Oxoby, Robert J.; Smith, Alexander
We explore the role of cognitive dissonance in dictator and public goods games. Specifically, we motivate cognitive dissonance between one's perception of “fair treatment” and self-interested behaviour by having participants answer a question about fairness. Utilizing two manipulations (reminding participants about their answer to the fairness question and publicly reporting aggregate answers to the question), we find that there is greater cognitive dissonance and behavioural change when ther...
Shultz, Thomas R.; Lepper, Mark R.
It is argued that the reduction of cognitive dissonance can be viewed as a constraint satisfaction problem, and a computational model of the process of consonance seeking is proposed. Simulations from this model matched psychological findings from the insufficient justification and free-choice paradigms of cognitive dissonance theory. (SLD)
Merckelbach, Harald; Merten, Thomas
This paper proposes that malingered symptoms may become internalized due to the self-deceptive power of cognitive dissonance. Studies demonstrating how other-deception may turn into self-deception are briefly discussed, as are clinical notions about the overlap between malingering and medically unexplained symptoms. In our view this literature showcases the relevance of cognitive dissonance for research on malingering. A cognitive dissonance perspective may help to clarify how ambiguous sensations may escalate into subjectively compelling symptoms. This perspective suggests that malingered symptom reports are more than just a complication during psychological evaluation. It may generate new research avenues and may clarify practically relevant issues.
Fontenot, Holly B; Hawkins, Joellen W; Weiss, Josie A
The purpose of this study was to explicate the concept of cognitive dissonance as experienced and reported by nurse practitioner (NP) faculty members. Responses from NP faculty members to an online survey about their experiences with cognitive dissonance. The respondents detailed their experiences with cognitive dissonance, citing differences between expectations for which they are rewarded and those for which they are paid. Expecting all faculty members to excel in practice, research, teaching, and service may create unrealistic workloads for NP faculty members. Examining expectations and considering creation of a clinical track for faculty who practice may be options administrators of NP programs might explore. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Ong, Andy Swee-Jin; Frewer, Lynn; Chan, Mei-Yen
The study of cognitive dissonance in food and nutrition has been relatively under-developed. This review paper looks at food and/or food-related studies that have utilized cognitive dissonance as a primary construct in a priori theorization and hypothesis-formulation, examining the ways in which the dissonance construct has been used and its corresponding effects on various food-related outcomes in those studies. Current gaps and critical issues underlying cognitive dissonance investigation in food and nutrition research are also identified and discussed.
Brunel , Olivier; Gallen , Céline
In 1957, Festinger states the theory which explains how individuals perceive and manage an inconsistency between two cognitions: the “cognitive dissonance”. This theory, considered as a revolution in Social Psychology, is little used in marketing research on incongruency which rather refers to disconfirmation of expectations theory or assimilation / contrast theory. This article shows that these theories are in fact pieces of cognitive dissonance theory and discuss about the interest to inclu...
Matz, David C; Wood, Wendy
As L. Festinger (1957) argued, the social group is a source of cognitive dissonance as well as a vehicle for reducing it. That is, disagreement from others in a group generates dissonance, and subsequent movement toward group consensus reduces this negative tension. The authors conducted 3 studies to demonstrate group-induced dissonance. In the first, students in a group with others who ostensibly disagreed with them experienced greater dissonance discomfort than those in a group with others who agreed. Study 2 demonstrated that standard moderators of dissonance in past research--lack of choice and opportunity to self-affirm, similarly reduced dissonance discomfort generated by group disagreement. In Study 3, the dissonance induced by group disagreement was reduced through a variety of interpersonal strategies to achieve consensus, including persuading others, changing one's own position, and joining an attitudinally congenial group.
Maurer, Trent W.
I tested 2 competing theories to explain the connection between students' expected grades and ratings of instructors: cognitive dissonance and revenge. Cognitive dissonance theory holds that students who expect poor grades rate instructors poorly to minimize ego threat whereas the revenge theory holds that students rate instructors poorly in an…
Randles, Daniel; Inzlicht, Michael; Proulx, Travis; Tullett, Alexa M.; Heine, Steven J.
Cognitive dissonance theory shares much in common with other perspectives that address anomalies, uncertainty, and general expectancy violations. This has led some theorists to argue that these theories represent overlapping psychological processes. If responding to dissonance and uncertainty occurs
West, Samantha; Jett, Stephanie E; Beckman, Tamra; Vonk, Jennifer
We presented 7 Old World monkeys (Japanese macaques [Macaca fuscata], gray-cheeked mangabey [Lophocebus albigena], rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta], bonnet macaque [Macaca radiate], and olive baboon [Papio anubis]), 3 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 6 members of the parrot (Psittacinae) family, and 4 American black bears (Ursus americanus) with a cognitive dissonance paradigm modeled after Egan, Santos, and Bloom (2007). In experimental trials, subjects were given choices between 2 equally preferred food items and then presented with the unchosen option and a novel, equally preferred food item. In control trials, subjects were presented with 1 accessible and 1 inaccessible option from another triad of equally preferred food items. They were then presented with the previously inaccessible item and a novel member of that triad. Subjects, as a whole, did not prefer the novel item in experimental or control trials. However, there was a tendency toward a subject by condition interaction. When analyzed by primate versus nonprimate categories, only primates preferred the novel item in experimental but not control trials, indicating that they resolved cognitive dissonance by devaluing the unchosen option only when an option was derogated by their own free choice. This finding suggests that this phenomenon might exist within but not outside of the primate order. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel
The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence.
Colosio, Marco; Shestakova, Anna; Nikulin, Vadim V; Blagovechtchenski, Evgeny; Klucharev, Vasily
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative frontocentral evoked response similar to error-related negativity, which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring. Furthermore, the amplitude of the evoked response is correlated with the reevaluation of the alternatives. We also found a link between individual neural dynamics (long-range temporal correlations) of the frontocentral cortices during rest and follow-up neural and behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. Individuals with stronger resting-state long-range temporal correlations demonstrated a greater postdecisional reevaluation of the alternatives and larger evoked brain responses associated with stronger cognitive dissonance. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive dissonance is reflected in both resting-state and choice-related activity of the prefrontal cortex as part of the general performance-monitoring circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Contrary to traditional decision theory, behavioral studies repeatedly demonstrate that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. Difficult choices generate psychological (cognitive) dissonance, which is reduced by the postdecisional devaluation of unchosen options. We found that decisions associated with a higher level of cognitive dissonance elicited a stronger negative frontocentral deflection that peaked ∼60 ms after the response. This activity shares similar spatial and temporal features as error-related negativity, the electrophysiological correlate of performance monitoring. Furthermore, the frontocentral resting
Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R
Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.
Participation en projets et dissonance cognitive des beneficiaires en Afrique : la symbolique des paradoxes de la double contrainte institutionnelle dans la mise en oeuvre d'un projet de developpement au Benin.
Robert J. Taormina; Blair K. H. Chong
This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were e...
Breslavs, Gershon M.
Full Text Available One of the central topics in the studies of O. K. Tikhomirov and his collaborators was the link between cognitive and emotional processes. It is important not only how emotions are involved in the process of the productive performance of thinking tasks but also how cognitive processes mediate the involvement of the emotions in the regulation of activity. The efficacy of this regulation is represented through goal achievement and also through the correction of one’s actions in the case of wrongdoing. Reformation of one’s errors is the best way to improve one’s abilities and skills. In moral philosophy the central instance of this reformation is conscience, which ensures positive or negative self-appraisal of one’s own and others’ actions. Unfortunately, in psychology this concept remains unclear. The goal of this article is to clarify it in the context of the contemporary psychology of emotion. Studies of emotions have shown the significance of appraisal in determining particular feelings. The special role of moral emotions, mainly guilt and shame, in the self-correction of one’s actions is emphasized. According to this model, guilt and shame in particular can represent twinges of conscience in the mind because the cognitive dissonance between our (or others’ actions and values shapes the basis of all these phenomena.
Robert J. Taormina
Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were examined in relation to a set of relevant independent variables frequently tested in the gambling literature. Cognitive dissonance was expected to have significant negative correlations with traditional Chinese values and family support, and a significant positive correlation with neuroticism. Cognitive dissonance was also expected to be negatively correlated with two personal outcomes, i.e. self-actualization and life satisfaction. The results supported these hypotheses, which confirmed the validity of the new measures, and that cognitive dissonance does indeed exist among Chinese gamblers. The results also found that Chinese gamblers, even though they do gamble, also hold negative attitudes toward gambling, with more cognitive dissonance strongly associated with higher levels of gambling. This provides a new perspective on studying Chinese gambling, and offers a possible strategy to help pathological gamblers, for example, by advising them that their negative beliefs about gambling reflect the positive moral values of their society’s traditional culture, an approach that may be effective in reducing excessive gambling.
Full Text Available Shao-Hsi Chung,1 Kuo-Chih Cheng2 1Department of Business Administration, Meiho University, Pingtung, Taiwan; 2Department of Accounting, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua City, Taiwan Background: The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals’ willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. Methods: This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter. Results: The empirical results show that cognitive dissonance does not mediate the relationship between sunk costs and willingness to continue an unfavorable investment project. However, cognitive dissonance has a moderating effect, and only when the level of cognitive dissonance is high does the sunk cost have significantly positive impacts on willingness to continue on with an unfavorable investment. Conclusion: This study offers psychological mechanisms to explain the sunk cost effect based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, and it also provides some recommendations for corporate management. Keywords: sunk costs, sunk cost effect, cognitive dissonance, behavior, unfavorable investment
Ent, Michael R; Gerend, Mary A
Two studies suggest that cognitive dissonance can lead people to adopt negative attitudes toward beneficial-yet unpleasant-medical screenings. People who thought that they were candidates for an unpleasant medical screening reported less favorable attitudes toward the screening than people who thought that they were ineligible (Study 1). The unpleasantness of a medical screening affected candidates' attitudes toward the screening to a greater extent than non-candidate's attitudes (Study 2). Limitations, including ambiguity regarding the extent to which participants' attitudes were affected specifically by dissonance, are discussed. This preliminary research suggests people attempt to reduce dissonance associated with their anticipated behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bramschreiber, Terry L.
Even 150 years after Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, public school teachers still find themselves dealing with student resistance to learning about biological evolution. Some teachers deal with this pressure by undermining, deemphasizing, or even omitting the topic in their science curriculum. Others face the challenge and deliver solid scientific instruction of evolutionary theory despite the conflicts that may arise. The latter were the topic of this study. I interviewed five teachers that had experience dealing with resistance to learning evolution in their school community. Through these in-depth interviews, I examined strategies these teachers use when facing resistance and how they help students deal with the cognitive dissonance that may be experienced when learning about evolution. I selected the qualitative method of educational criticism and connoisseurship to organize and categorize my data. From the interviews, the following findings emerged. Experienced teachers increased their confidence in teaching evolution by pursuing outside professional development. They not only learned more about evolutionary theory, but about creationist arguments against evolution. These teachers front-load their curriculum to integrate the nature of science into their lessons to address misunderstandings about how science works. They also highlight the importance of learning evolutionary theory but ensure students they do not have an agenda to indoctrinate students. Finally these experienced teachers work hard to create an intellectually safe learning environment to build trusting and respectful relationships with their students.
Bice, April A
Pediatric nurses have often reported that pain management is a vital part of patient care. Evidence, however, suggests pediatric procedural pain treatments are often underused. Cognitive dissonance, the mental conflict leading to unpleasant thoughts and or feelings, may be related to this evidence-based gap found between what pediatric nurses claim about procedural pain management (that it is important) and what they actually do (underutilize pain treatments). The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify and further develop the concept of cognitive dissonance in terms of its relationship to nurses' mental struggles with underutilization of pediatric procedural pain treatments. A more relevant and extended definition of cognitive dissonance is presented. The concept of cognitive dissonance was examined using Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis approach/framework. Analysis Methods: Through a six-step process of concept identification, setting and sample identification, data collection, data analysis, and future implication discussion, a more accurate and representative definition of cognitive dissonance is described. Databases used included CINAHL, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, ERIC, and PubMed. Seminal, recent, and relevant works were included in the review to adequately develop and clarify the concept. Procedural pain management breech among pediatric nurses is proposed to occur before the mental conflict produced. The unpleasant mental conflict created after the breech is followed by the nurse's determination to reduce mental conflict through attitude change followed by cognition change, which more closely reflects his or her behavior. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Veen, Vincent; Krug, Marie K; Schooler, Jonathan W; Carter, Cameron S
When our actions conflict with our prior attitudes, we often change our attitudes to be more consistent with our actions. This phenomenon, known as cognitive dissonance, is considered to be one of the most influential theories in psychology. However, the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Using a Solomon four-group design, we scanned participants with functional MRI while they argued that the uncomfortable scanner environment was nevertheless a pleasant experience. We found that cognitive dissonance engaged the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula; furthermore, we found that the activation of these regions tightly predicted participants' subsequent attitude change. These effects were not observed in a control group. Our findings elucidate the neural representation of cognitive dissonance, and support the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in detecting cognitive conflict and the neural prediction of attitude change.
Chung, Shao-Hsi; Cheng, Kuo-Chih
The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals' willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter. The empirical results show that cognitive dissonance does not mediate the relationship between sunk costs and willingness to continue an unfavorable investment project. However, cognitive dissonance has a moderating effect, and only when the level of cognitive dissonance is high does the sunk cost have significantly positive impacts on willingness to continue on with an unfavorable investment. This study offers psychological mechanisms to explain the sunk cost effect based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, and it also provides some recommendations for corporate management.
McFalls, Elisabeth L.; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre
Applied the principals of cognitive dissonance theory to an instructional strategy used to reduce resistance to the idea of white privilege, comparing groups of college students in diversity education courses that did and did not receive supplemental instruction on cognitive dissonance. Incorporating cognitive dissonance theory created an…
Perlovsky, Leonid; Cabanac, Arnaud; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel
We explore a possibility that the 'Mozart effect' points to a fundamental cognitive function of music. Would such an effect of music be due to the hedonicity, a fundamental dimension of mental experience? The present paper explores a recent hypothesis that music helps to tolerate cognitive dissonances and thus enabled accumulation of knowledge and human cultural evolution. We studied whether the influence of music is related to its hedonicity and whether pleasant or unpleasant music would influence scholarly test performance and cognitive dissonance. Specific hypotheses evaluated in this study are that during a test students experience contradictory cognitions that cause cognitive dissonances. If some music helps to tolerate cognitive dissonances, then first, this music should increase the duration during which participants can tolerate stressful conditions while evaluating test choices. Second, this should result in improved performance. These hypotheses are tentatively confirmed in the reported experiments as the agreeable music was correlated with longer duration of tests under stressful conditions and better performance above that under indifferent or unpleasant music. It follows that music likely performs a fundamental cognitive function explaining the origin and evolution of musical ability that have been considered a mystery. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Allen G. Rauch
Full Text Available The aim of this workshop and paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will develop skills in the areas of observation, cognition/meta-cognition with emphasis on critical thinking, decision making and problem solving. Simultaneously, this endeavour is designed to stimulate one‟s curiosity and thereby provide motivation to learn. These are accomplished through the learning style methodology with emphasis on interactive instructional resources addressing a multi-modality approach to teaching and learning. It will be shown that discrepant events impact thinking with respect to problem solving. The aforementioned is demonstrated with the use of gravity, molecular structure and optical illusions. The workshop presenters will show how cognitive dissonance, precipitated within each of these constituents, fosters curiosity and therefore provides an ideal motivational component for exploration.
Randles, Daniel; Inzlicht, Michael; Proulx, Travis; Tullett, Alexa M; Heine, Steven J
Cognitive dissonance theory shares much in common with other perspectives that address anomalies, uncertainty, and general expectancy violations. This has led some theorists to argue that these theories represent overlapping psychological processes. If responding to dissonance and uncertainty occurs through a common psychological process, one should expect that the behavioral outcomes of feeling uncertain would also apply to feelings of dissonance, and vice versa. One specific prediction from the meaning maintenance model would be that cognitive dissonance, like other expectancy violations, should lead to the affirmation of unrelated beliefs, or the abstraction of unrelated schemas when the dissonant event cannot be easily accommodated. This article presents 4 studies (N = 1124) demonstrating that the classic induced-compliance dissonance paradigm can lead not only to a change of attitudes (dissonance reduction), but also to (a) an increased reported belief in God (Study 2), (b) a desire to punish norm-violators (Study 1 and 3), (c) a motivation to detect patterns amid noise (Study 3), and (d) polarizing support of public policies among those already biased toward a particular side (Study 4). These results are congruent with theories that propose content-general fluid compensation following the experience of anomaly, a finding not predicted by dissonance theory. The results suggest that dissonance reduction behaviors may share psychological processes described by other theories addressing violations of expectations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
van der Pol, G.
In this paper, it is shown how Amator [Camera Buff] (Kieslowski, 1979) poses a problem to engagement theory. Spectators begin noticing a friction between the expected behaviour of the characters and how they turn out to be. The psychological theory of cognitive dissonance is a theory that helps to
Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
This study explores what students understand about enzyme-substrate interactions, using multiple representations of the phenomenon. In this paper we describe our use of the 3 Phase-Single Interview Technique with multiple representations to generate cognitive dissonance within students in order to uncover misconceptions of enzyme-substrate…
This paper reports a study of mental prerequisites for the development of a sustainable con-sumption pattern. Based on cognitive dissonance theory it is hypothesized that when two environmentally relevant activities are perceived as similar, behaving in an environmentally friendly way in one...
Full Text Available Leon Festinger’s account of cognitive dissonance, published in 1957, has become one of the most successful theories in the history of social psychology. I argue that Festinger’s framework—and the research it generated over the last sixty years—can shed light on key aspects of readers’ engagement with literary characters. Literature can invite the audience to vicariously experience characters’ dissonance through an empathetic mechanism, but it can also induce dissonant states in readers by encouraging them to take on attitudes and beliefs that are significantly different from their own. I suggest that there are two strategies—or patterns of reader-response—through which the audience can cope with the dissonance between their own worldview and the characters’: attitude change and imaginative resistance. In the first, readers adjust their own beliefs and values according to what they have experienced and learned in adopting characters’ perspectives. By contrast, in imaginative resistance readers’ worldview prevents them from establishing an empathetic bond with characters. I integrate these hypotheses into a model that builds on theoretical as well as empirical insights into reader-response.
Fontanari, José F; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel; Perlovsky, Leonid I
Cognitive dissonance is the stress that comes from holding two conflicting thoughts simultaneously in the mind, usually arising when people are asked to choose between two detrimental or two beneficial options. In view of the well-established role of emotions in decision making, here we investigate whether the conventional structural models used to represent the relationships among basic emotions, such as the Circumplex model of affect, can describe the emotions of cognitive dissonance as well. We presented a questionnaire to 34 anonymous participants, where each question described a decision to be made among two conflicting motivations and asked the participants to rate analogically the pleasantness and the intensity of the experienced emotion. We found that the results were compatible with the predictions of the Circumplex model for basic emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate a possible model for using Leon Festinger stheory of cognitive dissonance in organizations. The theory has been studied in other fields, education, social sciences and management, to link attitudes to subsequent behavior. Studies show that organizations have been negatively affected by the presence of cognitive dissonance. The study proposed a model in which two conditions must be met for a finding that cognitive dissonance is present in an organization.First, incongruent perceptions of challenges that academic library directors may be experiencing as held by them and their supervisors must be present. Second, the cognitive dissonance reduction technique of avoidance must be present. The study s findings revealed the presence of incongruent perceptions, however, a cognitive dissonance reduction technique was not found using the study s identified measure of a cognitive dissonance reduction technique.
Hoshino-Browne, Etsuko; Zanna, Adam S; Spencer, Steven J; Zanna, Mark P; Kitayama, Shinobu; Lackenbauer, Sandra
Cognitive dissonance and effects of self-affirmation on dissonance arousal were examined cross-culturally. In Studies 1 and 2, European Canadians justified their choices more when they made them for themselves, whereas Asian Canadians (Study 1) or Japanese (Study 2) justified their choices more when they made them for a friend. In Study 3, an interdependent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for Asian Canadians but not for European Canadians. In Study 4, when Asian Canadians made choices for a friend, an independent self-affirmation reduced dissonance for bicultural Asian Canadians but not for monocultural Asian Canadians. These studies demonstrate that both Easterners and Westerners can experience dissonance, but culture shapes the situations in which dissonance is aroused and reduced. Implications of these cultural differences for theories of cognitive dissonance and self-affirmation are discussed.
Egan, Louisa C; Santos, Laurie R; Bloom, Paul
In a study exploring the origins of cognitive dissonance, preschoolers and capuchins were given a choice between two equally preferred alternatives (two different stickers and two differently colored M&M's, respectively). On the basis of previous research with adults, this choice was thought to cause dissonance because it conflicted with subjects' belief that the two options were equally valuable. We therefore expected subjects to change their attitude toward the unchosen alternative, deeming it less valuable. We then presented subjects with a choice between the unchosen option and an option that was originally as attractive as both options in the first choice. Both groups preferred the novel over the unchosen option in this experimental condition, but not in a control condition in which they did not take part in the first decision. These results provide the first evidence of decision rationalization in children and nonhuman primates. They suggest that the mechanisms underlying cognitive-dissonance reduction in human adults may have originated both developmentally and evolutionarily earlier than previously thought.
Balcetis, Emily; Dunning, David
Two studies demonstrated that the motivation to resolve cognitive dissonance affects the visual perception of physical environments. In Study 1, subjects crossed a campus quadrangle wearing a costume reminiscent of Carmen Miranda. In Study 2, subjects pushed themselves up a hill while kneeling on a skateboard. Subjects performed either task under a high-choice, low-choice, or control condition. Subjects in the high-choice conditions, presumably to resolve dissonance, perceived the environment to be less aversive than did subjects in the low-choice and control conditions, seeing a shorter distance to travel (Study 1) and a shallower slope to climb (Study 2). These studies suggest that the impact of motivational states extends from social judgment down into perceptual processes.
A novel connectionist model accounting for cognitive dissonance is described, in which the concepts of self and attention switching are considered. The model is composed of a unit corresponding to self, a bistable pair comprising two units relevant to two dissonant cognitions, and links whose weights correspond to cognitive evaluations. The model makes it possible to use mathematical formulas to represent the cognitive-dissonance process. Analysis reveals that the model fits experimental data of major paradigms in cognitive dissonance theory. The model shows that attention switching, which is produced by internal and external stimuli, causes building-up of cognitive dissonance and retardation of its reduction. The psychological phenomenon of selective exposure is interpreted on the basis of the operation of the model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burns, Charlene P. E.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm pose some interesting questions for those teaching religious studies in publicly funded colleges and universities. Given that religious beliefs can be challenged by the historical-critical study of scriptures, for example, and that the cognitive dissonance generated when this occurs…
Bowen, Danny Ray
The purpose of this content analysis research was to develop a biblical-theological model of Cognitive Dissonance Theory applicable to pedagogy. Evidence of cognitive dissonance found in Scripture was used to infer a purpose for the innate drive toward consonance. This inferred purpose was incorporated into a model that improves the descriptive…
de Vries, Jan; Byrne, Mark; Kehoe, Elizabeth
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored the neural substrates of cognitive dissonance during dissonance "induction." A novel task was developed based on the results of a separate item selection study (n = 125). Items were designed to generate dissonance by prompting participants to reflect on everyday personal experiences that were inconsistent with values they had expressed support for. One experimental condition (dissonance) and three control conditions (justification, consonance, and non-self-related inconsistency) were used for comparison. Items of all four types were presented to each participant (n = 14) in a randomized design. The fMRI analysis used a whole-brain approach focusing on the moments dissonance was induced. Results showed that in comparison with the control conditions the dissonance experience led to higher levels of activation in several brain regions. Specifically dissonance was associated with increased neural activation in key brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus. This supports current perspectives that emphasize the role of anterior cingulate and insula in dissonance processing. Less extensive activation in the prefrontal cortex than in some previous studies is consistent with this study's emphasis on dissonance induction, rather than reduction. This article also contains a short review and comparison with other fMRI studies of cognitive dissonance.
Graff, Jens; Sophonthummapharn, Kittipong; Parida, Vinit
This article investigates whether cognitive dissonance exists in the post-purchase phase in the mobile phone industry. It asks if mobile phone users are fully satisfied since they are usually overloaded with information during the purchasing period. Three dimensions of dissonance were measured in 283 university students. The results provide interesting insights. The major differences between the high and low dissonance groups are being influenced by other people’s opinions, difficulty in find...
Full Text Available The initial finding of the study, which served as the basis for the exploration of cognitive dissonance between religious and secular behavioral norms, was revealed in a tendency of the majority of religious students to accept behavioral norms, attitudes and believes (concerning interpersonal relationships and reproduction-related ethical issues which are not supported by Orthodox Christian Church viewpoint and teachings. However, certain cognitive and value system consistency appeared to exist: the intensity of religiousness was related to lower degrees of secular norms approval. It has been found that religious and nonreligious subjects differ significantly in their preference of the strategy used to maintain balance between dissonant religious and secular attitudes- in 3 out of 4 issues considered in the study. Religious subjects most frequently chose relativism strategy, claiming that some specific exceptions from a general rule or standpoint do not necessarily depreciate it, while nonreligious subjects most frequently chose dualistic viewpoint that principally separated and restricted domains of reasoning on spiritual and worldly issues, making them psychologically irrelevant to one another.
Liu, Y-L; Keng, Ching-Jui
In this research we explored consumers' intentions to provide untruthful or negative truthful electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) messages when undergoing conflicting cognitive dissonance and after experiencing social comparison. We recruited 480 Taiwanese Internet users to participate in a scenario-based experiment. The findings show that after making downward comparisons on the Internet, consumers with high cognitive dissonance were more inclined to disseminate negative truthful eWOM messages c...
Salti, Moti; El Karoui, Imen; Maillet, Mathurin; Naccache, Lionel
The notion that our past choices affect our future behavior is certainly one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first experimental report in the 50 s, and its initial theorization by Festinger within the "cognitive dissonance" framework. Using the free choice paradigm (FCP), it was shown that choosing between two similarly rated items made subjects reevaluate the chosen items as more attractive and the rejected items as less attractive. However, in 2010 a major work by Chen and Risen revealed a severe statistical flaw casting doubt on most previous studies. Izuma and colleagues (2010) supplemented the traditional FCP with original control conditions and concluded that the effect observed could not be solely attributed to this methodological flaw. In the present work we aimed at establishing the existence of genuine choice-induced preference change and characterizing this effect. To do so, we replicated Izuma et al.' study and added a new important control condition which was absent from the original study. Moreover, we added a memory test in order to measure the possible relation between episodic memory of choices and observed behavioral effects. In two experiments we provide experimental evidence supporting genuine choice-induced preference change obtained with FCP. We also contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon by showing that choice-induced preference change effects are strongly correlated with episodic memory.
Dowsett, Elisha; Semmler, Carolyn; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel A; Chur-Hansen, Anna
Meat eating is a common behaviour, despite many people claiming to like, love, and care about animals. The apparent disconnection between not wanting animals to suffer, yet killing them for food, has been termed the 'meat paradox.' In this experimental study (N = 460), participants completed pre-affect, post-affect, meat attachment, and attitude towards animals questionnaires, under two conditions: exposure to the life of an Australian meat lamb, and information about the nutritional benefits of meat. A factorial MANOVA revealed that negative affect was significantly greater when participants were exposed to the meat-animal connection; however, more entrenched attitudes towards animals and attachment to meat remained unaffected. Significant gender effects were found across all variables: most notably, meat attachment differed according to gender, decreasing in women and increasing in men when exposed to the meat-animal condition. Open-ended responses were subjected to content analysis to understand participants' future meat-consumption preferences and accompanying reasoning strategies. Findings from the present study contribute to understanding how cognitive dissonance and inconsistencies are rationalised by meat consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McNamara, Donald J
In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.
Masataka, Nobuo; Perlovsky, Leonid
Debates on the origin and function of music have a long history. While some scientists argue that music itself plays no adaptive role in human evolution, others suggest that music clearly has an evolutionary role, and point to music's universality. A recent hypothesis suggested that a fundamental function of music has been to help mitigating cognitive dissonance, which is a discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions simultaneously. It usually leads to devaluation of conflicting knowledge. Here we provide experimental confirmation of this hypothesis using a classical paradigm known to create cognitive dissonance. Results of our experiment reveal that the exposure to Mozart's music exerted a strongly positive influence upon the performance of young children and served as basis by which they were enabled to reconcile the cognitive dissonance.
Yousaf, Omar; Gobet, Fernand
We explored the emotional and attitudinal consequences of personal attitude-behavior discrepancies using a religious version of the hypocrisy paradigm. We induced cognitive dissonance in participants (n = 206) by making them feel hypocritical for advocating certain religious behaviors that they had not recently engaged in to their own satisfaction. In Experiment 1, this resulted in higher levels of self-reported guilt and shame compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 further showed that a religious self-affirmation task eliminated the guilt and shame. In Experiment 3, participants boosted their religious attitudes as a result of dissonance, and both religious and non-religious self-affirmation tasks eliminated this effect. The findings provide evidence that dissonance induced through religious hypocrisy can result in guilt and shame as well as an attitude bolstering effect, as opposed to the attitude reconciliation effect that is prevalent in previous dissonance research.
