, John; Ma, Lan


    Apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD) is a common and fundamental aspect of developmental maturation. Image processing techniques have been developed to detect apoptosis at the single-cell level in a single still image, while an efficient algorithm to automatically analyze the temporal progression of apoptosis in a large population of cells is unavailable. In this work, we have developed an ImageJ-based program that can quantitatively analyze time-lapse microscopy movies of live tissues undergoing apoptosis with a fluorescent cellular marker, and subsequently extract the temporospatial pattern of multicellular response. The protocol is applied to characterize apoptosis of Drosophila wing epithelium cells at eclosion. Using natural anatomic structures as reference, we identify dynamic patterns in the progression of apoptosis within the wing tissue, which not only confirms the previously observed collective cell behavior from a quantitative perspective for the first time, but also reveals a plausible role played by the anatomic structures in Drosophila apoptosis.

  8. [Chang of cognitions and feelings during the process of procrastination]. (United States)

    Kohama, Shun


    This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.

  9. Visual-cognitive processing deficits in pediatric multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Smerbeck, A M; Parrish, J; Serafin, D; Yeh, E A; Weinstock-Guttman, B; Hoogs, M; Krupp, L B; Benedict, R H B


    Children with multiple sclerosis (MS) can suffer significant cognitive deficits. This study investigates the sensitivity and validity in pediatric MS of two visual processing tests borrowed from the adult literature, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMTR) and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). To test the hypothesis that visual processing is disproportionately impacted in pediatric MS by comparing performance with that of healthy controls on the BVMTR and SDMT. We studied 88 participants (43 MS, 45 controls) using a neuropsychological assessment battery including measures of intelligence, language, visual memory, and processing speed. Patients and demographically matched controls were compared to determine which tests are most sensitive in pediatric MS. Statistically significant differences were found between the MS and control groups on BVMTR Total Learning (t (84) = 4.04, p  adolescents with MS.

  10. White matter correlates of cognitive domains in normal aging with diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat eSasson


    Full Text Available The ability to perform complex as well as simple cognitive tasks engages a network of brain regions that is mediated by the white matter fiber bundles connecting them. Different cognitive tasks employ distinctive white matter fiber bundles. The temporal lobe and its projections subserve a variety of key functions known to deteriorate during aging. In a cohort of 52 healthy subjects (ages 25-82 years, we performed voxel-wise regression analysis correlating performance in higher-order cognitive domains (executive function, information processing speed, and memory with white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI fiber tracking in the temporal lobe projections (uncinate fasciculus (UF, fornix, cingulum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF. The fiber tracts were spatially registered and statistical parametric maps were produced to spatially localize the significant correlations. Results showed that performance in the executive function domain is correlated with DTI parameters in the left SLF and right UF; performance in the information processing speed domain is correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA in the left cingulum, left fornix, right and left ILF and SLF; and the memory domain shows significant correlations with DTI parameters in the right fornix, right cingulum, left ILF, left SLF and right UF. These findings suggest that DTI tractography enables anatomical definition of region of interest for correlation of behavioral parameters with diffusion indices, and functionality can be correlated with white matter integrity.

  11. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing. (United States)

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan


    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  12. Processing images with programming language Halide




    The thesis contains a presentation of a recently created programming language Halide and its comparison to an already established image processing library OpenCV. We compare the execution times of the implementations with the same functionality and their length (in terms of number of lines). The implementations consist of morphological operations and template matching. Operations are implemented in four versions. The first version is made in C++ and only uses OpenCV’s objects. The second ...

  13. Emotion and persuasion: cognitive and meta-cognitive processes impact attitudes. (United States)

    Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo


    This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework.

  14. Digital image processing for information extraction. (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.


    The modern digital computer has made practical image processing techniques for handling nonlinear operations in both the geometrical and the intensity domains, various types of nonuniform noise cleanup, and the numerical analysis of pictures. An initial requirement is that a number of anomalies caused by the camera (e.g., geometric distortion, MTF roll-off, vignetting, and nonuniform intensity response) must be taken into account or removed to avoid their interference with the information extraction process. Examples illustrating these operations are discussed along with computer techniques used to emphasize details, perform analyses, classify materials by multivariate analysis, detect temporal differences, and aid in human interpretation of photos.

  15. Phase Superposition Processing for Ultrasonic Imaging (United States)

    Tao, L.; Ma, X. R.; Tian, H.; Guo, Z. X.


    In order to improve the resolution of defect reconstruction for non-destructive evaluation, a new phase superposition processing (PSP) method has been developed on the basis of a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). The proposed method synthesizes the magnitudes of phase-superposed delayed signal groups. A satisfactory image can be obtained by a simple algorithm processing time domain radio frequency signals directly. In this paper, the theory of PSP is introduced and some simulation and experimental results illustrating the advantage of PSP are given.

  16. Changing visual perspective changes processing style: A distinct pathway by which imagery guides cognition. (United States)

    Shaeffer, Eric M; Libby, Lisa K; Eibach, Richard P


    Action images can be depicted either from the actor's first-person or an observer's third-person visual perspective. This research demonstrates that visual perspective of action imagery influences the extent to which people process actions abstractly. Two experiments presented photographs of everyday actions, manipulating their visual perspective (first-person vs. third-person), holding constant the scope and objects depicted. Subsequently, participants interpreted actions unrelated to the images. Across both experiments, viewing third-person (vs. first-person) photographs caused participants to construe the unrelated actions more abstractly. This carryover effect demonstrates a shift in processing style, sheds light on an underlying mechanism of perspective effects, and suggests that imagery is a more versatile cognitive tool than traditionally assumed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O' Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura [Florida Hospital, Imaging Administration, Orlando, FL (United States)


    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA{sup 2} by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  18. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs. (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; O'Dell, M Cody; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura


    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA(2) by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image processing can

  19. Language as a cognitive process: Volume 1: Syntax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winograd, T.


    This text deals with the syntactic structure of natural language, adopting the classical linguistic methodology of studying syntax independently. It brings together a variety of syntactic theories within the general framework of cognitive processing. The material assumes some experience with the manipulation of formal symbols either as a programmer, a syntactitian, or a logician. While knowledge of any standard programming language is not a prerequisite, readers will need to have had some exposure to the formal specification of algorithms. Contents: Viewing language as a knowledge-based process. Word patterns and world classes. Context-free grammars and parsing. Transformational grammer. Augmented transition network grammars. Systemic grammar. Computer systems for natural language parsing. Appendices, Index.

  20. MATLAB-Based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part I: Software Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula


    Full Text Available This paper describes several MATLAB-based applications useful for image processing and image quality assessment. The Image Processing Application helps user to easily modify images, the Image Quality Adjustment Application enables to create series of pictures with different quality. The Image Quality Assessment Application contains objective full reference quality metrics that can be used for image quality assessment. The Image Quality Evaluation Applications represent an easy way to compare subjectively the quality of distorted images with reference image. Results of these subjective tests can be processed by using the Results Processing Application. All applications provide Graphical User Interface (GUI for the intuitive usage.

  1. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Villafuerte-Nuñez


    Full Text Available The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration, temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat. Data analysis and processing are performed using MATLAB. Facial inflammation is measured by comparing three-dimensional reconstructions of inflammatory variations using the fringe projection technique. Trismus is measured by converting pixels to centimeters in a digitally obtained image of an open mouth. Blushing changes are measured by obtaining and comparing the RGB histograms from facial edema images at different times. Finally, temperature changes are measured using a thermographic camera. Some tests using controlled measurements of every variable are presented in this paper. The results allow evaluating the measurement system before its use in a real test, using the pain model approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, which consists in extracting the third molar to generate the facial edema.

  2. Bridging consciousness and cognition in memory and perception: evidence for both state and strength processes. (United States)

    Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P


    Subjective experience indicates that mental states are discrete, in the sense that memories and perceptions readily come to mind in some cases, but are entirely unavailable to awareness in others. However, a long history of psychophysical research has indicated that the discrete nature of mental states is largely epiphenomenal and that mental processes vary continuously in strength. We used a novel combination of behavioral methodologies to examine the processes underlying perception of complex images: (1) analysis of receiver operating characteristics (ROCs), (2) a modification of the change-detection flicker paradigm, and (3) subjective reports of conscious experience. These methods yielded converging results showing that perceptual judgments reflect the combined, yet functionally independent, contributions of two processes available to conscious experience: a state process of conscious perception and a strength process of knowing; processes that correspond to recollection and familiarity in long-term memory. In addition, insights from the perception experiments led to the discovery of a new recollection phenomenon in a long-term memory change detection paradigm. The apparent incompatibility between subjective experience and theories of cognition can be understood within a unified state-strength framework that links consciousness to cognition across the domains of perception and memory.

  3. Portable EDITOR (PEDITOR): A portable image processing system. [satellite images (United States)

    Angelici, G.; Slye, R.; Ozga, M.; Ritter, P.


    The PEDITOR image processing system was created to be readily transferable from one type of computer system to another. While nearly identical in function and operation to its predecessor, EDITOR, PEDITOR employs additional techniques which greatly enhance its portability. These cover system structure and processing. In order to confirm the portability of the software system, two different types of computer systems running greatly differing operating systems were used as target machines. A DEC-20 computer running the TOPS-20 operating system and using a Pascal Compiler was utilized for initial code development. The remaining programmers used a Motorola Corporation 68000-based Forward Technology FT-3000 supermicrocomputer running the UNIX-based XENIX operating system and using the Silicon Valley Software Pascal compiler and the XENIX C compiler for their initial code development.

  4. Imprecise Arithmetic for Low Power Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto


    Sometimes reducing the precision of a numerical processor, by introducing errors, can lead to significant performance (delay, area and power dissipation) improvements without compromising the overall quality of the processing. In this work, we show how to perform the two basic operations, additio...... and multiplication, in an imprecise manner by simplifying the hardware implementation. With the proposed ”sloppy” operations, we obtain a reduction in delay, area and power dissipation, and the error introduced is still acceptable for applications such as image processing.......Sometimes reducing the precision of a numerical processor, by introducing errors, can lead to significant performance (delay, area and power dissipation) improvements without compromising the overall quality of the processing. In this work, we show how to perform the two basic operations, addition...

  5. Development of the SOFIA Image Processing Tool (United States)

    Adams, Alexander N.


    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747SP carrying a 2.5 meter infrared telescope capable of operating between at altitudes of between twelve and fourteen kilometers, which is above more than 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The ability to make observations above most water vapor coupled with the ability to make observations from anywhere, anytime, make SOFIA one of the world s premiere infrared observatories. SOFIA uses three visible light CCD imagers to assist in pointing the telescope. The data from these imagers is stored in archive files as is housekeeping data, which contains information such as boresight and area of interest locations. A tool that could both extract and process data from the archive files was developed.

  6. HYMOSS signal processing for pushbroom spectral imaging (United States)

    Ludwig, David E.


    The objective of the Pushbroom Spectral Imaging Program was to develop on-focal plane electronics which compensate for detector array non-uniformities. The approach taken was to implement a simple two point calibration algorithm on focal plane which allows for offset and linear gain correction. The key on focal plane features which made this technique feasible was the use of a high quality transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and an analog-to-digital converter for each detector channel. Gain compensation is accomplished by varying the feedback capacitance of the integrate and dump TIA. Offset correction is performed by storing offsets in a special on focal plane offset register and digitally subtracting the offsets from the readout data during the multiplexing operation. A custom integrated circuit was designed, fabricated, and tested on this program which proved that nonuniformity compensated, analog-to-digital converting circuits may be used to read out infrared detectors. Irvine Sensors Corporation (ISC) successfully demonstrated the following innovative on-focal-plane functions that allow for correction of detector non-uniformities. Most of the circuit functions demonstrated on this program are finding their way onto future IC's because of their impact on reduced downstream processing, increased focal plane performance, simplified focal plane control, reduced number of dewar connections, as well as the noise immunity of a digital interface dewar. The potential commercial applications for this integrated circuit are primarily in imaging systems. These imaging systems may be used for: security monitoring systems, manufacturing process monitoring, robotics, and for spectral imaging when used in analytical instrumentation.

  7. High frequency oscillations are associated with cognitive processing in human recognition memory. (United States)

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Cimbalnik, Jan; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Vasoli, Vincent; Sulc, Vlastimil; Meyer, Fred; Marsh, W R; Stead, S M; Worrell, Gregory A


    High frequency oscillations are associated with normal brain function, but also increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers of the epileptogenic brain. Their role in human cognition has been predominantly studied in classical gamma frequencies (30-100 Hz), which reflect neuronal network coordination involved in attention, learning and memory. Invasive brain recordings in animals and humans demonstrate that physiological oscillations extend beyond the gamma frequency range, but their function in human cognitive processing has not been fully elucidated. Here we investigate high frequency oscillations spanning the high gamma (50-125 Hz), ripple (125-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) frequency bands using intracranial recordings from 12 patients (five males and seven females, age 21-63 years) during memory encoding and recall of a series of affectively charged images. Presentation of the images induced high frequency oscillations in all three studied bands within the primary visual, limbic and higher order cortical regions in a sequence consistent with the visual processing stream. These induced oscillations were detected on individual electrodes localized in the amygdala, hippocampus and specific neocortical areas, revealing discrete oscillations of characteristic frequency, duration and latency from image presentation. Memory encoding and recall significantly modulated the number of induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple detections in the studied structures, which was greater in the primary sensory areas during the encoding (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.002) and in the higher-order cortical association areas during the recall (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P = 0.001) of memorized images. Furthermore, the induced high gamma, ripple and fast ripple responses discriminated the encoded and the affectively charged images. In summary, our results show that high frequency oscillations, spanning a wide range of frequencies, are associated with memory processing and

