WorldWideScience

Sample records for cognitive ability comparisons

  1. Musicians' edge: A comparison of auditory processing, cognitive abilities and statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati Rao; Sharma, Mridula; Demuth, Katherine; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that musical expertise is associated with enhanced auditory processing and cognitive abilities. Recent research has examined the relationship between musicians' advantage and implicit statistical learning skills. In the present study, we assessed a variety of auditory processing skills, cognitive processing skills, and statistical learning (auditory and visual forms) in age-matched musicians (N = 17) and non-musicians (N = 18). Musicians had significantly better performance than non-musicians on frequency discrimination, and backward digit span. A key finding was that musicians had better auditory, but not visual, statistical learning than non-musicians. Performance on the statistical learning tasks was not correlated with performance on auditory and cognitive measures. Musicians' superior performance on auditory (but not visual) statistical learning suggests that musical expertise is associated with an enhanced ability to detect statistical regularities in auditory stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive abilities of musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Raglio, A

    2011-10-01

    Playing music may involve different cognitive domains, but previous studies of musicians and patients with brain lesions have reported inconsistent associations between music performances and other cognitive functions. Fine musical performance may be associated with high executive and control functions. 21 skilled musicians and 21 age- and education-matched healthy controls with no specific musical competence were compared on attentive, executive, linguistic, perceptual, praxic, memory, and theory of mind functions, using standardized neuropsychological tests. No differences between the musicians and controls, music composers and performers, or between soloists or orchestral players were observed. In musicians, there was no correlation between the test scores and amount of music education. Findings based on these musician groups, carefully evaluated, suggest further exploration of associations of distinct components of music comprehension and expression with different cognitive functions and behavioral aspects.

  3. Primates´ socio-cognitive abilities: What kind of comparisons makes sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Referential gestures are of pivotal importance to the human species. We effortlessly make use of each others´ referential gestures to attend to the same things, and our ability to use these gestures show themselves from very early in life. Almost 20 years ago, James Anderson and colleagues presen...... are testing animals on experimental paradigms that do not take into account what are the challenges of their natural habitat....

  4. Ability to manage everyday technology : a comparison of persons with dementia or mild cognitive impairment and older adults without cognitive impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Almkvist, Ove; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to manage technology is important for performance and participation in everyday activities. This study compares the management of technology in everyday activities among people with mild-stage dementia or MCI with older adults without known cognitive impairment (OA). Method: Persons with mild-stage dementia (n=38), MCI (n=34) and OA (n=45) were observed and interviewed when managing their everyday technology at home by using the Management of Everyday Technology Ass...

  5. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  6. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  7. Mental ability in childhood and cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alan J; Johnson, Wendy; Pattie, Alison; Whiteman, Martha C; Starr, John; Deary, Ian J

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the determinants of cognitive aging is a research priority; however, few studies are able to examine the influence of pre-morbid cognitive ability on later changes in cognitive function. To examine the association between childhood cognitive ability and cognitive change from age 79 to 83 in the presence of other demographic and lifestyle indicators. The participants took a test of mental ability when aged 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. Cognitive ability based on Raven's Matrices, Verbal Fluency, and Logical Memory was assessed at ages 79 and 83. We used both linear regression and latent variable growth curve modeling to compare methods and results. Using linear regression, childhood mental ability was a significant predictor of cognitive change from 79 to 83, accounting for about 1.4% of the variance. Sex, education, social class, smoking status and alcohol intake were non-significant. In contrast, using latent variable growth curve modeling, there was no association between childhood mental ability and cognitive change. Sex (male), years of education, drinking status (positive), and childhood IQ were associated with better cognitive ability at age 79. The difference in results was due to the inability of linear regression to account completely for test-specific variance. Within a group of non-demented older people, greater childhood mental ability was associated with level of cognitive ability at age 79, but not with change in cognitive ability to age 83. To obtain accurate results regarding covariates of change, it is important to use methodology that can appropriately allocate all measured sources of variance. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation...... and ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment...... and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings...

  9. Cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding.

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. Thi...

  10. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Piks

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  11. Height, aging and cognitive abilities across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that as a marker of childhood circumstances, height is correlated with cognitive functioning at older ages. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and about 17,000 respondents from 11 countries, we find that height is positively and significantly associated with cognitive functioning in later life despite controlling for a myriad of possible confounding factors. A 10 cm increase in height is associated with a 0.04 standard deviation increase in a summary cognitive score (mean 0.02, std. dev. 0.77). We find that being born in a country where the infant mortality rate at the time of birth is high has a negative and significant influence on cognitive functioning in later life. A 10% increase in the infant mortality rate is associated with a 0.1 standard deviation decrease in the summary cognitive score. We also find some evidence that height serves as a protective factor against age related deterioration in cognitive functioning. For persons of average stature, age related decreases in cognition scores are 3-5 percentage points smaller if they move up a quartile in the height distribution. Our results also suggest that there is a significant positive association between height and cognitive abilities across countries for this pre-1950 birth cohort of respondents, with correlations ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  13. Information Behavior: A Socio-Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution and sociality. His model provides a basis for explaining the evolution of human socio-cognitive abilities, including ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. Our paper examines the human trait of information behavior as a socio-cognitive ability related to ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper first outlines what is meant by information behavior from various interdisciplinary perspectives. We propose that information behavior is a socio-cognitive ability that is related to and enables other socio-cognitive abilities such as human ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper reviews the current state of evolutionary approaches to information behavior and future directions for this research

  14. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.

    2011-01-01

    The fourth edition of "Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" critically examines the breadth of research on this complex and controversial topic, with the principal aim of helping the reader to understand where sex differences are found--and where they are not. Since the publication of the third edition, there have been many exciting and…

  15. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  17. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J

    2014-05-01

    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  18. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, educat...

  19. Cognitive Ability: Social Correlates and Consequences in Contemporary China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoying; Xie, Yu; Xu, Hongwei

    In this paper, we describe the measurement of cognitive ability in the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), especially for verbal skill, mathematical skill, memory, and quantitative reasoning. The available CFPS cognitive measurements can be useful for studies on the importance of cognitive ability in many substantive domains of interest. Using the CFPS data, we show that measures of cognitive ability are clearly related to key demographic and social characteristics, such as age, gender, education, and hukou status. We also illustrate how cognitive ability influences school performance and deviant behaviors among children, income and political capital among adults, and daily functioning among the elderly.

  20. Sensory and cognitive factors influencing functional ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kimberly M; Edwards, Jerri D; Clay, Olivio J; Wadley, Virginia G; Roenker, Daniel L; Ball, Karlene K

    2005-01-01

    Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults' abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. The present study examined the relative importance of cognitive (specifically, speeded and nonspeeded) and sensory factors in relation to older adults' functional abilities. Functional abilities included measures of mobility and performance of everyday activities. A cross-sectional study design was employed. Five hundred and thirty adults between the ages of 62 and 94 completed measures of sensory, cognitive (including processing speed, attention, memory, intelligence) and functional abilities. Overall, functional performance was most strongly associated with cognitive speed performance, but nonspeeded cognitive and sensory abilities also accounted for significant amounts of variance in functional performance. Age explained a small but statistically significant amount of additional variance in some functional abilities, but no additional variance in self-reported mobility measures. These findings point to the potential impact of multifaceted training programs, targeting both sensory and cognitive abilities for maintaining functional abilities. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    of threat into account. Also, a survey experiment shows that the most cognitively able are more willing to extend civil liberties to extreme groups (Neo Nazis) as compared to non-extreme groups (Far Right/Christian Fundamentalists) than the less cognitively able. In the conclusion we discuss the theoretical...

  2. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  3. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive and Academic Abilities Associated with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparison between Subtypes in a Greek Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Sophia; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Foteini; Padeliadu, Suzanna; Simos, Panagiotis G.

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed cognitive and academic performance of children demonstrating teacher-rated ADHD-related symptoms (Inattention [IA] and/or Hyperactivity/Impulsivity [H/I]) in a representative sample of, largely untreated, Greek elementary school students (N?=?923). A battery of tests assessing short-term memory (STM), sustained attention,…

  5. Midlife Cognitive Ability, Education, and Tooth Loss in Older Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachkati, Kristine Harrsen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possible influence of cognitive ability and education at age 50 or 60 on number of teeth at age 70. Setting: Community-dwelling population in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants: Men and women born in 1914 (N = 302). Measurements: Cognitive ability was assessed using the W...... with oral health, related socioeconomic factors, or other factors remains to be studied....... the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale at age 50 or 60. A global cognitive ability measure was used as a continuous measure and according to tertile. Information on education was gathered using a questionnaire at age 50 or 60. A clinical oral examination took place at age 70, and oral health was measured...

  6. Students’ Cognitive Abilities in Plant Anatomy Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.; Anggraeni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive abilities is fundamental for the students, as it is closely related to higher thinking skills such as the ability to think critically, creatively, and problem solving. This descriptive study aims to investigate the cognitive abilities of biology prospective teachers in the course of Plant Anatomy Practicum based on the cognitive process dimension and dimensions of knowledge the using the framework of Revision of Bloom taxonomy. A number of biology prospective teachers was involved in this study (n=42). The instrument used to collect data for students’ cognitive process mastery in the form of multiple choice with 5 options. Research finding shows that the average student’s cognitive ability is 68.10. The acquisition of knowledge mastery of cognitive ability is still under the criterion of mastery in the course of the Plant Anatomy Practicum (75). Validity and reliability of the instrument (0,71) and (0,81). It is necessary to design lecture programs both in the class and laboratory to develop student’ cognitive abilities.