Rogers, Leslie Cohen
This qualitative, insider account of student civic development in a university service-learning course has two primary goals. One is to propose frameworks for describing the process of civic development of service-learning students that are situated in theories of civic identity, cognitive development, and cognitive dissonance. The other is to…
Oduh, William Akporobaroh
This study examined the dimensions of cognitive dissonance and the extent to which cognitive dissonance could influence the level of job satisfaction of guidance counsellors. The study was guided by three research questions and one null hypothesis. The design of the study was correlational survey. The population of the study was 158 practising…
Fointiat, Valérie; Pelt, Audrey
Our main purpose was to explore hypotheses derived from the Identification of Action Theory in a particular situation that is, a dissonant situation. Thus, we varied the identification (low versus high-level) of a problematic behavior (to stop speaking for 24 hours) in the forced compliance paradigm. Two modes of dissonance reduction were presented: cognitive rationalization (classical attitude-change) and behavioral rationalization (target behavior: to stop speaking for 48 hours). As predicted, the results showed that high-level identity of action leads to cognitive rationalization whereas low-level identity leads to behavioural rationalization. Thus, participants identifying the problematic behavior at a low-level were more inclined to accept the target behavior, compared with participants identifying their problematic behavior at a higher-level. These results are of particular interest for understanding the extent to which the understanding of the discrepant act interferes with the cognitive processes of dissonance reduction.
Allahyani, Mariam Hameed Ahmed
The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of cognitive dissonance present in a sample of female students at Umm Al Qura University, and clarifying the relationship between the cognitive dissonance and decision-making styles. It also aimed to identify differences between female students with high cognitive dissonance and those with low…
Masataka, Nobuo; Perlovsky, Leonid
Debates on the origins of consonance and dissonance in music have a long history. While some scientists argue that consonance judgments are an acquired competence based on exposure to the musical-system-specific knowledge of a particular culture, others favor a biological explanation for the observed preference for consonance. Here we provide experimental confirmation that this preference plays an adaptive role in human cognition: it reduces cognitive interference. The results of our experiment reveal that exposure to a Mozart minuet mitigates interference, whereas, conversely, when the music is modified to consist of mostly dissonant intervals the interference effect is intensified. PMID:23778307
Masataka, Nobuo; Perlovsky, Leonid
Debates on the origins of consonance and dissonance in music have a long history. While some scientists argue that consonance judgments are an acquired competence based on exposure to the musical-system-specific knowledge of a particular culture, others favor a biological explanation for the observed preference for consonance. Here we provide experimental confirmation that this preference plays an adaptive role in human cognition: it reduces cognitive interference. The results of our experiment reveal that exposure to a Mozart minuet mitigates interference, whereas, conversely, when the music is modified to consist of mostly dissonant intervals the interference effect is intensified.
Cognitive dissonance causes people to rationalize actions that differ from their own preferences.Conformity, on the other hand, causes people to change their behavior as a result of pressure from others.This paper investigates the consequences of preference dynamic that occur when individuals
Guerra, Patricia L.; Wubbena, Zane C.
In the current study, the authors qualitatively investigate, through the theoretical perspective of cognitive dissonance, the relationship between teacher beliefs and their associated teacher practices at two public elementary schools with diverse student populations. They argue that while teachers may hold theoretical beliefs about culturally…
Ciao, Anna C; Latner, Janet D
Obese individuals experience pervasive stigmatization. Interventions attempting to reduce obesity stigma by targeting its origins have yielded mixed results. This randomized, controlled study examined the effectiveness of two interventions to reduce obesity stigma: cognitive dissonance and social consensus. Participants were college undergraduate students (N = 64, 78% women, mean age = 21.2 years, mean BMI = 23.1 kg/m2) of diverse ethnicities. Obesity stigma (assessed with the Antifat Attitudes Test (AFAT)) was assessed at baseline (Visit 1) and 1 week later, immediately following the intervention (Visit 2). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups where they received standardized written feedback on their obesity stigma levels. Cognitive dissonance participants (N = 21) were told that their AFAT scores were discrepant from their values (high core values of kindness and equality and high stigma), social consensus participants (N = 22) were told their scores were discrepant from their peers' scores (stigma much higher than their peers), and control participants (N = 21) were told their scores were consistent with both their peers' scores and their own values. Following the intervention, omnibus analyses revealed significant group differences on the AFAT Physical/Romantic Unattractiveness subscale (PRU; F (2, 59) = 4.43, P cognitive dissonance group means were significantly lower than control means for AFAT total, AFAT PRU subscale, and AFAT social/character disparagement subscale (all P cognitive dissonance interventions may be a successful way to reduce obesity stigma, particularly by changing attitudes about the appearance and attractiveness of obese individuals.
Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret
Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…
Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Madoka; Murayama, Kou; Samejima, Kazuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro; Matsumoto, Kenji
According to many modern economic theories, actions simply reflect an individual's preferences, whereas a psychological phenomenon called "cognitive dissonance" claims that actions can also create preference. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between two equally preferred items, the act of rejecting a favorite item induces an uncomfortable feeling (cognitive dissonance), which in turn motivates individuals to change their preferences to match their prior decision (i.e., reducing preference for rejected items). Recently, however, Chen and Risen [Chen K, Risen J (2010) J Pers Soc Psychol 99:573-594] pointed out a serious methodological problem, which casts a doubt on the very existence of this choice-induced preference change as studied over the past 50 y. Here, using a proper control condition and two measures of preferences (self-report and brain activity), we found that the mere act of making a choice can change self-report preference as well as its neural representation (i.e., striatum activity), thus providing strong evidence for choice-induced preference change. Furthermore, our data indicate that the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of cognitive dissonance on a trial-by-trial basis. Our findings provide important insights into the neural basis of how actions can alter an individual's preferences.
This paper reports a study of mental prerequisites for the development of a sustainable con-sumption pattern. Based on cognitive dissonance theory it is hypothesized that when two environmentally relevant activities are perceived as similar, (H1) behaving in an environ-mentally responsible way...
Cooper, Joel; Feldman, Lauren A; Blackman, Shane F
The field of experimental social psychology is appropriately interested in using novel theoretical approaches to implement change in the social world. In the current study, we extended cognitive dissonance theory by creating a new framework of social influence: imagined vicarious dissonance. We used the framework to influence attitudes on an important and controversial political attitude: U.S. citizens' support for the Affordable Care Act (ACA). 36 Republicans and 84 Democrats were asked to imagine fellow Republicans and Democrats, respectively, making attitude discrepant statements under high and low choice conditions about support for the ACA. The data showed that vicarious dissonance, established by imagining a group member make a counterattitudinal speech under high-choice conditions (as compared to low-choice conditions), resulted in greater support for the Act by Republicans and marginally diminished support by Democrats. The results suggest a promising role for the application of vicarious dissonance theory to relevant societal issues and for further understanding the relationship of dissonance and people's identification with their social groups.
Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J
In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.
Full Text Available The insider threat concern is a complex issue, as the problem domain intersects the social, technical and socio-technical dimensions. Consequently, counteracting the insider threat involves influencing the insider’s perceptions and behaviour in order to ensure compliance. When an individual’s actions and beliefs are incongruent, this induces a phenomenon known as cognitive dissonance. In order to reduce this dissonance, individuals are self-motivated either to change their behaviours or beliefs, or to rationalize their behaviour. Neutralization is a technique used by criminals to rationalize maleficence. In terms of the insider threat, it has been proposed that if the justifications for committing an offence are eliminated, then the insider is less likely to commit the offence. This process is known as neutralization mitigation. The research reported on here proposes that inducing cognitive dissonance may be a means of mitigating the neutralizations that the insider may use to justify maleficence. To integrate these concepts into a pragmatic implementable solution the Insider Threat Neutralization Mitigation model predicated on Cognitive Dissonance (ITNMCD is proposed. A proof-of-concept was developed and the model concept was evaluated using the design science method.
Full Text Available This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees’ normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS. In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior.
Zhang, Li; Xia, Ying; Liu, Baowei; Han, Lu
This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees’ normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS). In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior. PMID:29416516
Zhang, Li; Xia, Ying; Liu, Baowei; Han, Lu
This paper proposes that role stressors decrease helping behavior by undermining employees' normative commitment from a cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory. We also propose two competitive assumptions of the moderating effect of perceived organizational support (POS). In this paper, we first examine these hypotheses in Study 1 and then verify the cognitive dissonance perspective in Study 2. In Study 1, we collected data from 350 employees of two enterprises in China. The results indicated that role stressors had a negative link with helping behavior via the mediating role of normative commitment. The results also showed that POS strengthened the negative relationship between role stressors and normative commitment. In Study 2, we invited 104 employees to participate in a scenario experiment. The results found that role stressors had an impact on normative commitment via dissonance. Our studies verified the combination of cognitive dissonance perspective and social exchange theory to explain the impact of role stressors on helping behavior.
Timmins & de Vries are more sympathetic to my editorial than other critics, but they take issue with the details. They doubt whether the bystander phenomenon applies to Mid Staffs nurses; they believe that cognitive dissonance is a better explanation of why nurses fail to behave compassionately; and they think that I am 'perhaps a bit rash' to conclude that 'teaching compassion may be fruitless'. In this comment, I discuss all three points. I suggest that the bystander phenomenon is irrelevant; that Timmins & de Vries give an incomplete account of cognitive dissonance; and that it isn't rash to propose that educating nurses 'for compassion' is a red herring. Additionally, I comment on the idea that I wish to mount a 'defence of healthcare staff'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how persuasive ambient displays could induce cognitive dissonance to promote positive behaviour change among graduate students. We developed iFlit –an interactive and collective ambient display that enables a group of students to reflect on their burnout level, and sleeping and activity habits. iFlit shows a garden with birds representing students monitored behaviour. Birds move according to users’ activity level, and the garden’s background changes according to each user’s sleeping habits. Users match peers perceived burnout, and sleep and activity habits to induce cognitive dissonance. We argue such displays are more efficient than personal devices to empower individuals’ self-reflection due their capabilities for enabling a playful interaction with their personal data.
Jarcho, Johanna M; Berkman, Elliot T; Lieberman, Matthew D
People rationalize the choices they make when confronted with difficult decisions by claiming they never wanted the option they did not choose. Behavioral studies on cognitive dissonance provide evidence for decision-induced attitude change, but these studies cannot fully uncover the mechanisms driving the attitude change because only pre- and post-decision attitudes are measured, rather than the process of change itself. In the first fMRI study to examine the decision phase in a decision-based cognitive dissonance paradigm, we observed that increased activity in right-inferior frontal gyrus, medial fronto-parietal regions and ventral striatum, and decreased activity in anterior insula were associated with subsequent decision-related attitude change. These findings suggest the characteristic rationalization processes that are associated with decision-making may be engaged very quickly at the moment of the decision, without extended deliberation and may involve reappraisal-like emotion regulation processes.
Cao, Ying; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian
Using psychological terms such as cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias, this study reveals how individual consumers inadequately process (food safety) information, pay limited attention to signals, and make purchase decisions that are bias towards their initial choices. While it is expected that reading extra information about potential risk associated with the food decreases consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), the magnitude of the impact varies across individuals. In general, consumer...
Yousaf, O.; Gobet, F.
We explored the emotional and attitudinal consequences of personal attitude-behavior discrepancies using a religious version of the hypocrisy paradigm. We induced cognitive dissonance in participants (n = 206) by making them feel hypocritical for advocating certain religious behaviors that they had not recently engaged in to their own satisfaction. In Experiment 1, this resulted in higher levels of self-reported guilt and shame compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 further showed th...
Karanika-Murray, M; Michaelides, G; Wood, S
Purpose: Research into job design and employee outcomes has tended to examine job design in isolation of the wider organizational context, leading to calls to attend to the context in which work is embedded. This study examines the effects of the interaction between job design and psychological climate on job satisfaction.\\ud \\ud Design/approach: Cognitive Dissonance Theory was used to explore the nature of this relationship and its effect on job satisfaction. We hypothesized that psychologic...
Full Text Available The aim of the two studies was to explore a new dissonance paradigm–expressive dissonance–based on the inconsistency between what people feel and what people express behaviorally. Expressive dissonance was aroused by asking participants to watch a film with a high emotional content, either positive (joy or negative (sadness. In the no-dissonance condition, they received the instruction to naturally watch the film. In the expressive dissonance condition, they received the instruction to facially express emotions that were the opposite of what they felt. We expected that the expressive dissonance situation would: 1 require cognitive resources leading to a decrease in cognitive performance (studies 1 and 2; 2 be accompanied by emotional regulation strategies (study 1; 3 be accompanied by an increase in dissonance-related affects (study 2. Although our results (studies 1 and 2 corroborated those obtained previously in terms of performance, they also showed that participants in the expressive dissonance situation use emotional regulation strategies: exaggeration and suppression (study 1, and that they felt self-directed negative affects (study 2, just like the participants in a cognitive dissonance situation. These first results allowed us to establish a theoretical bridge between the theories of emotions–particularly those related to the emotional regulation processes–and to widen the scope of relevance of the dissonance theory.
Voinea, Camelia Florela
Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...
Youssef, K.; Ham, J.R.C.; Okada, M.; Agah, A.; Cabibihan, J.-J.; Howard, A.M.; Salichs, M.A.; He, H.
Educational robots are regarded as beneficial tools in education due to their capabilities of improving learning motivation. Using cognitive dissonance as a teaching tool has been popular in science education too. A considerable number of researchers have argued that cognitive dissonance has an
Full Text Available We investigate to what extent genuine social preferences can explain observed other-regarding behavior. In a dictator game variant subjects can choose whether to learn about the consequences of their choice for the receiver. We find that a majority of subjects showing other-regarding behavior when the payoffs of the receiver are known, choose to ignore these consequences if possible. This behavior is inconsistent with preferences about outcomes. Other-regarding behavior may also be explained by avoiding cognitive dissonance as in Konow (2000. Our experiment’s choice data is in line with this approach. In addition, we successfully relate individual behavior to proxies for cognitive dissonance.
Naccache, Lionel; El Karoui, Imen; Salti, Moti; Chammat, Mariam; Maillet, Mathurin; Allali, Sébastien
Our conscious, subjective discourse, demonstrates a temporal coherence that distinguishes it from the many unconscious cognitive representations explored by cognitive neuroscience. This subjective coherence, --particularly its dynamics--can be modified in certain psychiatric syndromes including a " dissociative state " (e.g. schizophrenia), or in several neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. frontal lobe syndrome). The medical and environmental consequences of these changes are significant. However, the psychological and neural mechanisms of this fundamental property remain largely unknown. We explored the dynamics of subjective coherence in an experimental paradigm (the "free choice "paradigm) originating for the field of cognitive dissonance. Using a series of behavioral experiments, conducted in healthy volunteers, we have discovered a key role for the episodic memory in the preference change process when simply making a choice. These results highlight the importance of conscious memory in the construction of subjective consistency, of which the subjects do not yet seem to be the conscious agents.
Stephens, Jason M.
The belief that cheating is wrong doesn't prevent its enactment. For example, many students cheat despite believing that is wrong or unjustifiable. The question taken up in this article concerns how the resulting cognitive dissonance is ameliorated; that is, how do students cheat and not feel guilty? This article will describe two "good"…
Youssef, K.; Ham, J.R.C.; Okada, M.; Agah, A.; Cabibihan, J.J.; Howard, A.M.; Salichs, M.A.; He, H.
Based on conceptual change theory, cognitive dissonance is known as an important factor in conceptual change. Thus, those who design and build educational robots will need to understand how best to provide ways for robots to implicitly persuade students to change their bad attitudes when
Tyler, Kenneth M.
Academic cheating within the middle grades has become a prevalent schooling dilemma for teachers and administrators. Among the various contextual and cognitive factors that promote academic cheating is home-school dissonance, which has been shown to predict the phenomenon among high school students. The current study extends this line of research…
Auer, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D
Providing personalized feedback about the amount of money that gamblers have actually spent may-in some cases-result in cognitive dissonance due to the mismatch between what gamblers actually spent and what they thought they had spent. In the present study, the participant sample ( N = 11,829) was drawn from a Norwegian population that had played at least one game for money in the past six months on the Norsk Tipping online gambling website. Players were told that they could retrieve personalized information about the amount of money they had lost over the previous 6-month period. Out of the 11,829 players, 4045 players accessed information about their personal gambling expenditure and were asked whether they thought the amount they lost was (i) more than expected, (ii) about as much as expected, or (iii) less than expected. It was hypothesized that players who claimed that the amount of money lost gambling was more than they had expected were more likely to experience a state of cognitive dissonance and would attempt to reduce their gambling expenditure more than other players who claimed that the amount of money lost was as much as they expected. The overall results contradicted the hypothesis because players without any cognitive dissonance decreased their gambling expenditure more than players experiencing cognitive dissonance. However, a more detailed analysis of the data supported the hypothesis because specific playing patterns of six different types of gambler using a machine-learning tree algorithm explained the paradoxical overall result.
Leonhardt, Teresa Martin
Using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance as a model, this study attempted to change the attitude and behavior of children toward well liked toys. The results offer only limited support for the theory. The subjects in the three groups did play a significantly different amount of time in the two play periods. The t-tests indicated it was the…
Bosco B. Bae
Full Text Available “Belief” as an analytical tool and critical category of investigation for the study of religion has been a resurging topic of interest. This article discusses the problems of language and practice in the discussion of “belief” and proceeds to map a few of the emergent frameworks, proposed within the past decade, for investigating “belief”. The issue of inconsistency, however, continues to remain a perennial issue that has not been adequately explained. This article argues for the utility and value of the “believing selves” framework, in conjunction with revisionist theories of cognitive dissonance, to advance the claim that beliefs are representations, as well as functions, of cultural history which bind individual and society.
de Vries, Jan; Timmins, Fiona
Care erosion - gradual decline in care level - is an important problem in health care today. Unfortunately, the mechanism whereby it occurs is complex and poorly understood. This paper seeks to address this by emphasising problems in reflective nursing practice. Critical reflection on quality of care which should drive good care instead spawns justifications, denial, and trivialisation of deficient care. This perpetuates increasingly poor care levels. We argue that cognitive dissonance theory provides a highly effective understanding of this process and suggest for this approach to be incorporated in all efforts to address care erosion. The paper includes a detailed discussion of examples and implications for practice, in particular the need to restore critical reflection in nursing, the importance of embracing strong values and standards, and the need for increased awareness of signs of care erosion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M
Conduct a pilot trial testing whether a new cognitive-behavioral (CB) group prevention program that incorporated cognitive-dissonance change principles was feasible and appeared effective in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder onset relative to a brochure control condition in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. 59 college students (M age = 21.8, SD = 2.3; 68% female, 70% White) were randomized to the 6-session Change Ahead group or educational brochure control condition, completing assessments at pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up. Recruitment and screening methods were effective and intervention attendance was high (86% attended all 6 sessions). Change Ahead participants showed medium-large reductions in depressive symptoms at posttest (M d = 0.64), though the effect attenuated by 3-month follow-up. Incidence of major depression onset at 3-month follow-up was 4% for Change Ahead participants versus 13% (difference ns). Change Ahead appears highly feasible and showed positive indications of reduced acute phase depressive symptoms and MDD onset relative to a minimal intervention control in this initial pilot. Given the brevity of the intervention, its apparent feasibility, and the lack of evidence-based depression prevention programs for college students, continued evaluation of Change Ahead appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomas Salzberger; WU Wien; Monika Koller; WU Wien
Desde a primeira vez que foi sugerido, o conceito de dissonância cognitiva tem sido uma ferramenta importante no estudo do comportamento do consumidor. Entretanto, estudos longitudinais de dissonância relacionados a outras ferramentas pós-compra como satisfação, lealdade e comportamento pós-insatisfação ainda são escassos. Isto é devido, em parte, às dificuldades em quantificar concretamente a dissonância. Basean...
Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric
This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.
Maja Turnšek Hančič
Full Text Available The author examines her own transition in career, from media and communication studies to tourism studies, and reflects on the discrepancies between the two studies and personal cognitive dissonance these discrepancies created. At the level of theory, the author critically analyses currently predominant understandings of tourism as an industry and highlights a different view: one where tourism is understood as a social force incorporating normative values of cultural understanding, improvement of wellbeing and natural and cultural heritage preservation. In the second step, the author compares the development of critical thought in media and in tourism studies and identifies a gap between the so-called “cultural turn” and political economy approaches to tourism studies. Finally, the author analyses how new media are empirically researched in tourism studies and critically reflects on the “blind spot” in tourism studies where social media such as TripAdvisor are considered only as a communication tool. What current tourism studies overlook is the political economy of media such as TripAdvisor: their entanglement in a specific political and economic context and their operations according to the interests of media organisation.
Luethcke, Cynthia A; McDaniel, Leda; Becker, Carolyn Black
This study compares different versions of mirror exposure (ME), a body image intervention with research support. ME protocols were adapted to maximize control and comparability, and scripted for delivery by research assistants. Female undergraduates (N=168) were randomly assigned to receive mindfulness-based (MB; n=58), nonjudgmental (NJ; n=55), or cognitive dissonance-based (CD, n=55) ME. Participants completed the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ), Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ), Satisfaction with Body Parts Scale (SBPS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1-month follow-up. Mixed models ANOVAs revealed a significant main effect of time on all measures, and no significant time by condition interaction for any measures except the SBPS. Post-hoc analysis revealed that only CD ME significantly improved SBPS outcome. Results suggest that all versions of ME reduce eating disorder risk factors, but only CD ME improves body satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becker, Carolyn Black; Wilson, Chantale; Williams, Allison; Kelly, Mackenzie; McDaniel, Leda; Elmquist, Joanna
Research supports the efficacy of both cognitive dissonance (CD) and healthy weight (HW) eating disorders prevention, and indicates that CD can be delivered by peer-facilitators, which facilitates dissemination. This study investigated if peer-facilitators can deliver HW when it is modified for their use and extended follow-up of peer-facilitated CD as compared to previous trials. Based on pilot data, we modified HW (MHW) to facilitate peer delivery, elaborate benefits of the healthy-ideal, and place greater emphasis on consuming nutrient dense foods. Female sorority members (N=106) were randomized to either two 2-h sessions of CD or MHW. Participants completed assessment pre- and post-intervention, and at 8-week, 8-month, and 14-month follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, CD decreased negative affect, thin-ideal internalization, and bulimic pathology to a greater degree post-intervention. Both CD and MHW reduced negative affect, internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic pathology at 14 months. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKimmie, BM; Terry, DJ; Hogg, MA; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R; Doosje, B
The impact of social support on dissonance arousal was investigated from a social identity view of dissonance theory. This perspective is seen as augmenting current conceptualizations of dissonance theory by predicting when normative information will impact on dissonance arousal and by indicating
Full Text Available Desde a primeira vez que foi sugerido, o conceito de dissonância cognitiva tem sido uma ferramenta importante no estudo do comportamento do consumidor. Entretanto, estudos longitudinais de dissonância relacionados a outras ferramentas pós-compra como satisfação, lealdade e comportamento pós-insatisfação ainda são escassos. Isto é devido, em parte, às dificuldades em quantificar concretamente a dissonância. Baseando-se em contribuições recentes, o presente estudo trata da relação entre dissonância e satisfação e de seu impacto na lealdade e no comportamento pós-insatisfação. Cento e vinte e cinco consumidores que compraram eletrônicos e produtos domésticos foram entrevistados duas vezes: no momento da compra e três meses depois. Os resultados sugerem que dissonância e satisfação são ferramentas complementares, que descrevem diferentes faces do estado mental do consumidor depois da compra. A dissonância cognitiva e a satisfação governam um conjunto de ações. Enquanto a satisfação tem um impacto na lealdade, i.e. intenção de compra futura e boca a boca, a dissonância cognitiva contribui para explicar o comportamento pós-insatisfação. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i1.2148
Al Otaibi, Sameera Moharib B.
The aim of this study is to try to determine the relationship between the cognitive dissonance, the Big-Five Factors (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and the academic achievement. The study also aim to identify differences between female students with high cognitive dissonance and students with low…
Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wan, Chin-Sheng
The negative impact of the Internet on adolescents has received much attention. How to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is also a critical issue. Based on cognitive dissonance theory, two experiments were conducted to examine whether personal responsibility and justification of cost may play crucial factors in impacting adolescent players' attitude change and their willingness to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that adolescent players who felt a strong sense of responsibility appeared to exhibit greater attitude change. In Experiment 2, the findings indicated that players tended to employ justification of cost in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance between their attitude toward online gaming and invested cost. Adolescent players who perceived a higher cost in online gaming were less willing to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. Reducing adolescents ' overuse of online gaming can be appreciated through the perspective of cognitive dissonance.
Smart, Paul R.; Sycara, Katia; Richardson, Darren P.
The socially-distributed nature of cognitive processing in a variety of organizational settings means that there is increasing scientific interest in the factors that affect collective cognition. In military coalitions, for example, there is a need to understand how factors such as communication network topology, trust, cultural differences and the potential for miscommunication affects the ability of distributed teams to generate high quality plans, to formulate effective decisions and to develop shared situation awareness. The current paper presents a computational model and associated simulation capability for performing in silico experimental analyses of collective sensemaking. This model can be used in combination with the results of human experimental studies in order to improve our understanding of the factors that influence collective sensemaking processes.
Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias
Full Text Available In the West African Sahel, Islam induced processes of cognitive change as spaces and history were given new meaning over time. In the expanding Muslim universe, they were reconstructed with reference to the core regions of the Islamic world and the founding events of Islam. This brought issues of cognitive dissonance to the interpretation of the past, when people were simultaneously confronted with different and incompatible heuristic heritages. This paper investigates such changes in the representation of the past in the Tadmăkkăt / Ǝssuk valley of northern Mali between the Middle Ages and the 1980s. As social interactions were restructured and renegotiated among nomads from the seventeenth century onwards, some groups formulated new status claims by borrowing afresh from the Islamic repertoire. The commercial role the area had played in the Middle Ages ceased to be worth remembering. A new interpretation of the past was imposed upon the valley, and even well-dated Arabic medieval inscriptions were given new meaning. After 1980, the rise of Tuāreg nationalism fostered yet another interpretation of the past of the ancient site. Cognitive dissonance is also displayed in the descriptions of the course of the Niger provided by Leo Africanus in the 16th century, and Muḥammad Bello in the 19th.En Afrique de l’Ouest sahélienne, l’Islam a induit des processus de modification cognitive qui, au cours du temps, contribuèrent à modifier la représentation que l’on se faisait des lieux et de l’histoire. Dans un univers musulman en expansion, elle fut reconstituée en référence aux lieux importants et aux événements fondateurs du monde islamique. Ces changements introduisirent des problèmes de dissonances cognitives dans l’interprétation du passé, les acteurs étant simultanément confrontés à des héritages heuristiques différents et incompatibles. Cet article étudie de tels changements dans la représentation du passé dans
H. R. Widarti
Full Text Available The misconception is one of the obstacles in the concept mastery that needed to be minimalized. This descriptive study was conducted to find the patterns of misconceptions which have occurred on college students who participating in the redox titration course subject. Efforts to minimize misconceptions have been conducted through lectures using the multiple representations with the cognitive dissonance strategies on the 30 students who joined the Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry course. The research instrument used in this study was 6 multiple-choice tests with reasons. In order to detect the misconception, Certainty of Response Index technique was performed. The preliminary study results showed that 34.30% of students experiencing the misconceptions on redox titration. After treatments, the misconceptions reduced to 28.17%. A misconception that cannot be eliminated was related to the concepts involving in the microscopic and symbolic appearances.
A. V. Pavlov
Full Text Available A mechanism of cognitive dissonance reducing is demonstrated with approach for non-monotonic fuzzy-valued logics by Fourier-holography technique implementation developing. Cognitive dissonance occurs under perceiving of new information that contradicts to the existing subjective pattern of the outside world, represented by double Fourier-transform cascade with a hologram – neural layers interconnections matrix of inner information representation and logical conclusion. The hologram implements monotonic logic according to “General Modus Ponens” rule. New information is represented by a hologram of exclusion that implements interconnections of logical conclusion and exclusion for neural layers. The latter are linked by Fourier transform that determines duality of the algebra forming operations of conjunction and disjunction. Hologram of exclusion forms conclusion that is dual to the “General Modus Ponens” conclusion. It is shown, that trained for the main rule and exclusion system can be represented by two-layered neural network with separate interconnection matrixes for direct and inverse iterations. The network energy function is involved determining the cyclic dynamics character; dissipative factor causing convergence type of the dynamics is analyzed. Both “General Modus Ponens” and exclusion holograms recording conditions on the dynamics and convergence of the system are demonstrated. The system converges to a stable status, in which logical conclusion doesn’t depend on the inner information. Such kind of dynamics, leading to tolerance forming, is typical for ordinary kind of thinking, aimed at inner pattern of outside world stability. For scientific kind of thinking, aimed at adequacy of the inner pattern of the world, a mechanism is needed to stop the net relaxation; the mechanism has to be external relative to the model of logic. Computer simulation results for the learning conditions adequate to real holograms recording are
Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E
Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site-specificity. As exempl...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....
Chithambo, Taona P; Huey, Stanley J
The current study evaluated two web-based programs for eating disorder prevention in high-risk, predominantly ethnic minority women. Two hundred and seventy-one women with elevated weight concerns were randomized to Internet dissonance-based intervention (DBI-I), Internet cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI-I), or no intervention (NI). Both interventions consisted of four weekly online sessions. Participants were assessed at pre- and post intervention. Outcome measures included eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, dieting, thin-ideal internalization, and depression. At postintervention, DBI-I and CBI-I led to greater reductions in body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and depression than NI. In addition, CBI-I was effective at reducing dieting and composite eating pathology relative to NI. No outcome differences were found between the active conditions. Moderation analyses suggested that both active conditions were more effective for ethnic minorities than Whites relative to NI. Results suggest that both DBI-I and CBI-I are effective at reducing eating disorder risk factors in a high-risk, predominantly minority population relative to no intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hernandez, Rachael A; Haidet, Paul; Gill, Anne C; Teal, Cayla R
To reduce cognitive dissonance about one's beliefs or behavior, individuals may compare their behavior to personal and/or normative standards. The details of this reflection process are unclear. We examined how medical students compare their behavior or beliefs to standards in discussions about implicit bias, and explored if and how different reflective pathways (preserving vs. reconciling) are associated with each standard. Third-year students engaged in a small-group discussion about bias. Some students and group facilitators also participated in a debriefing about the experience. Using qualitative methods, the transcripts from these 11 sessions were analyzed for evidence of student comparison to a standard and of reflection pathways. Of 557 text units, 75.8% could be coded with a standard and/or a path of reflection. Students referenced personal and normative standards about equally, and preserved or reconciled existing beliefs about equally. Uses of normative standards were associated with preservation-type reflection, and uses of personal standards with reconciliation-type reflection. Normative expectations of physicians are sometimes used to provoke students' consideration of implicit biases about patients. To encourage critical reflection and reconciliation of biased beliefs or behavior, educators should frame reflective activities as a personal exercise rather than as a requirement.
Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J; Reiter, Joel M; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido
A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a "broken" self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed.
Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut
The present study examines whether cognitive control deficits (CCDs) as a personal vulnerability factor amplify the relationship between emotional dissonance (ED; perceived discrepancy between felt and expressed emotions) and burnout symptoms (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) as well as absenteeism. CCDs refer to daily failures and impairments of attention regulation, impulse control, and memory. The prediction of the moderator effect of CCDs draws on the argument that portraying emotions which are not genuinely felt is a form of self-regulation taxing and depleting a limited resource capacity. Interindividual differences in the resource capacity are reflected by the measure of CCDs. Drawing on two German samples (one cross-sectional and one longitudinal sample; NTOTAL = 645) of service employees, the present study analyzed interactive effects of ED and CCDs on exhaustion, depersonalization, and two indicators of absenteeism. As was hypothesized, latent moderated structural equation modeling revealed that the adverse impacts of ED on both burnout symptoms and absence behavior were amplified as a function of CCDs. Theoretical and practical implications of the present results will be discussed.
Jamie Jia Yan Lee
Full Text Available Prior cross-cultural research on dissonance has relied on cultural stereotypes in assuming that individuals from Western cultures are individualistic and have independent self-construals whereas individuals from Asian cultures are collectivistic and have interdependent self-construals. The current research made use of priming to avoid relying on cultural stereotypes and examined how having an independent or interdependent self-construal accounted for differences in dissonance experienced. A total of 120 participants who were Singapore citizens or permanent residents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants received either an independent or interdependent prime, and rated and ranked CDs before and after they made a choice between closely valued alternatives either for oneself or a close other. Results indicated that independently primed participants demonstrated significant dissonance when they made choices for themselves and close others whereas interdependently primed participants demonstrated significant dissonance when they made choices for close others but not for themselves. The study’s findings suggest that having either self-construal accounted for differences in dissonance experienced.
Werner-Lin, Allison; Zaspel, Lori; Carlson, Mae; Mueller, Rebecca; Walser, Sarah A; Desai, Ria; Bernhardt, Barbara A
Clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) may identify variants leading to targeted management of existing conditions. Yet, CGES often fails to identify pathogenic diagnostic variants and introduces uncertainties by detecting variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and secondary findings. This study investigated how families understand findings and adjust their perspectives on CGES. As part of NIH's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium, children were recruited from clinics at the Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania (CHOP) and offered exome sequencing. Primary pathogenic and possibly pathogenic, and some secondary findings were returned. Investigators digitally recorded results disclosure sessions and conducted 3-month follow up interviews with 10 adolescents and a parent. An interdisciplinary team coded all transcripts. Participants were initially disappointed with findings, yet reactions evolved within disclosure sessions and at 3-month interviews toward acceptance and satisfaction. Families erroneously expected, and prepared extensively, to learn about risk for common conditions. During disclosure sessions, parents and adolescents varied in how they monitored and responded to each others reactions. Several misinterpreted, or overestimated, the utility of findings to attribute meaning and achieve closure for the CGES experience. Participants perceived testing as an opportunity to improve disease management despite results that did not introduce new treatments or diagnoses. Future research may examine whether families experience cognitive dissonance regarding discrepancies between expectations and findings, and how protective buffering minimizes the burden of disappointment on loved ones. As CGES is increasingly integrated into clinical care providers must contend with tempering family expectations and interpretations of findings while managing complex medical care. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pennesi, Jamie-Lee; Wade, Tracey D
This pilot study compared two brief online interventions, imagery rescripting and cognitive dissonance, to an assessment-only control condition in a sample of body-dissatisfied young women at risk of developing an eating disorder. We examined the degree to which each intervention reduced disordered eating and modified risk and protective factors for eating disorders. Female university students (N = 107, 17-28 years of age) completed a screening questionnaire, followed by random allocation to one of the three conditions, followed by a baseline assessment, body dissatisfaction induction, and brief online intervention. Participants in the active conditions then completed online daily home practice and a postintervention questionnaire. Findings provide qualified support for the imagery rescripting intervention, with participants reporting higher body image acceptance (Cohen's d = 0.49) than the cognitive dissonance condition, and higher self-compassion (d = 0.59) and lower levels of disordered eating (d = 0.59) than the control condition, at postintervention. There was no significant impact of cognitive dissonance on any factors. Change in body image acceptance and self-compassion mediated the relationship between allocated condition and change in disordered eating at postintervention. These findings provide preliminary support for the use of online-adapted imagery-based techniques (e.g., imagery rescripting) to reduce risk for the development of an eating disorder by strengthening protective factors (i.e., body image acceptance and self-compassion) and reducing disordered eating. Further exploration of the use of imagery strategies in the prevention of disordered eating is required, including prospective tests of the mechanisms of action. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Purpose The main objective was to investigate whether iPhone owners experienced less cognitive post-purchase dissonance than other brand owners and was this due to the marketing communications efforts of Apple Inc., from hereon called Apple. Finally, the influence of Web 2.0 in the process of post-purchase evaluation was examined. Web 2.0 is a version of the Internet and it encourages towards user engagement on websites such as Facebook. Methodology A critical review of the litera...
Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based patient information (EBPI is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. Objective: To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. Setting and participants: 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women, ≥50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design and variables: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers’ attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way to +5 (participate unconditionally (independent variable. Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Results: Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1 and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1. According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. Conclusion: The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.
Steckelberg, Anke; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid
Evidence-based patient information (EBPI) is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women), >or=50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. DESIGN AND VARIABLES: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers' attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way) to +5 (participate unconditionally) (independent variable). Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1) and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1). According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.
Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael
The purpose of this paper is to assess whether smokers adjust their beliefs in a pattern that is consistent with Cognitive Dissonance Theory. This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change. A telephone survey was conducted of nationally representative samples of adult smokers from Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Smokers were followed across three waves (October 2002 to December 2004), during which they were asked to report on their smoking-related beliefs and their quitting behaviour. Smokers with no history of quitting across the three waves exhibited the highest levels of rationalisations for smoking. When smokers quit smoking, they reported having fewer rationalisations for smoking compared with when they had previously been smoking. However, among those who attempted to quit but then relapsed, there was once again a renewed tendency to rationalise their smoking. This rebound in the use of rationalisations was higher for functional beliefs than for risk-minimising beliefs, as predicted by social psychological theory. Smokers are motivated to rationalise their behaviour through the endorsement of more positive beliefs about smoking, and these beliefs change systematically with changes in smoking status. More work is needed to determine if this cognitive dissonance-reducing function has an inhibiting effect on any subsequent intentions to quit.
Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael
Objective The purpose of this paper is to assess whether smokers adjust their beliefs in a pattern that is consistent with Cognitive Dissonance Theory. This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change. Methods A telephone survey was conducted of nationally representative samples of adult smokers from Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Smokers were followed across three waves (October 2002 to December 2004), during which they were asked to report on their smoking-related beliefs and their quitting behaviour. Findings Smokers with no history of quitting across the three waves exhibited the highest levels of rationalisations for smoking. When smokers quit smoking, they reported having fewer rationalisations for smoking compared with when they had previously been smoking. However, among those who attempted to quit but then relapsed, there was once again a renewed tendency to rationalise their smoking. This rebound in the use of rationalisations was higher for functional beliefs than for risk-minimising beliefs, as predicted by social psychological theory. Conclusions Smokers are motivated to rationalise their behaviour through the endorsement of more positive beliefs about smoking, and these beliefs change systematically with changes in smoking status. More work is needed to determine if this cognitive dissonance-reducing function has an inhibiting effect on any subsequent intentions to quit. PMID:22218426
Full Text Available Since the 1980s physiotherapy has shifted concerns towardscultural, economic, philosophical, political and social questions, and moreflexible ways of speaking about and practicing physiotherapy. In response to bothglobal shifts and local demands, the Physiotherapy Division at the University ofCape Town (UC T approached their Social Anthropology colleagues to teacha broader range of perspectives to their physiotherapy students. The objectiveof this research was to explore the changes experienced by UC T physiotherapystudents exposed to a cross-disciplinary teaching environment, and discuss thepossible role of the course in affecting their experience. A qualitative researchdesign drew data from multiple sources and was analysed using an interpretivecontent analysis method. Using an anthropological model of transformation,the changes experienced by students were categorised into three sub-categories of ‘separation’, ‘transition’ and ‘incorporation’.Emotional and cognitive changes were attributable to the course material. By attending to their emotional discomfort, physiotherapystudents not only successfully incorporated anthropological concepts to healthcare but also improved their professional identitiesand personal self-worth.
This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported diss...
Witcomb, Gemma L; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue
Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the 'thin ideal' that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed.
Full Text Available This study examines consumer behavior from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It focuses on a set of cognitive psychological determinants of buyer behavior and analyzes how cognitive dissonance, activation and involvement influence consumer behavior. The literature indicates that a deeper insight into the cognitive processes underlying purchase behavior is essential for brand managers to create and communicate interventions that may have a stronger impact on the buyer such that their brand occupies a special position in the consumer’s mind. Up to now, the conflict between presenting a brand in a both favorable light and completely accurately has been rarely addressed in the literature.
Rodriguez, Dario N; Strange, Deryn
Memories serve as a "database" of the self and people often produce distorted memories that support their self-concepts. One, surprisingly untested, possibility is that cognitive dissonance may be one mechanism by which people may misremember their past. We tested this hypothesis using an induced-compliance paradigm: participants either chose or were forced to write a counterattitudinal essay supporting a tuition increase and were afforded the opportunity to reduce dissonance via attitude shift or denial of responsibility. They then reported their memories for the experimental instructions and their initial attitudes (assessed two days prior to the laboratory session). Participants who chose to write the essay exhibited the predicted attitude-shift effect, and were more likely to misremember their initial attitudes and the experimental instruction than those who were forced to write the essay. Overall, our results provide evidence that cognitive dissonance may yield memory distortion, filling a significant gap in the motivated cognition and memory literatures.
McMillan, Whitney; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul
Objective: As cognitive dissonance is theorized to contribute to the effects of dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs, we evaluated a high-dissonance version of this program against a low-dissonance version and a wait-list control condition to provide an experimental test of the mechanism of intervention effects. Method: Female…
Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek
Full Text Available People socially maladjusted often drink alcohol-containing drinks in a problematic manner (risky, harmful or addictive. Thus there is continuous need for appropriate selective and dedicated prevention. One of such procedures, developed for the military, is the „Korekta” program. It is a therapeutic treatment here referred to as a „short preventive intervention within a group”, and its structure enables to circumvent the typical obstacles encountered during preventive work, such as the effects of cognitive dissonance and the resulting resistance from the ones being treated. The specific structure of the program is the reason why the participants have got a limited possibility to use unconstructive strategies aiming at releasing the tension (resulting from the cognitive dissonance caused by the confrontation between their lifestyle and their knowledge of potential losses caused by drinking alcohol. It brings them closer to changing their lifestyle (contemplation phase according to Prochaski model as a result of using constructive strategies of releasing the tension caused by the cognitive dissonance. Thanks to such solutions the program is highly accepted by the participants, what is shown in formative evaluation scores and what is a sort of a paradox of prevention. It is recommended to apply this tool systematically in the resocialization system.
Full Text Available The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive, participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.
Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Barendregt, Jan J; Hay, Phillipa; Sawyer, Susan M; Paxton, Susan J; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine
Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are prevalent disorders that carry substantial economic and social burden. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the modelled population cost-effectiveness of cognitive dissonance (CD), a school-based preventive intervention for EDs, in the Australian health care context. A population-based Markov model was developed to estimate the cost per disability adjusted life-year (DALY) averted by CD relative to no intervention. We modelled the cases of AN and BN that could be prevented over a 10-year time horizon in each study arm and the subsequent reduction in DALYs associated with this. The target population was 15-18 year old secondary school girls with high body-image concerns. This study only considered costs of the health sector providing services and not costs to individuals. Multivariate probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test model assumptions. Findings showed that the mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at base-case for the intervention was $103,980 per DALY averted with none of the uncertainty iterations falling below the threshold of AUD$50,000 per DALY averted. The evaluation was most sensitive to estimates of participant rates with higher rates associated with more favourable results. The intervention would become cost-effective (84% chance) if the effect of the intervention lasted up to 5 years. As modelled, school-based CD intervention is not a cost-effective preventive intervention for AN and BN. Given the burden of EDs, understanding how to improve participation rates is an important opportunity for future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed ...effect on cognitive dissonance depends on hedonicity of music: pleasant music better helps overcoming cognitive dissonance than unpleasant music. This
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
accepts that nature it not existing outside culture as something that be restored to its original state, but a contemporary product created and managed with certain objectives in mind, nature restoration like heritage production are prone to same kind of dissonance – our nature is not necessary...... their nature. According to Ashworth cultural dissonance can be managed in a number of different way depending on which type of plural society is preferred. Many of these management strategies consciously or unconsciously involve some form of denial, neglect, destruction, reinterpretation or marginalizing...
Meat eaters face dissonance whether it results from inconsistency ("I eat meat; I don't like to hurt animals"), aversive consequences ("I eat meat; eating meat harms animals"), or threats to self image ("I eat meat; compassionate people don't hurt animals"). The present work proposes that there are a number of strategies that omnivores adopt to reduce this dissonance including avoidance, dissociation, perceived behavioral change, denial of animal pain, denial of animal mind, pro-meat justifications, reducing perceived choice, and actual behavioral change. The presence of vegetarians was speculated to cause meat eating to be a scrutinized behavior, remind meat eaters of their discomfort, and undermine the effectiveness of these strategies. It was therefore hypothesized that exposure to a description of a vegetarian would lead omnivores to embrace dissonance-reducing strategies. Supporting this hypothesis, participants who read a vignette about a vegetarian denied animal mind more than participants who read about a gluten-free individual. It was also hypothesized that omnivores would be sensitive to individual differences between vegetarians and would demonstrate using dissonance-reducing strategies more when the situation failed to provide cognitions consonant with eating meat or to reduce dissonant cognitions. Four experiments supported this prediction and found that authentic vegetarians, vegetarians freely making the decision to abandon meat, consistent vegetarians, and anticipating moral reproach from vegetarians produced greater endorsement of dissonance-reducing strategies than their counterpart conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Karl Kristoffer
Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use of ...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....
Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Chen, Jue
Summary Eating disorders are common, life-threatening conditions in Western countries, but until relatively recently they were regarded as uncommon in non-Western cultures. However, the prevalence of eating disorders in many of the more affluent non-Western countries is rising rapidly as community members, particularly young women, internalize the ‘thin ideal’ that has been widely promoted by the international media. This review discusses the factors involved in the development of eating disorders in non-Western settings with a particular emphasis on the influences of urbanization, modernization, Westernization, and the resulting changes in women's roles. The cognitive dissonance programs developed in Western countries that have proven successful in countering the negative effects of the thin idea are described and their potential application to East Asia and other non-Western countries are discussed. PMID:24991176
Pugh, S. Douglas; Groth, Markus; Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten
Emotional dissonance resulting from an employee's emotional labor is usually considered to lead to negative employee outcomes, such as job dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Drawing on Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory, we argue that the relationship between service employees' surface acting and job dissatisfaction and…
ul Haq, Hammad; Drogendijk, Rian; Blankenburg Holm, Desiree
We introduce the notion of attention dissonance, where the subsidiary within a headquarter-subsidiary relationship feels that headquarters’ attention at the cognitive level, reflected in its strategic intentions (attention perspective), is not aligned with the routine actions the headquarters
Barkan, Rachel; Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan
Six studies demonstrate the "pot calling the kettle black" phenomenon whereby people are guilty of the very fault they identify in others. Recalling an undeniable ethical failure, people experience ethical dissonance between their moral values and their behavioral misconduct. Our findings indicate that to reduce ethical dissonance, individuals use a double-distancing mechanism. Using an overcompensating ethical code, they judge others more harshly and present themselves as more virtuous and ethical (Studies 1, 2, 3). We show this mechanism is exclusive for ethical dissonance and is not triggered by salience of ethicality (Study 4), general sense of personal failure, or ethically neutral cognitive dissonance (Study 5). Finally, it is characterized by some boundary conditions (Study 6). We discuss the theoretical contribution of this work to research on moral regulation and ethical behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Andela, Marie; Truchot, Didier
The aim of the present study was to better understand the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout by exploring the buffering effects of re-evaluation and team reflexivity. The study was conducted with a sample of 445 nurses and healthcare assistants from a general hospital. Team reflexivity was evaluated with the validation of the French version of the team reflexivity scale (Facchin, Tschan, Gurtner, Cohen, & Dupuis, 2006). Burnout was measured with the MBI General Survey (Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach, & Jackson, 1996). Emotional dissonance and re-evaluation were measured with the scale developed by Andela, Truchot, & Borteyrou (2015). With reference to Rimé's theoretical model (2009), we suggested that both dimensions of team reflexivity (task and social reflexivity) respond to both psychological necessities induced by dissonance (cognitive clarification and socio-affective necessities). Firstly, results indicated that emotional dissonance was related to burnout. Secondly, regression analysis confirmed the buffering role of re-evaluation and social reflexivity on the emotional exhaustion of emotional dissonance. Overall, results contribute to the literature by highlighting the moderating effect of re-evaluation and team reflexivity in analysing the relationship between emotional dissonance and burnout. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This study, based on Leon Festingers (1957 theory of cognitive dissonance, evaluates the relative power of various dissonance arousal factors, the impact of price and the psychological conditions necessary for dissonance arousal, for example, effort exerted. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle buyers. Eight dimensions impact significantly on the magnitude of cognitive dissonance, namely, awareness of expectations, unconfirmed expectations, reported dissonance, effort, congruence with self-concept, price, persuasiveness, and level of confidence during purchases. The results contribute to a better understanding of human behaviour and cognitions thereby, enabling the development of effective marketing strategies to enhance post-purchase satisfaction. Opsomming Hierdie studie is gebaseer op Leon Festinger (1957 se teorie van kognitiewe dissonansie, wat die relatiewe krag van verskeie opwekkingsfaktore, die impak van prys, asook die sielkundige toestande evalueer wat vir dissonansie-opwekking vereis word soos byvoorbeeld inspanning uitgeoefen. Die empiriese analise is uitgevoer op n steekproef van 200 eienaars van nuwe motorvoertuie. Agt dimensies het n betekenisvolle impak op die vlak van kognitiewe dissonansie uitgeoefen naamlik, hoe bewus verbruikers van hulle verwagtinge is, verwagtinge wat onbevestig is, dissonansie wat gerapporteer word, inspanning, ooreenstemming met die eienaar se selfbeeld, prys, hoe oorredend die verkoper is en die koper se vlak van selfvertroue gedurende die aankope. Die resultate dra by tot n beter begrip van menslike gedrag en van kognisies en bevorder daardeur die ontwikkeling van doeltreffende bemarkingstrategie- om na-verkooptevredenheid te verhoog.
Halliwell, Emma; Diedrichs, Phillippa C
Body image and eating disorder interventions based on cognitive dissonance have been shown to be effective among girls and women aged 14 and above. This article reports a preliminary examination of whether a dissonance intervention is also effective when delivered in a school setting to 12- and 13-year-old girls in the United Kingdom. Girls (N = 106, mean age = 12.07 years, SD = .27) were allocated to the intervention condition or a waitlist control. In contrast to the control group, girls in the intervention condition reported significant reductions in body dissatisfaction and internalization of a thin body ideal post-intervention. There was no significant change in self-reported dietary restraint for either condition. In addition, compared with the control group, girls in the intervention condition showed increased resilience to negative media effects 1-month post-intervention. Results suggests that dissonance based programs can reduce body dissatisfaction, internalization and negative media effects among a younger group of girls than previously examined and in a United Kingdom school setting. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Jensen, Kristoffer; Hjortkjær, Jens
Dissonance is an important feature in music audio analysis. We present here a dissonance model that accounts for the temporal integration of dissonant events in auditory short term memory. We compare the memory-based dissonance extracted from musical audio sequences to the response of human...... listeners. In a number of tests, the memory model predicts listener’s response better than traditional dissonance measures....
Kitayama, Shinobu; Chua, Hannah Faye; Tompson, Steven; Han, Shihui
Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that difficult choice produces negatively arousing cognitive conflict (called dissonance), which motivates the chooser to justify her decision by increasing her preference for the chosen option while decreasing her preference for the rejected option. At present, however, neural mechanisms of dissonance are poorly understood. To address this gap of knowledge, we scanned 24 young Americans as they made 60 choices between pairs of popular music CDs. As predicted, choices between CDs that were close (vs. distant) in attractiveness (referred to as difficult vs. easy choices) resulted in activations of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a brain region associated with cognitive conflict, and the left anterior insula (left aINS), a region often linked with aversive emotional arousal. Importantly, a separate analysis showed that choice-justifying attitude change was predicted by the in-choice signal intensity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a region that is linked to self-processing. The three regions identified (dACC, left aINS, and PCC) were correlated, within-subjects, across choices. The results were interpreted to support the hypothesis that cognitive dissonance plays a key role in producing attitudes that justify the choice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bramschreiber, Terry L.
Even 150 years after Charles Darwin published "On the Origin of Species," public school teachers still find themselves dealing with student resistance to learning about biological evolution. Some teachers deal with this pressure by undermining, deemphasizing, or even omitting the topic in their science curriculum. Others face the…
Layton, Roslyn; Khajeheian, Datis
quantitatively and qualitatively. The results are compared against demographic statistics for the country and a survey of residents in Tehran. This research finds that while women have a major presence on IRIB television programs and in advertising on non-televised media, women are strangely and significantly...... as modern, dynamic, and cosmopolitan.This research is indicative of a key question in media and feminist studies, whether advertising reflects or creates reality. While we see the salience of a number of theories, we suggest that the dissonance between the outmoded depiction of women in IRIB commercials...... versus reality is the result of long-standing advertising subsidy regime for state supported industries and firms....
Le, Thao N; Stockdale, Gary
Studies suggest that the process of acculturation for immigrant youth, particularly for second-generation youth, is significantly associated with delinquency and violence. This study explored the acculturation-violence link with respect to acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity. The results revealed in a sample of 329 Chinese, Cambodian, Mien/Laotian, and Vietnamese youth that acculturative dissonance was significantly predictive of serious violence, with full mediation through peer delinquency. Ethnic identity was not significantly associated with peer delinquency or serious violence. Although acculturative dissonance and ethnic identity accounted for a small percentage of variance in violence compared with peer delinquency, it cannot be discounted as trivial. Structural equation analyses provided support for both measurement and structural invariance across the four ethnic groups, lending support for cross-cultural comparisons. The results also lend support for the inclusion of cultural factors in youth violence prevention and intervention efforts. 2008 APA
Kokkoris, Michail D; Kühnen, Ulrich
Prior research demonstrates that members of collectivistic cultures are less likely to reduce cognitive dissonance after making a choice, compared to members of individualistic cultures. This difference has been attributed to different conceptualizations of choice that derive from different self-construals across cultures. In individualistic cultures, choice leads to stronger commitment to the chosen option compared to collectivistic cultures, because it implicates core aspects of the independent self, such as personal preferences. However, this cultural variation in postchoice dissonance has thus far been studied exclusively by comparing East Asians and North Americans. Building on the assumption that this difference is due to different construals of the self, we conducted an experiment with movie choices using the classic free-choice paradigm to examine differences in dissonance reduction between Western and Eastern Europeans, two populations known to differ with respect to interdependence. The results show that Eastern Europeans are less likely than Western Europeans to reduce postchoice dissonance by spreading their alternatives. Our findings speak to the generalizability of the hypothesis that in cultures differing in independence or interdependence people also differ in the way they construe choice, as well as in the way the act of choosing affects their self-concept.
Drennan, Sarah; Van Bockern, Steve
In this article, the authors recount their visit to Chiang Mai, a city in northern Thailand, in late January and focus on their search for resolution in cultural dissonance. So much about Thailand was different to them. Although they tend to relish differences, they still find some differences quite challenging. Thai culture is firmly anchored in…
Both legal and illegal forms of digital music consumption continue to evolve with wider adoption of subscription streaming services. With this paper, we aim to extend theory on digital music piracy by showing that the rising controversy and diminishing acceptance of illegal forms of consumption call for new theoretical components and interactions. We introduce a model that integrates insights from neutralization and cognitive dissonance theories. As an initial empirical test of th...
Stoverink, Adam C; Umphress, Elizabeth E; Gardner, Richard G; Miner, Kathi N
The organizational justice literature has examined the effects of supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate, or a team's shared perception of the dignity and respect it receives from its supervisor, on a number of important outcomes directed at organizational authorities. Considerably less is known about the potential influence of these shared perceptions on coworker-directed outcomes. In 2 experiments, we predict that a low (unfair) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate generates greater team cohesiveness than a high (fair) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate. We further examine the process through which this effect occurs. Drawing from cognitive dissonance theory, we predict that low (vs. high) supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate generates greater team dissonance, or shared psychological discomfort, for team members and that this dissonance serves as an underlying mechanism through which supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate influences a team's cohesiveness. Our results demonstrate support for these predictions in that low supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate led to higher levels of both team dissonance and team cohesiveness than did high supervisor-focused interpersonal justice climate, and team dissonance mediated this relationship. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
H Hannah Nam
Full Text Available People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance. According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a "better president." This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences. The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed.
Nam, H Hannah; Jost, John T; Van Bavel, Jay J
People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a "better president." This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed.
Freijy, Tanya; Kothe, Emily J
Increasing evidence suggests that various health behaviours are amenable to change following the induction of cognitive dissonance. This systematic review sought to evaluate the effectiveness and methodological quality of dissonance-based health behaviour interventions and to explore identified sources of heterogeneity in intervention effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for relevant articles from inception to March 2012. Only studies targeting non-clinical health behaviour in non-clinical populations were included in the review. One author extracted data and assessed quality of evidence and a second author verified all content. Reports of 20 studies were included. A variety of health behaviours and outcome measures were addressed across studies. Most studies produced one or more significant effects on measures of behaviour, attitude or intention. Across studies, methodological risk for bias was frequently high, particularly for selection bias. Gender and self-esteem were identified as potential moderator variables. The evidence for the effectiveness of dissonance-based interventions was generally positive. The hypocrisy paradigm was found to be the most commonly applied research paradigm and was most effective at inciting change across a range of health behaviours. There was no observable link between type of target behaviour and positive outcomes. Researchers are encouraged to minimize potential for bias in future studies and explore moderators of the dissonance effect. What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis indicates that dissonance-based interventions primarily based on the induced compliance paradigm are effective for eating disorder prevention (Stice, Shaw, Becker, & Rohde, 2008, Prev. Sci., 9, 114). However, it is currently unclear whether such outcomes are generalizable to interventions targeting non-clinical health behaviours such as smoking, sun protection and sexual risk taking. Other research indicates that studies based
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
Nature restoration is far from a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance—‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particularly sensitive to site-specificity. As exemplified...... for multiple interpretations to coexist. Indications can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015)—a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....
Clemmensen, Thomas Juel
Nature restoration is far from a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance—‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particularly sensitive to site-specificity. As exemplified...... for multiple interpretations to coexist. Indications can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015)—a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....
Alhammad, Muna; Gulliver, Stephen; Wiafe, Isaac; Nakata, Keiichi
Existing research has given little attention to the relationship between culture characteristics and consumer’s internal beliefs particularly in the pre-purchase stage, and how this relationship affects consumer’s purchase decision. This paper considers the theory of cognitive dissonance and its extended model (the 3D-RAB), as a means to study the current distribution of consumer’s pre-purchase cognitive dissonance, which allows us to investigate the effects of culture characteristics on this...
OANA CRISTINA POPOVICI
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify to what extent the notions of organizational and regional competitiveness are similar, in order to be targeted by a comprehensive set of public policy measures. In this respect, we discuss the notions of organizations’ and regional competitiveness and find common factors of influence, namely innovation, networks and regulation. Based on these factors, we search for empirical evidences as regards the mutual impact between the competitiveness of organizations and competitiveness of regions. We present the results using the example of foreign direct investment companies, as their location decision making process is based on assessing both the competitiveness of organizations and the advantages of locations that point to the competitiveness of a location and, extended, to that of a region. While the dissonance is expressed in the differences of interpretation for the two notions, there is a consonant policy that can be employed for supporting both organizational and regional competitiveness: the cluster policy.
Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice.
Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude–behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice. PMID:28286489
Sanjana Brijball Parumasur
Full Text Available This study assesses whether motor vehicle consumers base their purchases on functional or symbolic needs. It also evaluates motor vehicle buyer’s level of importance attached to evaluative criteria and the extent to which they believe the purchased vehicle fulfils the evaluative criteria, in order to assess whether expectations have been met or not and hence, the potential for cognitive dissonance. Biographical correlates (race, marital status, age, education, occupation, income, gender are evaluated and the influence of range of motor vehicle is also analysed. A sample of 200 brand new motor vehicle buyers was drawn using the stratified random sampling technique based on range of motor vehicle purchased, month of purchases, gender and age of the buyer. Only new motor vehicle buyers (within KwaZulu-Natal who concluded their purchases in one major, reputable and leading motor vehicle manufacturing company and who owned the vehicle for a maximum period of seven months were considered, so as to avoid cognitive intrusion. The results indicate that consumer’ expectations were not met in terms of price, economy and performance yet these were buyers’ most highly rated evaluative criteria, thereby reflecting the potential for dissonance. Significant biographical correlates were noted in terms of race, age, occupation, income, gender and motor vehicle evaluative criteria. Whilst bottom and middle of the range motor vehicle consumers favour functional or utilitarian value, top of the range motor vehicle consumers aim to fulfil symbolic needs
Nam, H. Hannah; Jost, John T.; Van Bavel, Jay J.
People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a “better president.” This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed. PMID:23620724
Corradi, David; Clarebout, Geraldine; Elen, Jan
Previous research on multiple external representations (MER) indicates that sequencing representations (compared with presenting them as a whole) can, in some cases, increase conceptual understanding if there is interference between internal and external representations. We tested this mechanism by sequencing different combinations of scientific…
Gorski, Paul C.
Some misunderstandings are remedied easily. But when new information collides with old prejudices--when new truths battle established beliefs for space in people's consciousnesses--they tend to respond with all manner of defense mechanisms. They employ these defenses in response to the psychological stressors that emerge from such inner-battles…
K.E. Cheney (Kristen)
textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.
Dechawatanapaisal, Decha; Siengthai, Sununta
Purpose: This research proposes a framework, which identifies the underlying factors that shape learning behavior in the workplace. It takes organizational members' perspectives into consideration to gain better understanding on managing people and their behavior in the organizational learning process. Design/methodology/approach: Primary data…
The steady erosion of support for this flagrant HIV denialism, together with the rise of neoliberal thinking in the ANC, would lead to the evolution of this biological denialism into a form of treatment denialism. This ideology argued against the widespread provision and use of antiretroviral treatment. Empirical evidence is ...
Lozenski, Brian D.
Drawing from a two-year ethnographic study, this article establishes jazz as an epistemological metaphor for critical participatory action research. The author juxtaposes the tensions inherent in jazz music and critical participatory research methodologies to provide a framework for understanding how dissonance can become a productive element for…
Stalder, Daniel R.
After reading a detailed account of a serious mistake in which a similar-age other went against personal values or a prior commitment, undergraduates rated their feelings of dissonance (regret, hypocrisy, and stupidity) had they been in the actor's place. Relative to a control condition, reading relevant proverbs such as "everybody makes mistakes"…
way, causing dissonance or cognitive conflict, so that the mental model has to be ‘accommodated’ to the new data. Categories and knowledge have to...The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock A Monograph by MAJ Anthony L. Marston United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Efficacy of Cognitive Shock 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
Milliman, Ronald E.; Decker, Phillip J.
Demonstrates the use and potentially positive effects of postpurchase communication on order refund requests and reorder rates. Finds that dissonance was effectively reduced through postpurchase communication. (MG)
Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.
Tarigan, Elka Putri Desi Amanda
The development of dynamic lifestyle on the consumer, the using of marketing strategy has also increasingly become diversed. One of them is online purchasing. However, online purchasing have some weakness associated to security and direct contact with the products. Some risk make individuals tend to choose offline purchasing. When individuals find the negative factor out of their alternatives of choices, it will cause doubt after purchasing the product. It is known as postpurchase dissonance....
Wilkins, SJK; Beckenuyte, C; Butt, MM
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to discover the extent to which consumers are aware of air filling in food packaging, the extent to which deceptive packaging and slack filling – which often result from package downsizing – lead to cognitive dissonance, and the extent to which feelings of cognitive dissonance and being deceived lead consumers to engage in negative post purchase behaviours. Design/methodology/approach – The study analysed respondents’ reactions to a series of images of a...
Caldwell, Meredith T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J
In light of previous research demonstrating poor pitch perception in cochlear implant (CI) users, we hypothesized that the presence of consonant versus dissonant chord accompaniment in real-world musical stimuli would not impact subjective assessment of degree of pleasantness in CI users. Consonance/dissonance are perceptual features of harmony resulting from pitch relationships between simultaneously presented musical notes. Generally, consonant sounds are perceived as pleasant and dissonant ones as unpleasant. CI users exhibit impairments in pitch perception, making music listening difficult and often unenjoyable. To our knowledge, consonance/dissonance perception has not been studied in the CI population. Twelve novel melodies were created for this study. By altering the harmonic structures of the accompanying chords, we created three permutations of varying dissonance for each melody (36 stimuli in all). Ten CI users and 12 NH listeners provided Likert scale ratings from -5 (very unpleasant) to +5 (very pleasant) for each of the stimuli. A two-way ANOVA showed main effects for Dissonance Level and Subject Type as well as a two-way interaction between the two. Pairwise comparisons indicated that NH stimuli pleasantness ratings decreased with increasing dissonance, whereas CI ratings did not. NH pleasantness ratings were consistently lower than CI ratings. For CI users, consonant versus dissonant chord accompaniment had no significant impact on whether a melody was considered pleasant or unpleasant. This finding may be partially responsible for the decreased enjoyment of many CI users during music perception and is another manifestation of impaired pitch perception in CI users.
Barkan, Rachel; Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan
Six studies demonstrate the "pot calling the kettle black" phenomenon whereby people are guilty of the very fault they identify in others. Recalling an undeniable ethical failure, people experience ethical dissonance between their moral values and their behavioral misconduct. Our findings indicate that to reduce ethical dissonance,…
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
Porfeli, Erik J.; Mortimer, Jeylan T.
Previous research suggests that discrepancies between work values and rewards are indicators of dissonance that induce change in both to reduce such dissonance over time. The present study elaborates this model to suggest parallels with the first phase of the extension-and-strain curve. Small discrepancies or small increases in extension are…
Chait, Sari R; Thompson, J Kevin; Jacobsen, Paul B
The current study examined the feasibility of an appearance-based dissonance induction approach for the modification of tanning and sunscreen use behaviors. Undergraduate female students were randomized to: a healthy lifestyle condition, an appearance-based dissonance condition, or an appearance-based psychoeducation condition. Reports of tanning and sunscreen use were collected immediately before and 1 month following intervention (N=225). Relative to the healthy lifestyle condition, participants in the dissonance condition reported a significant reduction in daily hours spent tanning. Additionally, sunscreen use on the body decreased significantly for the healthy lifestyle group, but did not change for the dissonance group. The psychoeducation condition did not differ from the healthy lifestyle condition on any measure. These findings should encourage additional research into the use of dissonance induction as an appearance-based strategy for promoting reductions in UV exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dellacherie, Delphine; Roy, Mathieu; Hugueville, Laurent; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine
To study the influence of musical education on emotional reactions to dissonance, we examined self-reports and physiological responses to dissonant and consonant musical excerpts in listeners with low (LE: n=15) and high (HE: n=13) musical experience. The results show that dissonance induces more unpleasant feelings and stronger physiological responses in HE than in LE participants, suggesting that musical education reinforces aversion to dissonance. Skin conductance (SCR) and electromyographic (EMG) signals were analyzed according to a defense cascade model, which takes into account two successive time windows corresponding to orienting and defense responses. These analyses suggest that musical experience can influence the defense response to dissonance and demonstrate a powerful role of musical experience not only in autonomic but also in expressive responses to music. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Dengah, H J François; Lacy, Michael G
We use ethnographically informed survey and interview data to explore therapeutic and problematic play in the online World of Warcraft (WoW). We focus on how game-play in WoW is driven by shared and socially transmitted models of success that we conceptualize as cultural ideals. Our research reveals associations between having higher online compared to offline success, on the one hand, and gamers' reports about how their play both adds to and subtracts from their mental wellness, on the other. Fusing William Dressler's notion of "cultural consonance" (an individual's relative consistency with his or her culture) with Leon Festinger's "cognitive dissonance" (the tendency of individuals to suffer distress when they cannot eliminate incompatibilities in conflicting beliefs and attitudes), we develop the notion of "cultural dissonance," which in this context refers to how conflicts between online and offline lives, and also subsequent attempts to minimize the conflicts through psychological negotiations, impact gamers' mental health. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
Cofiel, Luciana; Bassi, Débora U; Ray, Ryan Kumar; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Brentani, Helena
The interplay between the workflow for clinical tasks and research data collection is often overlooked, ultimately making it ineffective. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have developed standards that allow for the comparison of workflow models derived from clinical and research tasks toward the improvement of data collection processes. In this study we used the term dissonance for the occurrences where there was a discord between clinical and research workflows. We developed workflow models for a translational research study in psychiatry and the clinic where its data collection was carried out. After identifying points of dissonance between clinical and research models we derived a corresponding classification system that ultimately enabled us to re-engineer the data collection workflow. We considered (1) the number of patients approached for enrollment and (2) the number of patients enrolled in the study as indicators of efficiency in research workflow. We also recorded the number of dissonances before and after the workflow modification. We identified 22 episodes of dissonance across 6 dissonance categories: actor, communication, information, artifact, time, and space. We were able to eliminate 18 episodes of dissonance and increase the number of patients approached and enrolled in research study trough workflow modification. The classification developed in this study is useful for guiding the identification of dissonances and reveal modifications required to align the workflow of data collection and the clinical setting. The methodology described in this study can be used by researchers to standardize data collection process.
Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T.
The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70–150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance. PMID:27148011
Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok; Cheung, Ray Yu-Hin
In this study, the stressor-strain-outcome (SSO) model developed by Koeske and Koeske was adopted to examine the mediating effect of burnout between emotional dissonance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The study involved 264 full-time Chinese school teachers (82 men, 16 women, and 22 individuals whose genders were not specified; mean age = 34.4 years and SD = 8.09 years). Correlation analysis showed that emotional dissonance is positively related to all three burnout dimensions (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment). Emotional dissonance is also negatively related to OCB toward individuals. Results from structural equation modeling support the SSO model, which states that emotional dissonance first leads to burnout and then to lower OCB. The limitations and implications to the school management, such as provision of emotional regulation training and strengthening of the social network system, were also discussed.
Al Busaidy, Najat Saif Mohammed; Borthwick, Alan
Occupational therapy theory and philosophy are broadly considered to be based on Western cultural values. In contrast, the application of theory and practice in the Sultanate of Oman, historically based on traditional Middle Eastern and Islamic cultural values, provides a case exemplar, which highlights both paradigmatic differences and cultural dissonance. Drawing on the experiences of occupational therapists working in Oman, this study found that the application of therapeutic goals aimed at patient independence and autonomy were difficult to achieve in an environment where family duty and responsibility for care were highly prized. Dressing and cooking assessments were challenging, and issues related to gender proved problematic. Therapists found the need to adapt practice to acknowledge these differences, and to adopt pragmatic problem-solving strategies, without resolving the underpinning philosophical contradictions. Occupational therapy in Oman is under-researched; further work is needed to confirm the cross-cultural validity of specific assessments and practice models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Barkan, R.; Ayal, S.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, D.
Six studies demonstrate the "pot calling the kettle black" phenomenon whereby people are guilty of the very fault they identify in others. Recalling an undeniable ethical failure, people experience ethical dissonance between their moral values and their behavioral misconduct. Our findings indicate that to reduce ethical dissonance, individuals use a double-distancing mechanism. Using an overcompensating ethical code, they judge others more harshly and present themselves as more virtuous and e...
Green, M A; Willis, M; Fernandez-Kong, K; Reyes, S; Linkhart, R; Johnson, M; Thorne, T; Lindberg, J; Kroska, E; Woodward, H
We conducted a controlled randomized preliminary trial of a modified dissonance-based eating disorder program (n = 24) compared to an assessment-only control condition (n = 23) via a longitudinal design (baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) in a community sample of women (N = 47) with clinical (n = 22) and subclinical (n = 25) eating disorder symptoms. The traditional content of the Body Project, a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, was modified to include verbal, written, and behavioral exercises designed to dissuade self-objectification and maladaptive social comparison. Women with clinical and subclinical symptoms were included in the target audience to investigate both the treatment and the indicated prevention utility of the modified dissonance program. Body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, self-objectification, thin-ideal internalization, maladaptive social comparison, trait anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms were evaluated in the control and the modified dissonance condition at baseline, postintervention, and 2-month follow-up. We predicted a statistically significant 2 (condition: control, modified dissonance) x 3 (time: baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) interaction in the mixed factorial multivariate analyses of variance results. Results confirmed this hypothesis. Eating disorder risk factors and symptoms decreased significantly among participants in the modified dissonance condition at postintervention and 2-month follow-up compared to baseline; symptom improvement was greater among participants in the modified compared to the control condition. A secondary analysis indicated symptom improvement did not vary as a function of symptom status (clinical, subclinical), suggesting the program is efficacious in both indicated prevention and treatment applications. Results provide preliminary support for the modified dissonance program. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Cognitive function of music, its origin, and evolution has been a mystery until recently. Here we discuss a theory of a fundamental function of music in cognition and culture. Music evolved in parallel with language. The evolution of language toward a semantically powerful tool required freeing from uncontrolled emotions. Knowledge evolved fast along with language. This created cognitive dissonances, contradictions among knowledge and instincts, which differentiated consciousness. To sustain evolution of language and culture, these contradictions had to be unified. Music was the mechanism of unification. Differentiated emotions are needed for resolving cognitive dissonances. As knowledge has been accumulated, contradictions multiplied and correspondingly more varied emotions had to evolve. While language differentiated psyche, music unified it. Thus the need for refined musical emotions in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of cognition. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music.
Danielsson, Louise; Bertilsson, Monica; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel
Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months. They were women and men of different ages, representing different occupations and illness severity. A general process of work instability was conceptualized by the core category Working in dissonance: captured in a bubble inside the work stream. The workers described that their ordinary fluency at work was disturbed. They distanced themselves from other people at and outside work, which helped them to regain their flow but simultaneously made them feel isolated. Four categories described sub-processes of the dissonance: Working out of rhythm, Working in discomfort, Working disconnected and Working in a no man's land. The experience of work instability in CMDs was conceptualized as "working in dissonance", suggesting a multifaceted dissonance at work, characterized by a sense of being caught up, as if in a bubble. Focusing on how the worker can re-enter their flow at work when experiencing dissonance is a new approach to explore in occupational and clinical settings.
Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Spoor, Sonja; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather
Adolescent girls with body dissatisfaction (N = 481, SD = 1.4) were randomized to a dissonance-based thin-ideal internalization reduction program, healthy weight control program, expressive writing control condition, or assessment-only control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in thin-ideal internalization,…
This paper examines stability and change during the elementary-to-middle school transition, focusing on adolescents' experiences of home--school dissonance because of real or perceived differences between home/self and values within the school context. Relationships were hypothesized between exacerbation and amelioration of dissonance, middle…
Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M; Hakanen, Jari J; Perhoniemi, Riku; Salanova, Marisa
In this study, we hypothesized that dentist' interpersonal resources (good cooperation with one's assistant) together with their personal resources (optimism) buffer the negative effects of emotional dissonance (a demand that occurs when there is a difference between felt and displayed emotions) on job performance (in-role and extra-role performance) over time. We carried out Hierarchical Regression Modeling on a sample of 1954 Finnish dentists who participated in a two-wave 4-year longitudinal study. Results showed that good cooperation with dental assistants buffered the negative effects of emotional dissonance on both in-role and extra-role performance among the dentists in the long term. However, unexpectedly, dentists' high optimism did not buffer their in-role nor extra-role performance over time under conditions of experiencing high emotional dissonance. We conclude that interpersonal job resources such as good cooperation with one's colleagues may buffer the negative effect of emotional dissonance on dentists' job performance even in the long term, whereas the role of personal resources (e.g., optimism) may be less important for maintaining high job performance under conditions of emotional dissonance. The study novelties include the test of the negative effects of emotional dissonance on long-term performance in dentistry and the identification of the job rather than personal resources as the buffers against the negative effects of emotional dissonance on long-term performance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut
Two specific sources of stress at work have recently received increasing attention in organizational stress research: emotional dissonance (ED) and self-control demands (SCDs). Both theoretical arguments and experimental findings in basic research strongly suggest that ED and different SCDs draw on a common limited regulatory resource.…
Frazer, Andrew L.; Rubens, Sonia; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.
Background: Two risk factors for negative outcomes in Latina/o youth are acculturation dissonance (i.e., discrepant family cultural orientations) and the endorsement of an assimilation strategy of acculturation (i.e., valuing dominant mainstream culture over culture of origin). Though these have been uniquely studied as risk factors for…
Choi, Kwang Il; Lee, Won Jae
This study collected data from 467 nursery teachers and it aimed to investigate the association between mental health and emotional dissonance and job burnout of the day care nursery teachers. Measurement tool was developed, most of the questions having 5-point scale. The data were analyzed structural equation model with the statistical package IBM SPSS 23 and AMOS 21 with 5% percent of significance level. Main results are as follows. First, it was found that emotional dissonance of nursery teachers working in day care centers showed significant effect on the mental health such factors as job-stress (relationships with children and parents and work overload). Second, emotional dissonance were found to have a significant effect on job burnout, too. Third, job burnout had a significant effect on the mental health, job stress and psychological wellbeing. Fourth, job burnout was found to mediate partially on mental health and emotional dissonance. These findings suggest the importance of mental health promotion programs for child care teachers working in the day care centers
Choi, Kwang Il; Lee, Won Jae [Gachon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)
This study collected data from 467 nursery teachers and it aimed to investigate the association between mental health and emotional dissonance and job burnout of the day care nursery teachers. Measurement tool was developed, most of the questions having 5-point scale. The data were analyzed structural equation model with the statistical package IBM SPSS 23 and AMOS 21 with 5% percent of significance level. Main results are as follows. First, it was found that emotional dissonance of nursery teachers working in day care centers showed significant effect on the mental health such factors as job-stress (relationships with children and parents and work overload). Second, emotional dissonance were found to have a significant effect on job burnout, too. Third, job burnout had a significant effect on the mental health, job stress and psychological wellbeing. Fourth, job burnout was found to mediate partially on mental health and emotional dissonance. These findings suggest the importance of mental health promotion programs for child care teachers working in the day care centers.
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Mulder, Shambra; Hughes, Travonia; Stevens-Morgan, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya
The current study examined the association between home-school dissonance and academic cheating among 344 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Analyses revealed that home-school…
Fowler, Floyd J.; Gallagher, Patricia M.; Drake, Keith M.; Sepucha, Karen R.
Background Good decision making has been increasingly cited as a core component of good medical care, and shared decision making is one means of achieving high decision quality. If it is to be a standard, good measures and protocols are needed for assessing the quality of decisions. Consistency with patient goals and concerns is one defining characteristic of a good decision. A new method for evaluating decision quality for major surgical decisions was examined, and a methodology for collecting the needed data was developed. Methods For a national probability sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who had a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), a lumpectomy or a mastectomy for breast cancer, or surgery for prostate cancer during the last half of 2008, a mail survey of selected patients was carried out about one year after the procedures. Patients’ goals and concerns, knowledge, key aspects of interactions with clinicians, and feelings about the decisions were assessed. A Decision Dissonance Score was created that measured the extent to which patient ratings of goals ran counter to the treatment received. The construct and predictive validity of the Decision Dissonance Score was then assessed. Results When data were averaged across all four procedures, patients with more knowledge and those who reported more involvement reported significantly lower Decision Dissonance Scores. Patients with lower Decision Dissonance Scores also reported more confidence in their decisions and feeling more positively about how the treatment turned out, and they were more likely to say that they would make the same decision again. Conclusions Surveying discharged surgery patients is a feasible way to evaluate decision making, and Decision Dissonance appears to be a promising approach to validly measuring decision quality. PMID:23516764
Eka Danta Jaya Ginting
purchase dissonance (where F count = 4.800; p=0.003; R=0.110 & adjusted R square = 0.087. Minor hypothesis also shows that the intention as an innovator can be an indicator to predict the arousal of post‐purchase dissonance (r= ‐0.227; p0.05, whereas the level of creativity has r score = ‐0.072; p>0.05.
Full Text Available The European Cultural Route ATRIUM (Architecture of Totalitarian Regimes in Europe's Urban Memory deals with dissonant heritage, referring to a contrast of meaning and value systems between the past and the present. The route will be examined within the framework of a set of communication strategies for cultural routes. This short paper will look at some linguistic aspects related to the ATRIUM route and its ‘dissonant heritage’. By analysing some examples of existing promotional approaches related to this particular heritage, it will outline some considerations for a communicative strategy appropriate to the overall narrative structure of the ATRIUM cultural route, with special regard to a bottom-up constructivist approach.
Full Text Available Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand, and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center.The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects.Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover.This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
Zito, Margherita; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara
Background Turnover intentions refer to employees’ intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors’ support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. Method The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. Conclusion This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance. PMID:29401507
Zito, Margherita; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio Giovanni; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara
Turnover intentions refer to employees' intent to leave the organization and, within call centers, it can be influenced by factors such as relational variables or the perception of the quality of working life, which can be affected by emotional dissonance. This specific job demand to express emotions not felt is peculiar in call centers, and can influence job satisfaction and turnover intentions, a crucial problem among these working contexts. This study aims to detect, within the theoretical framework of the Job Demands-Resources Model, the role of emotional dissonance (job demand), and two resources, job autonomy and supervisors' support, in the perception of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among an Italian call center. The study involved 318 call center agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company. Data analysis first performed descriptive statistics through SPSS 22. A path analysis was then performed through LISREL 8.72 and tested both direct and indirect effects. Results suggest the role of resources in fostering job satisfaction and in decreasing turnover intentions. Emotional dissonance reveals a negative relation with job satisfaction and a positive relation with turnover. Moreover, job satisfaction is negatively related with turnover and mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover. This study contributes to extend the knowledge about the variables influencing turnover intentions, a crucial problem among call centers. Moreover, the study identifies theoretical considerations and practical implications to promote well-being among call center employees. To foster job satisfaction and reduce turnover intentions, in fact, it is important to make resources available, but also to offer specific training programs to make employees and supervisors aware about the consequences of emotional dissonance.
Kovács, Mariann; Kovács, Eszter; Hegedus, Katalin
Emotional burden on oncology care workers is considerable. These workers develop confidential relationship with the patient through interpersonal communication, which entails managing their own emotions as well as the emotions displayed by their patients, and it involves a great deal of emotion work. The objectives in our study were to assess the prevalence of burnout and emotional dissonance and to investigate the interrelationship among burnout, emotion work and coping in oncology care. A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted among oncology health care workers (N = 48) and non-oncology health care workers (N = 151). The comparison revealed differences primarily in emotion work and coping. Emotional dissonance as stress factor was more prevalent among oncology health care workers. Caregivers dealing with cancer patients felt that they have to display negative emotions less frequently, yet at the same time they frequently have to show understanding and express sympathy to the patient. When certain coping strategies were examined, we found that humour as potential resource in coping is used less frequently among oncology health care workers. In order to devise effective interventions to oncology personnel, we need to focus on the interaction between the carer and the cancer patient and have more evidence on emotional dissonance in oncology staff. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stice, E; Rohde, P; Shaw, H; Gau, J M
Compare the Healthy Weight obesity and eating disorder prevention program, which promotes participant-driven gradual lifestyle changes to bring energy intake and expenditure into balance, to a new intervention, Project Health, which adds activities to create cognitive dissonance about unhealthy eating, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess body fat, and an obesity education video-control condition. College students at risk for both outcomes because of weight concerns (N=364, 72% female) were randomized to condition, completing pretest, posttest, and 6, 12 and 24-month follow-up assessments. Project Health participants showed significantly smaller increases in measured body mass index (BMI) through 2-year follow-up than both Healthy Weight participants and controls (both d=-0.18), and significantly lower onset of overweight/obesity over 2-year follow-up than Healthy Weight participants and controls (13 vs 21% and 22%). Healthy Weight and Project Health participants showed significantly greater eating disorder symptom reductions than controls through 2-year follow-up. Healthy Weight and Project Health participants showed marginally lower eating disorder onset over follow-up than controls (3 and 3% vs 8% respectively). The reduced increases in BMI and future overweight/obesity onset for Project Health relative to both an active matched intervention and a minimal intervention control condition are noteworthy, especially given the short 6-h intervention duration. The reduction in eating disorder symptoms for Healthy Weight and Project Health relative to controls was also encouraging. Results suggest that adding dissonance-induction activities increased weight loss effects. Yet, effects for both were generally small and the eating disorder onset prevention effects were only marginal, potentially because intervention groups included both sexes, which reduced eating disorder incidence and sensitivity.
The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases......" in this context) and measurement error and it is moderated by perceived dissimilarity between the behaviors and by the (moral) importance of behaving in a responsible way towards the environment. These propositions are tested (and confirmed) by means of a mall-intercept survey of ordinary Danish shop...
Meladze, Pikria; Brown, Jac
This research was aimed at investigating how religious beliefs and internalized shame predicted homonegativity. An online survey, which consisted of a self-report questionnaire assessing religious orientation, internalized shame, and internalized homonegativity, was completed by 133 Caucasian and Asian gay men. The respondents also were asked to write a short answer in which they had to explain how they integrated their religion and sexual practices. The quantitative analyses of data demonstrated no significant difference in internalized homonegativity among the two cultural groups. Internalized homonegativity was predicted by the main Abrahamic faiths (i.e. Christianity, Islam, and Judaism) and internalized shame. Qualitative analysis showed that gay men who adhere to a monotheistic religious faith follow a different path to reconciling their religion and homosexuality compared to gay men who adhere to Philosophical/New Age religions or to gay men who have no religious faith. The implications of these findings as well as directions for future research studies were discussed.
This study uses interpretive sociological methods to explore parallels between fictional accounts of cyborgs and educational technology-based practices currently present in some e-learning environments. Specifically, the cyborg in fictional accounts ("Star Trek" and "Doctor Who") and the cyborg in academic accounts (Donna…
Full Text Available The study assesses consumers' perceptions of their personal decision-making ability and process. The empirical analysis was undertaken on a sample of 200 new motor vehicle consumers. The results indicate that the majority of the consumers displayed confidence in the decisions they took, believing they engaged in high quality and correct decision-making and were able to conclude good deals. The majority of consumers indicated that they were not influenced by external others and were not anxious during decision-making, although a significant percentage reported the impact of external influence and anxiety during purchases. Opsomming In hierdie studie word verbruikers se waameming van hulle eie besluitnemingsvermoe en proses geevalueer. Die empiriese ontleding is uitgevoer op n steekproefvan 200 eienaars van nuwe voertuie. Dit blyk uit die resultate, dat die meerderheid verbruikers vertroue gehad het in hulle besluitnemingsproses, dat hulle besluite korrek was en dat hulle n lonende transaksie beklink het. Die meerderheid het aangedui dat hulle nie beihvloed is deur eksteme invloede nie en dat hulle nie anstig was tydens die besluitnemingsproses nie, alhoewel n betekenisvolle persentasie van verbruikers wel hierdie invloede en angstigheid gedurende die aankoop ervaar het.
Andronaco, Julie A.; Shute, Rosalyn; McLachlan, Angus
Asynchrony is a theoretical construct that views the intellectually gifted child as inherently vulnerable because of disparities arising from the mismatch between his or her chronological age and mental age. Such disparities, for example, between wanting to belong but being intellectually out of step with peers, are said to give rise to a…
Young, I. Phillip; Chounet, F. Paul; Buster, Amy; Sailor, Scott
Research addressing attraction and selection of employees within the public school setting seems to indicate that the higher a school's student achievement the more likely a potential job candidate is to assess a position at that school favorably. However, the validity of this finding has failed to be assessed with "real teachers" accepting actual…
This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of seven in-service environmental education teacher training courses conducted in the Czech Republic in 2009-2011. The evaluation applied a grounded theory approach. 14 focus groups, 13 interviews and two post-programme questionnaires were used. The evaluation describes a process of managing cognitive…
Becker, Carolyn Black; Smith, Lisa M.; Ciao, Anna C.
The authors investigated the effectiveness of 2 interventions in reducing eating disorder risk factors under naturalistic conditions in sororities. On the basis of previous research, the campus sororities chose to implement a semimandatory, 2-session eating disorder prevention program to all new sorority members (N = 90) during sorority…
Malloy, Robert Earl, Sr.
Throughout history science and religion have been in conflict. Many of the theories of science do not agree with the religious beliefs of pre-service teachers. Those teachers who will be teaching in the science classroom, must be able to present science without prejudice of personal religious beliefs. Are pre-service teachers prepared for science/religion conflicts? How much conflict do pre-service teachers have between science and religion? This study suggests that pre-service teachers may have a high degree of conflict between science and religion, and that they have received no educational experience on how to deal with this conflict. Such conflict poses a potential problem when presenting science in the classroom, in that non-science information may not be separated from the science presented.
Palkovich, Einat Natalie
Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…
Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell
In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies
Molino, Monica; Emanuel, Federica; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G
Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression) and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support, and job autonomy) on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service (CA) and information service. The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the CA and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling. Analyses showed that CA agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. RESULTS also showed, only for the CA group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort. This study's findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities. Suggestions for organizations and practitioners emerged in order to identify practical implications useful both to support
Molino, Monica; Emanuel, Federica; Zito, Margherita; Ghislieri, Chiara; Colombo, Lara; Cortese, Claudio G.