  8. Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Shengwen; Lai, Chunren; Wu, Congling; Cen, Guiyin; Hariharan, A.; Vijayakumari, Anupa A.; Aarabi, Mohammad Hadi; Aballi, John; Nour, Abd Elazeim Abd Alla Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Mohammed; Abdolalizadeh, AmirHussein; Abdollahi, Mahsa; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Salam, Amritha Abdul; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Sachal; Abdullah, Osama; Abrigo, Jill; Adachi, Noriaki; Adamson, Christopher; Adduru, Viraj; Adel, Tameem; Aderghal, Karim; Ades-Aron, Benjamin; Adeyosoye, Michael; Adlard, Paul; Srinivasa, Ag; Aganj, Iman; Agarwal, Ayush; Agarwal, Anupam; Agarwal, Anchit; Aguero, Cinthya; Aguiar, Pablo; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Ahmad, Rziwan; Ahmadi, Hessam; Ahmed, Nisar; Sid, Farid Ahmed; Ai, Edward; Ai, Qing; Aicha, Benyahia; Aitharaju, Sai; Aiyer, Aditya; Akkus, Zeynettin; Akodad, Sanae; Akramifard, Hamid; Aksman, Leon; Aktas, Said; Al-Janabi, Omar; Al-Nuaimi, Ali; AlAila, BahaaEddin; Alakwaa, Fadhl; Alam, Saruar; Alam, Fakhre; Alam Zaidi, Syed Farhan; Alan, Wiener; Alansari, Mukhtar; Alareqi, Ebrahim; Alberdi, Ane; Albsoul, Mohammad; Alderson, Thomas; Aleem, Hassan; Alex, Aishwarya; Alexander, Jacob; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Alfoldi, Jessica; Ali, Ayesha; Ali, Imdad; Alimoradian, Shirin; Aljabar, Paul; Aljabbouli, Hasan; Aljovic, Almir; Allen, Genevera; Alliende, Luz Maria; Almaguel, Frankis; Almgren, Hannes; Montes, Carmen Alonso; Alowaisheq, Tasneem; Alryalat, Saif Aldeen; Alsado, Majd; Alsaedi, Abdalrahman; Alshehri, Haifa; Altaf, Tooba; Altendahl, Marie; Altmann, Andre; Alvand, Ashkan; Filho, Manoel Alves; Alzubi, Raid; Amaral, Robert; Ambatipudi, Mythri; Amernath, Remya; Amlien, Inge; Amoroso, Nicola; Amri, Hakima; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Anbarasi, Jani; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Anderson, Wes; Anderson, Jeff; Anderson, Valerie; Anderson, Loretta; Andonov, Jovan; Andova, Vesna; Andreopoulou, Irene; Andrews, K. Abigail; Andrews, Cameron; Angeles, Michel; Anne-Laure, Aziz; Ansari, Ghulam Jillani; Ansari, Sharaf; Anstey, Kaarin; Antunes, Augusto; Aoshuang, Zhang; Aouf, Mazin; Aow Yong, Li Yew; Aporntewan, Chatchawit; Apostolova, Liana; Appiah, Frank; Apsvalka, Dace; Arab, Abazar; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Arbabyazd, Mohammad; Arbelaez, Pablo; Archer, Kellie; Ardekani, Babak; Aretouli, Eleni; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arisi, Ivan; Armentrout, Steven; Arnold, Matthias; Arnold, Steven; Arslan, Salim; Artacho-Perula, Emilio; Arthofer, Christoph; Aruchamy, Srinivasan; Arya, Zobair; Pizarro, Carlos Asensio; Ashford, Wes; Ashraf, Azhaar; Askland, Kathleen; Aslaksen, Per; Aslakson, Eric; Aso, Toshihiko; Astphan, Michele; Ataloglou, Dimitrios; Atay, Meltem; Athanas, Argus; Atri, Roozbeh; Au, April; Aurich, Maike; Avants, Brian; Awasthi, Niharika; Awate, Suyash; Ayaz, Aymen; Son, Yesim Aydin; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Ayhan, Murat; Ayton, Scott; Aziz, Adel; Azmi, Mohd Hafrizal; Ba, Maowen; Bach, Kevin; Badea, Alexandra; Bag, Asim; Bagewadi, Shweta; Bai, Xiangqi; Bai, Zilong; Bai, Haoli; Baird, Geoffrey; Baiwen, Zhang; Baker, Elizabeth; Baker, John; Bakker, Arnold; Ball, Erika; Ballén Galindo, Miguel Ángel; Banaei, Amin; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Bang, Ki Hun; Bangen, Katherine; Banks, Sarah; Banning, Leonie; Bao, Wan Yun; Barakat, Rita; Barbará, Eduardo; Barber, Philip; Barber, Robert; de Araujo, Flavia Roberta Barbosa; Barnes, Josephine; Barredo, Jennifer; Barret, Olivier; Barrett, Matthew; Barsamian, Barsam; Barsky, Andrey; Bartel, Fabian; Bartoszewicz, Jakub; Bartram-Shaw, David; Barwood, Caroline; Basavaraj, Suryakanth; Basavaraj, Arshitha; Basiouny, Ahmed; Baskaran, Bhuvaneshwari; Basu, Arindam; Baths, Veeky; Bathula, Deepti; Batmanghelich, Nematollah Kayhan; Bauer, Roman; Bauer, Corinna; Bawa, Vanshika; Bayley, Peter; Bayram, Ali; Bazi, Yakoub; Beach, Thomas; Beaudoin, Kristin; Beaulieu, Christian; Becker, Cassiano; Beckett, Laurel; Bedding, Alun; Beer, Simone; Beer, Joanne; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Behfar, Qumars; Behjat, Hamed; Behjat, Hamid; Behseta, Sam; Bekris, Lynn; Suresh, Mahanand Belathur; Belichenko, Nadia; Bellio, Maura; Belyaev, Mikhail; Bemiller, Shane; Ahmed, Olfa Ben; Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Benedikt, Michael; Benge, Jared; Benitez, Andreana; Benlloch, Jose María; Benn, Marianne; Benyoussef, El Mehdi; Bergeron, David; Bermudez, Elaine; Bessadok, Alaa; Betzel, Richard; Bezuidenhoudt, Mauritz; Bhagwat, Nikhil; Bhalerao, Shailesh; Bhandari, Anindya; Bhasin, Harsh; Bhati, Radhika; Bhatkoti, Pushkar; Bhatt, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bi, Rui; Bi, Jinbo; Bi, Harvy; Biancardi, Alberto; Bidart, Rene; Bilgel, Murat; Billiet, Thibo; Binczyk, Franciszek; Bingsheng, Huang; Bird, Christopher; Bischof, Gérard; Bishnoi, Ram; Biswas, Shameek; Bjelke, David; Black, Sandra; Blackwood, Jennifer; Blaese, Elise; Blair, James; Blanchard, Gilles; Bloom, Toby; Blujus, Jenna; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Bo, Wu; Bo, Jun; Boda, Ravi; Boellaard, Ronald; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bolhasani, Ehsan; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Bonazzoli, Matthew; Bône, Alexandre; Borkowsky, Jennifer; Borrajo, Danielle; Bos, Isabelle; Bosco, Paolo; Bott, Nicholas; Rodrigues, Renato Botter Maio Lopes; Boughanmi, Amani; Bougias, Haralabos; Boulier, Thomas; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bouyagoub, Samira; Bowes, Mike; Boyes, Richard; Bozoki, Andrea; Bradshaw, Tyler; Pereira, Joana Braga; Brahami, Yoann; Brambati, Simona Maria; Bras, Jose; Braskie, Meredith; Brecheisen, Ralph; Bregman, Noa; Brewer, James; Briassouli, Alexia; Brickman, Adam; Bridges, Robert; Brihmat, Nabila; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Britschgi, Markus; Broers, Thomas; Bron, Esther; Brown, Jesse; Brown, Matthew; Brown, Abel; Brown, Maria; Brunberg, James; Bu, Tao; Bubbico, Giovanna; Bubenik, Peter; Bubu, Omonigho; Buchanan, Daniel; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Buchsbaum, Bradley; Buck, Katharina; Buckley, Rachel; Budgeon, Charley; Buhl, Derek; Sánchez, Manuel Buitrago; Bundela, Saurabh; Burciu, Irina; Burgos, Ninon; Burke, Shanna; Burn, Katherine; Burns, Jeffrey; Burns, Gully; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Bush, Sammie; Buss, Stephanie; Butcher, Bradley; Butt, Victoria; Buxbaum, Joseph; Sandeep, C. S.; Cabrera, Cristóbal; Cahyaningrum, Winda; Cai, Zhen-Nao; Cai, Siqi; Cai, Erik; Cajka, Tomas; Calamia, Matthew; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Calixte, Christopher; Calon, Frederic; Cameron, Briana; Campbell, Roy; Lopez, Jose Antonio Campos; Cao, Hongliu; Cao, Jiguo; Cao, Guanqun; Cao, Bo; Capizzano, Aristides; Capon, Daniel; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carmichael, Owen; Carr, Sarah; Carrier, Jason; Carter, Greg; Carvalho, Luis; Carvalho, Janessa; Carvalho, Carolina; Casamitjana, Adrià; Casanova, Ramon; Casas, Josep R.; Cash, David; Castelluccio, Pete; Castiglioni, Isabella; Caswell, Carrie; Cattell, Liam; Cauda, Franco; Cepeda, Ileana; Çevik, Alper; Cha, Jungho; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Chakraborty, Shouvik; Chammam, Takwa; Chan, Christina; Chand, Ganesh; Chang, Catie; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chang, Rui; Chang, Hyunggi; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Ki Jung; Chang, Che-Wei; Chantrel, Steeve; Chao, Justin; Chao, Linda; Chapleau, Marianne; Charil, Arnaud; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Chatterjee, Sambit; Chaudhry, Zainab; Chauhan, Harmanpreet; Chehade, Abdallah; Chekuri, Omkar; Cheloshkina, Kseniia; Chen, Jianhong; Chen, Gang; Chen, Geng; Chen, Ting-Huei; Chen, Yin Jie; Chen, Xi; Chen, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Shuzhong; Chen, Jerome; Chen, Fang; Chen, Kaifeng; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Jason; Chen, Guanhua; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Chenbingyao; Chen, S. Y.; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Chen, Xing; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hugo; Chen, Rong; Chen, Ing-jou; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jean; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Danni; Cheng, Hewei; Cheng, Yong; Cheng, Yang; Cheng, Zhang; Cheng, Wai Ho; Chenhall, Tanya; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Cherukuri, Venkateswararao; Chhibber, Aparna; Chi, Haoyuan; Chi, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Gloria; Chiesa, Patrizia; Childress, Daniel Micah; Chilukuri, Yogitha; Fatt, Cherise Chin; Chincarini, Andrea; Ching, Christopher; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Cho, Soo Hyun; Cho, Yongrae; Cho, Sooyun; Choi, Jun-Sik; Choi, Hongyoon; Choi, Yeoreum; Choi, Sophia; Choi, Jaesik; Choi, Euna; Choo, I. L. Han; Chopra, Vishal; Chougrad, Hiba; Chouraki, Vincent; Christini, Amanda; Chu, Yufang; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Chuanji, Luo; Chuanjian, Yu; Chun, Marvin; Chun, Sung; Chung, Ai; Chung, Yu-Min; Chung, Jung-Che; Chung, Ai Wern; Chung, Jaeeun; Chyzhyk, Darya; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioli, Claudia; Cittanti, Corrado; Cives, Ana; Clark, Marissa; Clayton, David; Clement, Mark; Clifft, Daniel; Climer, Sharlee; Clouston, Sean; Clunie, David; Cohen, Phoebe; Cohen, Taco; Cole, Michael; Cole, James; Colletti, Patrick; Collingwood, Joanna; Comley, Robert; Conklin, Bryan; Conner, Lindsay; Conover, Joanne; Contardo-Berning, Ivona; Conway, Ronan; Copani, Agata; Coppola, Giovanni; Corbett, Syl; Corlier, Fabian; Correia, Rui; Cosman, Joshua; Costantino, Sebastian; Coubard, Olivier; Coulson, Elizabeth; Couser, Elizabeth; Cox, Kris; Coyle, Patrick; Cozzi, Brian; Craddock, Cameron; Crawford, Karen; Creese, Byron; Cribben, Ivor; Crisostomo-Wynne, Theodore; Crossley, Nicolas; Croteau, Etienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Cuajungco, Math; Cui, Jing; Cui, Sue; Cullen, Nicholas; Cuneo, Daniel; Cutanda, Vicente; Cynader, Max; Binu, D.; D'Avossa, Giovanni; Dai, Tian; Dai, Peng; Dai, Hui; Davied Hong, Daivied Hong; Dakovic, Marko; Dalca, Adrian; Damiani, Stefano; Dammak, Mouna; Damoiseaux, Jessica; Dan, Zou; Dang, Xuan Hong; Dang, Shilpa; Daniel, Zinkert; Danjou, Fabrice; Darby, Eveleen; Darby, Ryan; Dardzinska, Agnieszka; Darst, Burcu; Darvesh, Sultan; Das, Kalyan; Das, Devsmita; Das, Sandhitsu; Das, Dulumani; Datta, Shounak; Dauvillier, Jérôme; Davatzikos, Christos; Davidson, Ian; de Boer, Renske; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Buhan, Maya; de Jager, Philip; de La Concha Vega, Nuño; de Lange, Siemon; de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; de Marco, Matteo; de Sitter, Alexandra; Dean, Scott; Decarli, Charles; Decker, Summer; del Gaizo, John; Demir, Zeynep; Denby, Charles; Deng, Yanjia; Deng, Wanyu; Denisova, Kristina; Denney, William; Depue, Brendan; DeRamus, Thomas; Desikan, Rahul; Desplats, Paula; Desrosiers, Christian; Devadas, Vivek; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Devarajan, Sridharan; Devenyi, Gabriel; Dezhina, Zalina; Dhami, Devendra; Dharsee, Moyez; Dhillon, Permesh; Di, Xin; Di Mauro, Nicola; Diah, Kimberly; Diamond, Sara; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Diciotti, Stefano; Dickerson, Bradford; Dickie, David Alexander; Dickinson, Philip; Dicks, Ellen; Diedrich, Karl; Dieumegarde, Louis; Dill, Vanderson; Dilliott, Allison; Ding, Zhaohua; Ding, Shanshan; Ding, Yanhui; Ding, Xiuhua; Ding, Xuemei; Dinov, Ivo; Dinu, Valentin; Diouf, Ibrahima; Dmitriev, Phillip; Dobromyslin, Vitaly; Dodge, Hiroko; Dolui, Sudipto; Dona, Olga; Dondelinger, Frank; Dong, Wen; Dong, Hao-Ming; Kehoe, Patricio Donnelly; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dougherty, Chase; Doughty, Mitchell; Dowling, N. Maritza; Doyle, Senan; Doyle, Andrew; Dragan, Matthew; Draganski, Bogdan; Draghici, Sorin; Dragomir, Andrei; Drake, Derek; Drake, Erin; Drd, Shilpa; Dronkers, Nina; Drozdowski, Madelyn; Du, Changde; Du, Yuhui; Du, Lei; Du, Guangwei; Du, Xingqi; Duan, Fang; Duan, Yuzhuo; Duan, Kuaikuai; Duchesne, Simon; Duggento, Andrea; Dukart, Juergen; Dumont, Matthieu; Dunn, Ruth; Duong, Vu; Duraisamy, Baskar; Duran, Tugce; Durrleman, Stanley; Dutta, Joyita; Dyrba, Martin; Dyvorne, Hadrien; R, Amulya E.; Eads, Jennifer; Eastman, Jennifer; Eaton, Susan; Edlund, Christopher; Edmonds, Emily; Edmondson, Mackenzie; Ehsan, Fatima; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Elander, Annie; Elango, Vidhya E.; Eldeeb, Ghaidaa; Elgamal, Fatmaelzahraa; Rodrigues, Yuri Elias; Elman, Jeremy; Elrakaiby, Nada; Emahazion, Tesfai; Emami, Behnaz; Embrechts, Jurriën; Emran Khan Emon, Mohammad Asif; Emrani, Saba; Emrani, Asieh; Emri, Miklós; Engelhardt, Barbara; Engle, Bob; Epstein, Noam; Er, Fusun; Erhardt, Erik; Eriksson, Oscar; Omay, Zeynep Erson; Escudero, Javier; Eshleman, Jason; Eskildsen, Simon; Espinosa, Luis; Essex, Ryan; Esteban, Oscar; Estrada, Karol; Ethell, Douglas; Ethridge, Kimberly; Ettehadi, Seyedrohollah; Eva, Bouguen; Evenden, Dave; Evtikheeve, Rina; Ewert, Siobhan; Fague, Scot; Fahmi, Rachid; Faizal, Sherin; Falahati, Farshad; Fan, Li; Fan, Zhen; Fan, Yong; Fan, Maohua; Fan, Yonghui; Fan, Sili; Fan, Ruzong; Fang, Chen; Fang, Xiaoling; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Fanti, Alessandro; Far, Bab; Farah, Martha; Farahani, Naemeh; Farahibozorg, Seyedehrezvan; Farahnak, Farhood; Farajpour, Maryam; Fardo, David; Farkhani, Sadaf; Farnsworth, Bryn; Farooq, Hamza; Farooq, Ammarah; Farouk, Yasmeen; Farrar, Danielle; Farrer, Lindsay; Fatemehh, Fatemeh; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Fatfat, Kim; Fatima, Shizza; Faux, Noel; Favan-Niven, Anne; Favary, Clélia; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fei, Gao; Feingold, Franklin; Feizi, Soheil; Félix, Eloy; Femminella, Grazia Daniela; Feng, Zijun; Feng, Ao; Feng, Brad; Feng, Xinyang; Feragen, Aasa; Fereidouni, Marzieh; Fernandes, Miguel; Fernández, Víctor; Ferrari, Ricardo; Ferraris, Sebastiano; Ferreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Ferreira, Hugo; Fiecas, Mark; Fieremans, Els; Fiford, Cassidy; Figurski, Michal; Filippi, Massimo; Filshtein, Teresa; Findley, Caleigh; Finger, Elizabeth; Firth, Nicholas; Fischer, Christopher; Fischer, Florian; Fitall, Simon; Fleet, Blair; Fleishman, Greg; Flokas, Lambros; Flores, Alberto; Focke, Niels; Fok, Wai Yan; Foldi, Nancy; Fôlego, Guilherme; Forero, Aura; Fornage, Myriam; Fos Guarinos, Belén; Founshtein, Gregory; Franc, Benjamin; Francois, Clement; Franke, Katja; Fraser, Mark; Frasier, Mark; Frederick, Blaise; Freitas, Fernandho; Escalin, Frency Jj; Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Friedman, Brad; Friedmann, Theodore; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Frolov, Alexander; Frost, Robert; Fu, Ling; Fu, Zening; Fudao, Ke; Fuentes, Emmanuel; Fujishima, Motonobu; Fujiwara, Ken; Fukami, Tadanori; Funk, Cory; Furcila, Diana; Fuselier, Jessica; Nagarjuna Reddy, G.; Gaasterland, Terry; Gabelle, Audrey; Gahm, Jin; Gaiteri, Chris; Gajawelli, Niharika; Galantino, Alexis; Galarza Hernández, Javier; Galasko, Douglas; Galea, Liisa; Galisot, Gaetan; Sánchez, Antonio Javier Gallego; Gallins, Paul; Gamberger, Dragan; Gan, Hong Seng; Gan, Gavin; Ganapathi, Subha; Gancayco, Christina; Gangishetti, Umesh; Ganzetti, Marco; Gao, Fei; Gao, Jingjing; Gao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiaohong; Garani, Ranjini; Garbarino, Sara; Garcia, Ivan; Garcia, Xiadnai; Garcia, Jorge; Garcia, Tanya; Garcia Arias, Hernan Felipe; de La Garza, Angel Garcia; Gaig, Mireia Garcia; Novoa, Jorge Garcia; Valero, Mar Garcia; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jord; García-Polo, Pablo; Garg, Rahul; Garg, Gaurav; Garg, Divya; Garibotto, Valentina; Garvey, Matthew; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo; Gaubert, Malo; Gauthier, Serge; Gavett, Brandon; Gavidia, Giovana; Gavtash, Barzin; Gawryluk, Jodie; Gbah, Messon; Ge, Tian; Geerts, Hugo; Geisser, Niklaus; Geng, Junxian; Gentili, Claudio; Gess, Felix; Ghaderi, Halleh; Ghahari, Shabnam; Ghanbari, Yaghoob; Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ghodrati, Mojgan; Ghorbani, Behnaz; Ghoreishiamiri, Reyhaneh; Ghosal, Sayan; Ghosh, Sukanta; Ghosh, Saheb; Ghosh, Sreya; Ghoshal, Ankur; Giannicola, Galetta; Gibert, Karina; Gibson, Gary; Gieschke, Ronald; Gil Valencia, Jorge Mario; Gillen, Daniel; Giordani, Alessandro; Giraldo, Diana; Gispert, Juan D.; Gitelman, Darren; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Madhu, G. K.; Glass, Jesse; Glazier, Brad; Gleason, Carey; Glerean, Enrico; Glozman, Tanya; Godbey, Michael; Goettlich, Martin; Gogoi, Minakshi; Gola, Kelly; Golbabaei, Soroosh; Golden, Daniel; Goldstein, Felicia; Gomes, Carlos; de Olivera, Ramon Gomes Durães; Gomez, Isabel; Gomez Gonzalez, Juan Pablo; Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Gong, Weikang; Gong, Enhao; Gong, Kuang; Gonneaud, Julie; Gonzalez, Clio; Gonzalez, Evelio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Moreira, Eduardo Gonzalez; Goodman, James; Gopinath, Srinath; Gopu, Anusharani; Gordon, Brian; Gordon, David; Gordon, Mark; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Gors, Dorothy; Göttler, Jens; Gounari, Xanthippi; Goyal, Devendra; Graf, John; Graff, Ariel; Graham, Leah; Graham, Jinko; Grajski, Kamil; Grami, Maziyar; Grand'Maison, Marilyn; Grant, Kiran; Grassi, Elena; Gray, Katherine; Grecchi, Elisabetta; Green, Robert; Green, Elaine; Greenberg, Jonathan; Greening, Steven; Greenwood, Bryson; Gregori, Johannes; Gregory, Michael; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Griffin, Jason; Grill, Joshua; Grodner, Kelsey; Grolmusz, Vince; Groot, Perry; Groothuis, Irme; Gross, Alden; Grundstad, Arne; Grundy, Edward; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz; Nandith, G. S.; Gu, David; Gu, Jiena; Gu, Yun; Gu, Ginam; Guan, Sheng; Guan, Yuanfang; Guennel, Tobias; Guerin, Laurent; Guerrero, Ricardo; Guerrier, Laura; Guevara, Pamela; Guggari, Shankru; Roy, Abhijit Guha; Guidotti, Roberto; Guillon, Jérémy; Gulcher, Jeff; Gulia, Sarita; Gumedze, Freedom; Gunawardena, Nishan; Gunn, Roger; Guo, Michael; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Xingzhi; Guo, Yi; Kai, Zhang Guo; Zhao, Ma Guo; Gupta, Navin; Gupta, Anubha; Gupta, Ishaan; Guren, Onan; Gurnani, Ashita; Gurol, Mahmut Edip; Guzman, Gloria; Gyy, Gyy; Rajanna, Vanamala H.; Ha, Seongwook; Haacke, Ewart; Haaksma, Miriam; Habadi, Maryam; Habeck, Christian; Habes, Mohamad; Hackspiel Zarate, Maria Mercedes; Hadimani, Ravi; Hahn, William; Hahn, Tim; Haight, Thaddeus; Hair, Nicole; Haixing, Wang; Hajarolasvadi, Noushin; Hajjar, Ihab; Hajjo, Rima; Halchenko, Yaroslav; Hall, Anette; Hallock, Kevin; Hamdi, Shah Muhammad; Hameed, Farhan; Hamidian, Hajar; Han, Dong; Han, Yang; Han, Hio-Been; Han, Qingchang; Han, Beomsoo; Han, Duke; Han, Shizhong; Han, Xiaoxia; Han, Peipei; Han, Joo Yoon; Han, Dong-Sig; Handsaker, Robert; Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Hansson, Björn; Hao, Yang; Hao, Jhon; Happ, Clara; Harischandra, Dilshan; Haritaoglu, Esin; Harris, Richard; Harris, Breanna; Hart, Brian; Hartzell, James; Harvey, Danielle; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Hasooni, Hossein; Hassan, Moaied; Hassan, Mehdi; Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Hatton, Sean; Hawchar, Jinan; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Norio; Hayes, Jasmeet; Hayete, Boris; Haynor, David; He, Linchen; He, Yan; He, Yao; He, Huiguang; Heegaard, Niels; Hefny, Mohamed; Heil, Julius; Heindel, William; Henderson, Samuel; Henf, Judith; Henriquez, Claudio; Herholz, Karl; Hermessi, Haithem; Hernandez, Monica; Herrera, Luis; Hibar, Derrek; Hidane, Moncef; Higuchi, Satomi; Hind, Jade; Hives, Florent; Hoang, Mimi; Hobel, Zachary; Hoffman, John; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Hohman, Timothy; Holder, Daniel; Holguin, Jess; Holmes, Robin; Hong, John; Hongliang, Zou; Hongyu, Guo; Hopkins, Paul; Hor, Soheil; Hornbeck, Russ; Horng, Andy; Horton, Wesley; Hosny, Khalid; Hosseini, Eghbal; Hosseini, Hadi; Hosseini, Zahra; Asl, Ehsan Hosseini; Hou, Beibei; Houghton, Richard; Houghton, Katherine; Householder, Erin; Howlett, James; Hsiao, John; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Hu, Xixi; Hu, Lingjing; Hu, Nan; Hu, Kun; Hu, Tao; Hu, Li; Hu, Xiaolan; Hua, Fei; Huang, Marissa; Huang, Qi; Huang, Michelle; Huang, Chao; Huang, JunMing; Huang, Xingyuan; Huang, Yuhan; Huang, Sing-Hang; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Peiyu; Huang, Chun-Chao; Huang, Zhiyue; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Zhiwen; Hubrich, Markus; Huestis, Michael; Huey, Edward; Hufton, Andrew; Huijbers, Willem; Huisman, Sjoerd; Hung, Joe; Hunsaker, Naomi; Hunt, Fostor; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Huser, Vojtech; Hussain, Lal; Hutchison, R. Matthew; Hutton, Alexandre; Huyck, Els; Hwang, Jihye; Hyun, JungMoon; Iakovakis, Dimitris; Ibañez, Victoria; Ide, Kayoko; Igarashi, Takuma; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Muñoz, Laura Igual; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ikhena, John; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Im, Hyung-Jun; Insausti, Ana; Insel, Philip; Invernizzi, Azzurra; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ip, Nancy; Irizarry, Sierra; Irmak, Emrah; Irwin, David; Isaza, Mariano; Ishii, Makoto; Ishii, Kenji; Islam, Jyoti; Israel, Ariel; Isufi, Elvin; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Masato; Izquierdo, Walter; Alphin, J.; Akhila, J. A.; Jaberzadeh, Amir; Jackowiak, Edward; Jackson, Eric; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Jonathan; Jacob, Samson; Jacobsen, Nina; Jacobsen, Jörn; Jacquemont, Thomas; Jacques, Nerline; Jaeger, Ralf; Jafari, Tahere; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jagadish, Akshay Kumar; Jagtap, Priti; Jagust, William; Jahr, Joseph; Jain, Shubhankar; Jain, Shubham; Jaiswal, Ayush; Jaiswal, Akshay; Jait, Amine; Jakkoju, Chetan; Jakobsson, Andreas; James, Olga; James, Oliver; Jamlai, Maedeh; Jammeh, Emmanuel; Janardhana, Lajavanthi; Jang, Jinseong; Jang, Jae-Won; Jang, Jinhee; Jang, Hyesue; Janghel, Rekh Ram; Jawahar, Shasvat; Jean, Kharne; Jean-Baptiste, Schiratti; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jennings, Danna; Jennings, Dominique; Jeon, Seun; Jeong, Yong; Jester, Charles; Jethwa, Ketan; Jha, Debesh; Ji, Gong-Jun; Ji, Chong; Ji, Jin; Jia, Bowen; Jiacheng, Lee; Jiajia, Guo; Jian, Weijian; Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Chunxiang; Jianhua, Gao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Jiao, Zeyu; Jiao, Du; Jimenez Alaniz, Juan Ramon; Gomez, Carolina Jimenez; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Jimura, Koji; Jin, Yan; Jin, Zhu; Jogia, Jigar; Johansson, Per; John, Kimberley; Johnsen, Stian; Johnson, Leonard; Johnson, Sterling; Johnson, Kent; Johnston, Jane; Johnston, Stephen; Jomeiri, Alireza; Jonas, Katherine; Jones, Richard; Jones-Davis, Dorothy; Jönsson, Linus; Joseph, Jane; Joshi, Himanshu; Joshi, Shantanu; Joshi, Abhinay; Joyce, Katherine; Juengling, Freimut; Jung, Youngjin; Junker, Viv; Junwei, Ding; Jyothi, Singaraju; Jyotiyana, Monika; Sarthaj, K.; Kachouane, Mouloud; Kadian, Amit; Kaewaramsri, Yothin; Kaicheng, Li; Kaiser, Marcus; Kakinami, Lisa; Kalra, Sanjay; Kam, Hye Jin; Kamarudin, Nur Shazwani; Kaminker, Josh; Kandel, Benjamin; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kang, Yun Seok; Kang, Ju Hee; Kang, Hakmook; Kang, Jian; Kansal, Anuraag; Kaouache, Mohammed; Kaplan, Adam; Kottaram, Akhil Karazhma; Karim, Faizan; Karimi-Mostowfi, Nicki; Karjoo, Mahboobe; Karlin, Daniel; Karp, Juliana; Karray, Chiheb; Kartsonis, Nick; Karu, Naama; Kasa, Jaya; Kasiri, Keyvan; Katako, Audrey; Kato, Ryo; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Katti, Hkkatti; Kaur, Prabhjot; Kauwe, John; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kazemi, Samaneh; Kazemi, Yosra; Rijan, K. C.; Kechin, Andrey; Kelkhoff, Douglas; Kelleher, Thomas; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Kennion, Oliver; Kerr, Daniel; Kesler, Shelli; Kesselman, Carl; Kessler, Daniel; Keuken, Max; Keyvanfard, Farzaneh; Khademi, April; Khajehnejad, Moein; Khan, Wasim; Khan, Tabrej; Khan, Hikmat; Khan, Anzalee; Khan, Samreen; Khanmohammadi, Sina; Khasanova, Tatiana; Khazaee, Ali; Khazan, Lenny; Kherif, Ferath; Khl, Aym; KHlif, Mohamed Salah; Khondoker, Mizanur; Khoo, Sok Kean; Khosrowabadi, Reza; Khurshid, Kiran; Kianfard, Reihaneh; Kida, Satoshi; Kiddle, Steven; Kikuchi, Masashi; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Jeongchul; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jongin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Jung-Jae; Kim, Hang-Rai; Kim, Jaeyeol; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Joseph; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Jeongsik; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Seonjik; Kim, Nakyoung; Kim, Byeongnam; Kim, ChanMi; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Seong Yoon; Kim, Sunhee; Kingery, Lisle; Kinnunen, Kirsi; Kinomes, Marie; Kirchner, Jan Hendrik; Caldwell, Jessica Kirkland; Kirwan, Brock; Kitamura, Chiemi; Kitty, Kitty; Kiviat, David; Kiyasova, Vera; Klein, Richard; Klein, Alison; Klein, Gregory; Klein, Jan; Kleinman, Aaron; Kling, Mitchel; Klinger, Joern; Klinger, Rebecca; Klink, Katharina; Kocaturk, Mustafa; Koch, Philipp Johannes; Kochova, Elena; Koenig, Loren; Koh, Natalie; Köhler, Jens Erik; Koikkalainen, Juha; Koini, Marisa; Kolachalama, Vijaya; Koncz, Rebecca; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Kong, Vincent; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kong, Dehan; Kong, Linglong; Konukoglu, Ender; Kopeinigg, Daniel; Kopera, Krzysztof; Koppers, Simon; Korb, Matheus; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Korolev, Igor; Korolev, Sergey; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy; Koshiya, Heena; Kost, James; Kotari, Vikas; Koutra, Danai; Koychev, Ivan; Kruthika, K. R.; Krahnke, Tillmann; Krause, Matthew; Kraybill, Matt; Kriebel, Martin; Hari Krishna, M.; Krohn, Stephan; Kruggel, Frithjof; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhl, Donald; Kulshreshtha, Devang; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sambath; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, A.; Kumar, Saurabh; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Ambar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rishab; Kumarasinghe, Janaka; Kundu, Suprateek; Kung, Te-Han; Kuo, Li-Wei; Kuo, Phillip; Channappa, Usha Kuppe; Kuriakose, Elmy; Kurian, P.; Kwan, Kenneth; Kwasigroch, Arkadiusz; Kwon, Young Hye; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Fleur, Claire La; Wungo, Supriyadi La; Labbe, Tomas; Lacombe, Daniel; Lad, Meher; Lahoti, Geet; Lai, Ying Liang; Lai, Catherine; Lai, Dongbing; Laird, Dillon; Lakatos, Anita; Lam, Alice; Lama, Ramesh; Lambert, Christian; Landau, Susan; Landman, Bennett; Landre, Victor; Lane, Elizabeth; Lange, Catharina; Langenieux, Alexandre; Lareau, Caleb; Larson, Katelyn; Latif, Ghazanfar; Lauber, Ross; Lawliet, Z. H.; Lawrence, Emma; Lazar, Anca; Le, Ngan; Le, Thi Khuyen; Le, Matthieu; Guen, Yann Le; Scouiller, Stephanie Le; Leandrou, Stephanos; Leatherday, Christopher; Leavitt, Mackenzie; Ledbetter, Christina; Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Wook; Lee, Annie; Lee, Jaehong; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Joel; Lee, Song-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Jung; Lee, Subin; Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Gyungtae; Lee, Suzee; Lee, Erik; Lee, Yunseong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Lee, Seonjoo; Lee, Peng Jung; Lee, Hyunna; Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Lee, Hengtong; Lee, Mi Ri; Lee, Ilgu; Lee, Qixiang; Lefterov, Iliya; Leger, Charlie; Lehallier, Benoit; Lei, B.; Lei, Shi; Lei, Hongxing; Lei, Haoyun; Leong, Tze Yun; Leong, Sharlene; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Lepore, Natasha; Lerch, Ondrej; Leung, Yip Sang; Leung, Yuk Yee; Leung, Shuyu; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Leung, Ming-Ying; Levakov, Gidon; Levine, Abraham; Li, Chawn; Li, Miranda; Li, Huijie; Li, Junning; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Yi; Li, Jinchao; Li, Tianhong; Li, Yongming; Li, Xiangrui; Li, Tieqiang; Li, Yan; Li, Fuhai; Li, Feijiang; Li, Shuyang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xing; Li, Rongjian; Li, Rui; Li, Y. U.; Li, Kang; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Qingqin; Li, Wenjun; Li, Yang; Li, Jialu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Michelle; Li, Yibai; Li, Yupeng; Li, Tao; Li, Zhujun; Li, Yafen; Li, Muwei; Li, Xuan; Li, Yi-Ju; Li, Cen