  7. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Is playing video games related to cognitive abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Redick, Thomas S; McMillan, Brittany D; Hambrick, David Z; Kane, Michael J; Engle, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that experienced video-game players outperformed nonplayers on several cognitive-ability measures. However, in Experiments 1 and 2, when analyses examined the full range of subjects at both the task level and the latent-construct level, nearly all of the relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were near zero. These results cast doubt on recent claims that playing video games leads to enhanced cognitive abilities. Statistical and methodological issues with prior studies of video-game experience are discussed along with recommendations for future studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Sheft

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults.Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63-98 years without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61 and White (n=63 subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities.Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance.For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials.

  10. Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Furnham, Adrian; Cheng, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS). The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11), educational qualifications (at age 33), person...

  12. Cognitive abilities, institutions and software piracy: a note

    OpenAIRE

    Odilova, Shoirahon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to explore the correlation between cognitive abilities and software piracy rates in a sample of more than 100 nations. The results reported in this paper suggest that cognitive capital has significant and negative effect on software piracy rates. Moreover, the effect of democracy on software piracy is stronger in high-IQ societies.

  13. Lingering Cognitive States Shape Fundamental Mnemonic Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Anuya; Duncan, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty. We investigated these models' behavioral implications by assessing how recent familiarity influences different memory-retrieval processes. We found that recent familiarity selectively benefitted associative memory (Experiment 1) and that this effect decayed over seconds (Experiment 2), consistent with the timescale of hippocampal neuromodulation. Thus, we show that basic memory computations can be shaped by a subtle, biologically motivated manipulation.

  14. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Cognitive abilities of asphyxiated survivors beyond 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, A; Ramji, S; Kumari, S; Goyal, A; Chandra, D; Nigam, V R

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the intellectual, psychoeducational and social maturity of a cohort of unimpaired asphyxiated survivors beyond 5 years of age. Case control study on hospital based cohorts on a longitudinal follow up at High Risk and Well Baby Clinics of a teaching hospital. The demographic data of these children was recorded. A detailed physical examination was performed. The tests of cognition included the Stanford Binet and the Raven's Progressive matrices. Academic achievement was evaluated by the Wide range achievement test-Revised (WRAT-R). Assessment of visuo-motor integration was done by the Bender Gestalt Test. The proportion of children having soft neurological signs was determined. Vineland Social Maturity Scale was performed on all children. Fifty-four asphyxiated and 57 matched control children participated in the study. Of the 54 asphyxiated children, 27 were tested at a mean age of 7.2 +/- 1.6 years (Group 1) and 27 were tested at a mean age of 10.9 +/- 1.52 years (Group 2). The asphyxiated children as a group performed in the normal range on tests of cognition and academic achievement but were significantly disadvantaged (p Gestalt Test as compared to controls but the difference was not significant. A significantly higher proportion of asphyxiated children of both the groups showed the presence of soft neurological signs as compared to controls. Approximately 11% of the asphyxiated children performed in the abnormal range in the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. Cognitive abilities of asphyxiated children beyond the age of 5 years are impaired in comparison to controls, emphasizing the need for early detection and referral for special education.

  16. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  17. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alan J.; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity and cognitive ability, confirmed the positive association between levels of leisure activity and cognitive ability (path coefficient = 0.36, p leisure activity level nor change in leisure activity were associated with cognitive change. Although a positive association between leisure activity and cognitive ability was reported—the likely precedents of this are discussed—there was no evidence that a higher level or maintenance of leisure activity was protective against cognitive decline across a 10-year follow-up. PMID:25352824

  18. A life course model of cognitive activities, socioeconomic status, education, reading ability, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Angela L; Gibbons, Laura E; Rentz, Dorene M; Carvalho, Janessa O; Manly, Jennifer; Bennett, David A; Jones, Richard N

    2011-08-01

    To cross-sectionally quantify the contribution of proxy measures of cognitive reserve reflective of the lifespan, such as education, socioeconomic status (SES), reading ability, and cognitive activities, in explaining late-life cognition. Prospective observational cohort study of aging. Retirement communities across the Chicago metropolitan area. Nine hundred fifty-one older adults free of clinical dementia in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (aged 79 ± 8, 74% female). Baseline data on multiple life course factors included early-, mid-, and late-life participation in cognitive activities; early-life and adult SES; education; and reading ability (National Adult Reading Test; NART). Path analysis quantified direct and indirect standardized effects of life course factors on global cognition and five cognitive domains (episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, visuospatial ability, perceptual speed). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, education had the strongest association with global cognition, episodic memory, semantic memory, and visuospatial ability, whereas NART (followed by education) had the strongest association with working memory. Late-life cognitive activities had the strongest association with perceptual speed, followed by education. These cross-sectional findings suggest that education and reading ability are the most-robust proxy measures of cognitive reserve in relation to late-life cognition. Additional research leveraging path analysis is warranted to better understand how these life course factors, reflecting the latent construct of cognitive reserve, affect abnormal cognitive aging. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  20. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  1. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure of Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Lifeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lifeguard service on beaches greatly contributes to reducing the number of accidents in and around the water. The lifeguard can be a person with good motor, but also cognitive skills and abilities. In addition to good swimming skills, lifeguard must be able to quickly detect and recognize the accident, and also to be able to timely and correctly act in case of accident in water, but also at the beach. The goal of this study is to determine the structure of cognitive abilities and skills with the sample of lifeguards that work on Montenegrin beaches. Battery KOG-3 was applied on the sample of 40 lifeguards. The collected and achieved results lead to following conclusion: the subjects have good ability to determine relation between elements of a structure and lower characteristics of that structure; subjects have good ability to assess the efficiency of serial processor; and subjects have good ability to assess efficiency of perceptive processor.

  3. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  4. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

  5. Intellectual disability and cognitive ability in Darier disease: Swedish nation-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, M; Karlsson, R; Larsson, H; Almqvist, C; Magnusson, P K E; Nordlind, K; Landén, M; Lichtenstein, P

    2015-07-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene. Anecdotal reports suggest a relationship between Darier disease and intellectual disabilities, but these reports are based on small clinical samples and limited by absence of control populations. To examine the risk of intellectual disability and subclinical impairments in cognitive ability in Darier disease. We conducted a matched cohort study based on Swedish Population-, Patient- and Conscript Registers. The risk of being diagnosed with intellectual disability was estimated in 770 individuals with Darier disease, compared with matched comparison individuals without Darier disease. Associations were examined with risk ratios from conditional logistic regressions. In addition, we analysed test-based cognitive ability data (i.e. IQ data) from the Swedish conscript examination, for a subset of patients without diagnosed intellectual disability. Individuals with Darier disease had a sixfold increased risk of being diagnosed with intellectual disability (risk ratio 6.2, 95% confidence interval 3.1-12.4). For conscripted individuals with Darier disease but no diagnosed intellectual disability, mean cognitive ability scores were about half a standard deviation lower than for comparison subjects. Darier disease is associated with intellectual disability and subclinical impairments in cognitive ability. The Darier-causing mutations merit further attention in molecular genetic research on intellectual disability and cognitive ability. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Arcara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations, in a group of healthy older people (aged 65–98 years. Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq, and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL, which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.

  7. The Relationship between Cognitive Reserve and Math Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Mondini, Sara; Bisso, Alice; Palmer, Katie; Meneghello, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Reserve is the capital of knowledge and experiences that an individual acquires over their life-span. Cognitive Reserve is strictly related to Brain Reserve, which is the ability of the brain to cope with damage. These two concepts could explain many phenomena such as the modality of onset in dementia or the different degree of impairment in cognitive abilities in aging. The aim of this study is to verify the effect of Cognitive Reserve, as measured by a questionnaire, on a variety of numerical abilities (number comprehension, reading and writing numbers, rules and principles, mental calculations and written calculations), in a group of healthy older people (aged 65-98 years). Sixty older individuals were interviewed with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), and assessed with the Numerical Activities of Daily Living battery (NADL), which included formal tasks on math abilities, an informal test on math, one interview with the participant, and one interview with a relative on the perceived math abilities. We also took into account the years of education, as another proxy for Cognitive Reserve. In the multiple regression analyses on all formal tests, CRIq scores did not significantly predict math performance. Other variables, i.e., years of education and Mini-Mental State Examination score, accounted better for math performance on NADL. Only a subsection of CRIq, CRIq-Working-activity, was found to predict performance on a NADL subtest assessing informal use of math in daily life. These results show that education might better explain abstract math functions in late life than other aspects related to Cognitive Reserve, such as lifestyle or occupational attainment.

  8. Cognitive ability and sentience: which aquatic animals should be protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M

    2007-05-04

    It is of scientific and practical interest to consider the levels of cognitive ability in animals, which animals are sentient, which animals have feelings such as pain and which animals should be protected. A sentient being is one that has some ability to evaluate the actions of others in relation to itself and third parties, to remember some of its own actions and their consequences, to assess risk, to have some feelings and to have some degree of awareness. These abilities can be taken into account when evaluating welfare. There is evidence from some species of fish, cephalopods and decapod crustaceans of substantial perceptual ability, pain and adrenal systems, emotional responses, long- and short-term memory, complex cognition, individual differences, deception, tool use, and social learning. The case for protecting these animals would appear to be substantial. A range of causes of poor welfare in farmed aquatic animals is summarised.