Background: Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression) and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support, and job autonomy) on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service (CA) and information service. Method: The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the CA and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling. Results: Analyses showed that CA agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. Results also showed, only for the CA group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort. Conclusion: This study’s findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities. Suggestions for organizations and practitioners emerged in order to identify
Full Text Available Background: Emotional labor, defined as the process of regulating feelings and expressions as part of the work role, is a major characteristic in call centers. In particular, interacting with customers, agents are required to show certain emotions that are considered acceptable by the organization, even though these emotions may be different from their true feelings. This kind of experience is defined as emotional dissonance and represents a feature of the job especially for call center inbound activities. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating whether emotional dissonance mediates the relationship between job demands (workload and customer verbal aggression and job resources (supervisor support, colleague support and job autonomy on the one hand, and, on the other, affective discomfort, using the job demands-resources model as a framework. The study also observed differences between two different types of inbound activities: customer assistance service and information service.Method: The study involved agents of an Italian Telecommunication Company, 352 of whom worked in the customer assistance service and 179 in the information service. The hypothesized model was tested across the two groups through multi-group structural equation modeling.Results: Analyses showed that customer assistance service agents experience greater customer verbal aggression and emotional dissonance than information service agents. Results also showed, only for the customer assistance service group, a full mediation of emotional dissonance between workload and affective discomfort, and a partial mediation of customer verbal aggression and job autonomy, and affective discomfort.Conclusion: This study’s findings contributed both to the emotional labor literature, investigating the mediational role of emotional dissonance in the job demands-resources model, and to call center literature, considering differences between two specific kinds of inbound activities
Interpersonal stressors promote eating. Habituation to the sensory properties of a food slows or stops motivated responding for a food. Stress may increase eating by acting as a dishabituator that prolongs responding for a food. Mental arithmetic (memory requirements), Stroop task (cognitive disson...
Indregard, Anne-Marthe R; Ulleberg, Pål; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten B
Emotional dissonance, i.e., a discrepancy between required and felt emotions, has been established as a predictor of sickness absence in studies, but little is known about mechanisms that can explain this association. In order to prevent and reduce the impact of emotional dissonance on sickness absence, there is a need for greater attention to variables explaining when and how emotional dissonance is related to sickness absence. The overarching aim of this study was to examine whether emotional dissonance has an indirect association with sickness absence through exhaustion. In addition, we examined whether human resource primacy (HRP), which is the employer's degree of concern for human resources, moderates this indirect effect. A sample of 7758 employees, all working with customers and clients, were recruited from 96 Norwegian organizations. Emotional dissonance, exhaustion, and HRP were measured through surveys and then linked to registry data on medically certified sickness absence for the year following the survey assessment. Results showed that exhaustion is a mediator for the relationship between emotional dissonance and sickness absence. Furthermore, higher levels of HRP were found to reduce the positive association between emotional dissonance and exhaustion, and the indirect effect of emotional dissonance on sickness absence through exhaustion is found to be weaker when HRP is high. By testing this moderated mediation model, the current study contributes to the literature on emotion work by clarifying mechanisms that are crucial for the development of targeted interventions that aim to reduce and prevent sickness absence in client-driven work environments.
Indregard, Anne-Marthe R.; Ulleberg, Pål; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten B.
Emotional dissonance, i.e., a discrepancy between required and felt emotions, has been established as a predictor of sickness absence in studies, but little is known about mechanisms that can explain this association. In order to prevent and reduce the impact of emotional dissonance on sickness absence, there is a need for greater attention to variables explaining when and how emotional dissonance is related to sickness absence. The overarching aim of this study was to examine whether emotional dissonance has an indirect association with sickness absence through exhaustion. In addition, we examined whether human resource primacy (HRP), which is the employer’s degree of concern for human resources, moderates this indirect effect. A sample of 7758 employees, all working with customers and clients, were recruited from 96 Norwegian organizations. Emotional dissonance, exhaustion, and HRP were measured through surveys and then linked to registry data on medically certified sickness absence for the year following the survey assessment. Results showed that exhaustion is a mediator for the relationship between emotional dissonance and sickness absence. Furthermore, higher levels of HRP were found to reduce the positive association between emotional dissonance and exhaustion, and the indirect effect of emotional dissonance on sickness absence through exhaustion is found to be weaker when HRP is high. By testing this moderated mediation model, the current study contributes to the literature on emotion work by clarifying mechanisms that are crucial for the development of targeted interventions that aim to reduce and prevent sickness absence in client-driven work environments. PMID:29670556
Customer service-based employees act as an interface between the consumer and the organisation using managed emotional display which is known as emotional labour. While much research into emotional labour has been conducted over the last three decades, disagreement persists regarding the consequences of emotional labour on employee well-being, ranging from job satisfaction to job burnout. Conflicting empirical findings suggests there is much to be understood regarding the impact of emotional ...
Eisenstadt, Donna; Leippe, Michael R
The authors asked or instructed White college students to write an essay advocating a large tuition hike to increase scholarships for either students in general or Black students (yielding low or high racial symbolism, respectively) that would take effect in the near or far future (yielding high or low personal relevance, respectively). Especially when high-choice participants wrote highly compliant (i.e., unqualified) essays, attitude change was greater when the advocacy had either high (vs. low) personal relevance or high (vs. low) racial symbolism. Yet there was no attitude change when both symbolism and relevance were high. They may increase dissonance by making the dissonant elements more important and numerous. The coupling of relevance and symbolism, however, may link the attitude so strongly to personal values and self-concept that attitude change becomes untenable as a mode of dissonance reduction.
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra
The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra
The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home–school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home–school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed. PMID:27081213
Indregard, Anne-Marthe R.; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten B.
Health- and social workers are frequently exposed to emotionally demanding work situations that require emotion regulation. Studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between emotion regulation and health complaints and sickness absence. In order to prevent health complaints and to reduce sickness absence among health- and social workers, there is need for greater attention to mechanisms explaining when and how emotionally demanding work situations are related to employee health and sickness absence. The overarching aim of this study was therefore to examine the moderating role of generalized self-efficacy on the association between emotional dissonance, employee health (mental distress and exhaustion), and registry based sickness absence. The sample consisted of 937 health- and social workers. Data on emotional dissonance, generalized self-efficacy, exhaustion, and mental distress was collected through questionnaires, whereas official registry data were used to assess sickness absence. A two-step hierarchical regression analysis showed that emotional dissonance was significantly associated with exhaustion, mental distress, and sickness absence, after adjusting for sex, age, and occupation. Interaction analyses with simple slope tests found that self-efficacy moderated the association between emotional dissonance and both exhaustion and mental distress, but not the association with sickness absence. This study shows that health- and social workers who frequently experience emotional dissonance report higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress, and have a higher risk of medically certified sickness absence. Further, health- and social workers with lower self-efficacy beliefs are apparently more sensitive to the degree of emotional dissonance and experienced higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress. PMID:29740375
Indregard, Anne-Marthe R; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten B
Health- and social workers are frequently exposed to emotionally demanding work situations that require emotion regulation. Studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between emotion regulation and health complaints and sickness absence. In order to prevent health complaints and to reduce sickness absence among health- and social workers, there is need for greater attention to mechanisms explaining when and how emotionally demanding work situations are related to employee health and sickness absence. The overarching aim of this study was therefore to examine the moderating role of generalized self-efficacy on the association between emotional dissonance, employee health (mental distress and exhaustion), and registry based sickness absence. The sample consisted of 937 health- and social workers. Data on emotional dissonance, generalized self-efficacy, exhaustion, and mental distress was collected through questionnaires, whereas official registry data were used to assess sickness absence. A two-step hierarchical regression analysis showed that emotional dissonance was significantly associated with exhaustion, mental distress, and sickness absence, after adjusting for sex, age, and occupation. Interaction analyses with simple slope tests found that self-efficacy moderated the association between emotional dissonance and both exhaustion and mental distress, but not the association with sickness absence. This study shows that health- and social workers who frequently experience emotional dissonance report higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress, and have a higher risk of medically certified sickness absence. Further, health- and social workers with lower self-efficacy beliefs are apparently more sensitive to the degree of emotional dissonance and experienced higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress.
McDermott, Josh H; Schultz, Alan F; Undurraga, Eduardo A; Godoy, Ricardo A
by biology remains debated. One widely discussed phenomenon is that some combinations of notes are perceived by Westerners as pleasant, or consonant, whereas others are perceived as unpleasant,or dissonant. The contrast between consonance and dissonance is central to Western music and its origins have fascinated scholars since the ancient Greeks. Aesthetic responses to consonance are commonly assumed by scientists to have biological roots, and thus to be universally present in humans. Ethnomusicologists and composers, in contrast, have argued that consonance is a creation of Western musical culture. The issue has remained unresolved, partly because little is known about the extent of cross-cultural variation in consonance preferences. Here we report experiments with the Tsimane'--a native Amazonian society with minimal exposure to Western culture--and comparison populations in Bolivia and the United States that varied in exposure to Western music. Participants rated the pleasantness of sounds. Despite exhibiting Western-like discrimination abilities and Western-like aesthetic responses to familiar sounds and acoustic roughness, the Tsimane' rated consonant and dissonant chords and vocal harmonies as equally pleasant. By contrast, Bolivian city- and town-dwellers exhibited significant preferences for consonance,albeit to a lesser degree than US residents. The results indicate that consonance preferences can be absent in cultures sufficiently isolated from Western music, and are thus unlikely to reflect innate biases or exposure to harmonic natural sounds. The observed variation in preferences is presumably determined by exposure to musical harmony, suggesting that culture has a dominant role in shaping aesthetic responses to music.
Lee, Mo Yee; Mjelde-Mossey, LeeAnn
In traditional East Asian cultures, high value is assigned to family harmony and filial piety coupled with the expectation that elders will be honored and obeyed. A lifetime of such expectations shapes how elders perceive their role and status in the family. Problems can arise when younger, less traditional, generations do not share these expectations. This article describes a solution-focused approach that facilitates the family in creating a beneficial harmony in situations of cultural dissonance. Family members are empowered to draw on personal strengths in which multiple worldviews and values of individual members are recognized, incorporated, and negotiated.
Becker, Carolyn Black; Hill, Kaitlin; Greif, Rebecca; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany
Previous research has documented that self-objectification is associated with numerous negative outcomes including body shame, eating disorder (ED) pathology, and negative affect. This exploratory open study investigated whether or not an evidence-based body image improvement program that targets thin-ideal internalization in university women also reduces self-objectification. A second aim of the study was to determine if previous findings showing that body shame mediated the relationship between self-objectification and eating disorder pathology at a single time point (consistent with self-objectification theory) but did not mediate longitudinally (inconsistent with self-objectification theory) would be replicated in a new sample under novel conditions. Ninety-six university women completed a peer-led dissonance-based intervention, along with assessment measures at pre-, post-intervention, 8-week and 8-month follow-up. To address the open trial nature of this study, a planned manipulation check was included to make sure that peer-led dissonance decreased thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder pathology, and negative affect with effect sizes being similar to past randomized controlled trials. We hypothesized that all three subscales of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (i.e., self-surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs) would be reduced. In addition, we hypothesized that body shame would mediate the relationship between self-objectification (i.e., self-surveillance) and eating disorder pathology at a both at a single time point and longitudinally. The planned manipulation check supported the interpretation that peer-led dissonance in this study largely yielded comparable changes to past controlled trials. In terms of changes in dependent variables, results supported all hypotheses with the exception of body shame, which remained unchanged. With regards to the mediation analyses, our first (cross
Samaras, Elizabeth A; Real, Sara D; Curtis, Amber M; Meunier, Tessa S
Proper identification of all stakeholders and the comprehensive assessment of their evolving and often conflicting Needs, Wants, and Desires (NWDs) is a fundamental principle of human factors science and human-centered systems engineering; it is not yet a consistent element in development and deployment of new health information technologies (HIT). As the single largest group of healthcare professionals, nurses are critical stakeholders for these new technologies. Careful analysis can reveal nurse stakeholder dissonance (NSD) when integrating new technologies into the healthcare environment. Stakeholder dissonance is a term that describes the conflict between the NWDs of different stakeholders which, if left unresolved, can result in dissatisfaction, workarounds, errors, and threats to patient safety. Three case studies drawn from the authors' experience in a variety of acute-care settings where new HITs have been recently deployed are examined to illustrate the concept of NSD. Conflicting NWDs, other stakeholders, and possible root causes of the NSD are analyzed and mapped to threats to patient safety. Lessons learned, practical guidance for anticipating, identifying, and mitigating NSD, future research and implications for HFE and nursing practice are discussed.
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.; Janakiraman, Shamila; Richardson, Jennifer
This case study examined a team of instructors' use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on Animal Behaviour and Welfare (ABW), designed to facilitate attitudinal learning. The study reviewed a team of six instructors' use of social presence and teaching presence by applying the…
Collins, Timothy P.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Brandt, M.J.
Nam, Jost, and van Bavel (2013) found that conservatives were more likely than liberals to avoid dissonance-arousing situations (viz., writing counter-attitudinal essays in a high-choice situation). A close replication of this original research was unsuccessful, as both liberals and conservatives
Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Harachi, Tracy W.
Intergenerational cultural dissonance (ICD)--a clash between parents and children over cultural values--is a frequent issue for Asian American youth. Using longitudinal data from the Cross Cultural Families Project, this study examines the mechanisms by which ICD contributes to problem behaviors, including whether ICD predicts parent-child…
Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown
Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...
Tyler, Kenneth M.; Burris, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Sean T.
Disruptive classroom behaviors are a major schooling dilemma in urban schools. While several contextual and motivational factors have been statistically associated with disruptive classroom behaviors, one overlooked factor has been home-school dissonance. The current study examined the relationship between 260 middle school students' reports of…
Mühlenbeck, Cordelia; Liebal, Katja; Pritsch, Carla; Jacobsen, Thomas
Research on colour preferences in humans and non-human primates suggests similar patterns of biases for and avoidance of specific colours, indicating that these colours are connected to a psychological reaction. Similarly, in the acoustic domain, approach reactions to consonant sounds (considered as positive) and avoidance reactions to dissonant sounds (considered as negative) have been found in human adults and children, and it has been demonstrated that non-human primates are able to discriminate between consonant and dissonant sounds. Yet it remains unclear whether the visual and acoustic approach-avoidance patterns remain consistent when both types of stimuli are combined, how they relate to and influence each other, and whether these are similar for humans and other primates. Therefore, to investigate whether gaze duration biases for colours are similar across primates and whether reactions to consonant and dissonant sounds cumulate with reactions to specific colours, we conducted an eye-tracking study in which we compared humans with one species of great apes, the orangutans. We presented four different colours either in isolation or in combination with consonant and dissonant sounds. We hypothesised that the viewing time for specific colours should be influenced by dissonant sounds and that previously existing avoidance behaviours with regard to colours should be intensified, reflecting their association with negative acoustic information. The results showed that the humans had constant gaze durations which were independent of the auditory stimulus, with a clear avoidance of yellow. In contrast, the orangutans did not show any clear gaze duration bias or avoidance of colours, and they were also not influenced by the auditory stimuli. In conclusion, our findings only partially support the previously identified pattern of biases for and avoidance of specific colours in humans and do not confirm such a pattern for orangutans.
Fernando de Figueiredo Balieiro
Full Text Available From the perspective of cultural studies, in its dialogs with feminist and queer studies, this article analyzes the identification of various publics with Carmen Miranda based on the consumption of her filmic, musical and artistic products, accessing her professional trajectory in its imbrication with its various forms of reception. The focus will be on the negotiations of the artist with her publics, touching on how her career involved reconfigurations concerning aspects of gender, race and sexuality. It is based on a perspective that considers the dynamism of mass culture, considering possibilities for various forms of appropriation of cultural products, as well as shifts and dissonances in receptions. To analyze these aspects, the paper focuses on feminine receptions in Brazil and the United States, and those of a male homosexual public contemporary to her career.
Payne, Philip R O; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara B
The conduct of large-scale translational studies presents significant challenges related to the storage, management and analysis of integrative data sets. Ideally, the application of methodologies such as conceptual knowledge discovery in databases (CKDD) provides a means for moving beyond intuitive hypothesis discovery and testing in such data sets, and towards the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complex bio-molecular and phenotypic variables. However, the induction of such high-throughput hypotheses is non-trivial, and requires correspondingly high-throughput validation methodologies. In this manuscript, we describe an evaluation of the efficacy of a natural language processing-based approach to validating such hypotheses. As part of this evaluation, we will examine a phenomenon that we have labeled as "Conceptual Dissonance" in which conceptual knowledge derived from two or more sources of comparable scope and granularity cannot be readily integrated or compared using conventional methods and automated tools.
El Naschie, M.S.
Particle physics may be likened to a magnificent symphony. Alas due to some instrumental defects, wrong reading of the notes and a lack of virtuosity of some members of the orchestra, a non-negligible number of dissonants are making it sound less than perfect. By means of the specific example of renormalization groups applied to GUT unification, the present work aims at illustrating the point we just made and showing how a simplictic transfinite adjustment of our formulas lead to harmonization and consequently considerable simplification of well known theories which goes as far as facilitating the discovery of new connections and the solution of many problems which were previously thought very hard, if at all possible, to solve
This focus group study examined immigrant Hispanic women's and providers' assumptions about and expectations of healthcare encounters in the context of menopause. Four groups of immigrant women from Central America and one group of healthcare providers were interviewed in Spanish and English, respectively. The women wanted provider-initiated, individualized anticipatory guidance about menopause, acknowledgement of their symptoms, and mainstream medical treatment for disruptive symptoms. Providers believed that menopause was an unimportant health issue for immigrant women and was overshadowed by concerns about high-risk medical problems, such as diabetes, heart disease and HIV prevention. The women expected a healthcare encounter to be patient centered, social, and complete in itself. Providers expected an encounter to be businesslike and one part of multiple visit care. Language and lack of time were barriers cited by all. Dissonance between patient-provider assumptions and expectations around issues of healthcare leads to missed opportunities for care.
Lauesen, Linne Marie
The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the question of whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be used as a link of trust between business and society, and which role CSR plays in recovering distrust in businesses. It uses a mixed methods study of processes of moving businesses...... within the Danish water sector from a general trust-breakdown to trust recovery from 2003 to 2013. Trust recovery is found to depend on stakeholders’ mutual engagement with each other and their willingness to share knowledge and learn from each other’s professional and institutional cultures...... and languages. An alignment of vocabularies of motives between regulation and voluntary CSR is found to be useful for building trust between conflicting parties. Furthermore the findings shows that the more stakeholders’ languages, motives and logics can coexist, the more trust can be recovered. The research...
Lauesen, Linne Marie
of motives between regulation and voluntary corporate social responsibility is found viable for building trust between the conflicting parties. The findings have prospects reaching out of its local context and can be used in processing trust1recovery in other sectors that suffers from severe trust......After the recent financial crisis issues of trust-breakdown in various business sectors and the public sector have occurred. The question of whether corporate social responsibility can be used as a link of trust between business and society is the issue that this paper wants to explore. This paper...... investigate how trust in businesses and institutions can be recovered and which role if any corporate social responsibility plays in it. A study of a process from trust1 breakdown to trust1recovery in the Danish water sector from 2003 till 2013 is revealed, which can be used to inform other kinds of trust...
Elfering, Achim; Häfliger, Evelyne; Celik, Zehra; Grebner, Simone
In industrial countries home care services for elderly people living in the community are growing rapidly. Home care nursing is intensive and the nurses often suffer from musculoskeletal pain. Time pressure and job control are job-related factors linked to the risk of experiencing lower back pain (LBP) and LBP-related work impairment. This survey investigated whether work-family conflict (WFC), emotional dissonance and being appreciated at work have incremental predictive value. Responses were obtained from 125 home care nurses (63% response rate). Multiple linear regression showed that emotional dissonance and being appreciated at work predicted LBP intensity and LBP-related disability independently of time pressure and job control. WFC was not a predictor of LBP-related disability in multiple regression analyses despite a zero-order correlation with it. Redesigning the working pattern of home care nurses to reduce the emotional demands and improve appreciation of their work might reduce the incidence of LBP in this group.
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra
The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Control...
Full Text Available Research supports the effectiveness of a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program wherein high-risk young women with body dissatisfaction critique the thin ideal, which reduces pursuit of this ideal, and the theory that dissonance induction contributes to these effects. Based on evidence that dissonance produces attitudinal change by altering neural representation of valuation, we tested whether completing the Body Project would reduce response of brain regions implicated in reward valuation to thin models. Young women with body dissatisfaction were randomized to this intervention or an educational control condition, completing assessments and fMRI scans while viewing images of thin versus average-weight female models at pre and post. Whole brain analyses indicated that, compared to controls, Body Project participants showed greater reductions in caudate response to images of thin versus average-weight models, though participants in the two conditions showed pretest differences in responsivity of other brain regions that might have contributed to this effect. Greater pre-post reductions in caudate and putamen response to thin models correlated with greater reductions in body dissatisfaction. The finding that the Body Project reduces caudate response to thin models provides novel preliminary evidence that this intervention reduces valuation of media images thought to contribute to body dissatisfaction and eating disorders, providing support for the intervention theory by documenting that this intervention alters an objective biological outcome.
Full Text Available The acculturation complexity model suggests that immersion into dissonant cultures promotes cognitive skills in biculturals (Tadmor and Tetlock, 2006. In the present study, we examined links between identity acculturation and executive functioning (EF. Turkish-German immigrant origin children (N = 225; M = 11 years, SD = 1.6 years, 99 males were given questions about their identification with Turks and Germans to capture bicultural involvement and a Dot Task (using Hearts and Flowers to measure EF. Results showed that Turkish-German bicultural children who endorse both cultures with equal strength did not have a cognitive advantage in working memory and inhibition compared to their peers who more clearly preferred one culture over the other. However, bicultural children who endorse both cultures with equal strength performed significantly better on a switching task that required cognitive flexibility. The study highlights the potential cognitive benefits associated with biculturalism.
Back, Chi Yun; Hyun, Dae Sung; Chang, Sei Jin
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of emotional labor, emotional dissonance, and burnout on nurse's turnover intention and examine the effect of job satisfaction on the relationships among emotional labor, emotional dissonance, burnout, and turnover intention. The sample consisted of 350 nurses recruited from 6 general hospitals in 2 cities in Korea. A multiple-group analysis was utilized. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistics 23 and AMOS 20. In the path analysis, turnover intention was directly related to burnout in clinical nurses who had a high job satisfaction (β=.24, p=.003), while it was indirectly related to emotional dissonance (β=.13, p=.002). In the multiple-group path analysis, turnover intention was directly related to emotional dissonance (β=.18, p=.033) and burnout (β=.26, p=.002) for nurses with low job satisfaction. These results indicate that manuals and guidelines to alleviate the negative effects of emotional labor, emotional dissonance, and burnout, and to increase job satisfaction are strongly required to reduce turnover intention in nurses at the organizational level as well as at the individual level. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Steele, C M; Spencer, S J; Lynch, M
It was predicted that high self-esteem Ss (HSEs) would rationalize an esteem-threatening decision less than low self-esteem Ss (LSEs), because HSEs presumably had more favorable self-concepts with which to affirm, and thus repair, their overall sense of self-integrity. This prediction was supported in 2 experiments within the "free-choice" dissonance paradigm--one that manipulated self-esteem through personality feedback and the other that varied it through selection of HSEs and LSEs, but only when Ss were made to focus on their self-concepts. A 3rd experiment countered an alternative explanation of the results in terms of mood effects that may have accompanied the experimental manipulations. The results were discussed in terms of the following: (a) their support for a resources theory of individual differences in resilience to self-image threats--an extension of self-affirmation theory, (b) their implications for self-esteem functioning, and (c) their implications for the continuing debate over self-enhancement versus self-consistency motivation.
Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Blomquist, Kerstin; Verzijl, Christina; Wilfred, Salomé; Beyl, Robbie; Becker, Carolyn Black
The Body Project is a cognitive dissonance-based body image improvement program with ample research support among female samples. More recently, researchers have highlighted the extent of male body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors; however, boys/men have not been included in the majority of body image improvement programs. This study aims to explore the efficacy of a mixed-gender Body Project compared with the historically female-only body image intervention program. Participants included male and female college students (N = 185) across two sites. We randomly assigned women to a mixed-gender modification of the two-session, peer-led Body Project (MG), the two-session, peer-led, female-only (FO) Body Project, or a waitlist control (WL), and men to either MG or WL. Participants completed self-report measures assessing negative affect, appearance-ideal internalization, body satisfaction, and eating disorder pathology at baseline, post-test, and at 2- and 6-month follow-up. Linear mixed effects modeling to estimate the change from baseline over time for each dependent variable across conditions were used. For women, results were mixed regarding post-intervention improvement compared with WL, and were largely non-significant compared with WL at 6-month follow-up. Alternatively, results indicated that men in MG consistently improved compared with WL through 6-month follow-up on all measures except negative affect and appearance-ideal internalization. Results differed markedly between female and male samples, and were more promising for men than for women. Various explanations are provided, and further research is warranted prior to drawing firm conclusions regarding mixed-gender programming of the Body Project. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:591-602). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Simmons, Vani Nath; Heckman, Bryan W; Fink, Angelina C; Small, Brent J; Brandon, Thomas H
College represents a window of opportunity to reach the sizeable number of cigarette smokers who are vulnerable to lifelong smoking. The underutilization of typical cessation programs suggests the need for novel and more engaging approaches for reaching college smokers. The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of a dissonance-enhancing, Web-based experiential intervention for increasing smoking cessation motivation and behavior. We used a 4-arm, randomized design to examine the efficacy of a Web-based, experiential smoking intervention (Web-Smoke). The control conditions included a didactic smoking intervention (Didactic), a group-based experiential intervention (Group), and a Web-based nutrition experiential intervention (Web-Nutrition). We recruited 341 college smokers. Primary outcomes were motivation to quit, assessed immediately postintervention, and smoking abstinence at 1 and 6 months following the intervention. As hypothesized, the Web-Smoke intervention was more effective than control groups in increasing motivation to quit. At 6-month follow-up, the Web-Smoke intervention produced higher rates of smoking cessation than the Web-Nutrition control intervention. Daily smoking moderated intervention outcomes. Among daily smokers, the Web-Smoke intervention produced greater abstinence rates than both the Web-Nutrition and Didactic control conditions. Findings demonstrate the efficacy of a theory-based intervention delivered over the Internet for increasing motivation to quit and smoking abstinence among college smokers. The intervention has potential for translation and implementation as a secondary prevention strategy for college-aged smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Becker, T. W.
Huge numbers of SKS splitting observations and improved surface-wave based models of azimuthal anisotropy have advanced our understanding of how convection is recorded in mantle fabrics in the upper mantle. However, we are still debating the relative importance of frozen to actively forming olivine fabrics, subduction zone anisotropy lacks a clear reference model, and regional marine studies yield conflicting evidence as to what exactly is going on at the base of the plates and below. Here, I review the degree of agreement between regional and global observations of seismic anisotropy and how well those may be matched by first-order mantle convection models. Updated bean counting can help contextualize the spatial scales of alignment, and I discuss several examples of the relative roles of plate shear to mantle density anomalies and frozen-in structure for oceanic and continental plates. Resolution of seismological models is globally uneven, but there are some locales where such exercises may yield information on the relative strength of asthenosphere and mantle. Another long-standing question is how olivine fabrics record flow under different stress and volatile conditions. I illustrate how different petrological assumptions might be used to reconcile observations of azimuthal dependency of wave speeds for both Love and Rayleigh waves, and how this could improve our models of the upper mantle, much in the spirit of Montagner's vectorial tomography. This is but one approach to improve the regional realism of global geodynamic background models to understand where in space and time dissonance arises, and if a harmonious model may yet be constructed given our assumptions about the workings of the mantle.
James, Steven; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Lowe, Julia
Technology provides adjuvant and/or alternative approaches to care and may promote self-care, communication, and engagement with health care services. Common recent technologies for diabetes include continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions (insulin pumps), continuous glucose monitoring systems, smartphone and tablet applications, and telehealth (video conferencing). This study reports Australian diabetes educators' intentions and reported professional use of these technologies for people with type 1 diabetes, and factors predictive of this. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model was distributed to members of the Australian Diabetes Educators Association through their electronic newsletter. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution comprising confidence and competence, improving clinical practice, preparation (intentions and training), ease of use, and subjective norms. Logistic regression analyses identified factors predicting intention and use of technology. Respondents (n = 228) had high intentions to use technology. The majority reported using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and applications with patients, but usage was occasional. Confidence and competence independently predicted both intentions and use of all 4 technologies. Preparation (intentions and training) independently predicted use of each technology also. Discrepancies and dissonance appear between diabetes educators' intentions and behavior (intentions to use and reported technology use). Intentions were higher than current use, which was relatively low and not likely to provide significant support to people with type 1 diabetes for disease management, communication, and engagement with health care services. Continuing education and experiential learning may be key in supporting diabetes educators to align their intentions with their practice. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.