Sing; Li, X. W.; Li, Yingjie; Li, Lin; Li, Yihan Jessie; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiantao; Li, Xingfeng; Li, Chenxi; Li, Chao; Li, Jicong; Li, Jiewei; Li, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Nannan; Li, Chunfei; Li, Yeshu; Liang, Chen; Liang, Nanying; Liang, Jingjing; Liang, Shengxiang; Liang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Xia; Liang, Ying; Liberman, Sofia; Libon, David; Liébana, Sergio; Liedes, Hilkka; Lim, Wee Keong; Lim, Yen Ying; Lin, Yenching; Lin, Katherine; Lin, Ming; Lin, Ai-Ling; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lin, Bing; Lin, Lin; Lin, Jyh-Miin; Lin, W. M.; Lin, Chien-Tong; Lin, Liyan; Lin, Jing; Lindberg, Olof; Linesch, Paul; Linn, Kristin; Lippert, Christoph; Litovka, Nikita; Little, Graham; Liu, Man-Yun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chin-Fu; Liu, Zhaowen; Liu, Eulanca; Liu, Weixiang; Liu, K. E.; Liu, Hao Chen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Richann; Liu, Dongbo; Liu, Victor; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Tao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yong; Liu, Lin; Liu, Dan; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Mengmeng; Liu, Chia-Shang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Han; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Sidong; Liu, Jundong; Liu, Yang; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Tingshan; Liu, Ning; Liu, Lan; Liuyu, Liuyu; Lizarraga, Gabriel; Llido, Jerome; Lobach, Iryna; Lockhart, Samuel; Loft, Henrik; Lohr, Kelly; Lon, Hoi Kei; Lone, Kashif Javed; Long, Ziyi; Long, Xiaojing; Longo, Frank; Alves, Isadora Lopes; Lopez, Guadalupe; Lorenzi, Marco; Lotan, Eyal; Louie, Gregory; Louis, Maxime; Loukas, Andreas; Love, Seth; Lowe, Deborah; Lu, Bin; Lu, Chia-Feng; Lu, Zixiang; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Pascal; Lu, Shen; Lu, Qing; Lu, Zheshen; Lu, Chuan; Lu, Patty; Lu, Hangquan; Lu, Bo; Luktuke, Yadnyesh; Luo, Wei; Luo, Suhuai; Luo, Sheng; Luo, Shaojun; Luo, Peggy; Luo, Shan; Luo, Weidong; Luo, Liao; Luo, Xiao; Lupton, Michelle; Lutz, Michael; Lv, Eric; Lyu, Juan; Angshul, M.; Radha, M. R.; Dinesh, M. S.; Ma, Xiangyu; Ma, Chao; Ma, Li; Ma, Yu; Ma, Qianli; MacArthur, Daniel; Macey, Paul; Mach, Eric; MacPhee, Imola; Madadi, Mahboubeh; Madan, Christopher; Madan, Bharat; Madero, Giovanny; Madhavan, Radhika; Madhyastha, Tara; Maeno, Nobuhisa; Magsood, Hamzah; Mah, Linda; Mahdavi, Shirin; Mahdavi, Asef; Mahmoud, Abeer; Mahmoud, Hentati; Mahmoud, Kariman; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Dehkordi, Siamak Mahmoudian; Mahor, Monika; Mahseredjian, Taleen; Mai, Cha; Maia, Rui; Maiti, Taps; Maj, Carlo; Maji, Pradipta; Majidpour, Jafar; Makhlouf, Laouchedi; Makino, Satoshi; Makrievski, Stefan; Makse, Hernan; Malagi, Archana; Malakhova, Katerina; Malamon, John; Malashenkova, Irina; Malchano, Zach; Maleki-Balajoo, Somayeh; Malik, Sadia; Malik, Tamoor; Mallik, Abhirup; Malm, Tarja; Malpas, Charles; Malpica, Norberto; Malviya, Meenakshi; Mamandi, A.; Manandhar, Abinash; Mandal, Pravat; Mandali, Alekhya; Mane, Prajakta; Manning, Emily; Manoufali, Mohamed; Manser, Paul; Mantini, Dante; Mantri, Ninad; Manyakov, Nikolay; Manzak, Dİlek; Mao, Shuai; Maoyu, Tian; Maple Grødem, Jodi; Maravilla, Kenneth; Marco, Simonetti; Marcus, Daniel; Margetis, John; Margolin, Richard; Mariano, Laura; Marinescu, Razvan Valentin; Markett, Sebastian; Markiewicz, Pawel; Marnane, Michael; Maroof, Asif; Marple, Laura; Marques, Cristiane; Marrakchi, Linda; Marshall, Gad; Märtens, Kaspar; Mårtensson, Gustav; Marti, Cristian; Martin, Harold; Martinaud, Olivier; Martinez, Victor; Martinez, Oliver; Martinez, Jesus; Martinez, Carlos; Abadías, Neus Martinez; Torteya, Antonio Martinez; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Samuel; Masciotra, Viviane; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Masny, Aliaksandr; Shah, Pir Masoom; Massaro, Tyler; Masumoto, Jun; Matan, Cristy; Mate, Karen; Mateus, Pedro; Mather, Mara; Mather, Karen; Mathew, Jesia; Mathias, Samuel; Mathiyalagan, Tamilalaghan; Matloff, Will; Matsubara, Keisuke; Matsubara, Takashi; Matsuda, Yukihisa; Matthews, Dawn; Mattis, Paul; May, Patrick; Mayburd, Anatoly; Mayo, Chantel; Mayordomo, Elvira; Mbuyi, Gaylord; McCallum, Colleen; McCann, Bryony; McCollough, Todd; McCormick, Shannon; McCurdy, Sean; McDonald, Carrie; McEligot, Archana; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McGinnis, Scott; McHugh, Thomas; McIntosh, Elissa; McIntosh, Randy; McKenzie, Andrew; McLaren, Donald; McMillan, Corey; McMillan, Alan; McPherson, Brent; McRae-McKee, Kevin; Zaini, Muhammad Hafiz Md; Meadowcroft, Mark; Mecca, Adam; Meda, Shashwath; Medikonda, Venkata Srinu; Meeker, Karin; Megherbi, Thinhinane; Mehmood, Anum; Mehrtash, Alireza; Meiberth, Dix; Meier, Dominik; Meijerman, Antoine; Mejia, Jose; Mekkayil, Lasitha; Meles, Sanne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Melo, Hans; Melrose, Rebecca; Melzer, Corina; Mendes, Aline; Leon, Ricardo Antonio Mendoza; Gonzalez, Manuel Menendez; Meng, Dewen; Meng, Xianglai; Meng, Guilin; Mengel, David; Menon, Ramesh; Menon, Ravi; Mercado, Flavio; Messick, Viviana; Meyer, Pierre-Francois; Meyer, Carsten; Mezher, Adam; Mi, Liang; Miao, Hongyu; Michailovich, Oleg; Michels, Lars; Mickael, Guedj; Mikhail, Mark; Mikhno, Arthur; Milana, Diletta; Miller, Rachel; Miller, Brendan; Millikin, Colleen; Min, Byung Wook; Minadakis, George; Minghui, Hu; Chinh, Truong Minh; Minkova, Lora; Miranda, Michelle; Misevic, Dusan; Mishra, Amit; Mishra, Chetan; Mishra, Shiwangi; Mishra, Ashutosh; Mishra, Krishna; Misquitta, Karen; Mitchell, Brian; Mithawala, Keyur; Mitnitski, Arnold; Mitra, Sinjini; Mittal, Gaurav; Mittner, Matthias; Miyapuram, Krishna Prasad; Mlalazi, Rebaone; Mo, Daojun; Moghekar, Abhay; Moguilner, Sebastian; Moh, Heba; Mohabir, Mark; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, Moataz; Mohammadi, Sadeq; Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Mohammady, Saed; Taqi, Arwa Mohammed; Mohan, Kishore Kumar; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Moitra, Dipanjan; Mojaradi, Mehdi; Mojtabavi, Alireza; Molina, Helena; Mollon, Jennifer; Molteni, Erika; Montajabi, Mohaddeseh; Montal, Victor; Montazami, Aram; Monté-Rubio, Gemma; Montembeault, Maxime; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Montillo, Albert; Moon, Byung-Seung; Moon, Chan; Moon, Chooza; Moore, Archer; Morabito, Francesco C.; Moradi, Masoud; Moraes, Renato; Ballesteros, Orlando Morales; Morales-Henriquez, Daniela; Moratal, David; Moreno, Herman; Morihara, Ryuta; Mormino, Elizabeth; Morris, Jeffrey; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Morton, John; Moscato, Pablo; Rial, Alexis Moscoso; Mossa, Abdela Ahmed; Mottaghi, Setare; Mouelhi, Aymen; Moussavi, Arezou; Moustafa, Ahmed; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Mtetwa, Lungile; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller-Sarnowski, Felix; Mufidah, Ratna; Mukherjee, Rik; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Müller, Christian; Müller, Hans-Peter; Mullins, Paul; Mullins, Roger; Muncy, Nathan; Munir, Akhtar; Munirathinam, Ramesh; Munoz, David; Munro, Catherine; Muranevici, Gabriela; Rendon, Santiago Murillo; Murilo, Robson; Murphy, Sonya; Muscio, Cristina; Musso, Gabriel; Mustafa, Yasser; Myall, Daniel; Gayathri, N.; Nabavi, Shahab; Nabeel, Eman; Nagele, Robert; Naghshbandi, Hane; Naik, Shruti; Najmitabrizi, Neda; Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Nalls, Mike; Namboori, Krishnan; Nancy, Annie; Napolitano, Giulio; Narayan, Manjari; Narkhede, Atul; Naseri, Mahsa; Nasrallah, Ilya; Nasrallah, Fatima; Nassif, Rana; Nath, Sruthi R.; Nathoo, Farouk; Nation, Daniel; Naughton, Brian; Nault, Larry; Nautiyal, Deeksha; Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Naz, Mufassra; Nazemian, Shayan; Nazeri, Arash; Neckoska, Emilija; Neelamegam, Malinee; Nehary, Ebrahim; Nelson, Peter; Nelson, Linda; Nematzadeh, Hosein; Nerur, Shubha; Nesteruk, Thomas; Neu, Scott; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Tin; Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Harrison; Nguyen, Nghi; Trung, Hieu Nguyen; Ni, Lucy; Nian, Yongjian; Nichols, Thomas; Nicodemus, Kristin; Nie, Yunlong; Nielsen, Casper; Nikolov, Robert; Nila, Jessica; Nishioka, Christopher; Njeh, Ines; Njie, Emalick; Nobakht, Samaneh; Noble, Andrew; Noda, Art; Noroozi, Ali; Norton, Derek; Nosarti, Chiara; Nosheny, Rachel; Notsu, Akifumi; Novak, Gerald; Nozadi, Seyed Hossein; Nu, Fen; Nudelman, Kelly; Nunes, Adonay; Nunes, Ana; Núñez, Christian; Nuno, Michelle; Nuriel, Tal; Nygaard, Haakon; Nyquist, Paul; O'Bott, Jacob; O'Charoen, Sirimon; O'Neill, William; O'Rawe, Jonathan; Obrzut, Grzegorz; Och, Ganzorig; Odaibo, David; Odry, Benjamin; Oehmichen, Axel; Ofori, Edward; Ogunsanmi, Abdulfatai; Oguz, Kaya; Oh, Jungsu; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Hwamee; Ohigashi, Hironori; Oishi, Kenichi; Oishi, Naoya; Okhravi, Hamid; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Okyay, Savaş; Oliveira, Cyrill; Oliveira, João; Oliveira, Francisco; Oliver, Ruth; Olmos, Salvador; Olszowy, Wiktor; Oltra-Cucarella, Javier; Önen, Zehra; Ong, Rowena; Onoda, Keiichi; Onyike, Chiadi; Operto, Grégory; Oppedal, Ketil; Orejuela, Juan; Orhon, Atila; Orozco, Max; Ortuño, Juan; Osadebey, Michael; Osborn, Joseph; Osoba, Osonde; Ostadrahimi, Hamid; Ostovari, Parisa; Otis, Sarah; Overgaard, Shauna; Owen, Catrin Elin; Oxtoby, Neil; Öziç, Muhammet Üsame; Ozkaya, Gorkem; Okur, Ozlem Ozmen; Ozsolak, Fatih; Ozyildirim, Melis; Pa, Judy; Pacheco, Joe; Pack, Gary; Padilla, Daniel; Cerezo, Berizohar Padilla; Padovese, Bruno; Pae, Chongwon; Pagano, Gennaro; Pahuja, Gunjan; Pai, Shraddha; Pajavand, Shahryar; Pajula, Juha; Pak, Kyoungjune; Pakzad, Ashkan; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan; Palanisamy, Sindhu; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Palsson, Frosti; Pan, Dan; Pan, Tiffany; Pan, Yuqing; Pan, Wei; Pan, Sun; Pan, Hongliang; Pan, Xiaoxi; Pandey, Lokesh; Pang, Qiaoyu; Pangilinan, Erin; Pannetier, Nicolas; Panpan, Xu; Panyavaraporn, Jantana; Pardini, Matteo; Paredes, José; Parikh, Jignesh; Park, Seongbeom; Park, Young Ho; Park, Min Tae; Park, Hyunjin; Park, Sejin; Park, JongSeong; Park, DooHyun; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Yuhyun; Park, Jiyong; Parker, Jason; Parker, Richard; Parodi, Alice; Bautista, Yohn Jairo Parra; Parrish, Marcus; Parthiban, Preethy; Pascariello, Guido; Pascual, Belen; Paskov, Hristo; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tantaleán, Julio Sergio Eduardo Pastor; Pastur, Lucas; Patel, Raihaan; Patel, Sejal; Paterson, Ross; Paton, Bryan; Patriarche, Julia; Patriat, Rémi; Pattichis, Constantinos; Paul, Debashis; Pawar, Kuldeep; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Paz, Rotem; Pedroto, Maria; Pelekanos, Matthew; Péléraux, Annick; Peng, Dan; Peng, Jing; Pengfei, Tian; Perani, Daniela; Peraza, Luis; Pereira, Fabricio; Pereira, Francisco; Perkins, Diana; Perneczky, Robert; Persad, Umesh; Peter, Jessica; Peters, Mette; Peters, Ruth; Pether, Mark; Petrella, Jeffrey; Petrenko, Roman; Petrone, Paula; Petrov, Dmitry; Pezzatini, Daniele; Pfenning, Andreas; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Philipson, Pete; Phillips, Jeffrey; Phillips, Nicole; Phophalia, Ashish; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Pichai, Shanthi; Pichardo, Cesar; Binette, Alexa Pichet; Pietras, Olga; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Pike, Kerryn; Pillai, Jagan; Piludu, Francesca; Pineda, Joanna; Ping, He; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Pither, Richard; Piyush, Ranjan; Pizzi, Nick; Gonzalez, Luis Fernando Planella; Plassard, Andrew; Platero, Carlos; Plocharski, Maciej; Podhorski, Adam; Poggiali, Davide; Poghosyan, Mher; Pohl, Kilian; Poirier, Judes; Polakow, Jean Jacques; Politis, Marios; Poljak, Anne; Poloni, Katia Maria; Poole, Victoria; Poppenk, Jordan; Porsteinsson, Anton; Portelius, Erik; Posta, Filippo; Posthuma, Danielle; Potashman, Michele; Poulin, Stephane; Pourmennati, Bahar; Prahlad, Tejas; Pranav, Lee; Prasanth, Isaac; Prashar, Ajay; Prescott, Jeff; Prevedello, Luciano; Previtali, Fabio; Pricer, James; Prichard, James; Prince, Jerry; Prins, Samantha; Pritchard, Christopher; Priya, Priya; Priya, Anandh; Priyanka, Ahana; Properzi, Michael; Prosser, Angus; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Pruessner, Jens; Pu, Jian; Punjabi, Arjun; Punugu, Venkatapavani Pallavi; Puri, Dilip; Renjini, Anurenjan Purushothaman; Pyeon, DoYeong; Qader, Abu; Qi, Zeyao; Qi, Baihong; Qian, Xiaoning; Qian, Long; Qiao, Ju; Qiao, Jocelin; Qiaoli, Zhang; Qin, Hongsen; Qin, Wang; Qin, Tian; Qin, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qinxiaotie; Qin, Qiao; Qing, Zhao; Qiongling, Li; Qiu, Yu; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Deqiang; Qiu, Yingwei; Quadrelli, Scott; Qualls, Jake; Quan, Li; Quarg, Peter; Qureshi, Adnan; Anand, R.; Chitra, R.; Balaji, R.; Madhusudhan, R. N.; Raamana, Pradeep Reddy; Rabbia, Michael; Rabin, Laura; Radke, David; Pc, Muhammed Raees; Rafeiean, Mahsa; Raha, Oindrila; Rahimi, Amir; Arashloo, Shervin Rahimzadeh; Rai, Vipin; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Rajan, Surya; Rajapakse, Jagath; Rajaram, Sampath; Rajendran, Rajeswari; Rakovski, Cyril; Ramalhosa, Ivo; Raman, Fabio; Ramasamy, Ellankavi; Ramasangu, Hariharan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Ramos Pérez, Ana Victoria; Rana, Rahul; Rane, Swati; Rao, Anil; Rao, Vikram; Rashidi, Arash; Rasoanaivo, Oly; Rassem, Taha; Rastgoo, Hossein; Rath, Daniel; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Ravikirthi, Prabhasa; Ravipati, Kaushik; RaviPrakash, Harish; Rawdha, Bousseta; Ray, Meredith; Ray, Debashree; Ray, Nilanjan; Ray, Dipankar; Ray, Soumi; Rebbah, Sana; Redding, Morgan; Regnerus, Bouke; Rehn, Patrick; Rehouma, Rokaya; Reid, Robert; Reimer, Alyssa; Reiss, Philip; Reitz, Christiane; Rekabi, Maryam; Rekik, Islem; Ren, Xuhua; Ren, Fujia; Ren, Xiaowei; Ren, Weijie; Renehan, William; Rennert, Lior; Rey, Samuel; Reyes, Pablo; Reza, Rifat; Rezaee, Khosro; Rhinn, Herve; Lorenzo, Pablo Ribalta; Ribeiro, Adèle Helena; Richards, John; Richards, Burt; Richards, Todd; Richardson, Hamish; Richiardi, Jonas; Richter, Nils; Ridge, Perry; Ridgway, Gerard; Ridha, Basil; Ried, Janina; Riedel, Brandalyn; Riphagen, Joost; Ritter, Kerstin; Rivaz, Hassan; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allah, Mina Rizk; Rizzi, Massimo; Roalf, David; Robb, Catherine; Roberson, Erik; Robieson, Weining; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Rodrigues, Marcos Antonio; Rodriguez, Alain; Aguiar, Güise Lorenzo Rodríguez; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Roes, Meighen; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, James; Rogers, Baxter; Rohani, Hosna; Rollins, Carin; Rollo, Jenny; Romanillos, Adrian; Romero, Marcelo; Romero, Klaus; Rominger, Axel; Rondina, Jane; Ronquillo, Jeremiah; Roohparvar, Sanaz; Rosand, Jonathan; Rose, Gregory; Roshchupkin, Gennady; Rosoce, Jeremy; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Ross, Owen; Rossi, Stephanie; Roussarie, Jean-Pierre; Roy, Arkaprava; Roy, Snehashis; Ruble, Cara; Rubright, Jonathan; Rudovic, Ognjen; Ruggiero, Denise; Rui, Qiao; Ruiz, Pablo; Rullmann, Michael; Rusmevichientong, Pimbucha; Russell, Rolf; Rutten, Julie; Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Saba, Valiallah; Sabuncu, Mert; Sacuiu, Simona; Sampathkumar, Srihari Sadhu; Sadikhov, Shamil; Saeedi, Sarah; Saf, Naz; Safapur, Alireza; Safi, Asad; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Saito, Noboru; Saito, Naomi; Sakata, Muneyuki; Frigerio, Carlo Sala; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Salah, Zainab; Salamanca, Luis; Salat, David; Salehzade, Mahdi; Salter, Hugh; Samatova, Nagiza; Sampat, Mehul; Gonzalez, Jorge Samper; Samtani, Mahesh; Samuel, Pearl; Bohorquez, Sandra Sanabria; Sanbao, Cheng; Sanchez, Iñigo; Sánchez, Irina; Sandella, Nick; Sanderlin, Ashley Hannah; Sanders, Elizabeth; Sankar, Tejas; Sanroma, Gerard; Sanson, Horacio; Santamaria, Mar; de Lourdes, Daniella; de Andrade, Luna Santana; Santhanam, Prasanna; Ribeiro, Andre Santos; Sardi, Pablo; Sardina, Davide; Saremi, Arvin; Sarica, Alessia; Sarnowski, Chloé; Sarraf, Saman; Saslow, Adam; Sato, Takayuki; Sato, Joao; Sattler, Sophia; Savic, Milos; Saxon, Jillian; Saya, Boson; Saykin, Andrew; Sbeiti, Elia; Scarapicchia, Vanessa; Scelsi, Marzia Antonella; Schaerer, Joel; Scharre, Douglas; Scherr, Martin; Schevenels, Klara; Schibler, Tony; Schiller, Florian; Schirmer, Markus; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Marco; Schmidt, Paul; Schmitz, Taylor; Schmuker, Michael; Schneider, Anja; Schneider, Reinhard; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Schöll, Michael; Schouten, Tijn; Schramm, Hauke; Schreiber, Frank; Schultz, Timothy; Schultz, Aaron; Schürmann, Heike; Schwab, Patrick; Schwartz, Pamela; Schwarz, Adam; Schwarz, Christopher; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Scott, Julia; Scott, F. Jeffrey; Scott, David; Scussel, Artur; Seale, William; Seamons, John; Seemiller, Joseph; Sekine, Tetsuro; Selnes, Per; Sembritzki, Klaus; Senanayake, Vijitha; Seneca, Nicholas; Senjem, Matthew; Filho, Antonio Carlos Senra; Sensi, Stefano; Seo, Eun Hyun; Seo, Kangwon; Seong, Sibaek; Sepeta, Leigh; Seraji-Bozorgzad, Navid; Serra-Cayuela, Arnau; Seshadri, Sudha; Sgouros, Nicholas; Sha, Miao; Shackman, Alexander; Shafee, Rebecca; Shah, Rupali; Shah, Hitul; Shahid, Mohammad; Shahparian, Nastaran; Shakeri, Mahsa; Shams, Sara; Shams, Ali; Baboli, Aref Shams; Shamul, Naomi; Shan, Guogen; Shang, Yuan; Shao, Rui; Shao, Hanyu; Shao, Xiaozhe; Shaoxun, Yuan; Noghabi, Hossein Sharifi; Sharlene, Newman; Sharma, Avinash; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Aman; Shaw, Leslie; Shaw, Saurabh; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Sheline, Yvette; Shen, Li; Shen, Yanhe; Shen, Qian; Sherriff, Ian; Shi, Xin; Shi, Lei; Shi, Yonggang; Shi, Yue; Shi, Yupan; Shi, Jie; Shi, Feng; Shiban, Nisreen; Shields, Trevor; Shiiba, Takuro; Shiino, Akihiko; 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Taswell, Koby; Taswell, Carl; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylan, Pakize; Taylor, Jonathan; Taylor, Brad; Tayubi, Iftikhar; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; tee, Yee Kai; Teipel, Stefan; Temizer, Leyla; Kate, Mara Ten; Tenbergen, Carlijn; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Teng, Zi; Teng, Yuan-Ching; Teng, Edmond; Termenon, Maite; Terry, Eloise; Thaker, Ashesh; Theobald, Chuck; Thiel, Taylor; Thiele, Ines; Thiele, Frank; Thierry, Jean Pierre; Thirunavu, Vineeth; Thomas, Chris; Thomas, Kelsey; Thomas, Anoop Jacob; Thomas, Benjamin; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Adam; Thomopoulos, Sophia; Thompson, Gerard; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Will; Thompson, Paul; Thung, Kimhan; Tian, Sijia; Tierney, Mary; Tilquin, Florian; Tingay, Karen; Tirrell, Lee; Tirumalai, Sindhuja; Tobis, Jonathan; Todkari, Suhasini; Tohka, Jussi; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Toledo, Jon; Tolonen, Antti; Tombari, Federico; Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Tomola, Lauren; Tong, Yunjie; Tong, Liz; Tong, Li; Tong, Xiaoran; Torgerson, Carinna; Toro, Roberto; Torok, Levente; Toschi, Nicola; Tosto, Giuseppe; Tosun, Duygu; Tourandaz, Morteza; Toussaint, Paule; Towhidi, Sasan Maximilian; Towler, Stephen; Toyama, Teruhide; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Tran, Thao; Tran, Daniel; Trapani, Benjamin; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Tripathi, Shashi; Trittschuh, Emily; Trivedi, Ashish; Trojacanec, Katarina; Truong, Dennis; Tsanas, Athanasios; Tse, Kai-Hei; Tsoy, Elena; Tu, Yanshuai; Tubeleviciute-Aydin, Agne; Tubi, Meral; Tucholka, Alan; Tufail, Ahsan; Tumati, Shankar; Tuo, Shouheng; Tuovinen, Timo; Tustison, Nicholas; Tutunji, Rayyan; Tward, Daniel; Tyagi, Gaurav; Tzioras, Nikolaos; Raghavendra, U.; Uberti, Daniela; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ueki, Masao; Ulug, Aziz; Umek, Robert; University, Northwestern; de Almeida, Sofia Urioste Y. Nunes; Urrutia, Leandro; Usama, Ahmed; Ustun, Ali Alp; Uus, Alena; Uyar, Muharrem Umit; Visalatchi, V.; Rajinikanth, V.; Vafaei, Amin; Vairre, Darlene; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev; Vaithinathan, Krishnakumar; Vakorin, Vasily; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van Bokhoven, Pieter; Deerlin, Vivianna Van; van der Brug, Marcel; Dijk, Koene Van; van Duijn, Cornelia; van Erp, Theo; van Hooren, Roy; Leemput, Koen Van; van Loenhoud, Anita; Schependom, Jeroen Van; van Velden, Floris; van Westen, Danielle; Vandekar, Simon; Vandijck, Manu; Vanhoutte, Matthieu; Vannini, Patrizia; Vansteenkiste, Elias; Varatharajah, Yogatheesan; Vardarajan, Badri; Varey, Stephen; Vargas, Hernan; Varkey, Julia; Varma, Susheel; Varma, Vijay; Varma, Sudhr; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Vashi, Tejal; Vasilchuk, Kseniia; Vassileva, Albena; Vatsalan, Dinusha; Vb, Nastaran; Veeramacheneni, Teja; Veeranah, Darvesh; Vejdani, Kaveh; Veldsman, Michele; Velgos, Stefanie; Veloso, Adriano; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Venero, Cesar; Venkataraman, Ashwin; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai; Venkatraghavan, Vikram; Venugopal, Vinisha; Venugopalan, Janani; Verbeeck, Rudi; Verbel, David; Verbist, Bie; Verdoliva, Luisa; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Tarun; Verma, Ishan; Veronese, Mattia; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Victor, Jonathan; Vieira, Domingos; Vijayaraj, Vinesh Raja; Vikas, Vinutha; Vilaplana, Veronica; Vilaplana, Eduard; Villar, José Ramón; Vincent, Fabrice; Vinkler, Mojmir; Viswanath, Satish; Viswanathan, Srikrishnan; Vitek, Michael; Viti, Mario; Vladutu, Liviu; Vlock, Daniel; Voineskos, Aristotle; Vora, Anvi; Vos, Stephanie; Voyle, Nicola; Vrenken, Hugo; Vu, Tien Duong; Vucetic, Zivjena; Vuksanovic, Vesna; Wachinger, Christian; Wada, Masataka; Wade, Sara; Wagstyl, Konrad; Wahba, Grace; Waldorf, Johannes; Walker, Douglas; Moore, Kim Poki Walker; Walsh, Dominic; Wan, Lin; Wang, Di; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wang, Yongmao; Wang, Huaming; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zi-Rui; Wang, Zheyu; Wang, Z. E.; Wang, Lucy; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jason; Wang, Cathy; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Dai; Wang, Lingyu; Wang, Jianjia; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yujiang; Wang, Ming-Liang; Wang, De; Wang, Ling; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Zhanyu; Wang, William Shi-Yuan; Wang, HuiFu; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Zhenxun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Wang, Yipei; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yinying; Wang, Chengjia; Wang, Yuanjia; Wang, Kerry; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Kangcheng; Wang, Rui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xinying; Wang, Xinglong; Wang, Jeff; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Honglang; Wang, Xuekuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Silun; Waring, Stephen; Warren, David; Wasule, Vijay; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wearn, Alfie; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Wegmayr, Viktor; Wehenkel, Marie; Wei, Rizhen; Wei, Zheng; Wei, Penghu; Wei, Yongbin; Wei, Guohui; Wei, Changshuai; Weichart, Emily; Weiler, Marina; Weise, Christopher; Weisong, Zhong; Weisshuhn, Philip; Weizheng, Yan; Wen, Canhong; Wen, Junhao; Wen, Wei; Wen, Zhenfu; Wen, Hao; Wenzel, Fabian; Werhane, Madeleine; Westaway, Shawn; Westlye, Lars T.; Westman, Eric; Whardana, Adithya; Whitcher, Brandon; Whittington, Alexander; Wicks, Stephen; Wiens, Jenna; Wildsmith, Kristin; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wilkinson, Andrea; Willette, Auriel; Williams, Kristin; Williams, Robert; Williams, Rebecca; Wilman, Alan; Wilmot, Beth; Wilson, Lorraine; Win, Juliet; Windpass, F. C.; Wink, Alle Meije; Winter, Nils; Winzeck, Stefan; Wirth, Miranka; Wishart, Heather; Wisniewski, Gary; Wiste, Heather; Wolpe, Noham; Wolz, Robin; Wong, Stephen; Wong, Swee Seong; Wong, Tak-Lam; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Taekang; Woo, Young; Wood, Levi; Worth, Andrew; Wrenn, Jesse; Wright, Paul; Wu, Guorong; Wu, Lynn; Wu, Shawn; Wu, Menglin; Wu, Ruige; Wu, Shaoju; Wu, Chong; Wu, Juhao; Wu, Liyun; Wu, Yu-Te; Wu, Yuankai; Wu, Helen; Xia, Weiming; Xiang, Xu; Xiangmao, Kong; Xiao, Yiming; Xiao, Jie; Xiao, Y. U.; Xiaoxi, Ji; Xiaoya, Zhu; Xiaoying, Qi; Xie, Yuchen; Xie, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Xie, Xiancheng; Xin, Huang; Xingyi, Huang; Xiong, Yuanpeng; Xiong, Momiao; Xu, Yongchao; Xu, XiaoYing; Xu, Qiqi; Xu, Lijun; Xu, Hewen; Xu, Yunlong; Xu, Zhilei; Xu, Ziliang; Xu, Jiayuan; Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lu; Xu, Shuoyu; Xue, Fei; Xuesong, Yang; Xz, Zarric; Yadav, Rishi; Yaish, Aviv; Yakushev, Igor; Yamada, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Utako; Yamashita, Alexandre; Yamashita, Fumio; Yan, Li; Yan, Yu; Yan, Jianhua; Yan, Shiju; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yan, Qingyu; Yan, Jingwen; Yan, Chen; Yan, Meng; Yang, Meng; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jiarui; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Xianfeng; Yang, Sli; Yang, Liang; Yang, Robert; Yang, Aleex; Yang, Hyungjeong; Yang, ChengHao; Yang, Haiwei; Yang, Jhih-Ying; Yang, Xu; Yangyang, Xia; Yao, Xufeng; Yaping, Wang; Yaqiong, Bi; Yared, Surafael; Yashin, Anatoliy; Yassine, Hussein; Yau, Tat; Yavorsky, Christian; Ye, Chang; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Joy; Ye, Yongkai; Ye, Yuting; Ye, Wu; Yelampalli, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thomas Yeo, B. T.; Yi, Zhao; Yi, Wang; Yi, Yuan; Yijing, Ruan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Yin, Baocai; Yin, Tang-Kai; Ying, Li; Yingjiang, Wu; Yiyun, Yu; Yoichiro, Sato; Yokoyama, Jennifer; Yong, Zhang; Yonghong, Shi; Yonghu, Guo; Yongqi, Huang; Yoo, Inwan; Yoon, So Hoon; Yoon, Jee Seok; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Yoshida, Hisako; Yoshio, Kiyofumi; You, Jia; You, You; You, Xiaozhen; Young, Alexandra; Yu, Peng; Yu, Jaemin; Yu, Lin; Yu, Sui; Yu, Philip S.; Yu, Guan; Yu, Fengli; Yu, Jiaxin; Yu, Shaode; Yu, Suizhi; Yu, Donghyeon; Yuan, Yue; Yuan, Shaofeng; Yuan, Shuai; Yuanyuan, Chen; Yue, Ye; Yue, Cynthia; Yunaiyama, Daisuke; YushaoChen, YushaoChen; Yushkevich, Paul; Yx, W.; Zafeiris, Dimitrios; Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Zalocusky, Kelly; Zamorano, Francisco; Zandifar, Azar; Zanella, Laura; Zang, Yufeng; Zanke, Brent; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Zawaideh, Mazen; Zawawi, Nour; Zee, Jarcy; Zeighami, Yashar; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zemla, Jeffrey; Zeng, Qi; Zeng, Fan; Zeng, Donglin; Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yingying; Ženko, Bernard; Zereshki, Ehsan; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhan, Justin; Zhang, Chenghui; Zhang, Yixuan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianlun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Changle; Zhang, Qingtian; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangliang; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Yingteng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Ziwei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, ChengZhi; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Guishan; Zhang, Xixue; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhangyi, Zhangyi; Zhao, Wenting; Zhao, Xuewu; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Yifei; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Lu; Zheng, Lijuan; Zheng, Kaiping; Zheng, Weihao; Zheng, Du; Zheng, Muhua; Zheng, Qiang; Zheng, Bichen; Zheng, Lihong; Zhong, Wenxuan; Zhong, Yujia; Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Jiayin; Zhou, Zhen; Zhou, Yongxia; Zhou, Lixin; Zhou, Bowei; Zhou, Juan; Zhou, Qixin; Zhou, Levi; Zhou, Fengfeng; Zhou, Jiayu; Zhou, Luping; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Yingjie; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Frankie; Zhu, Zonghai; Zhu, Xiaoya; Zhu, Xiaolu; Zhu, Shanfeng; Zhu, David; Zhu, Hongxiao; Zhu, Lida; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhuxin, Jin; Zigon, Robert; Zille, Pascal; Zimmer, Eduardo; Zimmer, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Earl; Zimmerman, Karl; Zimmermann, Joelle; Zipperer, Erin; Zito, Giancarlo; Zou, Yang; Zuo, Maria; Zywiec, Andrew


    Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions,

  9. The association of magnetic resonance imaging measures with cognitive function in a biracial population sample. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Wilson, Robert S; Bienias, Julia L; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A; Evans, Denis A; DeCarli, Charles


    White matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), cerebral infarcts, and total brain volume (TBV) are associated with cognitive function, but few studies have examined these associations in the general population or whether they differ by race. To examine the association of WMHV, cerebral infarcts, and TBV with global cognition and cognition in 5 separate domains in a biracial population sample. A biracial community population of Chicago, Illinois. Cross-sectional population study. The study population comprised 575 participants from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP). Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of WMHV, TBV, and cerebral infarcts and detailed neuropsychological testing assessments of global cognition and 5 cognitive domains. Overall and among those without dementia, cognition was inversely associated with WMHV and number of infarcts but was positively associated with TBV. When all 3 measures were simultaneously added to the model, the association of global cognition with WMHV and TBV remained significant and unchanged but was no longer significant with infarcts. Among subjects without dementia, all 3 MRI measures were associated with performance in multiple cognitive domains, specifically perceptual speed. However, among subjects with dementia, only TBV was associated with cognition and performance in multiple cognitive systems. Race did not significantly modify any of these associations. In this biracial general population sample, the associations of MRI measures with cognition differed according to clinical status of subjects (stronger among subjects without dementia) and were not modified by race. These associations did not affect all cognitive domains equally but were more consistent with impairments in perceptual speed.

  10. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes. (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C


    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  11. Cholinergic modulation of cognitive processing: insights drawn from computational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehren L Newman


    Full Text Available Acetylcholine plays an important role in cognitive function, as shown by pharmacological manipulations that impact working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory function. Acetylcholine also shows striking modulatory influences on the cellular physiology of hippocampal and cortical neurons. Modeling of neural circuits provides a framework for understanding how the cognitive functions may arise from the influence of acetylcholine on neural and network dynamics. We review the influences of cholinergic manipulations on behavioral performance in working memory, attention, episodic memory and spatial memory tasks, the physiological effects of acetylcholine on neural and circuit dynamics, and the computational models that provide insight into the functional relationships between the physiology and behavior. Specifically, we discuss the important role of acetylcholine in governing mechanisms of active maintenance in working memory tasks and in regulating network dynamics important for effective processing of stimuli in attention and episodic memory tasks. We also propose that theta rhythm play a crucial role as an intermediary between the physiological influences of acetylcholine and behavior in episodic and spatial memory tasks. We conclude with a synthesis of the existing modeling work and highlight future directions that are likely to be rewarding given the existing state of the literature for both empiricists and modelers.

  12. The cognitive processing of film and musical soundtracks. (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G


    Previous research has demonstrated that musical soundtracks can influence the interpretation, emotional impact, and remembering of film information. The intent here was to examine how music is encoded into the cognitive system and subsequently represented relative to its accompanying visual action. In Experiment 1, participants viewed a set of music/film clips that were either congruent or incongruent in their emotional affects. Selective attending was also systematically manipulated by instructing viewers to attend to and remember the music, film, or both in tandem. The results from tune recognition, film recall, and paired discrimination tasks collectively revealed that mood-congruent pairs lead to a joint encoding of music/film information as well as an integrated memory code. Incongruent pairs, on the other hand, result in an independent encoding in which a given dimension, music or film, is only remembered well if it was selectively attended to at the time of encoding. Experiment 2 extended these findings by showing that tunes from mood-congruent pairs are better recognized when cued by their original scenes, while those from incongruent pairs are better remembered in the absence of scene information. These findings both support and extend the "Congruence Associationist Model" (A. J. Cohen, 2001), which addresses those cognitive mechanisms involved in the processing of music/film information.

  13. Instructional Style, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement Behavior Patterns of Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the performance characteristics and differences between English and Oriya medium school children on various cognitive processing, reading, academic achievement, and teacher perception measures. The sample consists of 243 schoolchildren, 120 from Grade IV and 123 from Grade VII from three different schools of Cuttack city in Orissa, India. The children were individually administered the Figure-Copying, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Matching Familiar Figure Task, Serial Recall, Digit-Span, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children, Block Design, Cloze Reading Comprehension, and Oral Reading tasks. Classroom Achievement scores on different subjects and the teachers’ ratings about their students were also taken. Results revealed that children reading in English medium schools outperformed their Oriya medium counterparts in some cognitive measures such as Figure Copying, MFFT, RPM, and Digit-Span tasks irrespective of levels. However, the children studying in Oriya medium schools scored higher in Reading Comprehension task and commit less error compared with their English medium counterparts. However, in case of academic achievement measures at primary level, the Oriya medium children performed better in social science, whereas the English medium students excelled in first language and mathematics. The teachers of Oriya medium schools also rated their children better in general conduct, motivation, and effort in schoolwork, whereas, at the secondary level, there was no difference between these two groups in academic achievement or teacher perception measures.

  14. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server


    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  15. Dynamic deformation image de-blurring and image processing for digital imaging correlation measurement (United States)

    Guo, X.; Li, Y.; Suo, T.; Liu, H.; Zhang, C.


    This paper proposes a method for de-blurring of images captured in the dynamic deformation of materials. De-blurring is achieved based on the dynamic-based approach, which is used to estimate the Point Spread Function (PSF) during the camera exposure window. The deconvolution process involving iterative matrix calculations of pixels, is then performed on the GPU to decrease the time cost. Compared to the Gauss method and the Lucy-Richardson method, it has the best result of the image restoration. The proposed method has been evaluated by using the Hopkinson bar loading system. In comparison to the blurry image, the proposed method has successfully restored the image. It is also demonstrated from image processing applications that the de-blurring method can improve the accuracy and the stability of the digital imaging correlation measurement.

  16. Clinical and imaging assessment of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, M.A.; Amato, M.P.; De Stefano, N.; Enzinger, C.; Geurts, J.J.; Penner, I.K.; Rovira, A.; Sumowski, J.F.; Valsasina, P.; Filippi, M.


    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However,

  17. Feature extraction & image processing for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Mark


    This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt

  18. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard


    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  19. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard


    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  20. Relationship between individual differences in speech processing and cognitive functions. (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po; Fung, Roxana


    A growing body of research has suggested that cognitive abilities may play a role in individual differences in speech processing. The present study took advantage of a widespread linguistic phenomenon of sound change to systematically assess the relationships between speech processing and various components of attention and working memory in the auditory and visual modalities among typically developed Cantonese-speaking individuals. The individual variations in speech processing are captured in an ongoing sound change-tone merging in Hong Kong Cantonese, in which typically developed native speakers are reported to lose the distinctions between some tonal contrasts in perception and/or production. Three groups of participants were recruited, with a first group of good perception and production, a second group of good perception but poor production, and a third group of good production but poor perception. Our findings revealed that modality-independent abilities of attentional switching/control and working memory might contribute to individual differences in patterns of speech perception and production as well as discrimination latencies among typically developed speakers. The findings not only have the potential to generalize to speech processing in other languages, but also broaden our understanding of the omnipresent phenomenon of language change in all languages.

  1. Cognitive and learning processes in children with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Pueschel, S M; Gallagher, P L; Zartler, A S; Pezzullo, J C


    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study cognitive and learning processes in children with Down syndrome using a recently developed instrument, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). The results obtained from 20 children with Down syndrome were compared with those of 20 younger brothers and sisters of children in the experimental group and 20 mental age-matched nonretarded children. As predicted both the siblings (corrected for mental age) and the nonretarded children performed significantly better on both the Sequential and the Simultaneous Processing Scales of the K-ABC. However, there was no significant difference when the results of the Sequential Processing Scale were contrasted with those of the Simultaneous Processing Scale in all three groups. When subtests that use auditory-vocal (Number Recall) and auditory-motor (Word Order) channels of communication were compared with subtests that employ visual-vocal (Gestalt Closure) and visual-motor (Hand Movement) channels of communication, children with Down syndrome performed significantly better on the latter two tests than on the former two tests. The implications of these results as they relate to designing appropriate educational strategies for children with Down syndrome are discussed.

  2. Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease. (United States)

    Lockau, Hannah; Jessen, Frank; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Drzezga, Alexander


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is playing an increasingly pivotal role in the clinical management of dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In addition to established MR imaging procedures, the introduction of advanced instrumentation such as 7-T MR imaging, as well as novel MR imaging sequences such as arterial spin labeling, MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting-state functional MR imaging, may open new pathways toward improved diagnosis of AD even in early stages of disease such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This article describes the typical findings of established and new MR imaging procedures in healthy aging, MCI, and AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive representations and cognitive processing of team-specific tactics in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Lex

    Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.

  4. Cognitive Representations and Cognitive Processing of Team-Specific Tactics in Soccer (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas


    Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486

  5. Using Image Processing to Determine Emphysema Severity (United States)

    McKenzie, Alexander; Sadun, Alberto


    Currently X-rays and computerized tomography (CT) scans are used to detect emphysema, but other tests are required to accurately quantify the amount of lung that has been affected by the disease. These images clearly show if a patient has emphysema, but are unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it presents as subtle, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to use these CT scans to accurately diagnose and determine emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing several different analyses of CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. In addition to analyzing the original CT data, this process will convert the data to one and two bit images and will then examine the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than the currently utilized methods, which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in the air passages of the lung.

  6. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  7. Suppression of cognitive function in hyperthermia; From the viewpoint of executive and inhibitive cognitive processing (United States)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Namba, Mari; Oshiro, Misaki; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Nakata, Hiroki


    Climate change has had a widespread impact on humans and natural systems. Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition in severe environments. The execution or inhibition of decision making is critical for survival in a hot environment. We hypothesized that, even with mild heat stress, not only executive processing, but also inhibitory processing may be impaired, and investigated the effectiveness of body cooling approaches on these processes using the Go/No-go task with electroencephalographic event-related potentials. Passive heat stress increased esophageal temperature (Tes) by 1.30 ± 0.24 °C and decreased cerebral perfusion and thermal comfort. Mild heat stress reduced the amplitudes of the Go-P300 component (i.e. execution) and No-go-P300 component (i.e. inhibition). Cerebral perfusion and thermal comfort recovered following face/head cooling, however, the amplitudes of the Go-P300 and No-go-P300 components remained reduced. During whole-body cooling, the amplitude of the Go-P300 component returned to the pre-heat baseline, whereas that of the No-go-P300 component remained reduced. These results suggest that local cooling of the face and head does not restore impaired cognitive processing during mild heat stress, and response inhibition remains impaired despite the return to normothermia.

  8. Platform for distributed image processing and image retrieval (United States)

    Gueld, Mark O.; Thies, Christian J.; Fischer, Benedikt; Keysers, Daniel; Wein, Berthold B.; Lehmann, Thomas M.


    We describe a platform for the implementation of a system for content-based image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA). To cope with the constantly evolving medical knowledge, the platform offers a flexible feature model to store and uniformly access all feature types required within a multi-step retrieval approach. A structured generation history for each feature allows the automatic identification and re-use of already computed features. The platform uses directed acyclic graphs composed of processing steps and control elements to model arbitrary retrieval algorithms. This visually intuitive, data-flow oriented representation vastly improves the interdisciplinary communication between computer scientists and physicians during the development of new retrieval algorithms. The execution of the graphs is fully automated within the platform. Each processing step is modeled as a feature transformation. Due to a high degree of system transparency, both the implementation and the evaluation of retrieval algorithms are accelerated significantly. The platform uses a client-server architecture consisting of a central database, a central job scheduler, instances of a daemon service, and clients which embed user-implemented feature ansformations. Automatically distributed batch processing and distributed feature storage enable the cost-efficient use of an existing workstation cluster.

  9. Deformable Mirror Light Modulators For Image Processing (United States)

    Boysel, R. Mark; Florence, James M.; Wu, Wen-Rong


    The operational characteristics of deformable mirror device (DMD) spatial light modulators for image processing applications are presented. The two DMD pixel structures of primary interest are the torsion hinged pixel for amplitude modulation and the flexure hinged or piston element pixel for phase modulation. The optical response characteristics of these structures are described. Experimental results detailing the performance of the pixel structures and addressing architectures are presented and are compared with the analytical results. Special emphasis is placed on the specification, from the experimental data, of the basic device performance parameters of the different modulator types. These parameters include modulation range (contrast ratio and phase modulation depth), individual pixel response time, and full array address time. The performance characteristics are listed for comparison with those of other light modulators (LCLV, LCTV, and MOSLM) for applications in the input plane and Fourier plane of a conventional coherent optical image processing system. The strengths and weaknesses of the existing DMD modulators are assessed and the potential for performance improvements is outlined.