  9. Cognitive abilities in early adolescence: an outlook from positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Contini de González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to refer to social abilities in early adolescence. Personal success and social success seem to be more related to interpersonal abilities than with those cognitive abilities expressed in synthetic measures of IQ. Social abilities are also one of the major sources of self esteem and personal well-being. The concepts of social intelligence, social abilities, social competence, assertiveness and adaptative behaviour are differentiated. Social abilities are characterized. The different types of social abilities founded are described and the theories which explain those types of abilities are referred. Possible interaction between social abilities, personality and psychosocial adjustment are analyzed. Positive Psychology is defined. It is explained why the Social Abilities are part of child and adolescent’s psychological capital. It is also treated why is important to study those aspects recently mentioned in early adolescence. Opportune diagnosis of those types of adolescent resources –or their dysfunctions like aggressiveness or isolation- would allow tracing a lay out intervention programs which promote protective abilities for its development which also would help the permanence in the scholar system as a way of social inclusion. Finally, it is explained how social abilities work as a salugenic resource in early adolescence within the frame of Positive Psychology. 

  10. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan John; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive...... abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated...... with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity...

  11. The factorial structure of cognitive abilities in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Azevedo Martins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown contradictory evidence regarding cognitive abilities differentiation and organization in childhood. Cattell's investment theory postulated that during the early stages of life, the individual begins with a single and general ability (fluid intelligence, in which the relevance tends to decrease during adolescence, due to the appearance of differentiated abilities developed through the process of socialization and associated with the motivations, interests and experiences. This study analyses whether the factorial structure of the results in a battery of tests supports the existence of a general factor or, instead, a structure formed by different specific factors. A sample of 472 Portuguese children, aged between 4 and 10 years old, completed the Cognitive Competencies Scale for Children (ECCOs 4/10, and four subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R. The adjustment of some models that reflect different psychometric theories of intelligence was tested by several confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. The implications of the tested models in the organization of cognitive abilities for cognitive development and school learning in childhood are also discussed.

  12. Correlation of Cognitive Abilities Level, Age and Ranks in Judo

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    Kraček Stanislav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to ascertain the correlation between selected cognitive abilities, age and performance of judokas according to ranking. The study group consisted of judokas in the age group 18 ± 2.4 years. The Stroop Color-Word Test - Victoria Version (VST was the instrument used to determine the level of cognitive abilities. The data obtained were measured by the Pearson Correlation (r correlation test. The results of the study show an associative relationship of indirect correlation (p < 0.01 between age and all of the three categories of the Stroop test. This is an indirect correlation, so the higher the age, the lower the time (better performance of the probands in the Stroop test. There was no statistically significant correlation between performance in the categories of the Stroop test and rankings. The outcomes show that the level of selected cognitive abilities depends on age, but the level of the selected cognitive abilities does not affect the ranking of the judokas.

  13. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  14. Cognitive abilities relate to self-reported hearing disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;

  15. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  16. Efficient E-Learning by Dint of Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaph, Amudha; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to portray the effective ways of utilizing cognitive abilities for efficient e-learning. In the present scenario, globalization and advancements in technology have driven changes in the sphere of social, technological, economic environment and political landscapes at a rapid rate. E-learning is, one among the new…

  17. [High ability children and their differential cognitive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S

    2008-01-01

    From the neuroconstructivist point of view, cognitive development is understood as a process of successive and continuous reorganization whose changing mechanisms and differential outcomes (typical and atypical) must be studied. High intellectual abilities are one of their differential manifestations but its concept and nature is confused conditioning the validity of its identification and the efficacy of the interventional programs. To propose a clarifying definition of the nature of high intellectual abilities and their manifestations: giftedness, talent and genious, as well as their cognitive functioning and neurological correlates. A qualitative task analysis is applied to 41 participants with intellectual profiles corresponding to: giftedness, talent and typical intelligence, previously obtained. Results show differences on the cognitive results, not only referred to the quantity of informations produced but in the data organization more complex and hard interrelated among the gifted participants. It must be a differential process of resolution adjusted to each one of the profiles studied.

  18. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-08-15

    Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m(-2)) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m(-2)) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (-0.32, 95% confidence interval -0.60,-0.05; -0.45, -0.75,-0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (-0.84, -1.56,-0.11; -1.07,-1.88,-0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (-0.62,-1.14,-0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in early childhood, poses a risk for adiposity in adulthood, as characterized

  19. Selected Cognitive Abilities in Elite Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of talent in soccer is critical to various programs. Although many research findings have been presented, there have been only a few attempts to assess their validity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between talent and achievement variables in the Vienna Test System. The participants were 91 Czech soccer players, representing four youth soccer teams, who were born in the year 2000. These boys were divided into two groups according to their coaches’ assessments using a TALENT questionnaire. A two-factor model (component 1: “kinetic finesse”; component 2: “mental strength” was designed to interpret the responses of the coaches on the questionnaire. The Vienna Test System was used to determine the level of players’ cognitive abilities. In total, the subjects performed seven tests in the following order: Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM, a reaction test (RT, a determination test (DT, a visual pursuit test (LVT, a Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CORSI, a time/movement anticipation test (ZBA, and a peripheral perception test (PP. To analyze the relationship between talent and achievement variables within the Vienna Test System, correlation analyses were performed. The results revealed that the talented group attained significantly better results on only 1 of the 16 variables, which was ZBA2: movement anticipation - deviation of movement median (r = .217, p = .019. A comparison of the two talent components showed that component 1 (“kinetic finesse” was a more significant factor than component 2 (“mental strength”. Although we observed statistically significant correlations, their actual significance remains questionable; thus, further research is required.

  20. Associations of suicidality with cognitive ability and cognitive insight in outpatients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Jennifer; Choi, Jennifer; Kangas, Julie L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Harvey, Philip D; Depp, Colin A

    2018-02-01

    Previous literature suggests that better cognitive ability and insight are associated with greater lifetime risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia, counter to the direction of association in the general population. However, the conjoint association between distinct cognitive domains, insight, and suicidality has not been assessed. In a cross-sectional study, 162 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed cognitive testing via the MATRICS battery, symptom and cognitive insight assessments, along with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale. We then contrasted participants based on history of suicidality by cognitive domains and insight measures and conducted multivariate analyses. Although a history of any passive ideation was not associated with cognitive ability or insight, verbal learning was positively associated with a greater history of suicidal attempt and prior ideation with a plan and intent. Higher cognitive insight, and the self-reflectiveness subscale insight, was also associated with history of passive or active suicidal ideation. Cognitive insight and cognitive ability were independent from each other, and there were no moderating influences of insight on the effect of cognitive ability on suicide related history. Exploratory analyses revealed that history of planned attempts were associated with greater verbal learning, whereas histories of aborted attempts were associated with poorer reasoning and problem-solving. Although cross-sectional and retrospective, this study provides support that greater cognitive ability, specifically verbal learning, along with self-reflectiveness, may confer elevated risk for more severe suicidal ideation and behavior in an independent fashion. Interestingly, poorer problem-solving was associated with aborted suicide attempts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Childhood cognitive ability: relationship to gestational diabetes mellitus in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in mothers is associated with poorer cognitive ability in their offspring in India. During 1997 to 1998 maternal GDM status was assessed by OGTT at 30 +/- 2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007 and 2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32 offspring of GDM mothers [ODM]; 483 offspring of non-GDM mothers [controls]) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Compared with controls, ODM scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p = 0.008), reasoning (p = 0.02), verbal ability (p = 0.01), and attention and concentration (p = 0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child's age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity and BMI, and the parent's socioeconomic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (beta = 0.4 SD (95% CI 0.01-0.75); p = 0.04) and verbal ability (beta = 0.5 SD (95% CI 0.09-0.83); p = 0.02), and not with other test scores. In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM.

  2. Cognitive reserve and mortality in dementia : the role of cognition, functional ability and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M I; Deeg, D J; Penninx, B W; Schmand, B; Jonker, C; Bouter, L M; van Tilburg, W

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether dementia patients with greater cognitive reserve had increased mortality rates, and whether this association was different across strata of cognition, functional ability and depression. METHODS: In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly, 261

  3. Cognitive reserve and mortality in dementia: the role of cognition, functional ability and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M. I.; Deeg, D. J.; Penninx, B. W.; Schmand, B.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L. M.; van Tilburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined whether dementia patients with greater cognitive reserve had increased mortality rates, and whether this association was different across strata of cognition, functional ability and depression. In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly, 261 non-institutionalized

  4. Cognitive reserve and mortality in dementia: the role of cognition, functional ability and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M.I.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L.M.; van Tilburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This study examined whether dementia patients with greater cognitive reserve had increased mortality rates, and whether this association was different across strata of cognition, functional ability and depression. Methods. In the community-based Amsterdam Study of the Elderly, 261

  5. Anchoring and Overconfidence: The Influence of Culture and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerwonka Monika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring and overconfidence are some of the best-known biases in psychology and behavioral finance literature. While a number of studies have investigated the evidence of these biases and explored the motives and human factors that contribute to the one’s susceptibility to the effects, little is known about the cultural factors behind these heuristic biases. This paper aims to fill the research gap and shows the differences in proneness to the anchoring effect and overconfidence in two samples of students from Poland and India. The purpose of the study is twofold: to analyze susceptibility to behavioral effects relative to cultural background; and to consider the subjects’ cognitive abilities as a potential factor in their exposure to behavioral biases and confirm that subjects with higher cognitive skills, measured by the cognitive reflection test (CRT display less susceptibility to the above heuristic biases.