Role dissonance is an uncomfortable experience for graduate paramedics, and some blame their university education for the problem. For paramedics the conflict is between identifying as a rescuer and acting largely as a care giver. With vocational pathways into so many uniformed professions closing down in preference for graduate entrants, young new professionals have to negotiate a rapidly changing work culture. Their older colleagues may be challenged and threatened by the new order. For paramedics the problem is compounded by the newness of its place in the tertiary landscape. Since 9/11 young people have been increasingly attracted to rescue roles. Yet in Australia there is increasing need and scope for health workers in remote and aging populations, a preference not immediately attractive to young people hoping for a more heroic future. While the near professions such as nursing have established their discourses around culture, role and pedagogy, paramedics is still trying to chisel its identity. The myths of paramedic glories past tend to add to the confusion of graduates. Due to a lack of empirical studies of non-clinical aspects of paramedicine, a bricolage methodology was used to refresh data from two discrete qualitative research projects conducted in 2011. Both projects had originally been interested in optimal paramedic preceptorship before and after graduation, but neither had explored the implicit theme which revealed the role of rescue experiences in paramedic culture and identity. The bricolage included a new search of literature from near professions and applied new theoretical frameworks to the analysis of the extant data, to demonstrate how storytelling as an element of paramedic collegiality perpetuates rescue stories that are then used to define paramedic work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pericas, J; González, S; Bennasar, M; De Pedro, J; Aguiló, A; Bauzá, L
To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking among physiotherapy and nursing students at the University of the Balearic Islands in Spain and to describe their perceptions, attitude and behaviour towards smoking and towards the Spanish Smoking Prevention Act. Active smoking is the first avoidable cause of death in the world while passive smoking is the third. The tobacco epidemic kills 5.4 million people a year from lung cancer, heart disease and other related illnesses. In Europe, around one-third of the Community population are smokers, with about 650,000 smoking-related deaths per year in the Community. In Spain, 56,000 people a year are estimated to die from tobacco-related illnesses. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study, with a sample of 345 out of 645 students (53.5% participation rate) who completed an anonymous, self-administered, standardized survey devised by the World Health Organization. The study revealed a 26.1% prevalence of tobacco smoking (26.9% among women and 22.6% among men), which is similar to percentages of students at other Spanish universities. Smokers and non-smokers reported many differences in attitude and behaviour, some of which have potential repercussions in their career, such as in estimating the harmful effects of tobacco smoke or the status of health professionals as role models in the society they serve. The results of this study will contribute to develop an anti-smoking programme at the university and to establish smoking-prevention campaigns.
Barnsley, Kathryn; Walters, E. Haydn; Wood-Baker, Richard
Tasmania led in several areas of tobacco control legislation reform in the period 1997 to 2010. Despite this, Tasmania lagged in other crucial areas, particularly the allocation of resources for community education, mass media campaigns and cessation programmes. Key impediments were crony capitalism; the conservative ideology of "white…
Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Atkinson, Melissa J; Fawkner, Helen; Gough, Brendan; Halliwell, Emma
This pilot study evaluated a body image intervention for men, Body Project M. Seventy-four British undergraduate men took part in two 90-min intervention sessions, and completed standardised assessments of body image, bulimic pathology, and related outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Fifty-three other men completed the questionnaires as an assessment-only control group. Per-protocol analysis showed that Body Project M improved men's dissatisfaction with body fat and muscularity, body appreciation, muscularity enhancing behaviours, appearance comparisons, and internalization (ds=0.46-0.80) at post-intervention. All except dissatisfaction with muscularity and internalization were sustained at 3-month follow-up. No effects were found for bulimic pathology. Post-intervention effects for dissatisfaction with muscularity and internalization only were retained under intention-to-treat analysis. Participants were favourable towards the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability and post-intervention efficacy of Body Project M. Further development of the intervention is required to improve and sustain effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.
Ross, Lee D.; Lelkes, Yphtach; Russell, Alexandra G.
The present study explores the dramatic projection of one's own views onto those of Jesus among conservative and liberal American Christians. In a large-scale survey, the relevant views that each group attributed to a contemporary Jesus differed almost as much as their own views. Despite such dissonance-reducing projection, however, conservatives acknowledged the relevant discrepancy with regard to “fellowship” issues (e.g., taxation to reduce economic inequality and treatment of immigrants) and liberals acknowledged the relevant discrepancy with regard to “morality” issues (e.g., abortion and gay marriage). However, conservatives also claimed that a contemporary Jesus would be even more conservative than themselves on the former issues whereas liberals claimed that Jesus would be even more liberal than themselves on the latter issues. Further reducing potential dissonance, liberal and conservative Christians differed markedly in the types of issues they claimed to be more central to their faith. A concluding discussion considers the relationship between individual motivational processes and more social processes that may underlie the present findings, as well as implications for contemporary social and political conflict. PMID:22308413
Ross, Lee D; Lelkes, Yphtach; Russell, Alexandra G
The present study explores the dramatic projection of one's own views onto those of Jesus among conservative and liberal American Christians. In a large-scale survey, the relevant views that each group attributed to a contemporary Jesus differed almost as much as their own views. Despite such dissonance-reducing projection, however, conservatives acknowledged the relevant discrepancy with regard to "fellowship" issues (e.g., taxation to reduce economic inequality and treatment of immigrants) and liberals acknowledged the relevant discrepancy with regard to "morality" issues (e.g., abortion and gay marriage). However, conservatives also claimed that a contemporary Jesus would be even more conservative than themselves on the former issues whereas liberals claimed that Jesus would be even more liberal than themselves on the latter issues. Further reducing potential dissonance, liberal and conservative Christians differed markedly in the types of issues they claimed to be more central to their faith. A concluding discussion considers the relationship between individual motivational processes and more social processes that may underlie the present findings, as well as implications for contemporary social and political conflict.
Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban
The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Durant, Shelley; Shaw, Heather
Objective: A group dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, in which young women critique the thin ideal, reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms, but it can be difficult to identify school clinicians with the time and expertise to deliver the intervention. Thus, we developed a prototype Internet version of this program and…
Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather
Objective: Test the hypothesis that reductions in thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction mediate the effects of a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on reductions in eating disorder symptoms over 1-year follow-up. Method: Data were drawn from a randomized effectiveness trial in which 306 female high school students…
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff
Objective: Efficacy trials found that a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin ideal reduced eating disorder risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset. The present effectiveness trial tested whether this program…
Full Text Available Conscious and unconscious brain mechanisms, including cognition, emotions and language are considered in this review. The fundamental mechanisms of cognition include interactions between bottom-up and top-down signals. The modeling of these interactions since the 1960s is briefly reviewed, analyzing the ubiquitous difficulty: incomputable combinatorial complexity (CC. Fundamental reasons for CC are related to the Gödel’s difficulties of logic, a most fundamental mathematical result of the 20th century. Many scientists still “believed” in logic because, as the review discusses, logic is related to consciousness; non-logical processes in the brain are unconscious. CC difficulty is overcome in the brain by processes “from vague-unconscious to crisp-conscious” (representations, plans, models, concepts. These processes are modeled by dynamic logic, evolving from vague and unconscious representations toward crisp and conscious thoughts. We discuss experimental proofs and relate dynamic logic to simulators of the perceptual symbol system. “From vague to crisp” explains interactions between cognition and language. Language is mostly conscious, whereas cognition is only rarely so; this clarifies much about the mind that might seem mysterious. All of the above involve emotions of a special kind, aesthetic emotions related to knowledge and to cognitive dissonances. Cognition-language-emotional mechanisms operate throughout the hierarchy of the mind and create all higher mental abilities. The review discusses cognitive functions of the beautiful, sublime, music.
Angus C.H. Kuok
Full Text Available This study examined 290 full-time employees among non-gaming industries at Macau, where the economy was mainly dominated by the revenue from casinos. It clarified that work satisfaction was fairly low for employees in non-gaming industries, and dissonance was generated due to the discrepancy between employees´ work satisfaction and affective commitment. Organizational variables - management ethics and distributive justice -, a socio-emotional variable - family emotional support -, as well as personality variables - conscientiousness and neuroticism - were assessed in relation to work satisfaction and affective commitment. Regressions found distributive justice to be the most powerful and positive predictor that, together with management ethics and family emotional support, were the positive predictors of both work satisfaction and affective commitment. In addition, conscientiousness was a positive predictor, while neuroticism was a negative predictor of work satisfaction. Results were interpreted in relation to management, and implications for human resource management practice in non-gaming industries were discussed.
Full Text Available Higher education institutions (HEIs in Britain face ever increasing challenges in the twenty first century as they continue to adapt to public sector management systems originally introduced under the Thatcher government administration, rapid technological advancements, globalisation and policy directives to widen participation. This paper initially foregrounds the changing organisational context of HEIs in Britain by drawing upon relevant literature and case study examples from a post-1992 University. The paper goes on to illustrate some of the micro-consequences of manageralism and marketisation through widening participation and briefly assesses their impact vis-à-vis gender, the pedagogical relationship and workload intensification. The author argues that recent trends and associated organisational changes within HEIs in Britain have led to dissonance and role conflict and the erosion of academic professionalism, but that new forms of professionalism are possible
... are here Home › Non-Movement Symptoms › Cognitive Changes Cognitive Changes Some people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience mild cognitive impairment. Feelings of distraction or disorganization can accompany ...
Konze, Anne-Kathrin; Rivkin, Wladislaw; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut
Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees' self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company ( N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.
Full Text Available Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139 in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion.
Bonin, Tanor; Smilek, Daniel
We evaluated whether task-irrelevant inharmonic music produces greater interference with cognitive performance than task-irrelevant harmonic music. Participants completed either an auditory (Experiment 1) or a visual (Experiment 2) version of the cognitively demanding 2-back task in which they were required to categorize each digit in a sequence of digits as either being a target (a digit also presented two positions earlier in the sequence) or a distractor (all other items). They were concurrently exposed to either task-irrelevant harmonic music (judged to be consonant), task-irrelevant inharmonic music (judged to be dissonant), or no music at all as a distraction. The main finding across both experiments was that performance on the 2-back task was worse when participants were exposed to inharmonic music than when they were exposed to harmonic music. Interestingly, performance on the 2-back task was generally the same regardless of whether harmonic music or no music was played. We suggest that inharmonic, dissonant music interferes with cognitive performance by requiring greater cognitive processing than harmonic, consonant music, and speculate about why this might be.
Rogelj, Joeri; Chen, Claudine; Nabel, Julia; Hare, William; Markmann, Kathleen; Meinshausen, Malte; Macey, Kirsten; Schaeffer, Michiel; Hoehne, Niklas; Krogh Andersen, Katrine
This analysis of the Copenhagen Accord evaluates emission reduction pledges by individual countries against the Accord's climate-related objectives. Probabilistic estimates of the climatic consequences for a set of resulting multi-gas scenarios over the 21st century are calculated with a reduced complexity climate model, yielding global temperature increase and atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2 -equivalent concentrations. Provisions for banked surplus emission allowances and credits from land use, land-use change and forestry are assessed and are shown to have the potential to lead to significant deterioration of the ambition levels implied by the pledges in 2020. This analysis demonstrates that the Copenhagen Accord and the pledges made under it represent a set of dissonant ambitions. The ambition level of the current pledges for 2020 and the lack of commonly agreed goals for 2050 place in peril the Accord's own ambition: to limit global warming to below 2 deg. C, and even more so for 1.5 deg. C, which is referenced in the Accord in association with potentially strengthening the long-term temperature goal in 2015. Due to the limited level of ambition by 2020, the ability to limit emissions afterwards to pathways consistent with either the 2 or 1.5 deg. C goal is likely to become less feasible.
Ciao, Anna C; Latner, Janet D; Brown, Krista E; Ebneter, Daria S; Becker, Carolyn B
This pilot study investigated the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a peer-led dissonance-based eating disorders (ED) prevention/risk factor reduction program with high school girls. Ninth grade girls (n = 50) received the peer-led program within the school curriculum. A quasi-experimental design was used to assess changes in ED risk factors preintervention and postintervention compared with waitlist control. Participants were followed through 3-month follow-up. Peer-leader adherence to an intervention manual tailored for this age group was high. The intervention was rated as highly acceptable, with a large proportion of participants reporting that they enjoyed the program and learned and applied new information. Intervention participants exhibited significantly greater pre-post reductions in a majority of risk-factor outcomes compared to waitlist controls. When groups were combined to assess program effects over time there were significant pre-post reductions in a majority of outcomes that were sustained through 3-month follow-up. This pilot study provides tentative support for the effectiveness of using peer leaders to implement an empirically supported ED risk factor reduction program in a high school setting. Additional research is needed to replicate results in larger, better-controlled trials with longer follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Este artigo tem a pretensão de conversar com o livro O mestre ignorante, de Jacques Rancière, mas não o de resenhá-lo, quer dizer, não o de dar explicações sobre o seu conteúdo e sobre as suas tanto prováveis quanto improváveis finalidades educativas. Para tal objetivo, resgato a leitura de alguns dos princípios filosóficos - dentre eles: a inversão da lógica da explicação, o malefício da compreensão, a pedagogia como tradução e contra-tradução, e a lição do poeta - os quais, como dissonâncias pedagógicas, parecem ter caracterizado a aventura e a experiência intelectual de Joseph Jacotot, um pedagogo francês do início do século XIX.
Shields, Ryan Y
Context Minimal research has examined the recent exportation of medical curricula to international settings. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, USA partnered with Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and implemented the same curriculum currently used at Johns Hopkins University to teach medical students at Perdana University. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of first-year medical students at Perdana University, focusing on issues of cultural dissonance during adaptation to a US curriculum. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews with the inaugural class of first-year students (n=24) were conducted, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed the qualitative data for major themes. Results The most prominent themes identified were the transition from a “passive” to an “active” learning environment and the friendliness and openness of the professors. Students noted that “[Perdana University] is a whole new, different culture and now we are adapting to the culture.” Being vocal during classes and taking exams based on conceptual understanding and knowledge application/integration proved to be more challenging for students than having classes taught entirely in English or the amount of material covered. Discussion This study reinforced many cultural education theories as it revealed the major issues of Malaysian graduate students adapting to a US-style medical curriculum. Despite coming from a collectivistic, Confucian-based cultural learning background, the Malaysian students at Perdana University adopted and adapted to, and subsequently supported, the US learning expectations. PMID:27672530
neuropharmaceuticals and neurotechnologies that enhance cognitive capacities, as well as an introduction of the reader to the controversial new discipline of neuroethics. Written for nonexperts in the field, it is intended to reflect on and to impart information helpful in understanding the challenges and the perils of modern neuroscience, whose tools are so powerful as to jeopardize what is uniquely “human” through willful mind manipulation. We conclude that, for any future effort to “recreate” the mind and, at the same time, keep what is uniquely ours, it will be necessary to reflect ethically and review carefully man's past best efforts at self-understanding. Keywords: neuroethics, free will, neuromodulation, human nature, neuroscience, neurophilosophy
This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.
Cognitive readiness is described as the mental preparation an individual needs to establish and sustain competent performance in the complex and unpredictable environment of modern military operations...
Boster, James S
Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.
The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....
Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD....... DISCUSSION: Conventional antidepressant drugs mitigate cognitive dysfunction in some people with MDD. However, a significant proportion of MDD patients continue to experience significant cognitive impairment. Two multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported that vortioxetine, a multimodal...
Tawa, John; Kim, Grace S.
This study considered the effect of belief in race as a biological construct (RACEBIO) and inter-group anxiety (IGA) on in-group racial salience (IGRS) and out-group discomfort (OGD). Participants included 66 racially and ethnically diverse high school boarding students. As hypothesized, RACEBIO was positively related to both IGRS and OGD. In…
.... This thesis applies four decision-making perspectives the rational actor, organizational process, bureaucratic politics, and individual level approaches to the Phase IV planning process to analyze...
After planning from September 2001 to May 2003, the George W. Bush administration failed to implement a coherent national plan at the transition to Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction (SSTR) operations in Iraq...
Battistella, Luciana Flores
Full Text Available This manuscript analyzes the Brazilian and the international publications on e-learning to verify if they share similarities, especially if the most cited authors are the same in both literatures. The research focused on e-learning in the field of management. We deployed a bibliometric approach to identify the national and the international production. Results show that papers on this subject increased in the last years; that the authors with the greatest number of papers cited are not necessarily the most relevant; that the focus is on the educational field; and that Brazilian studies did not cite the international hot topics. We conclude that there is a gap between the Brazilian and the international literatures, and that the Brazilian papers are based on less relevant references, thus putting in evidence a dissonance between both strands of research.
Durham University's 'Hearing the Voice' project involves a multi-disciplinary exploration of hallucinatory-type phenomena in an attempt to revaluate and reframe discussions of these experiences. As part of this project, contemporaneous religious experiences (supernatural voices and visions) in the United States from the first half of the nineteenth century have been analysed, shedding light on the value and applicability of contemporary bio-cultural models of religious experience for such historical cases. In particular, this essay outlines four historical cases, seeking to utilise and to refine four theoretical models, including anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann's 'absorption hypothesis', by returning to something like William James' concern with 'discordant personalities'. Ultimately, the paper argues that emphasis on the role of identity dissonance must not be omitted from the analytical tools applied to these nineteenth-century examples, and perhaps should be retained for any study of religious experience generally.
Martiny, Kristian Møller Moltke; Aggerholm, Kenneth
During the last decades, research on cognition has undergone a reformation, which is necessary to take into account when evaluating the cognitive and behavioural aspects of therapy. This reformation is due to the research programme called Embodied Cognition (EC). Although EC may have become...... the theoretical authority in current cognitive science, there are only sporadic examples of EC-based therapy, and no established framework. We aim to build such a framework on the aims, methods and techniques of the current third-wave of CBT. There appears to be a possibility for cross-fertilization between EC...... and CBT that could contribute to the development of theory and practice for both of them. We present a case-study of an EC-based model of intervention for working with self-control in cerebral palsy.We centre the results of the study and its discussion on how we should understand and work with self...
Evans, Gary W.
Research is reviewed on human spatial cognition in real, everyday settings and is organized into five empirical categories: age, familiarity, gender, class and culture, and physical components of settings. (Author/DB)
Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil
Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...
Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael
This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .
Bshary, Redouan; Brown, Culum
The central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is one of the most remarkable products of evolution. This system allows an individual to acquire, process, store and act on information gathered from the environment. The resulting flexibility in behavior beyond genetically coded strategies is a prime adaptation in animals. The field of animal cognition examines the underlying processes and mechanisms. Fishes are a particularly interesting group of vertebrates to study cognition for two...
Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill
Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719
Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs differ in their behavioral susceptibility to prior outcomes, increasing degrees of risk, risk perception, and predictive information. The empirical analyses are based on data from a laboratory experiment that I designed and conducted in October 2014. Individuals participating......Research in decision making and cognition has a long tradition in economics and management and represents a substantial stream of research in entrepreneurship. Risk and uncertainty are two characteristics of the decision environment. It has long been believed that entrepreneurs who need to make...... business judgments in such environments are less risk- and uncertainty-averse than non-entrepreneurs. However, this theoretical prediction has not been supported by empirical evidence. Instead, entrepreneurs have been found to be more susceptible to cognitive biases and heuristics. These cognitive...
Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C.; Vignoles, Vivian L.
The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias. PMID:29681878
Full Text Available The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification depends in part on the (incompatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (incompatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.
Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C; Vignoles, Vivian L
The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance-congruity and imbalance-dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.
Siegler, Robert S.
Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…
is another cognitive fingerprint that has been used extensively for authorship . This work has been ex- tended to authentication by relating keyboard...this work is the inference of high-level features such as personality, gender , and dominant hand but those features have not been integrated to date
Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.
The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…
Noor, Ahmed K.
Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp
Widrow, Bernard; Aragon, Juan Carlos
Regarding the workings of the human mind, memory and pattern recognition seem to be intertwined. You generally do not have one without the other. Taking inspiration from life experience, a new form of computer memory has been devised. Certain conjectures about human memory are keys to the central idea. The design of a practical and useful "cognitive" memory system is contemplated, a memory system that may also serve as a model for many aspects of human memory. The new memory does not function like a computer memory where specific data is stored in specific numbered registers and retrieval is done by reading the contents of the specified memory register, or done by matching key words as with a document search. Incoming sensory data would be stored at the next available empty memory location, and indeed could be stored redundantly at several empty locations. The stored sensory data would neither have key words nor would it be located in known or specified memory locations. Sensory inputs concerning a single object or subject are stored together as patterns in a single "file folder" or "memory folder". When the contents of the folder are retrieved, sights, sounds, tactile feel, smell, etc., are obtained all at the same time. Retrieval would be initiated by a query or a prompt signal from a current set of sensory inputs or patterns. A search through the memory would be made to locate stored data that correlates with or relates to the prompt input. The search would be done by a retrieval system whose first stage makes use of autoassociative artificial neural networks and whose second stage relies on exhaustive search. Applications of cognitive memory systems have been made to visual aircraft identification, aircraft navigation, and human facial recognition. Concerning human memory, reasons are given why it is unlikely that long-term memory is stored in the synapses of the brain's neural networks. Reasons are given suggesting that long-term memory is stored in DNA or RNA
Serkova, V V; Nikol'skaia, K A
The influence of spatial imprinting on cognitive activity of adult mice F1 from DBA/2J C57BL/6J in a transformable multialternative maze has been studied. A control mice initially learned in a maze with "direct" and "bypass" pathway between feeders. They successfully formed a food-getting habit after 9-10 sessions using mainly direct pathway, so the final route decision was consistent with the principle of least action. Experimental mice previously placed into reduced maze with only "bypass" pathway between feeders for 1-2 trials (1-3 min), and turn up in the complete maze immediately after that. Experimental mice could not organize a food-getting behavior according a task conditions since attempted to include in final decision both "direct" and "bypass" pathways, united in a single ring-like construction. They demonstrated situational behavior running from one feeder to another one, despite of fact that therein had no feed. So it opposed the realization of least action principle, becoming a source of psycho-emotional stress. The results showed that spatial information perceiving in the first few minutes of exploring the experimental environment can manifest itself as the acquired preference and come in conflict with an instinctive one. Cognitive dissonance predetermined the direction of the cognitive process.
Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.
To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress
Becker, E.S.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.
Automatic cognitive processing helps us navigate the world. However, if the emotional and cognitive interplay becomes skewed, those cognitive processes can become maladaptive and result in psychopathology. Although biases are present in most mental disorders, different disorders are characterized by
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...
Irina B. Shmigirilova
Full Text Available The research is aimed at identifying the essence of the cognitive competence concept in comparison with the concepts of cognitive independence and activity.Methods: The methodology implies a theoretical analysis of psychopedagogical and methodological materials on the cognitive competence formation; generalized teaching experience; empirical methods of direct observations of educational process in the secondary school classrooms; interviews with school teachers and pupils.Results: The research outcomes reveal a semantic intersection between the cognitive competence, independence and activity, and their distinctive features. The paper emphasizes the importance of cognitive competence as an adaptive mechanism in situations of uncertainty and instability.Scientific novelty: The author clarifies the concept of cognitive competence regarding it as a multi-component and systematic characteristic of a personality.Practical significance: The research findings can be used by specialists in didactics developing the teaching techniques of cognitive competence formation for schoolchildren.
Cognitive processes, cognitive psychology tells us, unfold in our heads. In contrast, several approaches in cognitive engineering argue for a shift of unit of analysis from what is going on in the heads of operators to the workings of whole socio-technical systems. This shift is sometimes presented...... as part of the development of a new understanding of what cognition is and where the boundaries of cognitive systems are. Cognition, it is claimed, is not just situated or embedded, but extended and distributed in the world. My main question in this article is what the practical significance...... is of this framing of an expanded unit of analysis in a cognitive vocabulary. I focus on possible consequences for how cognitive engineering practitioners think about function allocation in system design, and on what the relative benefits and costs are of having a common framework and vocabulary for talking about...
Walter S. Gershon
Full Text Available Este artigo problematiza a produção de estudantes em risco. Utilizando a discussão de Rancière sobre dissenso, o autor argumenta que o que está em risco não são os estudantes, mas as noções contemporâneas de senso comum sobre escola. Partindo desta perspectiva, os jeitos de conhecer e de ser dos estudantes rotulados como em risco provocam a descontinuidade nas ideias e ideais sobre o propósito e função da educação escolar. Para criar este argumento, o autor conecta Rancière e outras discussões sobre a importância do dissenso para questionar a produção de sentidos, os perigos da ressonância no consenso e nas possibilidades de dissonância no dissenso. Essas declarações são ainda seguidamente complicadas pela afirmação de que a educação é um esforço necessariamente arriscado e que todos os estudantes devem reconhecer-se em risco de aprender. O entendimento de que todos os estudantes estão em risco é significativo pois fornece simultaneamente um espaço para as constelações complexas de identidade dos estudantes serem negociadas com dignidade em experiências de aprendizagem e cria um contexto menos punitivo em que as diferenças são menos propensas a serem conceituadas como déficit.
Cognitive science can intersect with economics in at least three productive ways: by providing richer models of individual behaviour for use in economic analysis; by drawing from economic theory in order to model distributed cognition; and jointly to create more powerful 'rational' models of cognitive processes and social interaction. There is the prospect of moving from behavioural economics to a genuinely cognitive economics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Pearce, Marcus; Rohrmeier, Martin
Why should music be of interest to cognitive scientists, and what role does it play in human cognition? We review three factors that make music an important topic for cognitive scientific research. First, music is a universal human trait fulfilling crucial roles in everyday life. Second, music has an important part to play in ontogenetic development and human evolution. Third, appreciating and producing music simultaneously engage many complex perceptual, cognitive, and emotional processes, rendering music an ideal object for studying the mind. We propose an integrated status for music cognition in the Cognitive Sciences and conclude by reviewing challenges and big questions in the field and the way in which these reflect recent developments. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Rani Agias Fitri
Full Text Available This research aims to get the description of cognitive dissonance of high educated young adult smoker women, such as the source of dissonance and how to lessen their dissonance. By qualitative research method through depth interview with four research subjects, it is found out that logical inconsistency, general opinion, and past experience are the source of dissonance. Culture norm becomes the source of dissonance only on three subjects. The way the four subjects lessen their cognitive dissonance are changing behavior element and increasing cognitive element whereas changing cognitive element is only done by one subject.
Farrell, Robert G.; Lenchner, Jonathan; Kephjart, Jeffrey O.; Webb, Alan M.; Muller, MIchael J.; Erikson, Thomas D.; Melville, David O.; Bellamy, Rachel K.E.; Gruen, Daniel M.; Connell, Jonathan H.; Soroker, Danny; Aaron, Andy; Trewin, Shari M.; Ashoori, Maryam; Ellis, Jason B.
IBM Research is engaged in a research program in symbiotic cognitive computing to investigate how to embed cognitive computing in physical spaces. This article proposes 5 key principles of symbiotic cognitive computing. We describe how these principles are applied in a particular symbiotic cognitive computing environment and in an illustrative application.
Read, S J; Vanman, E J; Miller, L C
We argue that recent work in connectionist modeling, in particular the parallel constraint satisfaction processes that are central to many of these models, has great importance for understanding issues of both historical and current concern for social psychologists. We first provide a brief description of connectionist modeling, with particular emphasis on parallel constraint satisfaction processes. Second, we examine the tremendous similarities between parallel constraint satisfaction processes and the Gestalt principles that were the foundation for much of modem social psychology. We propose that parallel constraint satisfaction processes provide a computational implementation of the principles of Gestalt psychology that were central to the work of such seminal social psychologists as Asch, Festinger, Heider, and Lewin. Third, we then describe how parallel constraint satisfaction processes have been applied to three areas that were key to the beginnings of modern social psychology and remain central today: impression formation and causal reasoning, cognitive consistency (balance and cognitive dissonance), and goal-directed behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of parallel constraint satisfaction principles for a number of broader issues in social psychology, such as the dynamics of social thought and the integration of social information within the narrow time frame of social interaction.
, while vaccine safety was a major issue. This dissonance may have been amplified by having not involved primary care physicians in the mass vaccination campaign.
Golombek, Paula R.
This article, grounded in a Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, details the self-inquiry of a language teacher educator who examined her "emotional dissonance" regarding her mediation of the reflection journals of a teacher learner teaching an ESL class during an internship. Data from the teacher learner's reflection journals and the…
Scott, William A.
The author examines how students in three countries use four styles of cognitive integration (affective balance, affective-evaluative consistency, centralization, and image comparability) within the cognitive domains of nations, acquaintances, self-roles, and family relations. (DE)
Waller, David, Ed.; Nadel, Lynn, Ed.
Spatial cognition is a branch of cognitive psychology that studies how people acquire and use knowledge about their environment to determine where they are, how to obtain resources, and how to find their way home. Researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including neuroscience, cognition, and sociology, have discovered a great deal about how…
Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.
Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…
Van Rooij, Iris
The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories of cognition. To utilize this constraint, a precise and workable definition of "computational tractability" is needed. Following computer science tradition, many cognitive scientists and psychologists define computational tractability as polynomial-time computability, leading to the P-Cognition thesis. This article explains how and why the P-Cognition thesis may be overly restrictive, risking the exclusion of veridical computational-level theories from scientific investigation. An argument is made to replace the P-Cognition thesis by the FPT-Cognition thesis as an alternative formalization of the Tractable Cognition thesis (here, FPT stands for fixed-parameter tractable). Possible objections to the Tractable Cognition thesis, and its proposed formalization, are discussed, and existing misconceptions are clarified. 2008 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
van Rooij, Iris
The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the "Tractable Cognition thesis": Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by constraining the space of computational-level theories…
Rooij, I.J.E.I. van
The recognition that human minds/brains are finite systems with limited resources for computation has led some researchers to advance the Tractable Cognition thesis: Human cognitive capacities are constrained by computational tractability. This thesis, if true, serves cognitive psychology by
Kozoil, Micah E.
Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…
I first identify two different distinctions: between Cartesian cognition and embodied cognition, and between calculative rationality and intuitive know-how. I then suggest that, in the nursing literature, these two distinctions are run together, to create an opposition between 'Cartesian rationality' and 'embodied know-how'. However, it is vital to keep the two distinctions apart, because 'embodied knowing' is very frequently rational. In separating the idea of embodied cognition from non-rational intuition, I show how 'embodiment' leads to the concepts of distributed cognition and distributed expertise. This has extensive and important implications for how we understand clinical cognition in nursing.
Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland
We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....
In this article, the author recounts his experience teaching MU-241, Music Harmony and Counterpoint, which is a capstone course for the music electronics program--a two-year associate of arts and sciences degree--at Queensborough Community College, City University of New York. The class, a difficult one, combines harmony, counterpoint, and piano,…
Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N
There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.
Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild
Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...
Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.