  10. Cognitive processes in the Breakfast Task: Planning and monitoring. (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S; Luo, Lin; Bialystok, Ellen; Hering, Alexandra; Lau, Karen; Craik, Fergus I M


    The Breakfast Task (Craik & Bialystok, 2006) is a computerized task that simulates the planning and monitoring requirements involved in cooking breakfast, an everyday activity important for functional independence. In Experiment 1, 28 adults performed the Breakfast Task, and outcome measures were examined with principal component analysis to elucidate the structure of cognitive processes underlying performance. Analyses revealed a 2-component structure which putatively captured global planning and local monitoring abilities. In Experiment 2, the structure of Breakfast Task performance was cross-validated on a new sample of 59 healthy older adults who also performed tests assessing working memory, processing speed, inhibition, reasoning and prospective memory. Factor analyses showed that the global planning component from the Breakfast Task was significantly correlated with individual differences in executive functions but the local monitoring component was independent of such functions. The Breakfast Task provides a fast, enjoyable, and lifelike assessment of complex everyday planning and monitoring, and their underlying processes such as working memory and executive functions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Digital image processing an algorithmic approach with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Qidwai, Uvais


    Introduction to Image Processing and the MATLAB EnvironmentIntroduction Digital Image Definitions: Theoretical Account Image Properties MATLAB Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage Acquisition, Types, and File I/OImage Acquisition Image Types and File I/O Basics of Color Images Other Color Spaces Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage ArithmeticIntroduction Operator Basics Theoretical TreatmentAlgorithmic Treatment Coding ExamplesAffine and Logical Operations, Distortions, and Noise in ImagesIntroduction Affine Operations Logical Operators Noise in Images Distortions in ImagesAlgorithmic Account

  12. Cognitive control processes in paranoia: the impact of threat induction on strategic cognition and self-focused attention. (United States)

    Flower, Laura; Newman-Taylor, Katherine; Stopa, Lusia


    Current clinical models emphasize certain cognitive processes in the maintenance of distressing paranoia. While a number of these processes have been examined in detail, the role of strategic cognition and self-focused attention remain under-researched. This study examined the deployment of cognitive strategies and self-focused attention in people with non-clinical paranoia. An experimental design was used to examine the impact of a threat activation task on these processes, in participants with high and low non-clinical paranoia. Twenty-eight people were recruited to each group, and completed measures of anxiety, paranoid cognition, strategic cognition and self-focused attention. The threat activation task was effective in increasing anxiety in people with high and low non-clinical paranoia. The high paranoia group experienced more paranoid cognitions following threat activation. This group also reported greater use of thought suppression, punishment and worry, and less use of social control strategies when under threat. No differences were found between the groups on measures of self-focused attention. This study shows that the threat activation task increased anxiety in people with high non-clinical paranoia, leading to increased paranoid thinking. The use of strategic cognition following threat activation varied dependent on level of non-clinical paranoia. If these differences are replicated in clinical groups, the strategies may be implicated in the maintenance of distressing psychosis, and may therefore be a valuable target for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Journey into the Problem-Solving Process: Cognitive Functions in a PBL Environment (United States)

    Chua, B. L.; Tan, O. S.; Liu, W. C.


    In a PBL environment, learning results from learners engaging in cognitive processes pivotal in the understanding or resolution of the problem. Using Tan's cognitive function disc, this study examines the learner's perceived cognitive functions at each stage of PBL, as facilitated by the PBL schema. The results suggest that these learners…

  14. From acoustic segmentation to language processing: evidence from optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Obrig


    Full Text Available During language acquisition in infancy and when learning a foreign language, the segmentation of the auditory stream into words and phrases is a complex process. Intuitively, learners use ‘anchors’ to segment the acoustic speech stream into meaningful units like words and phrases. Regularities on a segmental (e.g., phonological or suprasegmental (e.g., prosodic level can provide such anchors. Regarding the neuronal processing of these two kinds of linguistic cues a left hemispheric dominance for segmental and a right hemispheric bias for suprasegmental information has been reported in adults. Though lateralization is common in a number of higher cognitive functions, its prominence in language may also be a key to understanding the rapid emergence of the language network in infants and the ease at which we master our language in adulthood. One question here is whether the hemispheric lateralization is driven by linguistic input per se or whether non-linguistic, especially acoustic factors, ‘guide’ the lateralization process. Methodologically, fMRI provides unsurpassed anatomical detail for such an enquiry. However, instrumental noise, experimental constraints and interference with EEG assessment limit its applicability, pointedly in infants and also when investigating the link between auditory and linguistic processing. Optical methods have the potential to fill this gap. Here we review a number of recent studies using optical imaging to investigate hemispheric differences during segmentation and basic auditory feature analysis in language development.

  15. Mapping Common Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive Processes and Their Neural Substrates. (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E


    Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.

  16. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory. (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J


    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  17. A concise introduction to image processing using C++

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Meiqing


    Image recognition has become an increasingly dynamic field with new and emerging civil and military applications in security, exploration, and robotics. Written by experts in fractal-based image and video compression, A Concise Introduction to Image Processing using C++ strengthens your knowledge of fundamentals principles in image acquisition, conservation, processing, and manipulation, allowing you to easily apply these techniques in real-world problems. The book presents state-of-the-art image processing methodology, including current industrial practices for image compression, image de-noi

  18. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. Manikandan; C.S. Celin; V.M. Gayathri


    ...), research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP) [2...

  19. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar M Schwiedrzik

    Full Text Available Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  20. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M.; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A.


    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills. PMID:26348613

  1. Face Patch Resting State Networks Link Face Processing to Social Cognition. (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Zarco, Wilbert; Everling, Stefan; Freiwald, Winrich A


    Faces transmit a wealth of social information. How this information is exchanged between face-processing centers and brain areas supporting social cognition remains largely unclear. Here we identify these routes using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys. We find that face areas functionally connect to specific regions within frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices, as well as subcortical structures supporting emotive, mnemonic, and cognitive functions. This establishes the existence of an extended face-recognition system in the macaque. Furthermore, the face patch resting state networks and the default mode network in monkeys show a pattern of overlap akin to that between the social brain and the default mode network in humans: this overlap specifically includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus, medial parietal, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, areas supporting high-level social cognition in humans. Together, these results reveal the embedding of face areas into larger brain networks and suggest that the resting state networks of the face patch system offer a new, easily accessible venue into the functional organization of the social brain and into the evolution of possibly uniquely human social skills.

  2. Processing facial emotions in adults with velo-cardio-facial syndrome: functional magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Therese; Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Deeley, Quinton; Critchley, Hugo; Henry, Jayne; Robertson, Dene; Owen, Michael; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G


    We studied the functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour in velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) using a facial emotional processing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults with this syndrome and controls matched for age and IQ. The VCFS group had less activation in the right insula and frontal brain regions and more activation in occipital regions. Genetically determined abnormalities in pathways including those involved in emotional processing may underlie deficits in social cognition in people with VCFS.

  3. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency (United States)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na


    Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.

  4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example (United States)

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence


    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  5. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing (United States)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath


    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  6. Simulink Component Recognition Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya R


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In early stages of engineering design pen-and-paper sketches are often used to quickly convey concepts and ideas. Free-form drawing is often preferable to using computer interfaces due to its ease of use fluidity and lack of constraints. The objective of this project is to create a trainable sketched Simulink component recognizer and classifying the individual Simulink components from the input block diagram. The recognized components will be placed on the new Simulink model window after which operations can be performed over them. Noise from the input image is removed by Median filter the segmentation process is done by K-means clustering algorithm and recognition of individual Simulink components from the input block diagram is done by Euclidean distance. The project aims to devise an efficient way to segment a control system block diagram into individual components for recognition.

  7. Cognitive aging on latent constructs for visual processing capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, Inge Linda


    argue that this discrepancy may be mediated by differences in age ranges, and variables of demography. The study demonstrates that SEM is a sensitive method to detect cognitive ageing effects even within a narrow age-range, and a useful approach to structure the relationships between measured variables......We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing......, and the cognitive functional foundation they supposedly represent....

  8. CognitionMaster: an object-based image analysis framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wienert, Stephan; Heim, Daniel; Kotani, Manato; Lindequist, Björn; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Ishii, Masaru; Hufnagl, Peter; Beil, Michael; Dietel, Manfred; Denkert, Carsten; Klauschen, Frederick


    Automated image analysis methods are becoming more and more important to extract and quantify image features in microscopy-based biomedical studies and several commercial or open-source tools are available...

  9. Knowledge-based approach to medical image processing monitoring (United States)

    Chameroy, Virginie; Aubry, Florent; Di Paola, Robert


    The clinical use of image processing requires both medical knowledge and expertise in image processing techniques. We have designed a knowledge-based interactive quantification support system (IQSS) to help the medical user in the use and evaluation of medical image processing, and in the development of specific protocols. As the user proceeds according to a heuristic and intuitive approach, our system is meant to work according to a similar behavior. At the basis of the reasoning of our monitoring system, there are the semantic features of an image and of image processing. These semantic features describe their intrinsic properties, and are not symbolic description of the image content. Their obtention requires modeling of medical image and of image processing procedures. Semantic interpretation function gives rules to obtain the values of the semantic features extracted from these models. Then, commonsense compatibility rules yield to compatibility criteria which are based on a partial order (a subsumption relationship) on image and image processing, enabling a comparison to be made between data available to be processed and appropriate image processing procedures. This knowledge-based approach makes IQSS modular, flexible and consequently well adapted to aid in the development and in the utilization of image processing methods for multidimensional and multimodality medical image quantification.

  10. Image processing of 2D resistivity data for imaging faults (United States)

    Nguyen, F.; Garambois, S.; Jongmans, D.; Pirard, E.; Loke, M. H.


    A methodology to locate automatically limits or boundaries between different geological bodies in 2D electrical tomography is proposed, using a crest line extraction process in gradient images. This method is applied on several synthetic models and on field data set acquired on three experimental sites during the European project PALEOSIS where trenches were dug. The results presented in this work are valid for electrical tomographies data collected with a Wenner-alpha array and computed with an l 1 norm (blocky inversion) as optimization method. For the synthetic cases, three geometric contexts are modelled: a vertical and a dipping fault juxtaposing two different geological formations and a step-like structure. A superficial layer can cover each geological structure. In these three situations, the method locates the synthetic faults and layer boundaries, and determines fault displacement but with several limitations. The estimated fault positions correlate exactly with the synthetic ones if a conductive (or no superficial) layer overlies the studied structure. When a resistive layer with a thickness of 6 m covers the model, faults are positioned with a maximum error of 1 m. Moreover, when a resistive and/or a thick top layer is present, the resolution significantly decreases for the fault displacement estimation (error up to 150%). The tests with the synthetic models for surveys using the Wenner-alpha array indicate that the proposed methodology is best suited to vertical and horizontal contacts. Application of the methodology to real data sets shows that a lateral resistivity contrast of 1:5-1:10 leads to exact faults location. A fault contact with a resistivity contrast of 1:0.75 and overlaid by a resistive layer with a thickness of 1 m gives an error location ranging from 1 to 3 m. Moreover, no result is obtained for a contact with very low contrasts (˜1:0.85) overlaid by a resistive soil. The method shows poor results when vertical gradients are greater than

  11. Impaired social cognition processes in Asperger syndrome and anorexia nervosa. In search for endophenotypes of social cognition. (United States)

    Kasperek-Zimowska, Beata Joanna; Zimowski, Janusz Grzegorz; Biernacka, Katarzyna; Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip


    A growing number of publications indicates presence of significant deficits in social cognition in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These deficits appear to be comparable in qualitative and quantitative dimension with impairment of the same functions among people with Asperger syndrome (AS). The aim of this study is to identify subject areas in the field of impairment of social cognition processes among people with Asperger syndrome and anorexia nervosa taking into consideration the potential contribution of genetic pathways of oxytocin and vasopressin in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the first part of the paper a systematic analysis of studies aimed at the evaluation of the processes of social cognition among patients with AN and AS has been carried out. The results of a significant number of studies confirm the presence of deficits in social cognition in AN and AS. In addition, among patients with AN and AS there exists a similar structure and distribution of the brain functions in regions responsible for social cognition. The second part of the paper describes the role of the oxytocin-vasopressin system (OT-AVP) in the processes of social cognition in AN and AS. Its genetic basis and the possible importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the genes: OXT, AVP, CD38, OXTR, AVPR1A and LNPEP have also been presented.

  12. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem


    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  13. Adaptive Baseband Processing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarjo, I.


    Cognitive Radio is a new paradigm in the wireless communications. It puts the intelligence and awareness dimension to the radio communication system. A Cognitive Radio system will be aware of the changing condition in its environment. The awareness in this thesis is related to the spectrum and the

  14. Moral cognitive processes explaining antisocial behavior in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.; Brugman, D.; Boom, J.; Koops, W.


    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions – self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community – and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and

  15. Cognitive Radio baseband processing on a reconfigurable platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Walters, K.H.G.

    Cognitive Radio is considered as a promising technology to address the paradox of spectrum scarcity and spectrum under-utilization. It has to operate in different bands under various data rates and combat adversary channel conditions. Therefore, Cognitive Radio needs an adaptive physical layer which

  16. Hyperspectral image representation and processing with binary partition trees


    Valero Valbuena, Silvia


    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit Enginyeria de les TIC The optimal exploitation of the information provided by hyperspectral images requires the development of advanced image processing tools. Therefore, under the title Hyperspectral image representation and Processing with Binary Partition Trees, this PhD thesis proposes the construction and the processing of a new region-based hierarchical hyperspectral image representation: the Binary Partition Tree (BPT). This hierarc...

  17. Spot restoration for GPR image post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N. Reginald


    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  18. Predictive information processing in music cognition. A critical review. (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin A; Koelsch, Stefan


    Expectation and prediction constitute central mechanisms in the perception and cognition of music, which have been explored in theoretical and empirical accounts. We review the scope and limits of theoretical accounts of musical prediction with respect to feature-based and temporal prediction. While the concept of prediction is unproblematic for basic single-stream features such as melody, it is not straight-forward for polyphonic structures or higher-order features such as formal predictions. Behavioural results based on explicit and implicit (priming) paradigms provide evidence of priming in various domains that may reflect predictive behaviour. Computational learning models, including symbolic (fragment-based), probabilistic/graphical, or connectionist approaches, provide well-specified predictive models of specific features and feature combinations. While models match some experimental results, full-fledged music prediction cannot yet be modelled. Neuroscientific results regarding the early right-anterior negativity (ERAN) and mismatch negativity (MMN) reflect expectancy violations on different levels of processing complexity, and provide some neural evidence for different predictive mechanisms. At present, the combinations of neural and computational modelling methodologies are at early stages and require further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Medication adherence as a learning process: insights from cognitive psychology. (United States)

    Rottman, Benjamin Margolin; Marcum, Zachary A; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Gellad, Walid F


    Non-adherence to medications is one of the largest contributors to sub-optimal health outcomes. Many theories of adherence include a 'value-expectancy' component in which a patient decides to take a medication partly based on expectations about whether it is effective, necessary, and tolerable. We propose reconceptualising this common theme as a kind of 'causal learning' - the patient learns whether a medication is effective, necessary, and tolerable, from experience with the medication. We apply cognitive psychology theories of how people learn cause-effect relations to elaborate this causal-learning challenge. First, expectations and impressions about a medication and beliefs about how a medication works, such as delay of onset, can shape a patient's perceived experience with the medication. Second, beliefs about medications propagate both 'top-down' and 'bottom-up', from experiences with specific medications to general beliefs about medications and vice versa. Third, non-adherence can interfere with learning about a medication, because beliefs, adherence, and experience with a medication are connected in a cyclic learning problem. We propose that by conceptualising non-adherence as a causal-learning process, clinicians can more effectively address a patient's misconceptions and biases, helping the patient develop more accurate impressions of the medication.

  20. The role of corpus callosum development in functional connectivity and cognitive processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leighton B N Hinkley

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum is hypothesized to play a fundamental role in integrating information and mediating complex behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that lack of normal callosal development can lead to deficits in functional connectivity that are related to impairments in specific cognitive domains. We examined resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC and matched controls using magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEG-I of coherence in the alpha (8-12 Hz, beta (12-30 Hz and gamma (30-55 Hz bands. Global connectivity (GC was defined as synchronization between a region and the rest of the brain. In AgCC individuals, alpha band GC was significantly reduced in the dorsolateral pre-frontal (DLPFC, posterior parietal (PPC and parieto-occipital cortices (PO. No significant differences in GC were seen in either the beta or gamma bands. We also explored the hypothesis that, in AgCC, this regional reduction in functional connectivity is explained primarily by a specific reduction in interhemispheric connectivity. However, our data suggest that reduced connectivity in these regions is driven by faulty coupling in both inter- and intrahemispheric connectivity. We also assessed whether the degree of connectivity correlated with behavioral performance, focusing on cognitive measures known to be impaired in AgCC individuals. Neuropsychological measures of verbal processing speed were significantly correlated with resting-state functional connectivity of the left medial and superior temporal lobe in AgCC participants. Connectivity of DLPFC correlated strongly with performance on the Tower of London in the AgCC cohort. These findings indicate that the abnormal callosal development produces salient but selective (alpha band only resting-state functional connectivity disruptions that correlate with cognitive impairment. Understanding the relationship between impoverished functional connectivity and cognition is a key

  1. Neural correlates of emotion?cognition interactions: A review of evidence from brain imaging investigations


    Dolcos, Florin; Iordan, Alexandru D.; Dolcos, Sanda


    Complex dynamic behaviour involves reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition. On the one hand, emotion is a ?double-edged sword? that may affect various aspects of our cognition and behaviour, by enhancing or hindering them and exerting both transient and long-term influences. On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of emotion regulation. Noteworthy, both of these reciprocal influences are subjective to individ...

  2. Cognitive-Processing Bias in Chinese Student Teachers with Strong and Weak Professional Identity


    Xin-qiang Wang; Jun-cheng Zhu; Lu Liu; Xiang-yu Chen


    Professional identity plays an important role in career development. Although many studies have examined professional identity, differences in cognitive-processing biases between Chinese student teachers with strong and weak professional identity are poorly understood. The current study adopted Tversky’s social-cognitive experimental paradigm to explore cognitive-processing biases in Chinese student teachers with strong and weak professional identity. Experiment 1 showed that participants wit...

  3. Mapping Images to Objects by Young Adults with Cognitive Disabilities (United States)

    Carmien, Stefan; Wohldman, Erica


    How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others


    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  5. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J


    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  6. Sub-image data processing in Astro-WISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwebaze, Johnson; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    Most often, astronomers are interested in a source (e.g., moving, variable, or extreme in some colour index) that lies on a few pixels of an image. However, the classical approach in astronomical data processing is the processing of the entire image or set of images even when the sole source of

  7. Image analysis for ophthalmological diagnosis image processing of Corvis ST images using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Robert


    This monograph focuses on the use of analysis and processing methods for images from the Corvis® ST tonometer. The presented analysis is associated with the quantitative, repeatable and fully automatic evaluation of the response of the eye, eyeball and cornea to an air-puff. All the described algorithms were practically implemented in MATLAB®. The monograph also describes and provides the full source code designed to perform the discussed calculations. As a result, this monograph is intended for scientists, graduate students and students of computer science and bioengineering as well as doctors wishing to expand their knowledge of modern diagnostic methods assisted by various image analysis and processing methods.

  8. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior in a non-clinical sample of women: a cross-sectional investigation. (United States)

    Moore, Makeda; Masuda, Akihiko; Hill, Mary L; Goodnight, Bradley L


    Body image flexibility, a regulation process of openly and freely experiencing disordered eating thoughts and body dissatisfaction, has been found to be a buffering factor against disordered eating symptomatology. The present cross-sectional study investigates whether body image flexibility accounts for disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility in a sample of nonclinical women, and whether body image flexibility moderates the associations between these correlates and disordered eating behavior. Participants were 421 women, age 21±5.3 years old on average, who completed a web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Results demonstrate the incremental effects of body image flexibility on disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility. Women with greater body image flexibility endorse disordered eating behavior less so than those with lower body image flexibility. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior; for women with greater body image flexibility, disordered eating cognition is not positively associated with disordered eating behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manikandan


    Full Text Available The image processing is one of the leading technologies of computer applications. Image processing is a type of signal processing, the input for image processor is an image or video frame and the output will be an image or subset of image [1]. Computer graphics and computer vision process uses an image processing techniques. Image processing systems are used in various environments like medical fields, computer-aided design (CAD, research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP [2]. Loan approval process has been tedious process, the E-LAP system attempts to reduce the complexity of loan approval process. Customers have to login to fill the loan application form online with all details and submit the form. The loan department then processes the submitted form and then sends an acknowledgement mail via the E-LAP to the requested customer with the details about list of documents required for the loan approval process [3]. The approaching customer can upload the scanned copies of all required documents. All this interaction between customer and bank take place using an E-LAP system.

  10. Engagement with the auditory processing system during targeted auditory cognitive training mediates changes in cognitive outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B; Loewy, Rachel; Vinogradov, Sophia


    Individuals with schizophrenia who engage in targeted cognitive training (TCT) of the auditory system show generalized cognitive improvements. The high degree of variability in cognitive gains maybe due to individual differences in the level of engagement of the underlying neural system target. 131 individuals with schizophrenia underwent 40 hours of TCT. We identified target engagement of auditory system processing efficiency by modeling subject-specific trajectories of auditory processing speed (APS) over time. Lowess analysis, mixed models repeated measures analysis, and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine whether APS trajectories were moderated by age and illness duration, and mediated improvements in cognitive outcome measures. We observed significant improvements in APS from baseline to 20 hours of training (initial change), followed by a flat APS trajectory (plateau) at subsequent time-points. Participants showed interindividual variability in the steepness of the initial APS change and in the APS plateau achieved and sustained between 20 and 40 hours. We found that participants who achieved the fastest APS plateau, showed the greatest transfer effects to untrained cognitive domains. There is a significant association between an individual's ability to generate and sustain auditory processing efficiency and their degree of cognitive improvement after TCT, independent of baseline neurocognition. APS plateau may therefore represent a behavioral measure of target engagement mediating treatment response. Future studies should examine the optimal plateau of auditory processing efficiency required to induce significant cognitive improvements, in the context of interindividual differences in neural plasticity and sensory system efficiency that characterize schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Circadian Rhythms in Cognitive Processes: Implications for School Learning (United States)

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída


    Circadian variations have been found in cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. These cognitive processes improve during the day and decrease during the night and early hours of the morning. Sleep deprivation further decreases these cognitive…

  12. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition (United States)

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.


    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  13. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.


    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  14. On a tool for analysing cognitive processes using exploratory think-aloud experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; van der Heijden, Beatrice


    We develop a method that enables cognitive processes to be analysed quantitatively without having a conceptual framework in place at the start of the research. With current methods, the general structure of the cognitive process in question has to be known before quantitative analyses can be

  15. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing. (United States)

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent


    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development.

  16. Subjective cognition and amyloid deposition imaging: a Pittsburgh Compound B positron emission tomography study in normal elderly individuals (United States)

    Perrotin, Audrey; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Madison, Cindee M.; Hayenga, Amynta O.; Jagust, William J.


    Background Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) as an early clinical manifestation in Alzheimer disease (AD) is a central and highly debated question. Objective To study the relationship between subjective cognition and the neuropathological hallmark of AD, amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition, imaged with [11C]-Pittsburg compound B (PiB) - positron emission tomography (PET), in normal elderly individuals. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Subjects Forty-eight cognitively normal elderly subjects (11 with high PiB uptake and 28 with low PiB uptake) were included. All underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations and MRI and PET scanning. Results High PiB subjects showed significantly lower performance than low PiB subjects on an episodic memory measure, and were less confident about their general memory abilities when required to evaluate themselves relative to other people of the same age. High and low PiB groups did not differ on the accuracy of their cognitive self-reports compare to objective cognitive performance. General memory self-reports from the whole group were significantly correlated to regional PiB uptake in the right medial prefrontal cortex (PFC)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the right precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Reduced confidence about memory abilities was associated with greater PiB in these brain regions. All results are independent of demographic variables and depressive affects. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a decrease of self-confidence about memory abilities in cognitively normal elderly subjects is related to the neuropathological hallmark of AD measured with PiB-PET imaging. The relevance of SCI in the early stages of the AD pathological process is addressed. PMID:22332189

  17. Interactive image processing for mobile devices (United States)

    Shaw, Rodney


    As the number of consumer digital images escalates by tens of billions each year, an increasing proportion of these images are being acquired using the latest generations of sophisticated mobile devices. The characteristics of the cameras embedded in these devices now yield image-quality outcomes that approach those of the parallel generations of conventional digital cameras, and all aspects of the management and optimization of these vast new image-populations become of utmost importance in providing ultimate consumer satisfaction. However this satisfaction is still limited by the fact that a substantial proportion of all images are perceived to have inadequate image quality, and a lesser proportion of these to be completely unacceptable (for sharing, archiving, printing, etc). In past years at this same conference, the author has described various aspects of a consumer digital-image interface based entirely on an intuitive image-choice-only operation. Demonstrations have been given of this facility in operation, essentially allowing criticalpath navigation through approximately a million possible image-quality states within a matter of seconds. This was made possible by the definition of a set of orthogonal image vectors, and defining all excursions in terms of a fixed linear visual-pixel model, independent of the image attribute. During recent months this methodology has been extended to yield specific user-interactive image-quality solutions in the form of custom software, which at less than 100kb is readily embedded in the latest generations of unlocked portable devices. This has also necessitated the design of new user-interfaces and controls, as well as streamlined and more intuitive versions of the user quality-choice hierarchy. The technical challenges and details will be described for these modified versions of the enhancement methodology, and initial practical experience with typical images will be described.