  6. Cognitive abilities in children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Cohen Imach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies of cognitive abilities were conducted on a group of children at a context of poverty, in reason of learning about the quality of such capabilities, and in direct relationship to low school performance and subsequent risk of academic underachievement. Fifty three 4th year EGB-2 (Elementary School children of both sexes participated. They attend a suburban school outside the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Tests of Analogies and Building with Cubes of Wechsler ́s Intelligence Scale III (WISCIII were used in the process. Additionally, a register protocol was prepared by the research team. Outcomes were articulated with a demographic poll inquiring on the social-economic context of the children. Results reveal a proportion of 18.9 % of the children showing below standard records in cognitive abilities related to the aptitude in forming verbal concepts, and of 13.2 % in non- verbal concepts. Verbal abilities refer to the faculty of classifying and categorizing, for which the subject needs to organize, abstract and find relationship between facts or ideas and the comprehension of oral/audio assignments. Non- verbal abilities submit to the aptitude of making processes of analysis- synthesis and applying non- verbal reasoning to spatial relationships. This group of children was selected to receive – in second stage- training in these abilities through the Instrumental Enrichment Program. 

  7. Job applicants’ attitudes towards cognitive ability and personality testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Visser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Growing research has shown that not only test validity considerations but also the test-taking attitudes of job applicants are important in the choice of selection instruments as these can contribute to test performance and the perceived fairness of the selection process. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to determine the test-taking attitudes of a diverse group of job applicants towards personality and cognitive ability tests administered conjointly online as part of employee selection in a financial services company in South Africa. Motivation for the study: If users understand how job applicants view specific test types, they will know which assessments are perceived more negatively and how this situation can potentially be rectified. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental and cross-sectional survey design was used. An adapted version of the Test Attitude Survey was used to determine job applicants’ attitudes towards tests administered online as part of an employee selection process. The sample consisted of a group of job applicants (N = 160 who were diverse in terms of ethnicity and age and the educational level applicable for sales and supervisory positions. Main findings: On average, the job applicants responded equally positively to the cognitive ability and personality tests. The African job applicants had a statistically significantly more positive attitude towards the tests than the other groups, and candidates applying for the sales position viewed the cognitive ability tests significantly less positively than the personality test. Practical and managerial implications: The choice of selection tests used in combination as well as the testing conditions that are applicable should be considered carefully as they are the factors that can potentially influence the test-taking motivation and general test-taking attitudes of job applicants. Contribution: This study consolidated the

  8. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  9. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  10. Convergence of complex cognitive abilities in cetaceans and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2002-01-01

    What examples of convergence in higher-level complex cognitive characteristics exist in the animal kingdom? In this paper I will provide evidence that convergent intelligence has occurred in two distantly related mammalian taxa. One of these is the order Cetacea (dolphins, whales and porpoises) and the other is our own order Primates, and in particular the suborder anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans). Despite a deep evolutionary divergence, adaptation to physically dissimilar environments, and very different neuroanatomical organization, some primates and cetaceans show striking convergence in social behavior, artificial 'language' comprehension, and self-recognition ability. Taken together, these findings have important implications for understanding the generality and specificity of those processes that underlie cognition in different species and the nature of the evolution of intelligence. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Altitude’s effects on complex cognitive ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico R. León

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal prejudice on the intelectual inferiority of Andean populations has been examined in scientific fora of Peru and abroad during the 19th and 20th centuries, but has not been systematically addressed by Peruvian psychology. Predictions were derived in this study from observations on cognitive effects of poor oxigenation, several evolutionary theories on cold and intelligence, and the theory of intelectualimpacts of UVB radiation and vitamin D3. The hypotheses were evaluated at both sides of the Andean mountains within a latitudinal segment (8º to 10º S by analyzing mathematics and reading comprehension scores of children in 2nd grade of primary instruction from the 2 011 Control Sample of the Ministry of Education (N = 25 058. The findings strongly suggest that, if deficits in complex cognitive ability occur, they only affect persons not adapted to altitude.

  12. Cognitive ability at kindergarten entry and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Russ, Shirley A; Nelson, Bergen B; Olson, Lynn M; Halfon, Neal

    2015-02-01

    To examine how gradients in socioeconomic status (SES) impact US children's reading and math ability at kindergarten entry and determine the contributions of family background, health, home learning, parenting, and early education factors to those gradients. Analysis of 6600 children with cognitive assessments at kindergarten entry from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study. A composite SES measure based on parent's occupation, education, and income was divided into quintiles. Wald F tests assessed bivariate associations between SES and child's cognitive ability and candidate explanatory variables. A decomposition methodology examined mediators of early cognitive gradients. Average reading percentile rankings increased from 34 to 67 across SES quintiles and math from 33 to 70. Children in lower SES quintiles had younger mothers, less frequent parent reading, less home computer use (27%-84%), and fewer books at home (26-114). Parent's supportive interactions, expectations for their child to earn a college degree (57%-96%), and child's preschool attendance (64%-89%) increased across quintiles. Candidate explanatory factors explained just over half the gradients, with family background factors explaining 8% to 13%, health factors 4% to 6%, home learning environment 18%, parenting style/beliefs 14% to 15%, and early education 6% to 7% of the gaps between the lowest versus highest quintiles in reading and math. Steep social gradients in cognitive outcomes at kindergarten are due to many factors. Findings suggest policies targeting levels of socioeconomic inequality and a range of early childhood interventions are needed to address these disparities. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Effect of Different Starvation Levels on Cognitive Ability in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Zhi, Guoguo; Yu, Yi; Cai, Lingyu; Li, Peng; Zhang, Danhua; Bao, Shuting; Hu, Wenlong; Shen, Haiyan; Song, Fujuan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of different starvation levels on cognitive ability in mice. Method: Mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, dieting group A, dieting group B, dieting group C. The mice of normal group were given normal feeding amount, the rest of groups were given 3/4 of normal feeding amount, 2/4 of normal feeding amount and 1/4 of normal feeding amount. After feeding mice four days, the weight was observed and T-maze experiment, Morris water maze test, open field test and Serum Catalase activity were detected. Result: Compared with the normal group, the correct rate of the intervention group in the T-maze experiment was decreased and dieting group A> dieting group B> dieting group C. In the Morris water maze test, Compared with the normal group, the correct rate of the intervention group was increased. Among these three intervention groups, dieting group A had the highest correct rate and the difference of dieting group B and dieting group C were similar. In the open field test, Compared with the normal group, the exploration rate of the surrounding environment in the intervention group was increased. In the Serum Catalase test, Compared with the normal group, the activities of serum peroxidase in the intervention groups were decreased and dieting group A> dieting group B> dieting group C. Conclusion: A certain level of starvation could affect the cognitive ability of mice. In a certain range, the level of starvation is inversely proportional to cognitive ability in mice.

  14. The relationship between cognitive ability and demographic factors in late midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze associations between sex, age, education, and social class and cognitive ability in late midlife and to evaluate differences in cognitive ability among the three Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) cohorts....

  15. Genetic copy number variation and general cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K MacLeod

    Full Text Available Differences in genomic structure between individuals are ubiquitous features of human genetic variation. Specific copy number variants (CNVs have been associated with susceptibility to numerous complex psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, autism-spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. These disorders often display co-morbidity with low intelligence. Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications are associated with these disorders, so it has been suggested that these deletions or duplications may be associated with differences in intelligence. Here we investigate associations between large (≥500kb, rare (<1% population frequency CNVs and both fluid and crystallized intelligence in community-dwelling older people. We observe no significant associations between intelligence and total CNV load. Examining individual CNV regions previously implicated in neuropsychological disorders, we find suggestive evidence that CNV regions around SHANK3 are associated with fluid intelligence as derived from a battery of cognitive tests. This is the first study to examine the effects of rare CNVs as called by multiple algorithms on cognition in a large non-clinical sample, and finds no effects of such variants on general cognitive ability.

  16. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial) or near the focus of attention (central). We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities. PMID:26258545

  17. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Kreitz

    Full Text Available People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial or near the focus of attention (central. We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities.