The Ph.D dissertation “Language and Cognition” addresses the way social uses of language – e.g. on the media, or in conversation – shape the way we think and act. Cognitive sciences have started focusing on embodiment and joint cognition – the way in which cognitive processes are deeply shaped...... interacting, without making place for and relying upon the external world, for its structures, its resistances and its dynamics. Cognition is thus a relational process aimed at - perceiving the regularities and affordances (possibilities for further action, perception and, more generally, cognition...... to linguistic use, but also the effects of these processes on the coordination of other cognitive processes. It involved conceptual and experimental methodologies. Chapter 2 The cognitive study of metaphors largely focuses on showing how abstract thought and language uses are strongly shaped by embodied...
Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R
Low empathy is a criterion for most externalizing disorders, and empathy training is a regular component of treatment for aggressive people, from school bullies to sex offenders. However, recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that current measures of empathy explain only 1% of the variance in aggressive behavior. A new assessment of empathy was developed to more fully represent the empathy construct and better predict important outcomes--particularly aggressive behavior and externalizing psychopathology. Across three independent samples (N = 210-708), the 36-item Affective and Cognitive measure of Empathy (ACME) was internally consistent, structurally reliable, and invariant across sex. The ACME bore significant associations to important outcomes, which were incremental relative to other measures of empathy and generalizable across sex. Importantly, the affective scales of the ACME-particularly a new "Affective Dissonance" scale--yielded moderate to strong associations with aggressive behavior and externalizing disorders. The ACME is a short, reliable, and useful measure of empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.
This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication, and gesture studies. The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous s...
Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping
This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo
Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...
Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.
This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...
An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.
Gevarter, William B.
A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...
Bourne, Lyle E., Jr.; Yaroush, Rita A.
Research in cognitive psychology has made a significant contribution to our understanding of how acute and chronic stress affect performance. It has done so by identifying some of the factors that contribute to operator error and by suggesting how operators might be trained to respond more effectively in a variety of circumstances. The major purpose of this paper was to review the literature of cognitive psychology as it relates to these questions and issues. Based on the existence of earlier reviews (e.g., Hamilton, & Warburton, 1979; Hockey, 1983) the following investigation was limited to the last 15 years (1988-2002) and restricted to a review of the primary peer-reviewed literature. The results of this examination revealed that while cognitive psychology has contributed in a substantive way to our understanding of stress impact on various cognitive processes, it has also left many questions unanswered. Concerns about how we define and use the term stress and the gaps that remain in our knowledge about the specific effects of stressors on cognitive processes are discussed in the text.
Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training
Marquine, María J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in ch...
Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J
There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area.
Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the
Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed.
This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization,…
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach： Halliday＇s Systemic Functional Grammar （SFG）, Dik＇s Functional Grammar （FG）, and Van Valin＇s Role and Reference Grammar （RRG）. Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks： Langacker＇s Cognitive Grammar （CG）, Goldberg＇s Cognitive Construction Grammar （CCG）, and Croft＇s Radical Construction Grammar （RCG）. Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.
Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.
Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…
Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan
Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...
Saracho, Olivia N.
A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)
Steinmetz, J.; Rasmussen, L.S.
Delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are important and common complications after surgery. Risk factors are first of all increasing age and type of surgery, whereas the type of anaesthesia does not seem to play an important role. Mortality is higher among patients with cognitive...
This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...
Secchi, Davide; Cowley, Stephen
This article offers an alternative perspective on organizational cognition based on e-cognition whereby appeal to systemic cognition replaces the traditional computational model of the mind that is still extremely popular in organizational research. It uses information processing, not to explore...... inner processes, but as the basis for pursuing organizational matters. To develop a theory of organizational cognition, the current work presents an agent-based simulation model based on the case of how individual perception of scientific value is affected by and affects organizational intelligence...... units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action...
de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara
The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....
Full Text Available A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioural and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1 There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2 There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3 The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the need for control; (4 Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders.
Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F
We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schrodt, Fabian; Kneissler, Jan; Ehrenfeld, Stephan; Butz, Martin V
In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner. Thus, in contrast to several well-known symbolic cognitive architectures, SEMLINCS is not provided with production rules and the involved symbols, but it learns them. In this paper, the actual implementation of SEMLINCS causes learning and self-motivated, autonomous behavioral control of the game figure Mario in a clone of the computer game Super Mario Bros. Our evaluations highlight the successful development of behavioral versatility as well as the learning of suitable production rules and the involved symbols from sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, knowledge- and motivation-dependent individualizations of the agents' behavioral tendencies are shown. Finally, interaction sequences can be planned on the sensorimotor-grounded production rule level. Current limitations directly point toward the need for several further enhancements, which may be integrated into SEMLINCS in the near future. Overall, SEMLINCS may be viewed as an architecture that allows the functional and computational modeling of embodied cognitive development, whereby the current main focus lies on the development of production rules from sensorimotor experiences. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.
Duijn, Marc van; Keijzer, F.A.; Franken, Daan
Within the cognitive sciences, cognition tends to be interpreted from an anthropocentric perspective, involving a stringent set of human capabilities. Instead, we suggest that cognition is better explicated as a much more general biological phenomenon, allowing the lower bound of cognition to extend
Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes
Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project
Widrow, Bernard; Eliashberg, Victor; Kamenetsky, Max
The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving...
Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas
This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.
Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred
Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.
Paper presented at the Summer Meeting of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf held in Philadelphia, June 24-27, 1970. Discussed are concepts of curriculum development, cognitive development, and educational methods with implications for the handicapped. (CB)
Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina
This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.
May 20, 2003 ... behaviour therapy approach, and a brief example of its use in depression. Cognitive .... dream, or recollection, leading to unpleasant emotion. DATE. SITUATION. EMOTION ... Write rational response to automatic thought(s). 2.
Debenedictis, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rothganger, Fredrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marinella, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Brian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warrender, Christina E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mickel, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.
Dolan, R. J.
Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.
Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard
Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can be ...... is addressed. In the third part of the chapter, three case studies are presented – one from Danish and two from English – to illustrate the analysis of cultural conceptualization via corpus-linguistic techniques....
Geertz, Armin W.; Klocová, Eva Kundtová
Dette kapitel introducerer et embodied cognition tilgang til studiet af religiøse ritualer. Da tilgangen rummer forskellige elementer fra forskellige discipliner bliver disse opsummeret i "4E approach", nemlig kognition som embodied, embedded, extended og enactive.......Dette kapitel introducerer et embodied cognition tilgang til studiet af religiøse ritualer. Da tilgangen rummer forskellige elementer fra forskellige discipliner bliver disse opsummeret i "4E approach", nemlig kognition som embodied, embedded, extended og enactive....
Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...
de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.
Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....
Cholerton, Brenna; Baker, Laura D.; Craft, Suzanne
Cognitive disorders of aging represent a serious threat to the social and economic welfare of current society. It is now widely recognized that pathology related to such conditions, particularly Alzheimer’s disease, likely begins years or decades prior to the onset of clinical dementia symptoms. This revelation has led researchers to consider candidate mechanisms precipitating the cascade of neuropathological events that eventually lead to clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Insulin, a hormone with potent effects in the brain, has recently received a great deal of attention for its potential beneficial and protective role in cognitive function. Insulin resistance, which refers to the reduced sensitivity of target tissues to the favorable effects of insulin, is related to multiple chronic conditions known to impact cognition and increase dementia risk. With insulin resistance-associated conditions reaching epidemic proportions, the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders will continue to rise exponentially. Fortunately, these chronic insulin-related conditions are amenable to pharmacological intervention. As a result, novel therapeutic strategies that focus on increasing insulin sensitivity in the brain may be an important target for protecting or treating cognitive decline. The following review will highlight our current understanding of the role of insulin in brain, potential mechanisms underlying the link between insulin resistance and dementia, and current experimental therapeutic strategies aimed at improving cognitive function via modifying the brain’s insulin sensitivity. PMID:24070815
Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A
Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman
Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gallagher, Anne; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Lassonde, Maryse
Epilepsy surgery is now widely accepted as an effective therapeutic option for carefully selected children with medically refractory epilepsy. The surgical procedure may cause cognitive deficits or exacerbate existing impairments, but it may also improve cognitive abilities by the restoration of functions located in adjacent or contralateral areas that had been secondarily affected by the epilepsy or the underlying pathology. Compared to adults, better cognitive outcome has been reported in children, a finding probably due to the developing state of the brain, which possesses considerable structural and functional plasticity. More extensive and effective surgery such as hemispherectomy is more commonly used in the pediatric population, and this must also influence surgical outcome. However, studies related to cognitive outcome of epilepsy surgery in children are limited, and controversial results are often reported. In this chapter, we provide a current overview of the literature on cognitive outcomes in children who undergo different types of epilepsy surgery, including focal resections as well as corpus callosotomy and hemispherectomy. Early surgical intervention appears to be a rational option for the treatment of childhood epilepsy since many cognitive deficits are linked to the epileptic process and may disappear when seizures are controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kalezić, Nevena; Dimitrijević, Ivan; Leposavić, Ljubica; Kocica, Mladen; Bumbasirević, Vesna; Vucetić, Cedomir; Paunović, Ivan; Slavković, Nemanja; Filimonović, Jelena
Cognitive dysfunctions are relatively common in postoperative and critically ill patients. This complication not only compromises recovery after surgery, but, if persistent, it minimizes and compromises surgery itself. Risk factors of postoperative cognitive disorders can be divided into age and comorbidity dependent, and those related to anesthesia and surgery. Cardiovascular, orthopedic and urologic surgery carries high risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. It can also occur in other types of surgical treatment, especially in elderly. Among risk factors of cognitive disorders, associated with comorbidity, underlying psychiatric and neurological disorders, substance abuse and conditions with elevation of intracranial pressure are in the first place in postoperative patients. Preoperative and perioperative predisposing conditions for cognitive dysfunction and their incidence were described in our paper. These are: geriatric patients, patients with substance abuse, preexisting psychiatric or cognitive disorders, neurologic disease with high intracranial pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency, epilepsia, preeclampsia, acute intermittent porphyria, operation type, brain hypoxia, changes in blood glucose level, electrolyte imbalance, anesthetic agents, adjuvant medication and intraoperative awareness. For each of these factors, evaluation, prevention and treatment strategies were suggested, with special regard on anesthetic technique.
Allred, Sarah; Duffy, Sean; Smith, John
We study the relationship between the cognitive load manipulation and strategic sophistication. The cognitive load manipulation is designed to reduce the subject's cognitive resources that are available for deliberation on a choice. In our experiment, subjects are placed under a large cognitive load (given a difficult number to remember) or a low cognitive load (given a number which is not difficult to remember). Subsequently, the subjects play a one-shot game then they are asked to recall...
Prislin, Radmila; Pool, Gregory J.
Contrasts the consistency, the self-concept, and the new look formulations of cognitive dissonance. The study demonstrates that dissonance occurs when a behavior and its consequences contradict an individual's self-concept. Findings both support and diverge from various aspects of the three formulations of dissonance phenomena. (LSR)
Cooper, Richard P; Shallice, Tim
We discuss the development of cognitive neuroscience in terms of the tension between the greater sophistication in cognitive concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences and the increasing power of more standard biological approaches to understanding brain structure and function. There have been major technological developments in brain imaging and advances in simulation, but there have also been shifts in emphasis, with topics such as thinking, consciousness, and social cognition becoming fashionable within the brain sciences. The discipline has great promise in terms of applications to mental health and education, provided it does not abandon the cognitive perspective and succumb to reductionism. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Thomas, Erik R
Sociolinguistics has examined mental organization of language only sporadically. Meanwhile, areas of linguistics that deal with cognitive organization seldom delve deeply into language variation. Variation is essential for understanding how language is structured cognitively, however. Three kinds of evidence are discussed to illustrate this point. First, style shifting demonstrates that language users develop detailed associations of when to produce specific linguistic forms, depending on the pragmatic context. Second, variation in fine-grained phonetic cues shows that cognitive organization applies to linguistic forms not otherwise known to be under speakers' control. Finally, experiments on dialect comprehension and identification demonstrate that listeners have detailed cognitive associations of language variants with groups of people, whether or not they can produce the same variants themselves. A model is presented for how sociolinguistic knowledge can be viewed in relation to other parts of language with regard to cognitive and neural representations. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 701-716 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.152 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Oatley, Keith; Johnson-Laird, P N
Cognitive approaches offer clear links between how emotions are thought about in everyday life and how they are investigated psychologically. Cognitive researchers have focused on how emotions are caused when events or other people affect concerns and on how emotions influence processes such as reasoning, memory, and attention. Three representative cognitive theories of emotion continue to develop productively: the action-readiness theory, the core-affect theory, and the communicative theory. Some principles are common to them and divergences can be resolved by future research. Recent explanations have included how emotions structure social relationships, how they function in psychological illnesses, and how they are central to music and fiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.
This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended
This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...
Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert
Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition.
Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kostylev
Full Text Available Cognitive impairments in epilepsy are a current problem in neurology. The basis of the idea on the pathogenesis of higher nervous system dysfunctions is the interaction of a few factors that include the form and duration of the disease, gender differences, and the impact of antiepileptic therapy. The role of interattack epileptiform changes in the development of cognitive deficit in adults and epileptic encephalopathies in children is discussed. Up-to-date neurophysiological and neuroimaging diagnostic methods allow the detection of new features in the course and progression of higher nervous system dysfunctions in epilepsy.
Natalia C. Moyano
Full Text Available Gratitude is a cognitive-affective state caused by the recognition that one has received a benefit from an external agent, due to the good intentions of this agent. Despite the evidence that associate gratitude with subjective well being, psychological well being, physical health and copping with stressful events, it is not enough taken in consideration in an academic level and in its interaction with psychotherapy instruments as well. In this article, the central concepts and information provided by the research are revised, intending to analyze possible ways to include gratitude into Cognitive Psychotherapy.
Goldinger, Stephen D; Papesh, Megan H; Barnhart, Anthony S; Hansen, Whitney A; Hout, Michael C
In recent years, there has been rapidly growing interest in embodied cognition, a multifaceted theoretical proposition that (1) cognitive processes are influenced by the body, (2) cognition exists in the service of action, (3) cognition is situated in the environment, and (4) cognition may occur without internal representations. Many proponents view embodied cognition as the next great paradigm shift for cognitive science. In this article, we critically examine the core ideas from embodied cognition, taking a "thought exercise" approach. We first note that the basic principles from embodiment theory are either unacceptably vague (e.g., the premise that perception is influenced by the body) or they offer nothing new (e.g., cognition evolved to optimize survival, emotions affect cognition, perception-action couplings are important). We next suggest that, for the vast majority of classic findings in cognitive science, embodied cognition offers no scientifically valuable insight. In most cases, the theory has no logical connections to the phenomena, other than some trivially true ideas. Beyond classic laboratory findings, embodiment theory is also unable to adequately address the basic experiences of cognitive life.
Molenaar, P.C.M.; van der Molen, M.W.; Dawson, G.; Fischer, K.W.
Focus of this chapter is on cognitive psychophysiology as a bridge for two-way interaction between the study of cognitive development and research on the developing nervous system. Demonstrates how psychophysiological measures can be used to understand cognitive development in relation to brain
Globerson, Tamar; And Others
Tested whether or not cognitive development (as measured by mental capacity) and cognitive style (as measured by field-dependence/independence) are different dimensions. Results are discussed with regard to Pascual-Leone's model of cognitive development, relevance to stylistic dimension of reflection/impulsivity, and educational implications.…
... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...
Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…
Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Gudiksen, Jens Kristian Dahlgaard
of this contribution is a deconstruction of the cognitive assumptions about learning and seeking/searching in the light of action-oriented approaches. We develop two types of action-oriented approach. The first approach, which comes from Critical Psychology, understands learning as a primarily social phenomenon...
Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)
Geertz, Armin W.
This is an introductory article in a special issue of a bulletin for researchers and teachers in religion in the USA. The article sketches the main positions and recent trends in the cognitive science of religion, and it attempts to attract scholars of religion to this field. It also profiles...
Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta
We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...
Cowley, Stephen; Secchi, Davide
units' (e.g., research groups', departmental) framing of the notorious impact factor. Results show that organizational cognition cannot be described without an intermediate meso scale - called here social organizing - that both filters and enables the many kinds of socially enabled perception, action...
Lorist, M.M.; Tops, M.
Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support
Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.
van Knippenberg, D.; Homan, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.; Roberson, Q.M.
Demographic diversity at work can yield performance benefits but also invite psychological disengagement and be a source of interpersonal tension. In managing this double-edged sword of demographic diversity, the role of diversity cognition (beliefs, attitudes) and climates seems particularly
Kihlstrom, John F.
Addresses implications drawn from contemporary research in cognitive psychology which deal with the impact of nonconscious mental structures and processes on an individual's experience, thought, and action. Discusses the information-processing perspective, automatic processes, subliminal perception, implicit memory, hypnotic alterations, and the…
Moll, Kristina; Loff, Ariana; Snowling, Margaret J.
The study investigated cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia and familial risk of dyslexia (endophenotypes) by comparing children from families with and without a history of dyslexia. Eighty-eight school-aged children were assessed on measures of phonology, language and rapid automatized naming. A series of regression analyses with family…
Full Text Available How do humans perceive and think about space, and how can this be represented adequately? For everyday activities such as locating objects or places, route planning, and the like, many insights have been gained over the past few decades, feeding into theories of spatial cognition and frameworks for spatial information science. In this paper, we explore sailing as a more specialized domain that has not yet been considered in this way, but has a lot to offer precisely because of its peculiarities. Sailing involves ways of thinking about space that are not normally required (or even acquired in everyday life. Movement in this domain is based on a combination of external forces and internal (human intentions that impose various kinds of directionality, affecting local action as well as global planning. Sailing terminology is spatial to a high extent, and involves a range of concepts that have received little attention in the spatial cognition community. We explore the area by focusing on the core features of cognition, action, and communication, and suggest a range of promising future areas of research in this domain as a showcase of the fascinating flexibility of human spatial cognition.
Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.
Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene
Meo Colombo Carlotta
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study how itâ€™s possible to enhance the cognitive enterprise model by the theory of autopoietic systems. I propose a model that considers the organization as a closed system in which all cognitive activity is necessary to develop coherent operations needed to adapt the firm to environmental perturbations. The central issue of the work consists in the presentation and description of the â€œchain thinking-actionâ€ as a cognitive basis that builds models from which derive the actions that characterize the transformation of a business enterprise in order to maintain the viability over time. A \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"winning\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" entrepreneurial thinking is able to give a direction (objectives-strategy always aimed at improving the organizationâ€™s vital parameters. The role of entrepreneurship and management, therefore, is to create the conditions to encourage a continuous development of cognitive models in organizations, in order to maintain the conditions of survival and to lead the company in a situation of evolution and improvement.
de Groot, A.M.B.; Chapelle, C.A.
Scientific interest in the effects of (individual) bilingualism on cognition dates back to at least the first quarter of the 20th century, as illustrated by two articles that were published in 1923 on the relation between bilingualism and mental development (Smith, 1923) and between bilingualism and
Siegler, Robert S.
Discusses the problems of using chronometric analysis, a common cognitive psychological method, for educational assessment. Suggests that cognitive assessment has not reached the precision needed to analyze individual differences. (FMW)
Pendergrass, J. Cara; Harrison, John E.
This brief review explores the areas of cognitive impairment that have been observed in cancer patients and survivors, the cognitive assessment tools used, and the management of the observed cognitive changes. Cognitive changes and impairment observed in patients with cancer and those in remission can be related to the direct effects of cancer itself, nonspecific factors or comorbid conditions that are independent of the actual disease, and/or the treatments or combination of treatments administered. Attention, memory, and executive functioning are the most frequently identified cognitive domains impacted by cancer. However, the prevalence and extent of impairment remains largely unknown due to marked differences in methodology, definitions of cognitive impairment, and the assessment measures used. Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important and necessary part of a comprehensive oncological care plan. Research is needed to establish a better understanding of cognitive changes and impairments associated with cancer so that optimal patient outcomes can be achieved. PMID:29497579
Full Text Available In Multiple Sclerosis (MS prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing and visual spatial abilities; the physiopathological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities.
Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B
Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....
Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B
Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation.......Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....
Research Question: The feasibility of applying cognitive-emotive techniques for change management. Methods: A theoretical analysis of the feasibility of the concepts of cognitive driven behavioural change for the change management in organizations. A cognitive-emotive change management process is proposed and a practical application for a case study is demonstrated that transfers existing psychological tools into the change management practice. Results: Cognitive-emotive concepts provide a th...
Schoenfeld, Alan H
This volume is a result of mathematicians, cognitive scientists, mathematics educators, and classroom teachers combining their efforts to help address issues of importance to classroom instruction in mathematics. In so doing, the contributors provide a general introduction to fundamental ideas in cognitive science, plus an overview of cognitive theory and its direct implications for mathematics education. A practical, no-nonsense attempt to bring recent research within reach for practicing teachers, this book also raises many issues for cognitive researchers to consider.
Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique
Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Reed, Stephen K.
This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…
Young, John; Meagher, David; MacLullich, Alasdair J
peer-reviewed Cognitive assessment involves examination of higher cortical functions, particularly memory, attention, orientation, language, executive function (planning activities), and praxis (sequencing of activities). This article will focus on cognitive assessment of older people (those aged over about 65 years) in the context of possible dementia, delirium, and depression. These are common and serious clinical syndromes affecting older people, and accurate cognit...
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico
Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…
Stenning, K.; van Lambalgen, M.
In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen—a cognitive scientist and a logician—argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the
Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.
In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in
Jensen, Jeppe Sinding
Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology......Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology...
Hong, Jin Yong; Lee, Yoonju; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung; Sohn, Young H; Lee, Phil Hyu
Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the relationship between SCCs and objective cognitive impairment is still unclear. This study aimed to determine whether SCCs are correlated with objective cognitive performance in patients with PD. Totals of 148 cognitively normal patients, 71 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 31 demented patients were recruited consecutively from a movement-disorders clinic. Their SCCs and cognitive performances were evaluated using the Cognitive Complaints Interview (CCI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The CCI score increased with age, duration of PD, and depression score, and was inversely correlated with cognitive performance. The association between CCI score and performance remained significant after adjustment for the depression score, age, and duration of PD. The CCI score could be used to discriminate patients with dementia from cognitively normal and MCI patients [area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.80], but not patients with MCI or dementia from cognitively normal patients (AUC of 0.67). SCCs as measured by the CCI are strongly correlated with objective cognitive performance in patients with PD. The CCI can also be used to screen for dementia in patients with PD. Copyright © 2018 Korean Neurological Association.
Bak, Thomas H; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J
Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008–2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading. Our results suggest a positive effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition, including in those who acquired their second language in adulthood. PMID:24890334
Haumann, Niels Trusbak
This historical-scientific introduction to Cognitive Musicology introduces the 150 years of research and discoveries in the psychology of music that partly presuppose the more recent discipline of Cognitive Musicology. Atomistic, Gestalt, functionalist, testing, behaviorist, cognitive......, and neuroscience approaches to the psychological mechanisms underlying music are presented. Thus, it is argued that Cognitive Musicology is partly based on firm historical traditions in the psychology of music. Also discussed is the way in which the combination of interdisciplinary methods from the humanities...... and the natural sciences, which is integrated in Cognitive Musicology, may minimize the limitations of the separate humanities-based or natural science methods....
Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.
Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.
This book presents recent research using cognitive science to apprehend risk situations and elaborate new organizations, new systems and new methodological tools in response. The book demonstrates the reasons, advantages and implications of the association of the concepts of cognition and risk. It is shown that this association has strong consequences on how to apprehend critical situations that emerge within various activity domains, and how to elaborate responses to these critical situations.. The following topics are covered by the book: · Influence of the culture in risk management, · Influence of the risk communication in risk management, · User-centred design to improve risk situation management, · Designing new tools to assist risk situation management, · Risk prevention in industrial activities.
Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI.
Tuba Tulay Koca
Full Text Available The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is widespread pain with muscle tenderness to light palpation. Howeover many patients report a wide range of symptoms including pain, dyscognition, sleep disturbances, fatigue and mood disorders (frequently depression. Such symptoms seem to be related to one another. Besides, a decrease in concentration and memory disorder has recognised as an independent symptom yet; added into literature under the terms and lsquo;dyscognition' and and lsquo;fibrofog'. Recently clinicians interested in investigations about dyscognition in fibromyalgia syndrome. Cognitive symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of depression, anxiety, sleep dysorders, endocrine disregulations and pain; but the relationship is unclear. Additionally some of recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may represent a risk factor for memory impairment in these patients. There is lack of standardized tests, treatment methods and studies for understanding pathophysiologic pathways of cognitive problems (memory, concentration in fibromyalgia.
Full Text Available The construct of cognitive reserve attempts to explain why some individuals with brain impairment, and some people during normal ageing, can solve cognitive tasks better than expected. This study aimed to estimate cognitive reserve in a healthy sample of people aged 65 years and over, with special attention to its influence on cognitive performance. For this purpose, it used the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS and a neuropsychological battery that included tests of attention and memory. The results revealed that women obtained higher total CRS raw scores than men. Moreover, the CRS predicted the learning curve, short-term and long-term memory, but not attentional and working memory performance. Thus, the CRS offers a new proxy of cognitive reserve based on cognitively stimulating activities performed by healthy elderly people. Following an active lifestyle throughout life was associated with better intellectual performance and positive effects on relevant aspects of quality of life.
Perlovsky, Leonid I
This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...
B. A. Volel
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are an important biomedical problem due to the high prevalence and significant negative impact on the quality of life and the course of concomitant somatic and neurological diseases. Cognitive impairment (CI is one of the most intensively studied aspects of pathological anxiety. Impairments in attention, executive functions, memory, cognitive deficit, as well as abnormal cognitions and metacognitions are identified in anxiety disorders. Moreover, the treatment of the latter with the most frequently used drugs (antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers does not lead to a significant improvement in cognitive functions, and often contributes to their worsening. In this connection, in addition to psychotherapy, cognitive function-improving agents play a large role in treating anxiety diseases associated with cognitive dysfunction. Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761, Tanakan® that positively affects cognitive functions, especially in the domains of memory, concentration and attention deserves special attention.
Medina, L. D.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth
Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of cognitive and emotional abilities of sufficient severity to infer with social or occupational functioning, or both. Although the causes of dementia and characteristics are not always fully understood, it is understood that it is not a natural part of aging. Definitive diagnosis of dementia is made only through the autopsy and although the diagnosis of probable or possible dementia is complex is achieved by the intervention of several ...
Dhingra, Lara; Ahmed, Ebtesam; Shin, Jae; Scharaga, Elyssa; Magun, Maximilian
Cognitive effects and sedation (CES) are prevalent in chronic nonmalignant pain populations receiving long-term opioid therapy and are among the most common reasons patients discontinue opioid use. In this narrative review, we describe the phenomenology, epidemiology, mechanisms, assessment, and management of opioid-related CES. We reviewed the empirical and theoretical literature on CES in opioid-treated populations with chronic pain. Data on long-term opioid therapy (≥ 3 months in duration) in chronic nonmalignant pain patients were sought. The phenomenology of CES includes: inattention, concentration difficulties, memory deficits, psychomotor dysfunction, perceptual distortions, and executive dysfunction and somnolence, sleep disorders, and lethargy. Deficits may be caused by unrelieved pain or opioid therapy alone, or from a combination of these and other factors. Mechanisms include central nervous system effects, for example, direct toxic effects on neurons resulting in decreased consciousness; direct effects on processing and reaction resulting in cognitive or psychomotor impairment, and inhibitory effects on cholinergic activity. Pharmacological management approaches may include opioid dose reduction and rotation or psychostimulant use. Nonpharmacological approaches may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acupuncture, exercise, and yoga. The most prevalent CES include: memory deficits (73-81%), sleep disturbance (35-57%), and fatigue (10%). At its most severe, extreme cognitive dysfunction can result in frank delirium and decreased alertness can result in coma. Emotional distress, sleep disorders, and other comorbidities and treatments can worsen CES, particularly among the elderly. Conclusions about the neuropsychological domains affected by opioids are limited due to the heterogeneity of studies and methodological issues. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Laird, John E.
Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.
Hardt, Oliver; Nadel, Lynn
Cognitive map theory suggested that exploring an environment and attending to a stimulus should lead to its integration into an allocentric environmental representation. We here report that directed attention in the form of exploration serves to gather information needed to determine an optimal spatial strategy, given task demands and characteristics of the environment. Attended environmental features may integrate into spatial representations if they meet the requirements of the optimal spatial strategy: when learning involves a cognitive mapping strategy, cues with high codability (e.g., concrete objects) will be incorporated into a map, but cues with low codability (e.g., abstract paintings) will not. However, instructions encouraging map learning can lead to the incorporation of cues with low codability. On the other hand, if spatial learning is not map-based, abstract cues can and will be used to encode locations. Since exploration appears to determine what strategy to apply and whether or not to encode a cue, recognition memory for environmental features is independent of whether or not a cue is part of a spatial representation. In fact, when abstract cues were used in a way that was not map-based, or when they were not used for spatial navigation at all, they were nevertheless recognized as familiar. Thus, the relation between exploratory activity on the one hand and spatial strategy and memory on the other appears more complex than initially suggested by cognitive map theory.
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru
Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitive functions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects.
Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío
The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning.
Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G
Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.
Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE was obtained before (T0 and after (T1 the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia.