  18. Cognitive components of rural tourism destination images: The case of Lake Plastiras, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkali, Panagiota; Koutsouris, Alex; Chrysochou, Polymeros


    This paper aims at exploring issues related to rural tourism destination image (TDI) focusing on the cognitive component. By means of empirical research addressing tourists visiting the Lake Plastiras area, Central Greece, factors comprising the cognitive component of the area's TDI were identified...... of these factors; (3) visitors can be classified in four clusters according to the cognitive factors; (4) tourists' clusters differ in terms of age, education and income as well as number of visits and perception of the area's attractiveness. Such findings point towards the need of both a new strategy for the area...

  19. Multiscale image processing and antiscatter grids in digital radiography. (United States)

    Lo, Winnie Y; Hornof, William J; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Robertson, Ian D


    Scatter radiation is a source of noise and results in decreased signal-to-noise ratio and thus decreased image quality in digital radiography. We determined subjectively whether a digitally processed image made without a grid would be of similar quality to an image made with a grid but without image processing. Additionally the effects of exposure dose and of a using a grid with digital radiography on overall image quality were studied. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs of five dogs of various sizes were made. Four acquisition techniques were included (1) with a grid, standard exposure dose, digital image processing; (2) without a grid, standard exposure dose, digital image processing; (3) without a grid, half the exposure dose, digital image processing; and (4) with a grid, standard exposure dose, no digital image processing (to mimic a film-screen radiograph). Full-size radiographs as well as magnified images of specific anatomic regions were generated. Nine reviewers rated the overall image quality subjectively using a five-point scale. All digitally processed radiographs had higher overall scores than nondigitally processed radiographs regardless of patient size, exposure dose, or use of a grid. The images made at half the exposure dose had a slightly lower quality than those made at full dose, but this was only statistically significant in magnified images. Using a grid with digital image processing led to a slight but statistically significant increase in overall quality when compared with digitally processed images made without a grid but whether this increase in quality is clinically significant is unknown.

  20. Image processing and enhancement provided by commercial dental software programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehmann, T M; Troeltsch, E; Spitzer, K


    To identify and analyse methods/algorithms for image processing provided by various commercial software programs used in direct digital dental imaging and to map them onto a standardized nomenclature...

  1. Video image processing to create a speed sensor (United States)


    Image processing has been applied to traffic analysis in recent years, with different goals. In the report, a new approach is presented for extracting vehicular speed information, given a sequence of real-time traffic images. We extract moving edges ...

  2. Developments in medical image processing and computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Renato


    This book presents novel and advanced topics in Medical Image Processing and Computational Vision in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders. It contains extended versions of selected papers presented in VipIMAGE 2013 – IV International ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Vision and Medical Image, which took place in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 14-16 October 2013.  The twenty-two chapters were written by invited experts of international recognition and address important issues in medical image processing and computational vision, including: 3D vision, 3D visualization, colour quantisation, continuum mechanics, data fusion, data mining, face recognition, GPU parallelisation, image acquisition and reconstruction, image and video analysis, image clustering, image registration, image restoring, image segmentation, machine learning, modelling and simulation, object detection, object recognition, object tracking, optical flow, pattern recognition, pose estimat...

  3. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application (United States)

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas


    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  4. Failure to segregate emotional processing from cognitive and sensorimotor processing in major depression. (United States)

    Epstein, Jane; Perez, David Lewis; Ervin, Kate; Pan, Hong; Kocsis, James Howard; Butler, Tracy; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David Alan


    Most functional neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) employ univariate methods of statistical analysis to localize abnormalities of neural activity. Less has been done to investigate functional relations between these regions, or with regions not usually implicated in depression. Examination of intraneuronal and interneural network relations is important for the advancement of emerging network models for MDD. Principal component analysis (PCA), a multivariate statistical method, was used to examine differences in functional connectivity between 10 unmedicated patients with MDD and 12 healthy subjects engaged in a positive word viewing task. In healthy subjects, principal component (PC) 1 (33% variance) revealed functional connectivity of task-specific sensory, linguistic, and motor regions, along with functional anticorrelations in the default mode network; PC2 (10% variance) displayed functional connectivity of areas involved in emotional processing. This segregation of functions did not occur in the depressed group, where regions involved in emotional functions appeared in PC1 (34% variance) co-varying with those involved in linguistic, motor, and default mode network processing. The lack of segregation of emotional processing from cognitive and sensorimotor functions may represent a systems level neural substrate for a core phenomenon of depression: the interconnection of affective disturbance with experience, cognition, and behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Method development for verification the completeancient statues by image processing


    Natthariya Laopracha; Umaporn Saisangjan; Rapeeporn Chamchong


    Ancient statues are cultural heritages that should be preserved and maintained. Nevertheless, such invaluable statues may be targeted by vandalism or burglary. In order to guard these statues by using image processing, this research aims to develop a technique for detecting images of ancient statues with missing parts using digital image processing. This paper proposed the effective feature extraction method for detecting images of damaged statues or statues with missing parts based on the Hi...

  6. Perceptual category learning and visual processing: An exercise in computational cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Cantwell, George; Riesenhuber, Maximilian; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory


    The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning. Using bitmap images as inputs and by adjusting only a couple of learning-rate parameters, the new HMAX/COVIS model provides impressively good fits to human category-learning data from two qualitatively different experiments that used different types of category structures and different types of visual stimuli. Overall, the model provides a comprehensive neural and behavioral account of basal ganglia-mediated learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Histopathological Image Analysis Using Image Processing Techniques: An Overview


    A. D. Belsare; M.M. Mushrif


    This paper reviews computer assisted histopathology image analysis for cancer detection and classification. Histopathology refers to the examination of invasive or less invasive biopsy sample by a pathologist under microscope for locating, analyzing and classifying most of the diseases like cancer. The analysis of histoapthological image is done manually by the pathologist to detect disease which leads to subjective diagnosis of sample and varies with level of expertise of examine...

  8. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne


    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  9. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  10. Viking image processing. [digital stereo imagery and computer mosaicking (United States)

    Green, W. B.


    The paper discusses the camera systems capable of recording black and white and color imagery developed for the Viking Lander imaging experiment. Each Viking Lander image consisted of a matrix of numbers with 512 rows and an arbitrary number of columns up to a maximum of about 9,000. Various techniques were used in the processing of the Viking Lander images, including: (1) digital geometric transformation, (2) the processing of stereo imagery to produce three-dimensional terrain maps, and (3) computer mosaicking of distinct processed images. A series of Viking Lander images is included.

  11. Image processing and analysis with graphs theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lézoray, Olivier


    Covering the theoretical aspects of image processing and analysis through the use of graphs in the representation and analysis of objects, Image Processing and Analysis with Graphs: Theory and Practice also demonstrates how these concepts are indispensible for the design of cutting-edge solutions for real-world applications. Explores new applications in computational photography, image and video processing, computer graphics, recognition, medical and biomedical imaging With the explosive growth in image production, in everything from digital photographs to medical scans, there has been a drast

  12. FunImageJ: a Lisp framework for scientific image processing. (United States)

    Harrington, Kyle I S; Rueden, Curtis T; Eliceiri, Kevin W


    FunImageJ is a Lisp framework for scientific image processing built upon the ImageJ software ecosystem. The framework provides a natural functional-style for programming, while accounting for the performance requirements necessary in big data processing commonly encountered in biological image analysis. Freely available plugin to Fiji ( Installation and use instructions available at ( Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Computational models of music perception and cognition II: Domain-specific music processing (United States)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Grachten, Maarten; Herrera, Perfecto; Hazan, Amaury; Marxer, Ricard; Serra, Xavier


    In Part I [Purwins H, Herrera P, Grachten M, Hazan A, Marxer R, Serra X. Computational models of music perception and cognition I: The perceptual and cognitive processing chain. Physics of Life Reviews 2008, in press, doi:10.1016/j.plrev.2008.03.004], we addressed the study of cognitive processes that underlie auditory perception of music, and their neural correlates. The aim of the present paper is to summarize empirical findings from music cognition research that are relevant to three prominent music theoretic domains: rhythm, melody, and tonality. Attention is paid to how cognitive processes like category formation, stimulus grouping, and expectation can account for the music theoretic key concepts in these domains, such as beat, meter, voice, consonance. We give an overview of computational models that have been proposed in the literature for a variety of music processing tasks related to rhythm, melody, and tonality. Although the present state-of-the-art in computational modeling of music cognition definitely provides valuable resources for testing specific hypotheses and theories, we observe the need for models that integrate the various aspects of music perception and cognition into a single framework. Such models should be able to account for aspects that until now have only rarely been addressed in computational models of music cognition, like the active nature of perception and the development of cognitive capacities from infancy to adulthood.

  14. Survey on Neural Networks Used for Medical Image Processing. (United States)

    Shi, Zhenghao; He, Lifeng; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Hidenori


    This paper aims to present a review of neural networks used in medical image processing. We classify neural networks by its processing goals and the nature of medical images. Main contributions, advantages, and drawbacks of the methods are mentioned in the paper. Problematic issues of neural network application for medical image processing and an outlook for the future research are also discussed. By this survey, we try to answer the following two important questions: (1) What are the major applications of neural networks in medical image processing now and in the nearby future? (2) What are the major strengths and weakness of applying neural networks for solving medical image processing tasks? We believe that this would be very helpful researchers who are involved in medical image processing with neural network techniques.

  15. Cognitive processing in new and practiced discrete keying sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem B Verwey


    Full Text Available This study addresses the role of cognitive control in the initiation and execution of familiar and unfamiliar movement sequences. To become familiar with two movement sequences participants first practiced two discrete key press sequences by responding to two fixed series of 6 key specific stimuli. In the ensuing test phase they executed these two familiar and also two unfamiliar keying sequences while there was a two-third chance a tone was presented together with one randomly selected key specific stimulus in each sequence. In the counting condition of the test phase participants counted the low pitched (i.e., target tones. By and large the results support the dual processor model in which the prime role of the cognitive processor shifts from executing to initiating sequences while the gradual development of motor chunks allows a motor processor to execute the sequences. Yet, the results extend this simple model by suggesting that with little practice sequence execution is based also on some non-cognitive (perhaps associative learning mechanism and, for some participants, on the use of explicit sequence knowledge. Also, after extensive practice the cognitive processor appears to still contribute to slower responses. The occurrence of long interkey intervals was replicated suggesting that fixed 6-key sequences include several motor chunks. Yet, no indication was found that the cognitive processor is responsible for concatenating these chunks.

  16. Medical image processing on the GPU - past, present and future. (United States)

    Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Forsberg, Daniel; LaConte, Stephen M


    Graphics processing units (GPUs) are used today in a wide range of applications, mainly because they can dramatically accelerate parallel computing, are affordable and energy efficient. In the field of medical imaging, GPUs are in some cases crucial for enabling practical use of computationally demanding algorithms. This review presents the past and present work on GPU accelerated medical image processing, and is meant to serve as an overview and introduction to existing GPU implementations. The review covers GPU acceleration of basic image processing operations (filtering, interpolation, histogram estimation and distance transforms), the most commonly used algorithms in medical imaging (image registration, image segmentation and image denoising) and algorithms that are specific to individual modalities (CT, PET, SPECT, MRI, fMRI, DTI, ultrasound, optical imaging and microscopy). The review ends by highlighting some future possibilities and challenges. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Survey on Neural Networks Used for Medical Image Processing


    Shi, Zhenghao; He, Lifeng; Suzuki, Kenji; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Hidenori


    This paper aims to present a review of neural networks used in medical image processing. We classify neural networks by its processing goals and the nature of medical images. Main contributions, advantages, and drawbacks of the methods are mentioned in the paper. Problematic issues of neural network application for medical image processing and an outlook for the future research are also discussed. By this survey, we try to answer the following two important questions: (1) Wh...

  18. Application of image processing technology in yarn hairiness detection


    Zhang, Guohong; Binjie XIN


    Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is...

  19. Optimizing signal and image processing applications using Intel libraries (United States)

    Landré, Jérôme; Truchetet, Frédéric


    This paper presents optimized signal and image processing libraries from Intel Corporation. Intel Performance Primitives (IPP) is a low-level signal and image processing library developed by Intel Corporation to optimize code on Intel processors. Open Computer Vision library (OpenCV) is a high-level library dedicated to computer vision tasks. This article describes the use of both libraries to build flexible and efficient signal and image processing applications.

  20. GStreamer as a framework for image processing applications in image fusion (United States)

    Burks, Stephen D.; Doe, Joshua M.


    Multiple source band image fusion can sometimes be a multi-step process that consists of several intermediate image processing steps. Typically, each of these steps is required to be in a particular arrangement in order to produce a unique output image. GStreamer is an open source, cross platform multimedia framework, and using this framework, engineers at NVESD have produced a software package that allows for real time manipulation of processing steps for rapid prototyping in image fusion.

  1. The role of Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Intelligence in cognitive control processes


    Purificación eCheca; Pablo eFernández-Berrocal


    The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and ...

  2. Passion’s Slave? : Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processes in Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.; Field, M.; Stacy, A.W.; Sher, K.J.


    This chapter reviews the literature on cognitive processes in substance use disorders from a dual-process perspective. In dual-process models, behavior is viewed as the joint outcome of "impulsive" and "reflective" processes. Reflective processes rely on a single limited capacity mechanism and can

  3. Effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention for patients with stress-related exhaustion. (United States)

    Gavelin, Hanna Malmberg; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stenlund, Therese; Järvholm, Lisbeth Slunga; Neely, Anna Stigsdotter


    Stress-related exhaustion has been linked to a pattern of selective cognitive impairments, mainly affecting executive functioning, attention and episodic memory. Little is known about potential treatments of these cognitive deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-based cognitive training intervention, designed to target the specific cognitive impairments associated with stress-related exhaustion. To this end, patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED) were randomized to either a multimodal stress rehabilitation program with the addition of a process-based cognitive training intervention (training group, n = 27) or a treatment-as-usual control condition, consisting of multimodal stress rehabilitation with no additional training (control group, n = 32). Treatment effects were evaluated through an extensive cognitive test battery, assessing both near and far transfer effects, as well as self-report forms regarding subjective cognitive complaints and burnout levels. Results showed pronounced training-related improvements on the criterion updating task (p effects to updating (p = 0.01) and episodic memory (p = 0.04). Also, the trained group reported less subjective memory complaints (p = 0.02) and levels of burnout decreased for both groups, but more so for the trained group (p = 0.04), following the intervention. These findings suggest that process-based cognitive training may be a viable method to address the cognitive impairments associated with ED.

  4. Measuring cognitive anxiety through the consultation process for hearing aids: Older adults and their significant others. (United States)

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J; Wendel, Katrin


    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of cognitive anxiety experienced by first-time hearing aid adopters and their significant others before, during, and after hearing aid fitting. A total of 16 couples were interviewed at three points: (1) at the initial consultation for hearing aids, (2) during the hearing aid trial, and (3) 1 month following the final clinical appointment in which the hearing aids were formally adopted. Cognitive anxiety was assessed through a content analysis of the interviews using the Cognitive Anxiety Scale. Results of this study show that the levels of cognitive anxiety generally decreased across the entire consultation process for both adults with hearing impairment and their significant others. The results also indicated that couples generally experienced similar levels of cognitive anxiety at initial consultation, but their levels of cognitive anxiety differed throughout the remainder of the study. These findings highlight the importance of inclusion of significant others in the rehabilitation process. The reader will be able to: (1) discuss the relationship between cognitive anxiety and hearing impairment, (2) define cognitive anxiety, (3) discuss the impact of hearing impairment on significant others, (4) describe the experience of cognitive anxiety through the hearing aid consultation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Neuroactivation of Cognitive Processes Investigated with SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Montaldi


    Full Text Available The last ten years have seen the development and expansion of an exciting new field of neuroscientific research; functional mapping of the human brain. Whilst many of the questions addressed by this area of research could be answered using SPECT, relatively few SPECT activation studies of this kind have been carried out. The present paper combines an evaluation of SPECT procedures used for neuroactivation studies, and their comparison with other imaging modalities (i.e., PET and fMRI, with a review of SPECT neuroactivation studies that yield information concerning normal brain function with a particular emphasis on the brain activations produced by memory processing. The paper aims to describe and counter common misunderstandings regarding potential limitations of the SPECT technique, to explain and illustrate which SPECT procedures best fulfill the requirements of a neuroactivation study, and how best to obtain information about normal brain function (whether using normal healthy subjects or patients and finally to highlight SPECT’s potential future role in the functional mapping of the human brain.

  6. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens


    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing demands, acoustic...

  7. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens


    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive pro- cessing demands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were...... showed that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing...

  8. Sliding mean edge estimation. [in digital image processing (United States)

    Ford, G. E.


    A method for determining the locations of the major edges of objects in digital images is presented. The method is based on an algorithm utilizing maximum likelihood concepts. An image line-scan interval is processed to determine if an edge exists within the interval and its location. The proposed algorithm has demonstrated good results even in noisy images.

  9. Experiences with digital processing of images at INPE (United States)

    Mascarenhas, N. D. A. (Principal Investigator)


    Four different research experiments with digital image processing at INPE will be described: (1) edge detection by hypothesis testing; (2) image interpolation by finite impulse response filters; (3) spatial feature extraction methods in multispectral classification; and (4) translational image registration by sequential tests of hypotheses.

  10. A color image processing pipeline for digital microscope (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Peng; Zhuang, Zhefeng; Chen, Enguo; Yu, Feihong


    Digital microscope has found wide application in the field of biology, medicine et al. A digital microscope differs from traditional optical microscope in that there is no need to observe the sample through an eyepiece directly, because the optical image is projected directly on the CCD/CMOS camera. However, because of the imaging difference between human eye and sensor, color image processing pipeline is needed for the digital microscope electronic eyepiece to get obtain fine image. The color image pipeline for digital microscope, including the procedures that convert the RAW image data captured by sensor into real color image, is of great concern to the quality of microscopic image. The color pipeline for digital microscope is different from digital still cameras and video cameras because of the specific requirements of microscopic image, which should have the characters of high dynamic range, keeping the same color with the objects observed and a variety of image post-processing. In this paper, a new color image processing pipeline is proposed to satisfy the requirements of digital microscope image. The algorithm of each step in the color image processing pipeline is designed and optimized with the purpose of getting high quality image and accommodating diverse user preferences. With the proposed pipeline implemented on the digital microscope platform, the output color images meet the various analysis requirements of images in the medicine and biology fields very well. The major steps of color imaging pipeline proposed include: black level adjustment, defect pixels removing, noise reduction, linearization, white balance, RGB color correction, tone scale correction and gamma correction.

  11. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer (United States)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.


    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  12. Exploring Flipped Classroom Effects on Second Language Learners' Cognitive Processing (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-eun; Park, Hyunjin; Jang, Mijung; Nam, Hosung


    This study investigated the cognitive effects of the flipped classroom approach in a content-based instructional context by comparing second language learners' discourse in flipped vs. traditional classrooms in terms of (1) participation rate, (2) content of comments, (3) reasoning skills, and (4) interactional patterns. Learners in two intact…

  13. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos


    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  14. Conceptual Transformation and Cognitive Processes in Origami Paper Folding (United States)

    Tenbrink, Thora; Taylor, Holly A.


    Research on problem solving typically does not address tasks that involve following detailed and/or illustrated step-by-step instructions. Such tasks are not seen as cognitively challenging problems to be solved. In this paper, we challenge this assumption by analyzing verbal protocols collected during an Origami folding task. Participants…

  15. Short-Term Limb Immobilization Affects Cognitive Motor Processes (United States)

    Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore


    We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…

  16. Cognitive Processes in Intimate Conflict: II. Efficacy and Learned Helplessness. (United States)

    Doherty, William J.


    Presents the second part of a cognitive model of family conflict. Proposes that high efficacy enhances persistence in family problem solving while low efficacy inhibits such efforts, and that chronic low efficacy may lead to learned helplessness responses in family members. (Author)

  17. Cognitive Processes, Problem-Solving, and Effective Behavior. (United States)

    D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    A self-controlled problem-solving approach to the facilitation of effective behavior is presented. This approach involves training in the use of a cognitive strategy for dealing with real life problematic situations. An individual will progress through five phases with respect to real or hypothetical problematic situations. The first phase,…

  18. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun


    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  19. Parallel Distributed Processing at 25: Further Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T.; McClelland, James L.


    This paper introduces a special issue of "Cognitive Science" initiated on the 25th anniversary of the publication of "Parallel Distributed Processing" (PDP), a two-volume work that introduced the use of neural network models as vehicles for understanding cognition. The collection surveys the core commitments of the PDP…

  20. The Cognitive Processing of Candidates during Reading Tests: Evidence from Eye-Tracking (United States)

    Bax, Stephen


    The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…

  1. Reviewing the Role of Cognitive Load, Expertise Level, Motivation, and Unconscious Processing in Working Memory Performance (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Zainudin


    Human cognitive capacity is unavailable for conscious processing of every amount of instructional messages. Aligning an instructional design with learner expertise level would allow better use of available working memory capacity in a cognitive learning task. Motivating students to learn consciously is also an essential determinant of the capacity…

  2. Cognitive vulnerability and implicit emotional processing : imbalance in frontolimbic brain areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Renken, Remco J.; Opmeer, Esther M.; Veltman, Dick J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; de Jonge, Peter; Aleman, Andre; Harmer, Catherine J.

    It has been proposed that the neural basis for cognitive vulnerability to depression involves an imbalance in frontolimbic activity during the processing of cues with a negative affective value. Although the question is central to cognitive theory, whether this association is amplified by diagnosis

  3. Breast image pre-processing for mammographic tissue segmentation. (United States)

    He, Wenda; Hogg, Peter; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R E; Zwiggelaar, Reyer


    During mammographic image acquisition, a compression paddle is used to even the breast thickness in order to obtain optimal image quality. Clinical observation has indicated that some mammograms may exhibit abrupt intensity change and low visibility of tissue structures in the breast peripheral areas. Such appearance discrepancies can affect image interpretation and may not be desirable for computer aided mammography, leading to incorrect diagnosis and/or detection which can have a negative impact on sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography. This paper describes a novel mammographic image pre-processing method to improve image quality for analysis. An image selection process is incorporated to better target problematic images. The processed images show improved mammographic appearances not only in the breast periphery but also across the mammograms. Mammographic segmentation and risk/density classification were performed to facilitate a quantitative and qualitative evaluation. When using the processed images, the results indicated more anatomically correct segmentation in tissue specific areas, and subsequently better classification accuracies were achieved. Visual assessments were conducted in a clinical environment to determine the quality of the processed images and the resultant segmentation. The developed method has shown promising results. It is expected to be useful in early breast cancer detection, risk-stratified screening, and aiding radiologists in the process of decision making prior to surgery and/or treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: structural MR imaging findings predictive of conversion to Alzheimer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karas, G.; Sluimer, J.D.; Goekoop, R.; van der Flier, W.M.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Vrenken, H.; Scheltens, P.; Fox, N.C.; Barkhof, F.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered by many to be a prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease (AD). We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to find out whether structural differences on MR imaging could offer insight into the development of clinical AD in patients with

  5. P300 analysis techniques in cognitive impairment after brain injury : Comparison with neuropsychological and imaging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, Jan Willem; Maurits, Natasha; van Weerden, Tom; Spikman, Joke; De Keyser, Jacques; van der Naalt, Joukje


    Primary objective: To compare P300 source analysis with conventional analysis in patients with cognitive impairment after brain injury. Methods and procedures: P300 results were compared with neuropsychological test data and imaging data in 21 healthy control subjects and 33 patients with brain

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging: a biomarker for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease? (United States)

    Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Burn, David J


    Dementia is a frequent and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinicians and researchers lack a biomarker capable of tracking the structural and functional changes that underlie the evolution of cognitive dysfunction in PD. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been adopted as a biomarker in natural history and interventional studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but its utility as a biomarker for PD and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is unclear. In this review, the authors summarize the studies that have used MRI to investigate cognitive decline in PD, outline limitations of those studies, and suggest directions for future research. PD dementia is associated with extensive cortical atrophy, which may be quantified with structural MRI. More promisingly, patterns of atrophy may be present in those who have PD with MCI (PD-MCI). Subcortical white matter tract degeneration is detectable early in the disease with diffusion tensor imaging and may precede changes observed on conventional structural MRI. Although less well studied, other MR techniques, such as functional MRI, MR perfusion imaging with arterial spin labeling, and MR spectroscopy, have demonstrated differences in activation and metabolism between PD and PDD. In this review, the ability to compare studies was limited by the heterogeneity of study populations, cognitive testing methods, and imaging protocols. Future work should adopt agreed scan protocols, should be adequately powered, and should use carefully phenotyped patients to fully maximize the contribution of MRI as a biomarker for PDD. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury (United States)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo


    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  8. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan


    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  9. Topics in medical image processing and computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Renato


      The sixteen chapters included in this book were written by invited experts of international recognition and address important issues in Medical Image Processing and Computational Vision, including: Object Recognition, Object Detection, Object Tracking, Pose Estimation, Facial Expression Recognition, Image Retrieval, Data Mining, Automatic Video Understanding and Management, Edges Detection, Image Segmentation, Modelling and Simulation, Medical thermography, Database Systems, Synthetic Aperture Radar and Satellite Imagery.   Different applications are addressed and described throughout the book, comprising: Object Recognition and Tracking, Facial Expression Recognition, Image Database, Plant Disease Classification, Video Understanding and Management, Image Processing, Image Segmentation, Bio-structure Modelling and Simulation, Medical Imaging, Image Classification, Medical Diagnosis, Urban Areas Classification, Land Map Generation.   The book brings together the current state-of-the-art in the various mul...