  18. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  19. Gender, Culture, and Sex-Typed Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, David

    2012-01-01

    Although gender differences in cognitive abilities are frequently reported, the magnitude of these differences and whether they hold practical significance in the educational outcomes of boys and girls is highly debated. Furthermore, when gender gaps in reading, mathematics and science literacy are reported they are often attributed to innate, biological differences rather than social and cultural factors. Cross-cultural evidence may contribute to this debate, and this study reports national gender differences in reading, mathematics and science literacy from 65 nations participating in the 2009 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Consistently across all nations, girls outperform boys in reading literacy, d = −.44. Boys outperform girls in mathematics in the USA, d = .22 and across OECD nations, d = .13. For science literacy, while the USA showed the largest gender difference across all OECD nations, d = .14, gender differences across OECD nations were non-significant, and a small female advantage was found for non-OECD nations, d = −.09. Across all three domains, these differences were more pronounced at both tails of the distribution for low- and high-achievers. Considerable cross-cultural variability was also observed, and national gender differences were correlated with gender equity measures, economic prosperity, and Hofstede’s cultural dimension of power distance. Educational and societal implications of such gender gaps are addressed, as well as the mechanisms by which gender differences in cognitive abilities are culturally mediated. PMID:22808072

  20. Neurophysiological measures of working memory and individual differences in cognitive ability and cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevins, A; Smith, M E

    2000-09-01

    The capacity to deliberately control attention in order to hold and manipulate information in working memory is critical to higher cognitive functions. This suggests that between-subject differences in general cognitive ability might be related to observable differences in the activity of brain systems that support working memory and attention control. To test this notion, electroencephalograms were recorded from 80 healthy young adults during spatial working memory tasks. Measures of task-related neurophysiological and behavioral variables were derived from these data and compared to scores on a test battery commonly used to assess general cognitive ability (the WAIS-R). Subjects who scored high on the psychometric test also tended to respond faster in the experimental tasks without any loss of accuracy. The amplitude of the late positive component of the event-related potential was larger in high-ability subjects, and the frontal midline theta component of the EEG signal was also selectively enhanced in this group under conditions of sustained performance and high working memory load. These results suggest that subjects who scored high on the WAIS-R were better able to focus and sustain attention to task performance. Changes in the EEG alpha rhythm in response to manipulations of task practice and load were also examined and compared between frontal and parietal regions. The results indicated that high-ability subjects developed strategies that made relatively greater use of parietal regions, whereas low-ability subjects relied more exclusively on frontal regions. Other analyses indicated that hemispheric asymmetries in alpha band measures distinguish between individuals with relatively high verbal aptitude and those with relatively high nonverbal aptitude. In particular, subjects with a verbal cognitive style tended to make greater use of the left parietal region during task performance, and subjects with a nonverbal style tended to make greater use of the right

  1. Pathways of Intergenerational Transmission of Advantages during Adolescence: Social Background, Cognitive Ability, and Educational Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wiebke; Schunck, Reinhard; Diewald, Martin; Johnson, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability. By integrating two strands of research, a clearer picture of the pathways linking the family of origin, cognitive ability, and early educational outcomes can be reached. Using the population-based TwinLife study in Germany, we investigated multidimensional pathways linking parental socioeconomic position to their children's cognitive ability and academic track attendance in the secondary school. The sample included twins (N = 4008), respectively ages 11 and 17, and siblings (N = 801). We observed strong genetic influences on cognitive ability, whereas shared environmental influences were much more important for academic tracking. In multilevel analyses, separate dimensions of socioeconomic resources influenced child cognitive ability, controlling parental cognitive ability. Controlling adolescent cognitive ability and parental cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic resources also directly affected track attendance. This indicated that it is crucial to investigate the intertwined influences on educational outcomes in adolescence of both cognitive ability and the characteristics of the family of origin.

  2. Cognitive Style and EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Yousefi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract     The current study aimed to investigate whether, and to what extent, there is a relationship between field independence / dependence cognitive styles and Iranian EFL learners' listening comprehension ability. For this purpose, a sample population of 131 Subjects was randomly selected.  A battery of tests including: a the Group Embedded Figures Test (1971, b the TOFEL listening test (1995, c the listening task preference questionnaire, and d the Michigan ECPE test (1996 were administered. The data analysis showed that the correlation between the TOFEL and the GEFT scores for FD learners (both males and females was significant(r =0.70, and higher scores on the GEFT led to an increase in the FD learners TOFEL scores. Conducting one-way and two-way ANOVAs, it was suggested that while there was a relationship between cognitive style and listening comprehension (F= 18.02 and also no relationship between sex and listening comprehension (F=0.267, the interactional effect was significant (f = 7.03. Therefore, sex can be regarded as a source of performance difference in listening comprehension but not by itself and it seems that the interaction of sex and cognitive style can have a stronger effect on this skill. Regarding the learners’ preference toward the different parts of the TOEFL listening section, most  learners favored the short conversations, informal assessment, and one item/one conversation, however, the FI ones did better on the longer conversations of the second and the third parts of the TOEFL listening test. Keywords: Cognitive style, Field dependence, Field independence, Listening comprehension.

  3. An Assessment of Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive Ability in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Manh NGUYEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on cognitive performance of community - dwelling elderly in Vinh city, Vietnam. It is a controlled trial. One hundred subjected were recruited. Subjects were divided randomly into two groups. Tai Chi group was assigned 6 - months Tai Chi training. Control group was instructed to maintain their routine daily activities. Participants in Tai Chi group reported significant improvement cognitive ability, part A with F(1, 68 = 75.36, p < .001, and in part B with F(1, 68= 172.83, p < .001 in comparison with Control group. Tai Chi is beneficial to improve cognitive performance of the elderly.

  4. Cognitive, adaptive, and psychosocial differences between high ability youth with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doobay, Alissa F; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Ali, Saba R; Assouline, Susan G

    2014-08-01

    Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is thriving; however, scant empirical research has investigated how ASD manifests in high ability youth. Further research is necessary to accurately differentiate high ability students with ASD from those without the disorder, and thus decrease the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of the present study is to provide an empirical account of the intellectual, adaptive, and psychosocial functioning of high ability youth with and without ASD utilizing a group study design. Forty youth with high cognitive ability and ASD and a control group of 41 youth with high cognitive ability and no psychological diagnosis were included in the study. In comparison to the control group, the ASD group showed poorer functioning on measures of processing speed, adaptive skills, and broad psychological functioning, as perceived by parents and teachers. These findings have significant implications for diagnosing ASD among those with high ability, and the development of related psychological and educational interventions to address talent domains and areas of concern.

  5. Cognitive Styles in Mood Disorders: Discriminative Ability of Unipolar and Bipolar Cognitive Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Stange, Jonathan P; Goldstein, Kim E; Black, Chelsea L; Molz, Ashleigh R; Hamlat, Elissa J; Black, Shimrit K; Boccia, Angelo S; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-01

    Although previous research has identified cognitive styles that distinguish individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), and individuals without mood disorders from one another, findings have been inconsistent. The current study included 381 participants classified into a BD group, a MDD group, and a no mood disorder group. To differentiate between these groups, this study evaluated cognitive styles with a battery of traditional and more recently-developed measures. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to determine the discriminate ability of variables with significant between group differences. Results supported that BD and MDD may be characterized by distinct cognitive styles. Given work showing that interventions for MDD may not be effective at treating BD, it is important to directly compare individuals with these disorders. By clarifying the overlapping and divergent cognitive styles characterizing BD and MDD, research can not only improve diagnostic validity, but also provide more efficacious and effective interventions.

  6. Metaphorically speaking: cognitive abilities and the production of figurative language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Figurative language is one of the most common expressions of creative behavior in everyday life. However, the cognitive mechanisms behind figures of speech such as metaphors remain largely unexplained. Recent evidence suggests that fluid and executive abilities are important to the generation of conventional and creative metaphors. The present study investigated whether several factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence contribute to generating these different types of metaphors. Specifically, the roles of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and broad retrieval ability (Gr) were explored. Participants completed a series of intelligence tests and were asked to produce conventional and creative metaphors. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the contribution of the different factors of intelligence to metaphor production. For creative metaphor, there were large effects of Gf (β = .45) and Gr (β = .52); for conventional metaphor, there was a moderate effect of Gc (β = .30). Creative and conventional metaphors thus appear to be anchored in different patterns of abilities: Creative metaphors rely more on executive processes, whereas conventional metaphors primarily draw from acquired vocabulary knowledge.

  7. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links with Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of…

  8. Cognitive abilities of Emirati and German engineering university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Baumeister, Antonia E E; Gröper, Anne

    2014-03-01

    According to human capital theory, individual competences and personality attributes are relevant for individual productivity and income. Within human capital, intelligence is crucial. To study engineering and work successfully as an engineer, high cognitive abilities are necessary, especially for work in research and development. In a study of 30 German and 30 Emirati engineering students (mean age: 22 years), both groups were tested with mathematical and figural intelligence scales (CogAT). German engineering students achieved a mean IQ of 116, and Emirati students 104 (in converted UK norms). In both groups male students achieved better results than females (2 to 4 IQ point difference). The results are compared with those from PISA and TIMSS. The possible causes of these results, their consequences and strategies for improvement are discussed.

  9. Toward a Unified Theory of the Relationship between Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shani D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a theory that trainees have varying ability levels across different factors of cognitive ability, and that these abilities are used in varying levels by different training methods. The paper reviews characteristics of training methods and matches these characteristics to different factors of cognitive ability. The paper proposes…

  10. Retinal vascular fractal dimension, childhood IQ, and cognitive ability in old age: the Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adele M; MacGillivray, Thomas J; Henderson, Ross D; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing.

  11. Environmental enrichment promotes neural plasticity and cognitive ability in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Moberg, Olav; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom Ole; Jensen, Knut Helge; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2013-09-22

    Different kinds of experience during early life can play a significant role in the development of an animal's behavioural phenotype. In natural contexts, this influences behaviours from anti-predator responses to navigation abilities. By contrast, for animals reared in captive environments, the homogeneous nature of their experience tends to reduce behavioural flexibility. Studies with cage-reared rodents indicate that captivity often compromises neural development and neural plasticity. Such neural and behavioural deficits can be problematic if captive-bred animals are being reared with the intention of releasing them as part of a conservation strategy. Over the last decade, there has been growing interest in the use of environmental enrichment to promote behavioural flexibility in animals that are bred for release. Here, we describe the positive effects of environmental enrichment on neural plasticity and cognition in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Exposing fish to enriched conditions upregulated the forebrain expression of NeuroD1 mRNA and improved learning ability assessed in a spatial task. The addition of enrichment to the captive environment thus promotes neural and behavioural changes that are likely to promote behavioural flexibility and improve post-release survival.