Ferreira, Nicola; Owen, Adrian; Mohan, Anita; Corbett, Anne; Ballard, Clive
Emerging literature suggests that lifestyle factors may play an important role in reducing age-related cognitive decline. There have, however, been few studies investigating the role of cognitively stimulating leisure activities in maintaining cognitive health. This study sought to identify changes in cognitive performance with age and to investigate associations of cognitive performance with several key cognitively stimulating leisure activities. Over 65,000 participants provided demographic and lifestyle information and completed tests of grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory, verbal working memory and episodic memory. Regression analyses suggested that frequency of engaging in Sudoku or similar puzzles was significantly positively associated with grammatical reasoning, spatial working memory and episodic memory scores. Furthermore, for participants aged under 65 years, frequency of playing non-cognitive training computer games was also positively associated with performance in the same cognitive domains. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory are particularly vulnerable to age-related decline. Further investigation to determine the potential benefits of participating in Sudoku puzzles and non-cognitive computer games is indicated, particularly as they are associated with grammatical reasoning and episodic memory, cognitive domains found to be strongly associated with age-related cognitive decline. Results of this study have implications for developing improved guidance for the public regarding the potential value of cognitively stimulating leisure activities. The results also suggest that grammatical reasoning and episodic memory should be targeted in developing appropriate outcome measures to assess efficacy of future interventions, and in developing cognitive training programmes to prevent or delay cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aarsland, Dag; Creese, Byron; Politis, Marios; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; ffytche, Dominic H.; Weintraub, Daniel; Ballard, Clive
Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition — or even reversal to normal cognition — is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*ε4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results. PMID:28257128
Maria Gabriela R. Ferreira
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment after stroke affects the patient recovery process. Therefore, the identification of factors associated with cognitive outcomes is important since it allows risk profiles of stroke survivors to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive outcome of stroke outpatients and investigate associations among clinical and demographic variables, vascular risk factors, depression symptoms and functional ability; and to describe the neuropsychological profile of these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study was conducted. Subjects who suffered a first-ever ischaemic stroke 6 to 10 months prior to data collection underwent neuropsychological assessment and screening for depressive symptoms and functional ability. The outcome "cognitive performance" was analyzed considering two groups: "cognitive impairment" and "no cognitive impairment". RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between cognitive impairment and female gender, age, stroke severity and functional ability. Regarding neuropsychological profile, the cognitive impairment group exhibited more generalized deficits in attention, visuospatial organization, verbal functions and verbal memory domains compared to the community control group. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cognitive impairment among patients was high, especially in women, older participants, individuals with more severe stroke, and greater impairment in functional ability. Multiple cognitive domains are affected and this may hamper recovery and negatively impact independence and quality of life after stroke.
Haun, D.; Rapold, C.; Call, J.; Janzen, G.; Levinson, S.
Current approaches to human cognition often take a strong nativist stance based on Western adult performance, backed up where possible by neonate and infant research and almost never by comparative research across the Hominidae. Recent research suggests considerable cross-cultural differences in cognitive strategies, including relational thinking, a domain where infant research is impossible because of lack of cognitive maturation. Here, we apply the same paradigm across children and adults o...
Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.
Cognitive science is a network of interrelated scientific disciplines engaged in researching human cognition and its brain mechanisms. The birth of cognitive science has been the result of numerous integrated processes. Cognitive science is made up of experimental psychology cognition, philosophy consciousness, neuroscience, cognitive anthropology, linguistics, computer science and artificial intelligence. In recent years, a number of other research areas have been added to the body of cognit...
Shanks, David R
Since the very earliest experimental investigations of learning, tension has existed between association-based and cognitive theories. Associationism accounts for the phenomena of both conditioning and "higher" forms of learning via concepts such as excitation, inhibition, and reinforcement, whereas cognitive theories assume that learning depends on hypothesis testing, cognitive models, and propositional reasoning. Cognitive theories have received considerable impetus in regard to both human and animal learning from recent research suggesting that the key illustration of cue selection in learning, blocking, often arises from inferential reasoning. At the same time, a dichotomous view that separates noncognitive, unconscious (implicit) learning from cognitive, conscious (explicit) learning has gained favor. This review selectively describes key findings from this research, evaluates evidence for and against associative and cognitive explanatory constructs, and critically examines both the dichotomous view of learning as well as the claim that learning can occur unconsciously.
Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of our study was to examine cognitive status, short – term memory, delayed recall and the retention of visual information in diabetics with polyneuropathy and to establish the impacts of some risk factors on cognitive performance.Contingent and methods: We assessed 47 diabetic patients with polyneuropathy, using the Mini Mental State Examination, 10 words test, the Benton visual retention test and the Hamilton scale.Results: Global cognitive dysfunction, decline in verbal memory and visual retention and tendency for depressive mood were observed. We found statistically significant interaction of ageing, sex, severity of pain, duration and late onset of diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive functioning. Therapy association on cognition was not found.Conclusions: Our study confirms the hypothesis of global cognitive dysfunction, associated with diabetic polyneuropathy. The interactions of sex and pain severity require further study. We arise a hypothesis of asymmetrical brain injury in diabetics.
Heteronomy informs parts of human sense-making including perceptual and linguistic activities. This article explores Berthoz's (2012) notion of simplexity in relation to heteronomous aspects of human cognition while it criticises proponents of Active Externalism for presuming that cognitive...... activity is based in strong autonomy. Specifically, its negative target is the problematic aspects of Varelian Enactivism and Extended Cognitive Functionalism which are linked to the assumption that cognition is conditioned by the cogniser's strong autonomy. Since active externalists presume that cognition...... has a clear agent-to-world directionality, they prove unable to account for cases where cognition is informed by novel sensuous inputs. The article presents a positive argument that acknowledges the embodied basis of human sense-making as well as the weak autonomy of the cogniser. It argues...
Braver, Todd S.
Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005
Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J
We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In acronym Captology – Computers as Persuasive Technology, a persuasive component (lat. persuasibilibus – enticing refers to the persuasive stimulation by intelligent technologies. Latter being transitive and interactive as intelligent systems, they have imposed, by their persuasivity, a ‘cult of information’, after which information has become a type of goods that as a utilitarian resource must be exploited quickly and efficiently. Such a widely accepted fact resulted as hype, presenting a perspective that the approach to a large amount of information and faster ‘digestion’ of their content will enable users to quickly get desired knowledge. Recent investigations about persuasion processes have shown its dependence on intelligent technology factors (design, interactive computer products, web, desktop and others. Such technologies are also used to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, learning, and behaviour. Development strategies for global computer production and sales head in that direction and confirm latter statement with the promoted 3-P model: persuasive, permissive and pervasive components. Cognitive level of human integrated development is increasingly overshadowed by the contribution of artificial intelligence through its products, i.e. ‘smart’ creations, and by the array of shortcomings and problems that the same interactive technology brings. This paper presents a parallel between captological component of intelligent and interactive technologies on one side and illustrates examples of captological influences proved by confirmed trials within cognitive science through computer simulations of human thinking on the other side. Many studies have shown that the success of persuasion depends on the factors which have been exposed by cognitive cybernetics. Next to it, people’s behavior system is transforming through the very development of society. Therefore, the influence of latter can be either positive or negative
François, Jacques; Fuchs, Catherine; Le Ny, Jean-François; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Peyraube, Alain; Rouveret, Alain; Sabah, Gérard; Victorri, Bernard
La linguistique a été l'une des disciplines pionnières participant dès le milieu des armées 1950 au « programme cognitiviste », conjointement avec la psychologie et l'intelligence artificielle. Le présent ouvrage a pour objectif de présenter les problématiques théoriques, les recherches actuelles et les acquis de la linguistique cognitive. La première partie de l'ouvrage est consacrée à un panorama des principaux courants contemporains, qui se réclament de deux grands paradigmes théoriques :...
Gutiérrez-Rexach, Javier; Schatz, Sara
One of the most important ingredients of felicitous conversation exchanges is the adequate expression of illocutionary force and the achievement of perlocutionary effects, which can be considered essential to the functioning of pragmatic competence. The breakdown of illocutionary and perlocutionary functions is one of the most prominent external features of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's Disease, with devastating psychological and social consequences for patients, their family and caregivers. The study of pragmatic functions is essential for a proper understanding of the linguistic and communicative aspects of Alzheimer's disease.
Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Rasmussen, Lars S; Steinmetz, Jacob
serious adverse outcomes, hence difficult to obtain sound scientific evidence for avoiding complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Few studies have assessed recovery of cognitive function after ambulatory surgery, but it seems that both propofol and modern volatile anaesthetics are rational choices for general...... anaesthesia in the outpatient setting. Cognitive complications such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction are less frequent in ambulatory surgery than with hospitalization. SUMMARY: The elderly are especially susceptible to adverse effects of the hospital environment such as immobilisation...
Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.
Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should...... the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning....
Elena Anatolyevna Katunina
Full Text Available Post-stroke cognitive impairments are common effects of stroke. Vascular cognitive impairments are characterized by the heterogeneity of the neuropsychological profile in relation to the site and pattern of stroke. Their common trait is the presence of dysregulation secondary to frontal dysfunction. The treatment of vascular cognitive impairments should be multimodality and aimed at stimulating neuroplasticity processes, restoring neurotransmitter imbalance, and preventing recurrent vascular episodes.
Burton, Cynthia Z.; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W.
The impact of limited insight is a crucial consideration in the treatment of individuals with psychiatric illness. In the context of psychosis, both clinical and cognitive insight have been described. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between clinical and cognitive insight and neuropsychological functioning, psychiatric symptom severity, and everyday functioning in patients with a primary psychotic disorder participating in a compensatory cognitive training (CT) intervention. Sixty-nine individuals diagnosed with a primary psychotic disorder were randomized to a 3-month CT intervention or to standard pharmacotherapy, and they completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, clinical, and functional battery at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The CT intervention focused on habit formation and compensatory strategy learning in four domains: prospective memory, attention and vigilance, learning and memory, and problem-solving/cognitive flexibility. At baseline, better clinical insight was significantly related to better executive functioning and less severe negative symptoms. There was no significant association between cognitive insight and cognitive functioning, symptom severity, or everyday functioning ability. The CT intervention did not have an effect on clinical or cognitive insight, but better cognitive insight prior to participation in CT significantly predicted decreased positive and depressive symptom severity posttreatment, and better clinical insight predicted improved self-reported quality of life. Although clinical insight is related to executive functioning, the correlates of cognitive insight remain elusive. Intact insight appears to be beneficial in ameliorating clinical symptomatology like positive symptoms and depression, rather than augmenting cognition. It may be valuable to develop brief interventions aimed at improving clinical and cognitive insight prior to other psychosocial rehabilitation in order to maximize the benefit of
Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B
BACKGROUND: A variety of factors contribute to the development of cognitive impairment in elderly people. Previous studies have focused upon a single or a few risk factors. In this study we assessed and compared the significance of a wide variety of potential risk factors for cognitive impairment...... in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 208 pairs of elderly women (mean age = 73.2 years) were examined in a cross-sectional case-control study. Each pair consisted of a case (with impaired cognition) and a control subject matched by age and educational status. Cognitive functions were determined using...
Lloret Mauri, Jaime; Rawat, Danda B; Perez, Javier Manuel Aguiar
INTRODUCTIONEfficient Spectrum Management: Challenges and Solutions; Tarek M. Salem, Sherine M. Abdel-Kader, Salah M. Abdel-MaGeid, and Mohamed ZakiA Survey on Joint Routing and Dynamic spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianzhong Xie, Helin Yang, and Athanasios V. VasilakosNeighbor Discovery for Cognitive Radio Networks; Athar Ali Khan, Mubashir Husain Rehmani, and Yasir SaleemSPECTRUM SENSINGTime-Domain Cognitive Sensor Networking; Stefano Busanelli, Gianluigi Ferrari, Alessandro Colazzo, and Jean-Michel DricotSpectrum Sensing in Cognitive Wireless Networks; Danda B. Rawat and Chan
Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.
Weill-Chounlamountry, A; Soyez-Gayout, L; Tessier, C; Pradat-Diehl, P
The cognitive model of music processing has a modular architecture with two main pathways (a melody pathway and a time pathway) for processing the musical "message" and thus enabling music recognition. It also features a music-specific module for tonal encoding of pitch which stands apart from all other known cognitive systems (including language processing). To the best of our knowledge, rehabilitation therapy for amusia has not yet been reported. We developed a therapeutic method (inspired by work on word deafness) in order to determine whether specific rehabilitation based on melody discrimination could prompt the regression of amusia. We report the case of a patient having developed receptive, acquired amusia four years previously. His tone deafness disorder was assessed using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), which revealed impairment of the melody pathway but no deficiency in the time pathway. A computer-assisted rehabilitation method was implemented; it used melody discrimination tasks and an errorless learning paradigm with progressively fading visual cues. After therapy, we noted an improvement in the overall MBEA score and its component subscores which could not be explained by spontaneous recovery (in view of the number of years since the neurological accident). The improvement was maintained at seven months post-therapy. Although post-therapy improvement in daily life was not systematically assessed, the patient started listening to his favourite music again. Specific amusia therapy has shown efficacy.
Full Text Available The article presents issues relevant to the cognitive theory of metaphor developed by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson. The researchers suggest that metaphors are common. They are rooted in the experience, important in the perception of the world, thinking, acting, as revealed in the language. The metaphor of language is a reflection of a conceptual metaphor. Lakoff and Johnson point out that the metaphor of language occurs in the texts of various types, from the colloquial language to the specialist language. A metaphor carries out two important functions: explaining and facilitating understanding. It enables a partial understanding of some kind of experience in terms of another type of beings and experiences. Some issues such as the concept of love, metaphysical issues, become possible to understand only through metaphor. Thus, the thesis, which treats about necessity of metaphor, is significant. In the process of metaphorical cognition, there is a projection, which takes the source domain to the target domain. A thesis about invariant is important here. Metaphorical mapping is partial. At the root metaphor is structural similarity between domains or their correlations in our experience. Conceptual metaphors can create complex structural relationships. In the case of metaphor the thesis of one-way metaphorical mappings is as important as the thesis about her creative potential. Prominent semantics of conceptual metaphor cannot give full meaning in the literal paraphrase. Among the conceptual metaphors structural metaphors, orientation and ontological metaphors are characterized.
Caviola, L.; Mannino, A.; Savulescu, J.; Faulmüller, N.
Research into cognitive biases that impair human judgment has mostly been applied to the area of economic decision-making. Ethical decision-making has been comparatively neglected. Since ethical decisions often involve very high individual as well as collective stakes, analyzing how cognitive biases
van Gennip, D.A.P.; Orth, D.R.; Imtiaz, M.A.; van den Hoven, E.A.W.H.; Plimmer, B.
This workshop will explore the relationship between HCI using tangible user interfaces (TUIs) and cognition. We see exciting opportunities for tangible interaction to address some of the cognitive challenges of concern to the HCI community, in areas such as education, healthcare, games, reminiscing
Breuer, L.E.M.; Boon, P.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Mess, W.H.; Besseling, R.M.H.; de Louw, A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Zinger, S.; Bernas, A.; Klooster, D.C.W.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
A long-standing concern has been whether epilepsy contributes to cognitive decline or so-called 'epileptic dementia'. Although global cognitive decline is generally reported in the context of chronic refractory epilepsy, it is largely unknown what percentage of patients is at risk for decline. This
Krüger, Norbert; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre
We discuss the need of an elaborated in-between stage bridging early vision and cognitive vision which we call `Early Cognitive Vision' (ECV). This stage provides semantically rich, disambiguated and largely task independent scene representations which can be used in many contexts. In addition...
van Heusden, B.P.
In this paper I argue that semiotic cognition is a distinctive form of cognition, which must have evolved out of earlier forms of non-semiotic cognition. Semiotic cognition depends on the use of signs. Signs are understood in terms of a specific organization, or structure, of the cognitive process.
Cognitive Impairment; Cognitive Decline; Cognition Disorders; Cognitive Symptom; Cognitive Change; Cognitive Deterioration; Cognitive Abnormality; Cognitive Impairment, Mild; Cognition Disorders in Old Age; Dementia; Dementia Alzheimers; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Dementia, Mild; Dementia of Alzheimer Type
Fabry, Regina E.
According to Thomas Metzinger, many human cognitive processes in the waking state are spontaneous and are deprived of the experience of epistemic agency. He considers mind wandering as a paradigm example of our recurring loss of epistemic agency. I will enrich this view by extending the scope of the concept of epistemic agency to include cases of depressive rumination and creative cognition, which are additional types of spontaneous cognition. Like mind wandering, they are characterized by unique phenomenal and functional properties that give rise to varying degrees of epistemic agency. The main claim of this paper will be that the experience of being an epistemic agent within a certain time frame is a relational phenomenon that emerges from the organism’s capacity to interact with its cognitive niche. To explore this relation, I develop a new framework that integrates phenomenological considerations on epistemic agency with a functional account of the reciprocal coupling of the embodied organism with its cognitive niche. This account rests upon dynamical accounts of strong embodied and embedded cognition and recent work on cognitive niche construction. Importantly, epistemic agency and organism-niche coupling are gradual phenomena ranging from weak to strong realizations. The emerging framework will be employed to analyze mind wandering, depressive rumination, and creative cognition as well as their commonalities and differences. Mind wandering and depressive rumination are cases of weak epistemic agency and organism-niche coupling. However, there are also important phenomenological, functional, and neuronal differences. In contrast, creative cognition is a case of strong epistemic agency and organism-niche coupling. By providing a phenomenological and functional analysis of these distinct types of spontaneous cognition, we can gain a better understanding of the importance of organism-niche interaction for the realization of epistemic agency.
Greene, Joshua D
The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
provided by Nietzsche seem relevant to contemporary biologically inspired approaches to cognition found within biosemiotics, as well as the embodied cognition paradigm. Here, I discuss how Nietzsche’s biological conception of our relation to what is, incessantly emphasises a critical approach to our...
EMMELKAMP, PMG; VANOPPEN, P
In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency
Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.
Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…
Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.
This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…
Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain Abstract: Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. Keywords: iron deficiency, anemia, cognitive functions, supplementation
Biessels, Geert Jan
People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. This review explores the relation between caffeine intake, diabetes, cognition and dementia, focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiological studies on caffeine/coffee intake and T2DM risk are reviewed. Next, the
Hong, David; Kent, Jamie Scaletta; Kesler, Shelli
Turner syndrome (TS) is a relatively common neurogenetic disorder characterized by complete or partial monosomy-X in a phenotypic female. TS is associated with a cognitive profile that typically includes intact intellectual function and verbal abilities with relative weaknesses in visual-spatial, executive, and social cognitive domains. In this…
Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean
Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…
communications protocols for satellite and space communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security as well as consumer ...communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security, and civilian as well as consumer telecommunications. Such cognitive...vulnerable against smart jammers that may attempt to learn the cognitive radios own behavior . In response, our second class of proposed algorithms
Bair, Mary Antony
This paper describes a faculty development project in which 12 teacher educators used the Cognitive Coaching model to engage in critical reflections about their teaching. Each identified an aspect of their teaching they wanted to improve and a colleague to serve as coach. Participants engaged in Cognitive Coaching cycles, consisting of planning…
Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor
Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive
Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard
The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...
Knell, S M
Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.
Bak, Thomas H; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J
Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008-2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading. Our results suggest a positive effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition, including in those who acquired their second language in adulthood. © 2014 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Manning, Molly; Franklin, Sue
In cognitive grammar (CG), there is no clear division between language and other cognitive processes; all linguistic form is conceptually meaningful. In this pilot study, a CG approach was applied to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) have cognitive linguistic difficulty not predicted from traditional, componential models of aphasia. Narrative samples from 22 PWA (6 fluent, 16 non-fluent) were compared with samples from 10 participants without aphasia. Between-group differences were tested statistically. PWA had significant difficulty with temporal sequencing, suggesting problems that are not uniquely linguistic. For some, these problems were doubly dissociated with naming, used as a general measure of severity, which indicates that cognitive linguistic difficulties are not linked with more widespread brain damage. Further investigation may lead to a richer account of aphasia in line with contemporary linguistics and cognitive science approaches.
Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru
We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....
Mesulam, M M
Sensory information undergoes extensive associative elaboration and attentional modulation as it becomes incorporated into the texture of cognition. This process occurs along a core synaptic hierarchy which includes the primary sensory, upstream unimodal, downstream unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic zones of the cerebral cortex. Connections from one zone to another are reciprocal and allow higher synaptic levels to exert a feedback (top-down) influence upon earlier levels of processing. Each cortical area provides a nexus for the convergence of afferents and divergence of efferents. The resultant synaptic organization supports parallel as well as serial processing, and allows each sensory event to initiate multiple cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Upstream sectors of unimodal association areas encode basic features of sensation such as colour, motion, form and pitch. More complex contents of sensory experience such as objects, faces, word-forms, spatial locations and sound sequences become encoded within downstream sectors of unimodal areas by groups of coarsely tuned neurons. The highest synaptic levels of sensory-fugal processing are occupied by heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic cortices, collectively known as transmodal areas. The unique role of these areas is to bind multiple unimodal and other transmodal areas into distributed but integrated multimodal representations. Transmodal areas in the midtemporal cortex, Wernicke's area, the hippocampal-entorhinal complex and the posterior parietal cortex provide critical gateways for transforming perception into recognition, word-forms into meaning, scenes and events into experiences, and spatial locations into targets for exploration. All cognitive processes arise from analogous associative transformations of similar sets of sensory inputs. The differences in the resultant cognitive operation are determined by the anatomical and physiological properties of the transmodal node that acts as the critical
Lorist, Monicque M; Tops, Mattie
Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support the general belief that caffeine acts as a stimulant. Studies using ERP measures indicate that caffeine has an effect on attention, which is independent of specific stimulus characteristics. Behavioural effects on response related processes turned out to be mainly related to more peripheral motor processes. Recent insights in adenosine and dopamine physiology and functionality and their relationships with fatigue point to a possible modulation by caffeine of mechanisms involved in the regulation of behavioural energy expenditure.
Cnossen, Fokie; Lanzer, Peter
Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:
Hedhly, Wafa; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has proven its ability in improving the performance of underlay and overlay cognitive radio paradigms. In this paper, the interweave cognitive radio paradigm is studied when the cognitive user employs IGS
Zhang, N.; Li, Y.J.; Fu, Y.; Shao, J.H.; Luo, L.L.; Yang, L.; Shi, F.D.; Liu, Y.
Background: Cognitive dysfunction is frequently seen in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, the features and influencing factors of cognitive impairment of Chinese NMO patients are unclear. Objective: To investigate the patterns of cognitive impairment in Chinese NMO patients, and correlate the
Gabriel G. De la Torre
Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.
Masley, Steven C; Roetzheim, Richard; Clayton, Gwendolyn; Presby, Angela; Sundberg, Kelley; Masley, Lucas V
Rates of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing rapidly. None of the current treatment regimens for Alzheimer's disease are effective in arresting progression. Lifestyle choices may prevent cognitive decline. This study aims to clarify which factors best predict cognitive function. This was a prospective cross-sectional analysis of 799 men and women undergoing health and cognitive testing every 1 to 3 years at an outpatient center. This study utilizes data collected from the first patient visit. Participant ages were 18 to 88 (mean = 50.7) years and the sample was 26.6% female and 73.4% male. Measurements were made of body composition, fasting laboratory and anthropometric measures, strength and aerobic fitness, nutrient and dietary intake, and carotid intimal media thickness (IMT). Each participant was tested with a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Cognitive outcomes were assessed in bivariate analyses using t-tests and correlation coefficients and in multivariable analysis (controlling for age) using multiple linear regression. The initial bivariate analyses showed better Neurocognitive Index (NCI) scores with lower age, greater fitness scores (push-up strength, VO 2 max, and exercise duration during treadmill testing), and lower fasting glucose levels. Better cognitive flexibility scores were also noted with younger age, lower systolic blood pressure, lower body fat, lower carotid IMT scores, greater fitness, and higher alcohol intake. After controlling for age, factors that remained associated with better NCI scores include no tobacco use, lower fasting glucose levels, and better fitness (aerobic and strength). Higher cognitive flexibility scores remained associated with greater aerobic and strength fitness, lower body fat, and higher intake of alcohol. Modifiable biomarkers that impact cognitive performance favorably include greater aerobic fitness and strength, lower blood sugar levels, greater alcohol intake, lower body
Kantak, Kathleen M; Wettstein, Joseph G
The wide-ranging field of cognition enhancing research along with its ethics as it stands today is summarized. In the forefront are potentially novel drugs and non-pharmacological treatments for cognitive impairment across many different psychiatric and neurologic indications. Today's research will bring new drugs to patients tomorrow, and tomorrow's research will bring new molecular targets to clinical development that should be cognitive domain-specific. There is the likelihood that special populations may be better treated and that personalized medicine for cognitive impairment could become a reality. It is conceivable that with the current research effort, cognition enhancing drugs will become available to wide-ranging populations of people with neuropsychiatric illness and to those that are healthy. In some cultures, there is a push in society to be more intelligent or have more cognitive prowess. Thus, the ethical use of cognitive enhancing drugs should be an area of debate and communication. Neuroethics is a growing field and it intends to bring together key contributors such as physicians, disease experts, regulatory officials, and policy makers to discuss how such medicines can or should be made available. Together with this, one has to consider the possibility that no single medicine or technology will have a great impact on cognition and, therefore, combination therapy of drugs plus other approaches like exercise or transcranial direct-current stimulation may be the path forward. This is another area of scientific inquiry and debate, and the results should be fruitful and helpful to patients. The science of cognition is advancing at a rapid rate, and communication of its progress along with the development of rational and ethical policies for use of cognitive enhancers will be beneficial.
Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel
Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were used as keywords for study retrieval: "bilingual AND reserve," "reserve AND neural mechanisms," and "reserve AND multilingualism." Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency, and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.
Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Tranel, Daniel
Objective Cognitive reserve refers to how individuals actively utilize neural resources to cope with neuropathology in order to maintain cognitive functioning. The present review aims to critically examine the literature addressing the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive reserve in order to elucidate whether bilingualism delays the onset of cognitive and behavioral manifestations of dementia. Potential neural mechanisms behind this relationship are discussed. Method Pubmed and PsychINFO databases were searched (through January 2014) for original research articles in English or Spanish languages. The following search strings were employed as keywords for study retrieval: ‘bilingual AND reserve’, ‘reserve AND neural mechanisms’, and ‘reserve AND multilingualism’. Results Growing scientific evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve and delays the onset of Alzheimer's disease symptoms, allowing bilingual individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease to live an independent and richer life for a longer time than their monolingual counterparts. Lifelong bilingualism is related to more efficient use of brain resources that help individuals maintain cognitive functioning in the presence of neuropathology. We propose multiple putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilinguals cope with neuropathology. The roles of immigration status, education, age of onset, proficiency and frequency of language use on the relationship between cognitive reserve and bilingualism are considered. Conclusions Implications of these results for preventive practices and future research are discussed. PMID:24933492
"Cognitive synergy" refers to a dynamic in which multiple cognitive processes, cooperating to control the same cognitive system, assist each other in overcoming bottlenecks encountered during their internal processing. Cognitive synergy has been posited as a key feature of real-world general intelligence, and has been used explicitly in the design of the OpenCog cognitive architecture. Here category theory and related concepts are used to give a formalization of the cognitive synergy concept....
Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Fiebach, Christian J
Recent research yielded the intriguing conclusion that, in healthy adults, higher levels of variability in neuronal processes are beneficial for cognitive functioning. Beneficial effects of variability in neuronal processing can also be inferred from neurocomputational theories of working memory, albeit this holds only for tasks requiring cognitive flexibility. However, cognitive stability, i.e., the ability to maintain a task goal in the face of irrelevant distractors, should suffer under high levels of brain signal variability. To directly test this prediction, we studied both behavioral and brain signal variability during cognitive flexibility (i.e., task switching) and cognitive stability (i.e., distractor inhibition) in a sample of healthy human subjects and developed an efficient and easy-to-implement analysis approach to assess BOLD-signal variability in event-related fMRI task paradigms. Results show a general positive effect of neural variability on task performance as assessed by accuracy measures. However, higher levels of BOLD-signal variability in the left inferior frontal junction area result in reduced error rate costs during task switching and thus facilitate cognitive flexibility. In contrast, variability in the same area has a detrimental effect on cognitive stability, as shown in a negative effect of variability on response time costs during distractor inhibition. This pattern was mirrored at the behavioral level, with higher behavioral variability predicting better task switching but worse distractor inhibition performance. Our data extend previous results on brain signal variability by showing a differential effect of brain signal variability that depends on task context, in line with predictions from computational theories. Recent neuroscientific research showed that the human brain signal is intrinsically variable and suggested that this variability improves performance. Computational models of prefrontal neural networks predict differential
Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether the intensity of cognitive complaints can, in conjunction with other selected variables, predict the general level of cognitive functions evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test. Current reports do not show clear conclusions on this subject. Some data indicate that cognitive complaints have a predictive value for low scores in standardised tasks, suggesting cognitive dysfunction (e.g. mild cognitive impairment. Other data, however, do not support the predictive role of complaints, and show no relationship to exist between the complaints and the results of cognitive tests. Material and methods: The study included 118 adults (58 women and 60 men. We used the MoCA test, a self-report questionnaire assessing the intensity of cognitive complaints (Patient-Reported Outcomes in Cognitive Impairment – PROCOG and Dysexecutive Questionnaire/Self – DEX-S, and selected subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R PL. On the basis of the results from the MoCA test, two separate groups were created, one comprising respondents with lower results, and one – those who obtained scores indicating a normal level of cognitive function. We compared these groups according to the severity of the complaints and the results obtained with the other methods. Logistic regression analysis was performed taking into account the independent variables (gender, age, result in PROCOG, DEX-S, and neurological condition and the dependent variable (dichotomized result in MoCA. Results: Groups with different levels of performance in MoCA differed in regards of some cognitive abilities and the severity of complaints related to semantic memory, anxiety associated with a sense of deficit and loss of skills, but provided similar self-assessments regarding the efficiency of episodic memory, long-term memory, social skills and executive functions. The severity of complaints does not allow