  10. Independent component model for cognitive functions of multiple subjects using [15O]H2O PET images. (United States)

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Youn, Tak; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Kwon, Jun Soo


    An independent component model of multiple subjects' positron emission tomography (PET) images is proposed to explore the overall functional components involved in a task and to explain subject specific variations of metabolic activities under altered experimental conditions utilizing the Independent component analysis (ICA) concept. As PET images represent time-compressed activities of several cognitive components, we derived a mathematical model to decompose functional components from cross-sectional images based on two fundamental hypotheses: (1) all subjects share basic functional components that are common to subjects and spatially independent of each other in relation to the given experimental task, and (2) all subjects share common functional components throughout tasks which are also spatially independent. The variations of hemodynamic activities according to subjects or tasks can be explained by the variations in the usage weight of the functional components. We investigated the plausibility of the model using serial cognitive experiments of simple object perception, object recognition, two-back working memory, and divided attention of a syntactic process. We found that the independent component model satisfactorily explained the functional components involved in the task and discuss here the application of ICA in multiple subjects' PET images to explore the functional association of brain activations. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Assessing cognitive processes related to insomnia: A review and measurement guide for Harvey's cognitive model for the maintenance of insomnia. (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M; Johnston, Anna; Dohnt, Hayley; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael


    Cognitive processes play an important role in the maintenance, and treatment of sleep difficulties, including insomnia. In 2002, a comprehensive model was proposed by Harvey. Since its inception the model has received >300 citations, and provided researchers and clinicians with a framework for understanding and treating insomnia. The aim of this review is two-fold. First, we review the current literature investigating each factor proposed in Harvey's cognitive model of insomnia. Second, we summarise the psychometric properties of key measures used to assess the model's factors and mechanisms. From these aims, we demonstrate both strengths and limitations of the current knowledge of appropriate measurements associated with the model. This review aims to stimulate and guide future research in this area; and provide an understanding of the resources available to measure, target, and resolve cognitive factors that may maintain chronic insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pittsburgh compound-B PET white matter imaging and cognitive function in late multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Zeydan, Burcu; Lowe, Val J; Schwarz, Christopher G; Przybelski, Scott A; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Zuk, Samantha M; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Rodriguez, Moses; Machulda, Mary M; Lesnick, Timothy G; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Kantarci, Kejal; Kantarci, Orhun H


    There is growing interest in white matter (WM) imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). We studied the association of cognitive function in late multiple sclerosis (MS) with cortical and WM Pittsburgh compound-B PET (PiB-PET) binding. In the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 24 of 4869 participants had MS (12 underwent PiB-PET). Controls were age and sex matched (5:1). We used automated or semi-automated processing for quantitative image analyses and conditional logistic regression for group differences. MS patients had lower memory ( p = 0.03) and language ( p = 0.02) performance; smaller thalamic volumes ( p = 0.003); and thinner temporal ( p = 0.001) and frontal ( p = 0.045) cortices on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than controls. There was no difference in global cortical PiB standardized uptake value ratios between MS and controls ( p = 0.35). PiB uptake was lower in areas of WM hyperintensities compared to normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS ( p = 0.0002). Reduced PiB uptake in both the areas of WM hyperintensities ( r = 0.65; p = 0.02) and NAWM ( r = 0.69; p = 0.01) was associated with decreased visuospatial performance in MS. PiB uptake in the cortex in late MS is not different from normal age-matched controls. PiB uptake in the WM in late MS may be a marker of the large network structures' integrity such as those involved in visuospatial performance.

  13. The Action Execution Process Implemented in Different Cognitive Architectures: A Review (United States)

    Dong, Daqi; Franklin, Stan


    An agent achieves its goals by interacting with its environment, cyclically choosing and executing suitable actions. An action execution process is a reasonable and critical part of an entire cognitive architecture, because the process of generating executable motor commands is not only driven by low-level environmental information, but is also initiated and affected by the agent's high-level mental processes. This review focuses on cognitive models of action, or more specifically, of the action execution process, as implemented in a set of popular cognitive architectures. We examine the representations and procedures inside the action execution process, as well as the cooperation between action execution and other high-level cognitive modules. We finally conclude with some general observations regarding the nature of action execution.

  14. Beyond Emotional and Spatial Processes: Cognitive Dysfunction in a Depressive Phenotype Produced by Long Photoperiod Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail K Barnes

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction in depression has recently been given more attention and legitimacy as a core symptom of the disorder. However, animal investigations of depression-related cognitive deficits have generally focused on emotional or spatial memory processing. Additionally, the relationship between the cognitive and affective disturbances that are present in depression remains obscure. Interestingly, sleep disruption is one aspect of depression that can be related both to cognition and affect, and may serve as a link between the two. Previous studies have correlated sleep disruption with negative mood and impaired cognition. The present study investigated whether a long photoperiod-induced depressive phenotype showed cognitive deficits, as measured by novel object recognition, and displayed a cognitive vulnerability to an acute period of total sleep deprivation. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to a long photoperiod (21L:3D or a normal photoperiod (12L:12D condition. Our results indicate that our long photoperiod exposed animals showed behaviors in the forced swim test consistent with a depressive phenotype, and showed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Three hours of total sleep deprivation, however, did not significantly change novel object recognition in either group, but the trends suggest that the long photoperiod and normal photoperiod groups had different cognitive responses to total sleep deprivation. Collectively, these results underline the extent of cognitive dysfunction present in depression, and suggest that altered sleep plays a role in generating both the affective and cognitive symptoms of depression.

  15. Image Processing on Morphological Traits of Grape Germplasm


    Shiraishi, Mikio; Shiraishi, Shinichi; Kurushima, Takashi


    The methods of image processing of grape plants was developed to make the description of morphological traits more accurate and effective. A plant image was taken with a still video camera and displayed through a digital to analog conversion. A highquality image was obtained by 500 TV pieces as a horizontal resolution, and in particular, the degree of density of prostrate hairs between mature leaf veins (lower surface). The analog image was stored in an optical disk to preserve semipermanentl...

  16. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego


    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  17. [A novel image processing and analysis system for medical images based on IDL language]. (United States)

    Tang, Min


    Medical image processing and analysis system, which is of great value in medical research and clinical diagnosis, has been a focal field in recent years. Interactive data language (IDL) has a vast library of built-in math, statistics, image analysis and information processing routines, therefore, it has become an ideal software for interactive analysis and visualization of two-dimensional and three-dimensional scientific datasets. The methodology is proposed to design a novel image processing and analysis system for medical images based on IDL. There are five functional modules in this system: Image Preprocessing, Image Segmentation, Image Reconstruction, Image Measurement and Image Management. Experimental results demonstrate that this system is effective and efficient, and it has the advantages of extensive applicability, friendly interaction, convenient extension and favorable transplantation.

  18. Pyramidal Image-Processing Code For Hexagonal Grid (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.


    Algorithm based on processing of information on intensities of picture elements arranged in regular hexagonal grid. Called "image pyramid" because image information at each processing level arranged in hexagonal grid having one-seventh number of picture elements of next lower processing level, each picture element derived from hexagonal set of seven nearest-neighbor picture elements in next lower level. At lowest level, fine-resolution of elements of original image. Designed to have some properties of image-coding scheme of primate visual cortex.

  19. The operation technology of realtime image processing system (Datacube)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Park, Jin Seok


    In this project, a Sparc VME-based MaxSparc system, running the solaris operating environment, is selected as the dedicated image processing hardware for robot vision applications. In this report, the operation of Datacube maxSparc system, which is high performance realtime image processing hardware, is systematized. And image flow example programs for running MaxSparc system are studied and analyzed. The state-of-the-arts of Datacube system utilizations are studied and analyzed. For the next phase, advanced realtime image processing platform for robot vision application is going to be developed. (author). 19 refs., 71 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Vacuum Switches Arc Images Pre–processing Based on MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Dong


    Full Text Available In order to filter out the noise effects of Vacuum Switches Arc(VSAimages, enhance the characteristic details of the VSA images, and improve the visual effects of VSA images, in this paper, the VSA images were implemented pre-processing such as noise removal, edge detection, processing of image’s pseudo color and false color, and morphological processing by MATLAB software. Furthermore, the morphological characteristics of the VSA images were extracted, including isopleths of the gray value, arc area and perimeter.

  1. IPL Processing of the Viking Orbiter Images of Mars (United States)

    Ruiz, R. M.; Elliott, D. A.; Yagi, G. M.; Pomphrey, R. B.; Power, M. A.; Farrell, W., Jr.; Lorre, J. J.; Benton, W. D.; Dewar, R. E.; Cullen, L. E.


    The Viking orbiter cameras returned over 9000 images of Mars during the 6-month nominal mission. Digital image processing was required to produce products suitable for quantitative and qualitative scientific interpretation. Processing included the production of surface elevation data using computer stereophotogrammetric techniques, crater classification based on geomorphological characteristics, and the generation of color products using multiple black-and-white images recorded through spectral filters. The Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was responsible for the design, development, and application of the software required to produce these 'second-order' products.

  2. Monitoring Car Drivers' Condition Using Image Processing (United States)

    Adachi, Kazumasa; Yamamto, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Osami; Nakano, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    We have developed a car driver monitoring system for measuring drivers' consciousness, with which we aim to reduce car accidents caused by drowsiness of drivers. The system consists of the following three subsystems: an image capturing system with a pulsed infrared CCD camera, a system for detecting blinking waveform by the images using a neural network with which we can extract images of face and eye areas, and a system for measuring drivers' consciousness analyzing the waveform with a fuzzy inference technique and others. The third subsystem extracts three factors from the waveform first, and analyzed them with a statistical method, while our previous system used only one factor. Our experiments showed that the three-factor method we used this time was more effective to measure drivers' consciousness than the one-factor method we described in the previous paper. Moreover, the method is more suitable for fitting parameters of the system to each individual driver.

  3. A cognitive engineering framework for the specification of information requirements in medical imaging: application in image-guided neurosurgery. (United States)

    Morineau, T; Morandi, X; Le Moëllic, N; Jannin, P


    This study proposes a framework coming from cognitive engineering, which makes it possible to define what information content has to be displayed or emphasised from medical imaging, for assisting clinicians according to their level of expertise in the domain. We designed a rating scale to assess visualisation systems in image-guided neurosurgery with respect to the depiction of the neurosurgical work domain. This rating scale was based on a neurosurgical work domain analysis. This scale has been used to evaluate visualisation modes among neurosurgeons, residents and engineers. We asked five neurosurgeons, ten medical residents and ten engineers to rate two visualisation modes from the same data (2D MR image vs. 3D computerised image). With this method, the amount of abstract and concrete work domain information displayed by each visualisation mode can be measured. A global difference in quantities of perceived information between both images was observed. Surgeons and medical residents perceived significantly more information than engineers for both images. Unlike surgeons, however, the amount of information perceived by residents and engineers significantly decreased as information abstraction increased. We demonstrated the possibility of measuring the amount of work domain information displayed by different visualisation modes of medical imaging according to different user profiles. Engineers in charge of the design of medical image-guided surgical systems did not perceive the same set of information as surgeons or even medical residents. This framework can constitute a user-oriented approach to evaluate the amount of perceived information from image-guided surgical systems and support their design from a cognitive engineering point of view.

  4. Interactive Digital Image Processing Investigation. Phase II. (United States)


    Information 7-81 7.7.2 ITRES Control Flow 7-85 7.7.3 Program Subroutine Description 7-87 Subroutine ACUSTS 7-87 Subroutine DSPMAPP 7-88... ACUSTS to accumulate statistics for total image DO for every field CALL ACUSTS to accumulate stats for field ENDDO ENDDO Calculate total image stats CALL...The subroutines developed for ITRES are described below: 1 Subroutine ACUSTS Purpose Accumulates field statistics Usage CALL ACUSTS (BUF

  5. Digital image sequence processing, compression, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Todd R



  6. The vision guidance and image processing of AGV (United States)

    Feng, Tongqing; Jiao, Bin


    Firstly, the principle of AGV vision guidance is introduced and the deviation and deflection angle are measured by image coordinate system. The visual guidance image processing platform is introduced. In view of the fact that the AGV guidance image contains more noise, the image has already been smoothed by a statistical sorting. By using AGV sampling way to obtain image guidance, because the image has the best and different threshold segmentation points. In view of this situation, the method of two-dimensional maximum entropy image segmentation is used to solve the problem. We extract the foreground image in the target band by calculating the contour area method and obtain the centre line with the least square fitting algorithm. With the help of image and physical coordinates, we can obtain the guidance information.

  7. Influence of cognitive strategies on the pattern of cortical activation during mental subtraction. A functional imaging study in human subjects. (United States)

    Burbaud, P; Camus, O; Guehl, D; Bioulac, B; Caillé, J; Allard, M


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 1.5 T was used to investigate the influence of cognitive strategies on cortical activation during mental calculation. Twenty-nine right-handed subjects performed a serial subtraction of prime numbers. Even though a common corpus of brain areas was activated during this mental calculation, differences appeared between subjects in function of their spontaneous cognitive strategy. In subjects using a so called verbal strategy (n=15), the main activation was located in the whole left dorsolateral frontal cortex with a little activation of the inferior parietal cortex. In subjects using a so called visual strategy (n=14), a bilateral activation in the prefrontal cortex and a high activation in the left inferior parietal cortex were observed. These results demonstrate that numbers are processed through a distributed network of cortical areas, the lateralization of which is clearly influenced by subject strategy.

  8. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD Camera, Image Processing, Artificial Neural Network ...

  9. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.


    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  10. [Filing and processing systems of ultrasonic images in personal computers]. (United States)

    Filatov, I A; Bakhtin, D A; Orlov, A V


    The paper covers the software pattern for the ultrasonic image filing and processing system. The system records images on a computer display in real time or still, processes them by local filtration techniques, makes different measurements and stores the findings in the graphic database. It is stressed that the database should be implemented as a network version.

  11. Digital image processing for two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Lim, Jae Yun [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A photographic method to measure the key parameters of two-phase flow is realized by using a digital image processing technique. The 8 bit gray level and 256 x 256 pixels are used to generates the image data which is treated to get the parameters of two-phase flow. It is observed that the key parameters could be identified by treating data obtained by the digital image processing technique.

  12. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing


    Ouyang, Aiguo; Luo, Chagen; Zhou, Chao


    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...



    Sanjay B Patil; Dr Shrikant K Bodhe


    In order to increase the average sugarcane yield per acres with minimum cost farmers are adapting precision farming technique. This paper includes the area measurement of sugarcane leaf based on image processing method which is useful for plants growth monitoring, to analyze fertilizer deficiency and environmental stress,to measure diseases severity. In image processing method leaf area is calculated through pixel number statistic. Unit pixel in the same digital images represent the same size...

  14. Future trends in image processing software and hardware (United States)

    Green, W. B.


    JPL image processing applications are examined, considering future trends in fields such as planetary exploration, electronics, astronomy, computers, and Landsat. Attention is given to adaptive search and interrogation of large image data bases, the display of multispectral imagery recorded in many spectral channels, merging data acquired by a variety of sensors, and developing custom large scale integrated chips for high speed intelligent image processing user stations and future pipeline production processors.

  15. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders. (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cobo, María José; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo


    Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through “cool” (i.e., not emotionally laden) and “hot” (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities. PMID:27303277

  17. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José eGutiérrez-Cobo


    Full Text Available Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI, or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through cool (i.e., not emotionally laden and hot (i.e., emotionally laden laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test. We identified twenty-six eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals’ emotional information processing abilities.

  18. Large scale parallel document image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Schomaker, Lambert; Valentijn, Edwin; Yanikoglu, BA; Berkner, K


    Building a system which allows to search a very large database of document images. requires professionalization of hardware and software, e-science and web access. In astrophysics there is ample experience dealing with large data sets due to an increasing number of measurement instruments. The

  19. 8th International Image Processing and Communications Conference

    CERN Document Server


    This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 8th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2016) held in Bydgoszcz, Poland September 7-9 2016. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods of image processing, computer vision is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

  20. Implementing full backtracking facilities for Prolog-based image processing (United States)

    Jones, Andrew C.; Batchelor, Bruce G.


    PIP (Prolog image processing) is a system currently under development at UWCC, designed to support interactive image processing using the PROLOG programming language. In this paper we discuss Prolog-based image processing paradigms and present a meta-interpreter developed by the first author, designed to support an approach to image processing in PIP which is more in the spirit of Prolog than was previously possible. This meta-interpreter allows backtracking over image processing operations in a manner transparent to the programmer. Currently, for space-efficiency, the programmer needs to indicate over which operations the system may backtrack in a program; however, a number of extensions to the present work, including a more intelligent approach intended to obviate this need, are mentioned at the end of this paper, which the present meta-interpreter will provide a basis for investigating in the future.

  1. 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference

    CERN Document Server


    This book collects a series of research papers in the area of Image Processing and Communications which not only introduce a summary of current technology but also give an outlook of potential feature problems in this area. The key objective of the book is to provide a collection of comprehensive references on some recent theoretical development as well as novel applications in image processing and communications. The book is divided into two parts and presents the proceedings of the 6th International Image Processing and Communications Conference (IP&C 2014) held in Bydgoszcz, 10-12 September 2014. Part I deals with image processing. A comprehensive survey of different methods  of image processing, computer vision  is also presented. Part II deals with the telecommunications networks and computer networks. Applications in these areas are considered.

  2. AstroImageJ: Image Processing and Photometric Extraction for Ultra-precise Astronomical Light Curves (United States)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Hessman, Frederic V.


    ImageJ is a graphical user interface (GUI) driven, public domain, Java-based, software package for general image processing traditionally used mainly in life sciences fields. The image processing capabilities of ImageJ are useful and extendable to other scientific fields. Here we present AstroImageJ (AIJ), which provides an astronomy specific image display environment and tools for astronomy specific image calibration and data reduction. Although AIJ maintains the general purpose image processing capabilities of ImageJ, AIJ is streamlined for time-series differential photometry, light curve detrending and fitting, and light curve plotting, especially for applications requiring ultra-precise light curves (e.g., exoplanet transits). AIJ reads and writes standard Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) files, as well as other common image formats, provides FITS header viewing and editing, and is World Coordinate System aware, including an automated interface to the web portal for plate solving images. AIJ provides research grade image calibration and analysis tools with a GUI driven approach, and easily installed cross-platform compatibility. It enables new users, even at the level of undergraduate student, high school student, or amateur astronomer, to quickly start processing, modeling, and plotting astronomical image data with one tightly integrated software package.

  3. Full Parallax Integral 3D Display and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gook Lee


    Full Text Available Purpose – Full parallax integral 3D display is one of the promising future displays that provide different perspectives according to viewing direction. In this paper, the authors review the recent integral 3D display and image processing techniques for improving the performance, such as viewing resolution, viewing angle, etc.Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, to improve the viewing resolution of 3D images in the integral imaging display with lenslet array, the authors present 3D integral imaging display with focused mode using the time-multiplexed display. Compared with the original integral imaging with focused mode, the authors use the electrical masks and the corresponding elemental image set. In this system, the authors can generate the resolution-improved 3D images with the n×n pixels from each lenslet by using n×n time-multiplexed display. Secondly, a new image processing technique related to the elemental image generation for 3D scenes is presented. With the information provided by the Kinect device, the array of elemental images for an integral imaging display is generated.Findings – From their first work, the authors improved the resolution of 3D images by using the time-multiplexing technique through the demonstration of the 24 inch integral imaging system. Authors’ method can be applied to a practical application. Next, the proposed method with the Kinect device can gain a competitive advantage over other methods for the capture of integral images of big 3D scenes. The main advantage of fusing the Kinect and the integral imaging concepts is the acquisition speed, and the small amount of handled data.Originality / Value – In this paper, the authors review their recent methods related to integral 3D display and image processing technique.Research type – general review.

  4. SlideJ: An ImageJ plugin for automated processing of whole slide images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    Full Text Available The digital slide, or Whole Slide Image, is a digital image, acquired with specific scanners, that represents a complete tissue sample or cytological specimen at microscopic level. While Whole Slide image analysis is recognized among the most interesting opportunities, the typical size of such images-up to Gpixels- can be very demanding in terms of memory requirements. Thus, while algorithms and tools for processing and analysis of single microscopic field images are available, Whole Slide images size makes the direct use of such tools prohibitive or impossible. In this work a plugin for ImageJ, named SlideJ, is proposed with the objective to seamlessly extend the application of image analysis algorithms implemented in ImageJ for single microscopic field images to a whole digital slide analysis. The plugin has been complemented by examples of macro in the ImageJ scripting language to demonstrate its use in concrete situations.

  5. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.


    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  6. Treatment of impaired affective information processing and social cognition in neuropsychiatric patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermühle, P.A.M.; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.


    Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting

  7. Making the black box of collaborative learning transparent: Combining process-oriented and cognitive load approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Jeroen; Kirschner, Femke; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred


    Janssen, J., Kirschner, F., Erkens, G., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2010). Making the black box of collaborative learning transparent: Combining process-oriented and cognitive load approaches. Educational Psychology Review, 22(2), 139-154.

  8. Insight in bipolar disorder : associations with cognitive and emotional processing and illness characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf - Eldering, Marieke; van der Meer, Lisette; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther; Nolen, W.A.; Aleman, Andre

    Objective: To investigate the multifactorial relationship between illness insight, cognitive and emotional processes, and illness characteristics in bipolar disorder patients. Methods: Data from 85 euthymic or mildly to moderately depressed bipolar disorder patients were evaluated. Insight was

  9. Psychotherapy for social phobia: how do alliance and cognitive process interact to produce outcome? (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M; Wampold, Bruce E


    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and how alliance and specific cognitive process may interact to influence outcome. Eighty social phobic patients were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive or interpersonal therapy, conducted mostly in groups. They completed process and outcome measures weekly. The ratings were analyzed with mixed models. It was found that initial patient-rated alliance predicted the course of social anxiety throughout therapy and that this effect was indirect through the cognitive process. However, this indirect effect did not interact with treatment. There was a trend toward an indirect effect of weekly variations in alliance rated by the individual therapist through weekly variations in subsequent cognitive process on weekly variations in subsequent social anxiety. Thus, the results support a facilitative rather than an active ingredient perspective on the role of alliance.

  10. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitive study using cognitive interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.


    Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees

  11. Deep architecture neural network-based real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy. (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro


    To develop real-time image processing for image-guided radiotherapy, we evaluated several neural network models for use with different imaging modalities, including X-ray fluoroscopic image denoising. Setup images of prostate cancer patients were acquired with two oblique X-ray fluoroscopic units. Two types of residual network were designed: a convolutional autoencoder (rCAE) and a convolutional neural network (rCNN). We changed the convolutional kernel size and number of convolutional layers for both networks, and the number of pooling and upsampling layers for rCAE. The ground-truth image was applied to the contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method of image processing. Network models were trained to keep the quality of the output image close to that of the ground-truth image from the input image without image processing. For image denoising evaluation, noisy input images were used for the training. More than 6 convolutional layers with convolutional kernels >5×5 improved image quality. However, this did not allow real-time imaging. After applying a pair of pooling and upsampling layers to both networks, rCAEs with >3 convolutions each and rCNNs with >12 convolutions with a pair of pooling and upsampling layers achieved real-time processing at 30 frames per second (fps) with acceptable image quality. Use of our suggested network achieved real-time image processing for contrast enhancement and image denoising by the use of a conventional modern personal computer. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. (United States)

    Madden, David J; Bennett, Ilana J; Burzynska, Agnieszka; Potter, Guy G; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Song, Allen W


    In this article we review recent research on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of white matter (WM) integrity and the implications for age-related differences in cognition. Neurobiological mechanisms defined from DTI analyses suggest that a primary dimension of age-related decline in WM is a decline in the structural integrity of myelin, particularly in brain regions that myelinate later developmentally. Research integrating behavioral measures with DTI indicates that WM integrity supports the communication among cortical networks, particularly those involving executive function, perceptual speed, and memory (i.e., fluid cognition). In the absence of significant disease, age shares a substantial portion of the variance associated with the relation between WM integrity and fluid cognition. Current data are consistent with one model in which age-related decline in WM integrity contributes to a decreased efficiency of communication among networks for fluid cognitive abilities. Neurocognitive disorders for which older adults are at risk, such as depression, further modulate the relation between WM and cognition, in ways that are not as yet entirely clear. Developments in DTI technology are providing a new insight into both the neurobiological mechanisms of aging WM and the potential contribution of DTI to understanding functional measures of brain activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes; La radiotherapie affecte la cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  14. Optical Processing of Speckle Images with Bacteriorhodopsin for Pattern Recognition (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)


    Logarithmic processing of images with multiplicative noise characteristics can be utilized to transform the image into one with an additive noise distribution. This simplifies subsequent image processing steps for applications such as image restoration or correlation for pattern recognition. One particularly common form of multiplicative noise is speckle, for which the logarithmic operation not only produces additive noise, but also makes it of constant variance (signal-independent). We examine the optical transmission properties of some bacteriorhodopsin films here and find them well suited to implement such a pointwise logarithmic transformation optically in a parallel fashion. We present experimental results of the optical conversion of speckle images into transformed images with additive, signal-independent noise statistics using the real-time photochromic properties of bacteriorhodopsin. We provide an example of improved correlation performance in terms of correlation peak signal-to-noise for such a transformed speckle image.

  15. Energy-Driven Image Interpolation Using Gaussian Process Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zi


    Full Text Available Image interpolation, as a method of obtaining a high-resolution image from the corresponding low-resolution image, is a classical problem in image processing. In this paper, we propose a novel energy-driven interpolation algorithm employing Gaussian process regression. In our algorithm, each interpolated pixel is predicted by a combination of two information sources: first is a statistical model adopted to mine underlying information, and second is an energy computation technique used to acquire information on pixel properties. We further demonstrate that our algorithm can not only achieve image interpolation, but also reduce noise in the original image. Our experiments show that the proposed algorithm can achieve encouraging performance in terms of image visualization and quantitative measures.

  16. Acquisition and Post-Processing of Immunohistochemical Images. (United States)

    Sedgewick, Jerry


    Augmentation of digital images is almost always a necessity in order to obtain a reproduction that matches the appearance of the original. However, that augmentation can mislead if it is done incorrectly and not within reasonable limits. When procedures are in place for insuring that originals are archived, and image manipulation steps reported, scientists not only follow good laboratory practices, but avoid ethical issues associated with post processing, and protect their labs from any future allegations of scientific misconduct. Also, when procedures are in place for correct acquisition of images, the extent of post processing is minimized or eliminated. These procedures include white balancing (for brightfield images), keeping tonal values within the dynamic range of the detector, frame averaging to eliminate noise (typically in fluorescence imaging), use of the highest bit depth when a choice is available, flatfield correction, and archiving of the image in a non-lossy format (not JPEG).When post-processing is necessary, the commonly used applications for correction include Photoshop, and ImageJ, but a free program (GIMP) can also be used. Corrections to images include scaling the bit depth to higher and lower ranges, removing color casts from brightfield images, setting brightness and contrast, reducing color noise, reducing "grainy" noise, conversion of pure colors to grayscale, conversion of grayscale to colors typically used in fluorescence imaging, correction of uneven illumination (flatfield correction), merging color images (fluorescence), and extending the depth of focus. These corrections are explained in step-by-step procedures in the chapter that follows.

  17. Entropy-Based Block Processing for Satellite Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhyun Lee


    Full Text Available Image registration is an important task in many computer vision applications such as fusion systems, 3D shape recovery and earth observation. Particularly, registering satellite images is challenging and time-consuming due to limited resources and large image size. In such scenario, state-of-the-art image registration methods such as scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT may not be suitable due to high processing time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on block processing via entropy to register satellite images. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using different real images. The comparative analysis shows that it not only reduces the processing time but also enhances the accuracy.

  18. Gaussian process interpolation for uncertainty estimation in image registration. (United States)

    Wachinger, Christian; Golland, Polina; Reuter, Martin; Wells, William


    Intensity-based image registration requires resampling images on a common grid to evaluate the similarity function. The uncertainty of interpolation varies across the image, depending on the location of resampled points relative to the base grid. We propose to perform Bayesian inference with Gaussian processes, where the covariance matrix of the Gaussian process posterior distribution estimates the uncertainty in interpolation. The Gaussian process replaces a single image with a distribution over images that we integrate into a generative model for registration. Marginalization over resampled images leads to a new similarity measure that includes the uncertainty of the interpolation. We demonstrate that our approach increases the registration accuracy and propose an efficient approximation scheme that enables seamless integration with existing registration methods.

  19. Universal Gestational Age Effects on Cognitive and Basic Mathematic Processing: 2 Cohorts in 2 Countries


    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia


    Objective To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. Study design The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41?weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, ...

  20. Digital processing of stereoscopic image pairs. (United States)

    Levine, M. D.


    The problem under consideration is concerned with scene analysis during robot navigation on the surface of Mars. In this mode, the world model of the robot must be continuously updated to include sightings of new obstacles and scientific samples. In order to describe the content of a particular scene, it is first necessary to segment it into known objects. One technique for accomplishing this segmentation is by analyzing the pair of images produced by the stereoscopic cameras mounted on the robot. A heuristic method is presented for determining the range for each point in the two-dimensional scene under consideration. The method is conceptually based on a comparison of corresponding points in the left and right images of the stereo pair. However, various heuristics which are adaptive in nature are used to make the algorithm both efficient and accurate. Examples are given of the use of this so-called range picture for the purpose of scene segmentation.

  1. Pericortical Enhancement on Delayed Postgadolinium Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer Disease. (United States)

    Freeze, W M; Schnerr, R S; Palm, W M; Jansen, J F; Jacobs, H I; Hoff, E I; Verhey, F R; Backes, W H


    Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition). We assessed the appearance of pericortical enhancement after contrast administration, MR imaging markers of cerebrovascular damage, and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Three participants who were positive for pericortical enhancement (1 with normal cognition and 2 with mild cognitive impairment) were followed up for approximately 2 years. In vitro experiments with a range of gadolinium concentrations served to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the postcontrast FLAIR signals. Postcontrast pericortical enhancement was observed in 21 participants (28%), including 6 individuals with Alzheimer disease (40%), 10 with mild cognitive impairment (30%), and 5 with normal cognition (19%). Pericortical enhancement was positively associated with age (P enhanced signal remained stable across time in all follow-up cases. The in vitro measurements confirmed that FLAIR imaging is highly sensitive for the detection of low gadolinium concentrations in CSF, but not in cerebral tissue. Postcontrast pericortical enhancement on FLAIR images occurs in older individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia. It may represent chronic focal superficial BBB leakage. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine its clinical significance. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Neurophysiological evidence of an association between cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Lo


    Full Text Available Interactions between cognitive control and affective processes, such as defensive reactivity, are intimately involved in healthy and unhealthy human development. However, cognitive control and defensive reactivity processes are often studied in isolation and rarely examined in early childhood. To address these gaps, we examined the relationships between multiple neurophysiological measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity in young children. Specifically, we assessed two event-related potentials thought to index cognitive control processes – the error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe – measured across two tasks, and two markers of defensive reactivity processes – startle reflex and resting parietal asymmetry – in a sample of 3- to 7-year old children. Results revealed that measures of cognitive control and defensive reactivity were related such that evidence of poor cognitive control (smaller ERN was associated with high defensive reactivity (larger startle and greater right relative to left parietal activity. The strength of associations between the ERN and measures of defensive reactivity did not vary by age, providing evidence that poor cognitive control relates to greater defensive reactivity across early childhood years.

  3. An application of image processing techniques in computed tomography image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan


    An estimate of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue at differing positions around the body was required in a study examining body composition. To eliminate human error associated with the manual placement of markers for measurements and to facilitate the collection of data from a large...... number of animals and image slices, automation of the process was desirable. The open-source and free image analysis program ImageJ was used. A macro procedure was created that provided the required functionality. The macro performs a number of basic image processing procedures. These include an initial...... process designed to remove the scanning table from the image and to center the animal in the image. This is followed by placement of a vertical line segment from the mid point of the upper border of the image to the image center. Measurements are made between automatically detected outer and inner...

  4. Image processing based detection of lung cancer on CT scan images (United States)

    Abdillah, Bariqi; Bustamam, Alhadi; Sarwinda, Devvi


    In this paper, we implement and analyze the image processing method for detection of lung cancer. Image processing techniques are widely used in several medical problems for picture enhancement in the detection phase to support the early medical treatment. In this research we proposed a detection method of lung cancer based on image segmentation. Image segmentation is one of intermediate level in image processing. Marker control watershed and region growing approach are used to segment of CT scan image. Detection phases are followed by image enhancement using Gabor filter, image segmentation, and features extraction. From the experimental results, we found the effectiveness of our approach. The results show that the best approach for main features detection is watershed with masking method which has high accuracy and robust.

  5. The Effect of an Enrichment Reading Program on the Cognitive Processes and Neural Structures of Children Having Reading Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gül KURUYER


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to explain the effect of an enrichment reading program on the cognitive processes and neural structures of children experiencing reading difficulties. The current study was carried out in line with a single-subject research method and the between-subjects multiple probe design belonging to this method. This research focuses on a group of eight students with reading difficulties. Within the context of the study, memory capacities, attention spans, reading-related activation and white matter pathways of the students were determined before and after the application of the enrichment reading program. This determination process was carried out in two stages. Neuro-imaging was performed in the first stage and in the second stage the students’ cognitive processes and neural structures were investigated in terms of focusing attention and memory capacities by using the following tools: Stroop Test TBAG Form, Auditory Verbal Digit Span Test-Form B, Cancellation Test and Number Order Learning Test. The results obtained show that the enrichment reading program resulted in an improvement in the reading profiles of the students having reading difficulties in terms of their cognitive processes and neural structures.

  6. Short Project-Based Learning with MATLAB Applications to Support the Learning of Video-Image Processing (United States)

    Gil, Pablo


    University courses concerning Computer Vision and Image Processing are generally taught using a traditional methodology that is focused on the teacher rather than on the students. This approach is consequently not effective when teachers seek to attain cognitive objectives involving their students' critical thinking. This manuscript covers the…

  7. Imaging changes associated with cognitive abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease (United States)

    Koshimori, Yuko; Segura, Barbara; Christopher, Leigh; Lobaugh, Nancy; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Mizrahi, Romina; Hamani, Clement; Lang, Anthony E.; Aminian, Kelly; Houle, Sylvain


    The current study investigates both gray and white matter changes in non-demented Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with varying degrees of mild cognitive deficits and elucidates the relationships between the structural changes and clinical sequelae of PD. Twenty-six PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in the study. Participants underwent T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. Their cognition was assessed using a neuropsychological battery. Compared with HCs, PD patients showed significant cortical thinning in sensorimotor (left pre- and postcentral gyri) and cognitive (left dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus [DLSFG]) regions. The DLSFG cortical thinning correlated with executive and global cognitive impairment in PD patients. PD patients showed white matter abnormalities as well, primarily in bilateral frontal and temporal regions, which also correlated with executive and global cognitive impairment. These results seem to suggest that both gray and white matter changes in the frontal regions may constitute an early pathological substrate of cognitive impairment of PD providing a sensitive biomarker for brain changes in PD. PMID:24816399

  8. Cognitive impairment and magnetic resonance imaging correlates in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Gouveia, A; Dias, S P; Santos, T; Rocha, H; Coelho, C R; Ruano, L; Galego, O; Diogo, M C; Seixas, D; Sá, M J; Batista, S


    To characterize cognitive impairment in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and to correlate the pattern of cognitive deficits with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric data. In a multicenter cross-sectional study, we recruited consecutive patients with PPMS as well as age, sex, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and brain MRI was performed in patients with PPMS for analysis of lesion load, subcortical GM volumes, and regional cortical volumes. We recruited 55 patients with PPMS and 36 HC. Thirty-six patients were included in the MRI analysis. Patients with PPMS performed significantly worse than HC in all NP tests. Subcortical GM volume was significantly correlated with all NP tests, except for Stroop Test, with the largest effect for the thalamus (r=-.516 [BVMT-R DR, P=.016 FDR-corrected] to r=.664 [SDMT, Pstepwise linear regression model, thalamic volume was the only predictor of performance in all NP tests. Cognitive impairment is common in PPMS and affects all evaluated cognitive domains. Subcortical GM volume, particularly of the thalamus, is a strong predictor of cognitive performance, suggesting it has a central role in the pathophysiology of PPMS-related cognitive dysfunction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Gray and white matter imaging: A biomarker for cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease? (United States)

    Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; Yarnall, Alison J; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T


    The aim of this work was to investigate the cortical and white matter changes that underlie cognitive impairment in patients with incident Parkinson's disease (PD) disease using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Newly diagnosed nondemented PD (n = 125) and control subjects (n = 50) were recruited from the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease Study and completed cognitive assessments and 3T structural and diffusion tensor MR imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate the relationship between gray matter volume and cognitive ability. Microstructural white matter changes were assessed with diffusion tensor imaging measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity using tract-based spatial statistics. Increased mean diffusivity was observed bilaterally in subjects with PD, relative to controls (P = 0.019). Increased mean diffusivity was associated with performance on the semantic fluency and Tower of London tasks in frontal and parietal white matter tracts, including the cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. There was no difference in total gray matter volume between groups; however, bilateral reductions in frontal and parietal gray matter volume were associated with reduced performance on measures of executive function in PD subjects. At the earliest stages of PD, regionally specific increases in central white matter mean diffusivity are present and suggest early axonal damage. Such changes are not accompanied by significant gray matter volume loss and are consistent with proposed models of pathological progression of the disease. Structural MRI, especially diffusion tensor imaging analysis, offers potential as a noninvasive biomarker reflecting cognitive impairment in PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Color error in the digital camera image capture process. (United States)

    Penczek, John; Boynton, Paul A; Splett, Jolene D


    The color error in images taken by digital cameras is evaluated with respect to its sensitivity to the image capture conditions. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the dependence of image color error on camera technology, illumination spectra, and lighting uniformity. The measurement conditions were selected to simulate the variation that might be expected in typical telemedicine situations. Substantial color errors were observed, depending on the measurement conditions. Several image post-processing methods were also investigated for their effectiveness in reducing the color errors. The results of this study quantify the level of color error that may occur in the digital camera image capture process, and provide guidance for improving the color accuracy through appropriate changes in that process and in post-processing.

  11. Grounding cognitive-level processes in behavior: the view from dynamic systems theory. (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Jenkins, Gavin W; Spencer, John P


    Marr's seminal work laid out a program of research by specifying key questions for cognitive science at different levels of analysis. Because dynamic systems theory (DST) focuses on time and interdependence of components, DST research programs come to very different conclusions regarding the nature of cognitive change. We review a specific DST approach to cognitive-level processes: dynamic field theory (DFT). We review research applying DFT to several cognitive-level processes: object permanence, naming hierarchical categories, and inferring intent, that demonstrate the difference in understanding of behavior and cognition that results from a DST perspective. These point to a central challenge for cognitive science research as defined by Marr-emergence. We argue that appreciating emergence raises questions about the utility of computational-level analyses and opens the door to insights concerning the origin of novel forms of behavior and thought (e.g., a new chess strategy). We contend this is one of the most fundamental questions about cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Measuring emotional processes in animals: the utility of a cognitive approach. (United States)

    Paul, Elizabeth S; Harding, Emma J; Mendl, Michael


    Contemporary researchers regard emotional states as multifaceted, comprising physiological, behavioural, cognitive and subjective components. Subjective, conscious experience of emotion can be inferred from linguistic report in humans, but is inaccessible to direct measurement in non-human animals. However, measurement of other components of emotion is possible, and a variety of methods exist for monitoring emotional processes in animals by measuring behavioural and physiological changes. These are important tools, but they have limitations including difficulties of interpretation and the likelihood that many may be sensitive indicators of emotional arousal but not valence-pleasantness/unpleasantness. Cognitive components of emotion are a largely unexplored source of information about animal emotions, despite the fact that cognition-emotion links have been extensively researched in human cognitive science indicating that cognitive processes-appraisals of stimuli, events and situations-play an important role in the generation of emotional states, and that emotional states influence cognitive functioning by inducing attentional, memory and judgement biases. Building on this research, it is possible to design non-linguistic cognitive measures of animal emotion that may be especially informative in offering new methods for assessing emotional valence (positive as well as negative), discriminating same-valenced emotion of different types, identifying phenotypes with a cognitive predisposition to develop affective disorders, and perhaps shedding light on the issue of conscious emotional experiences in animals.

  13. Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes Visualization and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Pradipta Kumar


    Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes: Visualization and Analysis applies Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques to complex heat and mass transfer processes. Several applications are considered where thermal and concentration fields play a central role. These include vortex shedding and suppression from stationary and oscillating bluff bodies such as cylinders, convection around crystals growing from solution, and buoyant jets. Many of these processes are unsteady and three dimensional. The interpretation and analysis of images recorded are discussed in the text.

  14. Collective Memory, A Fusion of cognitive Mechanisms and cultural Processes. (United States)

    Cicourel, Aaron V


    The paper assumes a theoretical-empirical interface exists between top-down (structural concepts) and bottom-up (cognitive mechanisms and socio-cultural interactions) approaches to collective memory. Both deal with collaborative group accounts, material culture such as artefacts and representational re-descriptive technologies. Anthropology has shown how communal life was based on story telling, rituals, artefacts, routine practices constitutive of daily life representational re-descriptions and the reproduction of implicit and explicit emotional normative belief systems embedded in kinship and social network relations.

  15. Optical image processing by using a photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Bao-Lai, E-mail: [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Ying; Zhang, Su-Heng; Guo, Qing-Lin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng [College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Simmonds, Paul J. [Department of Physics and Micron School of Materials Science & Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wang, Zhao-Qi [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    By combining the photorefractive spatial soliton waveguide of a Ce:SBN crystal with a coherent 4-f system we are able to manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image to perform edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations. Theoretical analysis of this optical image processor is presented to interpret the experimental observations. This work provides an approach for optical image processing by using photorefractive spatial solitons. - Highlights: • A coherent 4-f system with the spatial soliton waveguide as spatial frequency filter. • Manipulate the spatial frequencies of an input optical image. • Achieve edge-enhancement and direct component enhancement operations of an optical image.

  16. Enhanced structural connectivity within a brain sub-network supporting working memory and engagement processes after cognitive training. (United States)

    Román, Francisco J; Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Martínez, Kenia; Karama, Sherif; Burgaleta, Miguel; Evans, Alan C; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Colom, Roberto


    The structural connectome provides relevant information about experience and training-related changes in the brain. Here, we used network-based statistics (NBS) and graph theoretical analyses to study structural changes in the brain as a function of cognitive training. Fifty-six young women were divided in two groups (experimental and control). We assessed their cognitive function before and after completing a working memory intervention using a comprehensive battery that included fluid and crystallized abilities, working memory and attention control, and we also obtained structural MRI images. We acquired and analyzed diffusion-weighted images to reconstruct the anatomical connectome and we computed standardized changes in connectivity as well as group differences across time using NBS. We also compared group differences relying on a variety of graph-theory indices (clustering, characteristic path length, global and local efficiency and strength) for the whole network as well as for the sub-network derived from NBS analyses. Finally, we calculated correlations between these graph indices and training performance as well as the behavioral changes in cognitive function. Our results revealed enhanced connectivity for the training group within one specific network comprised of nodes/regions supporting cognitive processes required by the training (working memory, interference resolution, inhibition, and task engagement). Significant group differences were also observed for strength and global efficiency indices in the sub-network detected by NBS. Therefore, the connectome approach is a valuable method for tracking the effects of cognitive training interventions across specific sub-networks. Moreover, this approach allowsfor the computation of graph theoretical network metricstoquantifythetopological architecture of the brain networkdetected. The observed structural brain changes support the behavioral results reported earlier (see Colom, Román, et al., 2013

  17. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wycliffe Kabaywe Yumba


    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC. This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC and individual listeners’ responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men, aged 33–80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89, with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1 linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP, (2 linear amplification with noise reduction (NR, and (3 non-linear amplification without NR (“fast-acting compression”. The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise. We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  18. Cognitive Processing Speed, Working Memory, and the Intelligibility of Hearing Aid-Processed Speech in Persons with Hearing Impairment. (United States)

    Yumba, Wycliffe Kabaywe


    Previous studies have demonstrated that successful listening with advanced signal processing in digital hearing aids is associated with individual cognitive capacity, particularly working memory capacity (WMC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive abilities (cognitive processing speed and WMC) and individual listeners' responses to digital signal processing settings in adverse listening conditions. A total of 194 native Swedish speakers (83 women and 111 men), aged 33-80 years (mean = 60.75 years, SD = 8.89), with bilateral, symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss who had completed a lexical decision speed test (measuring cognitive processing speed) and semantic word-pair span test (SWPST, capturing WMC) participated in this study. The Hagerman test (capturing speech recognition in noise) was conducted using an experimental hearing aid with three digital signal processing settings: (1) linear amplification without noise reduction (NoP), (2) linear amplification with noise reduction (NR), and (3) non-linear amplification without NR ("fast-acting compression"). The results showed that cognitive processing speed was a better predictor of speech intelligibility in noise, regardless of the types of signal processing algorithms used. That is, there was a stronger association between cognitive processing speed and NR outcomes and fast-acting compression outcomes (in steady state noise). We observed a weaker relationship between working memory and NR, but WMC did not relate to fast-acting compression. WMC was a relatively weaker predictor of speech intelligibility in noise. These findings might have been different if the participants had been provided with training and or allowed to acclimatize to binary masking noise reduction or fast-acting compression.

  19. High performance image processing of SPRINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGroot, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    This talk will describe computed tomography (CT) reconstruction using filtered back-projection on SPRINT parallel computers. CT is a computationally intensive task, typically requiring several minutes to reconstruct a 512x512 image. SPRINT and other parallel computers can be applied to CT reconstruction to reduce computation time from minutes to seconds. SPRINT is a family of massively parallel computers developed at LLNL. SPRINT-2.5 is a 128-node multiprocessor whose performance can exceed twice that of a Cray-Y/MP. SPRINT-3 will be 10 times faster. Described will be the parallel algorithms for filtered back-projection and their execution on SPRINT parallel computers.

  20. Detecting jaundice by using digital image processing (United States)

    Castro-Ramos, J.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Villa Manriquez, F.; Orozco-Guillen, E.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Sánchez-Escobar, JJ.


    When strong Jaundice is presented, babies or adults should be subject to clinical exam like "serum bilirubin" which can cause traumas in patients. Often jaundice is presented in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. In order to avoid additional traumas we propose to detect jaundice (icterus) in newborns or adults by using a not pain method. By acquiring digital images in color, in palm, soles and forehead, we analyze RGB attributes and diffuse reflectance spectra as the parameter to characterize patients with either jaundice or not, and we correlate that parameters with the level of bilirubin. By applying support vector machine we distinguish between healthy and sick patients.