  12. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing tha...

  13. Cognitive abilities, monitoring, and control explain individual differences in heuristics and biases

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Anthony Jackson; Sabina Kleitman; Pauline Howie; Lazar Stankov

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgements, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing tha...

  14. Loss aversion, social comparison and physical abilities at younge age

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Yasuhiro; Sato, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between competitive behavior and social comparison where in this paper competitive behavior is measured by physical ability performance. In particular, by incorporating social comparison into prospect theory, we directly estimate the degree of loss aversion with social comparison, a concept we term `ALJ' (Avoiding Loss relative to the Joneses). Our main findings are as follows: (i) the estimated value function is refracted at another's gain and the average estimate...

  15. Cognitive Callisthenics: Do FPS computer games enhance the player’s cognitive abilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, Paul

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that educational video games are a valuable resource for learning. Action video games however, are often viewed as mindless entertainment, but research completed recently show other benefits are gained from video games, such as the enhancement of peripheral vision (University of Rochester, 2003). It has long been known that puzzle games such as Tetris enhance the player’s cognitive abilities. Okagaki and Frensch (1994) used Tetris in their research. They found that spati...

  16. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  17. Audiospatial cognitive ability of visually impaired athletes in static and dynamic spatial cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kotomi; Tokui, Akane

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] This study compares the orientation sense of sighted and visually impaired participants to provide basic research on the audiospatial cognitive ability of visually impaired athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included nine blind athletes and seven sighted subjects wearing eyeshades during static and dynamic tasks. In the static spatial cognitive task, a coin was dropped towards the right, center, or left of the subject, and the task consisted of identifying the location of the coin. In the dynamic spatial cognitive task, performed with the participant walking, an auditory stimulus was provided. In both spatial cognitive tasks, the independent variables consisted of the "blind athlete" and "sight" groups, as well as three directions; a one-way analysis of variance was performed with the mean error angle as a dependent variable using IBM SPSS Statistics. [Results] The error angles found in the rightward and leftward directions during the static task showed no significant differences, but in the dynamic task, the sight group showed a markedly greater error in the left side, indicating a right-and-left asymmetry in spatial cognition. [Conclusion] Our results suggest a highly developed skill of instantly determining the spatial orientation of auditory information in dynamic situations in blind athletes.

  18. The relationship between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability in primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard; Hurry, Jane; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-08-12

    Three relationships between learning mathematics and general cognitive ability have been hypothesized: The educational hypothesis that learning mathematics develops general cognitive skills, the psychometric hypothesis that differences in general cognitive ability cause differences in mathematical attainment, and the reciprocal influence hypothesis that developments in mathematical ability and general cognitive ability influence each other. These hypotheses are assessed with a sample of 948 children from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed at 7, 9, and 10 years on mathematics, English, and general cognitive ability. A cross-lagged path analysis with mathematics and general cognitive ability measures supports the reciprocal influence hypothesis between 7 and 9 and between 9 and 10. A second analysis including English assessments only provides evidence of a reciprocal relationship between 7 and 9. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? The correlations between mathematical attainment, literacy, and measures of general cognitive skills are well established. The role of literacy in developing general cognitive skills is emerging. What the present study adds? Mathematics contributes to the development of general cognitive skills. General cognitive ability contributes to mathematical development between 7 and 10. These findings support the hypothesis of reciprocal influence between mathematics and general cognitive ability, at least between 7 and 9. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Cognitive abilities of functionally illiterate persons relevant to ICT use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, S. van; Cremers, A.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the proficiency levels of functionally illiterate persons regarding a number of cognitive skills (language processing skills (reading, writing, listening), visual organizational and visual memory skills, mental spatial orientation, speed of cognitive processing,

  20. Individual Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities and Team Performance in Dynamic Task Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    The specific goal of this research was to examine the role of individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities on individual and team performance in a real-time dynamic team-task environment...

  1. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  2. Are Fit Indices Biased in Favor of Bi-Factor Models in Cognitive Ability Research?: A Comparison of Fit in Correlated Factors, Higher-Order, and Bi-Factor Models via Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant B. Morgan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-factor confirmatory factor models have been influential in research on cognitive abilities because they often better fit the data than correlated factors and higher-order models. They also instantiate a perspective that differs from that offered by other models. Motivated by previous work that hypothesized an inherent statistical bias of fit indices favoring the bi-factor model, we compared the fit of correlated factors, higher-order, and bi-factor models via Monte Carlo methods. When data were sampled from a true bi-factor structure, each of the approximate fit indices was more likely than not to identify the bi-factor solution as the best fitting. When samples were selected from a true multiple correlated factors structure, approximate fit indices were more likely overall to identify the correlated factors solution as the best fitting. In contrast, when samples were generated from a true higher-order structure, approximate fit indices tended to identify the bi-factor solution as best fitting. There was extensive overlap of fit values across the models regardless of true structure. Although one model may fit a given dataset best relative to the other models, each of the models tended to fit the data well in absolute terms. Given this variability, models must also be judged on substantive and conceptual grounds.

  3. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-05-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h(2) = .00 -.63) and shared (c(2) = .15-.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences.

  4. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  5. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Cognitive Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Nikolai E.; Gonzalez E. John

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of cognitive consistency was conducted across two cultural groups. Forty-five American subjects in Southern California and 45 subjects in Northern Greece responded to a questionnaire written in their native language and which contained three classical paradigms for balance theory. It was hypothesized that significant differences in…

  6. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  7. Cognitive ability rivals the effect of political sophistication on ideological voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    are consistent with the effect of cognitive ability being partly mediated by political sophistication. Much of the effect of cognitive ability remains however and is not explained by differences in education or Openness to experience either. The implications of these results for democratic theory are discussed.......This article examines the impact of cognitive ability on ideological voting. We find, using a US sample and a Danish sample, that the effect of cognitive ability rivals the effect of the traditionally strongest predicter of ideological voting political sophistication. Furthermore, the results...

  8. A bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik L; Christensen, Kaare

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957-84), the Da......Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957...... with epilepsy before conscription, and they had about 0.25 standard deviation (SD) lower cognitive scores than men without epilepsy. The largest difference in cognition was seen for those with the largest number of hospital contacts. A total of 22 364 (1.9%) men developed epilepsy, and cognitive ability......: The cognitive impairment seen in adults with epilepsy seems to reflect combined effects of epileptic processes and lower premorbid cognitive ability....

  9. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship between motor and cognitive development has already been proven in young children. However, in relation to the academic achievement the association between motor and cognitive performance still not well established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the levels of motor and ...

  10. Processing of space, time, and number contributes to mathematical abilities above and beyond domain-general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether processing of number, space, and time contributes to mathematical abilities beyond previously known domain-general cognitive abilities in a sample of 8- to 10-year-old children (N=133). Multiple regression analyses revealed that executive functions and general intelligence predicted all aspects of mathematics and overall mathematical ability. Working memory capacity did not contribute significantly to our models, whereas spatial ability was a strong predictor of achievement. The study replicates earlier research showing that non-symbolic number processing seems to lose predictive power of mathematical abilities once the symbolic system is acquired. Novel findings include the fact that time discrimination ability was tied to calculation ability. Therefore, a conclusion is that magnitude processing in general contributes to mathematical achievement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood cognitive ability and its relationship with anxiety and depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, M; Wild, T C; Ploubidis, G B; Naicker, K; Cairney, J; North, C R; Colman, I

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cognitive ability may have protective effects against internalizing symptoms in adolescence, although this may depend on the time of symptom assessment and child gender. Also, the effects of childhood stressors on adolescent internalizing symptoms may be moderated by childhood cognitive ability. The sample included 4405 individuals from the Canadian National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Between ages 4-5 and 10-11, children completed a test of verbal ability and scholastic aptitude and a series of mathematics computation tests. Internalizing symptoms were assessed via self-reports at ages 12-13 and 14-15. Greater cognitive ability was generally associated with decreased odds of internalizing symptoms at age 12-13. However, greater cognitive ability generally increased, or had no effect on, the odds of internalizing symptoms at age 14-15. Some of the effects of childhood cognitive ability varied with child gender. Also, childhood cognitive ability attenuated the effects of family dysfunction and chronic illness throughout childhood on subsequent internalizing symptoms. These data are largely subject to some degree of reporting bias, the tests of cognitive ability are limited and may not represent overall cognitive ability, and there may be intermediary variables that account for the relationship between childhood cognitive ability and adolescent internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that programs attempting to increase early cognitive skills may be particularly beneficial for girls. Also, an increased focus on cognitive skills may attenuate the negative effects of some stressors on subsequent anxious and depressive symptoms, regardless of child gender. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An Analysis of Content Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities as Factors That Are Associated with Algebra Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Tamika Ann

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated college students' content knowledge and cognitive abilities as factors associated with their algebra performance, and examined how combinations of content knowledge and cognitive abilities related to their algebra performance. Specifically, the investigation examined the content knowledge factors of computational…

  13. Associations between Private Speech, Behavioral Self-Regulation, and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Tuija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations between 5-year-old children's private speech, behavioural self-regulation, and cognitive abilities. Behavioural self-regulation was assessed using parental and preschool teacher questionnaires. Cognitive abilities (i.e., language, inhibition, planning and fluency, and memory) were assessed with neurocognitive tests,…

  14. The Long-Term Effects of Childhood Music Instruction on Intelligence and General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of music instruction on general cognitive abilities. The review of more than 75 reports shows (1) the consistency in results pertaining to the short-term effects of music instruction on cognitive abilities and the lack of clear evidence on the long-term effects on intelligence; (2) the complex nature of…

  15. Self-Esteem Trajectories and Their Social Determinants in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Arens, A. Katrin; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Craven, Rhonda G.; Maïano, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of self-esteem in a sample of 138 Australian adolescents (90 males; 48 females) with cognitive abilities in the lowest 15% (L-CA) and a matched sample of 556 Australian adolescents (312 males; 244 females) with average to high levels of cognitive abilities (A/H-CA). These participants were measured annually…

  16. Children's and Adolescents' Thoughts on Pollution: Cognitive Abilities Required to Understand Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel; Kohen, Raquel; Delval, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pollution phenomena are complex systems in which different parts are integrated by means of causal and temporal relationships. To understand pollution, children must develop some cognitive abilities related to system thinking and temporal and causal inferential reasoning. These cognitive abilities constrain and guide how children understand…

  17. Cognitive ability of preschool, primary and secondary school children in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Stiegmaier, Eva-Maria; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive abilities of children in Costa Rica and Austria were compared using three age groups (N = 385/366). Cognitive ability tests (mental speed, culture reduced/fluid intelligence, literacy/crystallized intelligence) were applied that differed in the extent to which they refer to school-related knowledge. Preschool children (kindergarten, 5-6 years old, N(CR) = 80, N(Au) = 51) were assessed with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), primary school children (4th grade, 9-11 years old, N(CR) = 71, N(Au) = 71) with ZVT (a trail-making test), Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and items from PIRLS-Reading and TIMSS-Mathematics, and secondary school students (15-16 years old, N(CR) = 48, N(Au) = 48) with ZVT, Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and items from PISA-Reading and PISA-Mathematics. Additionally, parents and pupils were given questionnaires covering family characteristics and instruction. Average cognitive abilities were higher in Austria (Greenwich-IQ M(CR) = 87 and M(Au) = 99, d(IQ) = 12 points) and differences were smaller in preschool than in secondary school (d(IQ) = 7 vs 20 points). Differences in crystallized intelligence were larger than in fluid intelligence (mental speed: d(IQ) = 12, Raven: d(IQ) = 10, student achievement tests: d(IQ) = 17 IQ points). Differences were larger in comparisons at the level of g-factors. Austrian children were also taller (6.80 cm, d = 1.07 SD), but had lower body mass index (BMI(CR) = 19.35 vs BMI(Au) = 17.59, d = -0.89 SD). Different causal hypotheses explaining these differences are compared.

  18. Vestibular involvement in cognition: Visuospatial ability, attention, executive function, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Robin T; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests the inner ear vestibular system has a substantial impact on cognitive function. The strongest evidence exists in connecting vestibular function to the cognitive domain of visuospatial ability, which includes spatial memory, navigation, mental rotation, and mental representation of three-dimensional space. Substantial evidence also exists suggesting the vestibular system has an impact on attention and cognitive processing ability. The cognitive domains of memory and executive function are also implicated in a number of studies. We will review the current literature, discuss possible causal links between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive performance, and suggest areas of future research.

  19. Genetic and environmental transactions linking cognitive ability, physical fitness, and education in late life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive ability and physical fitness are important to the ability to live independently in late life. Both are also related to level of attained education, with better educated older adults tending to display better cognitive ability and better late-life physical health. Chronic illnesses...... that affect both physical and cognitive function, lifetime cognitive ability that facilitates healthy lifestyle choices, and general biological aging processes have been offered as 3 explanations for the late-life physical-cognitive correlation. Education is generally assumed to provide a protective...... environment. The authors used a sample of 1,053 twin pairs aged 70 and over and gene-environment moderation models to explore 5 hypotheses that could help to disentangle the genetic and environmental transactions involving physical and cognitive functions and education. Results provide some support for all 3...

  20. Cognitive abilities in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzonio, Valentina; Avanzini, Pietro; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Campi, Cristina; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cognitive profiles of children with autistic spectrum disorder and of their healthy siblings (Siblings). With the term cognitive profile, we indicate the relationship extant among the values of verbal and performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. The conducted statistical analyses indicated that, although siblings showed a normal intelligent quotient and did not differ in this aspect from typically developing group, their cognitive profile was amazingly similar to that of their relatives affected by autism. A k-means clustering analysis on the values of single subtests further confirmed this result, showing a clear separation between typically developing children on the one side, and autistics and their siblings on the other. We suggest that the common cognitive profile observed in autistic children and their siblings could represent a marker of liability to autism and, thus, a possible intermediate phenotype of this syndrome.

  1. COMT genotype and cognitive ability: a longitudinal aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John M; Fox, Helen; Harris, Sarah E; Deary, Ian J; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2007-06-21

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) contributes to individual cognitive differences in animals and humans. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) influences dopamine concentration in the PFC. Functional variation in the human COMT gene occurs at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)--472G>A--that results in a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) amino acid substitution (Val158Met). The Met/Met form is less active resulting in higher dopamine concentrations and thus may enhance cognitive function. We applied repeated measures mixed general linear modelling over three waves between ages 64 and 68 years to optimise cognitive phenotype characterisation in a cohort of 473 community volunteers who had validated childhood IQ data. After adjusting for childhood IQ, wave of testing and specific test type, COMT Val158Met genotype polymorphism had a significant overall effect on cognition (F(2,935.7)=7.92, page range in which such an effect has been detected.

  2. The Association between Infections and General Cognitive Ability in Young Men - A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael Eriksen; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Nielsen, Philip Rising

    2015-01-01

    nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort of all 161,696 male conscripts during the years 2006-2012 who were tested for cognitive ability, which was based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning at a mean age of 19.4 years. Test scores were converted to a mean of 100......BACKGROUND: Infections and activated immune responses can affect the brain through several pathways that might also affect cognition. However, no large-scale study has previously investigated the effect of infections on the general cognitive ability in the general population. METHODS: Danish...... ability. A prior infection was associated with significantly lower cognitive ability by a mean of 1.76 (95%CI: -1.92 to -1.61; corresponding to 0.12 SD). The cognitive ability was affected the most by the temporal proximity of the last infection (P

  3. Cognitive development, clinical knowledge, and clinical experience related to diagnostic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M L

    1997-01-01

    To examine the relationship among cognitive development, clinical knowledge, and clinical experience in nursing students. A survey of junior and senior baccalaureate nursing students from three Midwestern colleges (N = 55). Students' diagnostic ability increased as they gained clinical experience and clinical knowledge. However, students failed to identify many nursing diagnoses and demonstrated only moderate levels of cognitive development. Nurse educators and nursing students need to change their approaches to teaching and learning to enhance students' diagnostic ability and cognitive development.

  4. Visuoconstructional abilities in cognitively healthy illiterate Turkish immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    test results from illiterate individuals. In this study, quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance of elderly cognitively healthy illiterate and literate Turkish immigrants were compared on five commonly used visuoconstructional tests. Significantly poorer performances of illiterate compared...... to literate subjects were found in copying of two- and three-dimensional geometric designs, and in Clock Drawing Test performance. A systematic qualitative analysis found lacking three-dimensionality, "curved angles", omissions, distorted relation between elements, and spatial disorganization to be common...... of cognitive dysfunction....

  5. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  6. Issues and advances in research methods on video games and cognitive abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Bart; Dobrowolski, Paweł; Skorko, Maciek; Michalak, Jakub; Brzezicka, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs) over non-players (NVGPs) and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process. PMID:26483717

  7. Issues and Advances in Research Methods on Video Games and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eSobczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of video game playing on cognitive abilities has been the focus of numerous studies over the last 10 years. Some cross-sectional comparisons indicate the cognitive advantages of video game players (VGPs over non-players (NVGPs and the benefits of video game trainings, while others fail to replicate these findings. Though there is an ongoing discussion over methodological practices and their impact on observable effects, some elementary issues, such as the representativeness of recruited VGP groups and lack of genre differentiation have not yet been widely addressed. In this article we present objective and declarative gameplay time data gathered from large samples in order to illustrate how playtime is distributed over VGP populations. The implications of this data are then discussed in the context of previous studies in the field. We also argue in favor of differentiating video games based on their genre when recruiting study samples, as this form of classification reflects the core mechanics that they utilize and therefore provides a measure of insight into what cognitive functions are likely to be engaged most. Additionally, we present the Covert Video Game Experience Questionnaire as an example of how this sort of classification can be applied during the recruitment process.

  8. Literature Review: Cognitive Abilities--Theory, History, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    of sqmantic relations (DMR). 23 5. Expressional Fluency - the ability to rapidly think of word groups or phrases. Expressional fluency differs from...given area of meaning or some other semantic property. b. Expressional Fluency ability to rapidly think of word groups or phrases. c. Ideational Fluency...included in the validity analyses from this area. Expressional Fluency - ability to rapidly think of word groups or phrases. No measures were included in the

  9. Is the association between general cognitive ability and violent crime caused by family-level confounders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Frisell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has consistently found lower cognitive ability to be related to increased risk for violent and other antisocial behaviour. Since this association has remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and parental characteristics, it is often assumed to be causal, potentially mediated through school adjustment problems and conduct disorder. Socioeconomic differences are notoriously difficult to quantify, however, and it is possible that the association between intelligence and delinquency suffer substantial residual confounding. METHODS: We linked longitudinal Swedish total population registers to study the association of general cognitive ability (intelligence at age 18 (the Conscript Register, 1980-1993 with the incidence proportion of violent criminal convictions (the Crime Register, 1973-2009, among all men born in Sweden 1961-1975 (N = 700,514. Using probit regression, we controlled for measured childhood socioeconomic variables, and further employed sibling comparisons (family pedigree data from the Multi-Generation Register to adjust for shared familial characteristics. RESULTS: Cognitive ability in early adulthood was inversely associated to having been convicted of a violent crime (β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.19; -0.18, the association remained when adjusting for childhood socioeconomic factors (β = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.17. The association was somewhat lower within half-brothers raised apart (β = -0.16, 95% CI: -0.18; -0.14, within half-brothers raised together (β = -0.13, 95% CI: (-0.15; -0.11, and lower still in full-brother pairs (β = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.09. The attenuation among half-brothers raised together and full brothers was too strong to be attributed solely to attenuation from measurement error. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that the association between general cognitive ability and violent criminality is confounded partly by factors shared by

  10. Relation of Maternal Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Intrusive Behavior during Head Start to Children's Kindergarten Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, Rex E.; Miller, Carrie E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined effect, after 1 year, of parental cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and intrusiveness on verbal and nonverbal abilities of low-income children in Head Start programs. Found that children of parents who provide the highest cognitive stimulation and emotional support coupled with no intrusive behavior fared best in later perceptual…

  11. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  12. The role of cognitive abilities in laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, M.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Miedema, H.A.T.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Learning minimally invasive surgery (MIS) differs substantially from learning open surgery and trainees differ in their ability to learn MIS. Previous studies mainly focused on the role of visuo-spatial ability (VSA) on the learning curve for MIS. In the current study, the relationship between

  13. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson Disease: A Descriptive Review on Social Cognition Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Rosanna; Lo Buono, Viviana; Corallo, Francesco; Foti, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations. From initial 260 articles, only 18 met search criteria. A total of 496 patients were compared with 514 health controls, through 16 different tests that assessed some subcomponents of social cognition, such as theory of mind, decision-making, and emotional face recognition. Studies on cognitive function in patients with PD have focused on executive function. Patients with PD showed impairment in social cognition from the earliest stages of disease. This ability seems to not be significantly associated with other cognitive functions.

  14. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  16. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... c Research Unit (EM2S), High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, Sfax University, Tunisia d Institute of Sports Science, .... tors, participants, and their parents or guardians before the chil- dren entered into the ..... nent that played a key role in cognitive psychology research on information processing- ...

  17. Assessing cognitive-linguistic abilities in South African adults living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall scores revealed that 87.5% of the participants presented with some form of cognitive deficit, 81% exhibited deficits in memory and executive functioning, 75% showed deficits in attention and visual perception, and 50% exhibited language deficits. Thus, this instrument may be usefully employed with patients who ...

  18. Does cognitive ability influence responses to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Watson, Roger; Booth, Tom; Gale, Catharine R

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that how individuals respond to self-report items relies on cognitive processing. We hypothesized that an individual's level of cognitive ability may influence these processes such that, if there is a hierarchy of items within a particular questionnaire, as demonstrated by Mokken scaling, the strength of that hierarchy will vary according to cognitive ability. Using data on 8,643 men and women from the National Child Development Survey (1958 birth cohort; Power, & Elliott, 2006), we investigated, using Mokken scaling, whether the 14 items that make up the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (Tennant et al., 2007)-completed when the participants were 50 years of age-form a hierarchy and whether that hierarchy varied according to cognitive ability at age 11 years. Among the sample as a whole, we found a moderately strong unidimensional hierarchy of items (Loevinger's coefficient [H] = 0.48). We split participants into 3 groups according to cognitive ability and analyzed the Mokken scaling properties of each group. Only the medium and high cognitive ability groups had acceptable (≥ 0.3) invariant item ordering (assessed using the HT statistic). This pattern was also found when the 3 cognitive ability groups were assessed within men and women separately. Greater attention should be paid to the content validity of questionnaires to ensure they are applicable across the spectrum of mental ability. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Is education associated with improvements in general cognitive ability, or in specific skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Deary, Ian J

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability (g), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive skills. We conducted structural equation modeling on data from a large (n = 1,091), longitudinal sample, with a measure of intelligence at age 11 years and 10 tests covering a diverse range of cognitive abilities taken at age 70. Results indicated that the association of education with improved cognitive test scores is not mediated by g, but consists of direct effects on specific cognitive skills. These results suggest a decoupling of educational gains from increases in general intellectual capacity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Video game training does not enhance cognitive ability: A comprehensive meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Tatlidil, K Semir; Gobet, Fernand

    2018-02-01

    As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess. Video game training is another activity that has been claimed by many researchers to foster a broad range of cognitive abilities such as visual processing, attention, spatial ability, and cognitive control. We tested these claims with three random-effects meta-analytic models. The first meta-analysis (k = 310) examined the correlation between video game skill and cognitive ability. The second meta-analysis (k = 315) dealt with the differences between video game players and nonplayers in cognitive ability. The third meta-analysis (k = 359) investigated the effects of video game training on participants' cognitive ability. Small or null overall effect sizes were found in all three models. These outcomes show that overall cognitive ability and video game skill are only weakly related. Importantly, we found no evidence of a causal relationship between playing video games and enhanced cognitive ability. Video game training thus represents no exception to the general difficulty of obtaining far transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cognitive specialization for verbal vs. spatial ability in men and women : Neural and behavioral correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Ronald A.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Thompson, Melissa E.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; de Reus, Marcel A.; Pommy, Jessica; Seaman, Brandi; Jung, Rex E.

    2016-01-01

    An important dimension of individual differences, independent of general cognitive ability (GCA), is specialization for verbal or spatial ability. In this study we investigated neuroanatomic, network, and personality features associated with verbal vs. spatial ability. Healthy young adults (N = 244)

  2. Developing an Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Abilities in Down Syndrome: The Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Startin

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID. Abilities relating to executive function, memory and language are particularly affected in DS, although there is a large variability across individuals. People with DS also show an increased risk of developing dementia. While assessment batteries have been developed for adults with DS to assess cognitive abilities, these batteries may not be suitable for those with more severe IDs, dementia, or visual / hearing difficulties. Here we report the development of an informant rated questionnaire, the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS, which focuses on everyday abilities relating to executive function, memory and language, and is suitable for assessing these abilities in all adults with DS regardless of cognitive ability. Complete questionnaires were collected about 128 individuals with DS. After final question selection we found high internal consistency scores across the total questionnaire and within the executive function, memory and language domains. CS-DS scores showed a wide range, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We found high interrater (n = 55 and test retest (n = 36 intraclass correlations. CS-DS scores were significantly lower in those aged 41+ with significant cognitive decline compared to those without decline. Across all adults without cognitive decline, CS-DS scores correlated significantly to measures of general abilities. Exploratory factor analysis suggested five factors within the scale, relating to memory, self-regulation / inhibition, self-direction / initiation, communication, and focussing attention. The CS-DS therefore shows good interrater and test retest reliability, and appears to be a valid and suitable informant rating tool for assessing everyday cognitive abilities in a wide range of individuals with DS. Such a questionnaire may be a useful outcome measure for intervention studies to assess improvements to cognition, in

  3. Affective and cognitive theory of mind abilities in youth with borderline personality disorder or major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sarah-Ann; Hulbert, Carol A; Jackson, Henry J; Chanen, Andrew M

    2017-09-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is an important social cognitive ability that has been investigated in BPD, with inconsistent findings indicating impaired, comparable, and enhanced ToM in BPD. This study aimed to clarify and extend previous findings by investigating affective and cognitive ToM abilities in youth early in the course of BPD, by including a clinical comparison group of youth with major depressive disorder (MDD). Female participants aged 15-24 years diagnosed with BPD (n = 41) or MDD (n = 37) completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and Happé's Cartoon Task, measures of affective and cognitive dimensions of ToM, respectively. The BPD group performed significantly worse than the MDD group on the affective ToM task, even after controlling for age, intelligence and depressive symptoms. Results for cognitive ToM were not significantly different. Finding of poorer performance on a measure of affective ToM, in BPD youth, relative to youth with MDD early in the course of BPD suggest a developmental failure of sociocognitive abilities needed for mentalising and which are theorised as giving rise to core features of BPD. Future research should employ more naturalistic paradigms to study social cognition and should assess individuals even earlier in the course of BPD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eGrassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.

  5. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  6. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. Cognitive ability and risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after military deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars R.; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Vedtofte, Mia S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies of the association between pre-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown mixed results. Aims: To study the influence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on PTSD symptoms 6-8 months post-deployment in a large population...... while controlling for pre-deployment education and deployment-related variables. Method: Study linking prospective pre-deployment conscription board data with post-deployment self-reported data in 9695 Danish Army personnel deployed to different war zones in 1997-2013. The association between pre......-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment PTSD was investigated using repeated-measure logistic regression models. Two models with cognitive ability score as the main exposure variable were created (model 1 and model 2). Model 1 was only adjusted for pre-deployment variables, while model 2 was adjusted for both...

  8. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frederick Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Cassasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.

  9. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, George F; Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Nelson, Eliza L; Babik, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Casasanto's body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.

  10. Using Virtual Reality to Investigate Comparative Spatial Cognitive Abilities in Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L.; Klimowicz, Christopher; Kelley, John; Menzel, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of investigating spatial cognitive abilities across two primate species using virtual reality. In this study, we presented four captive adult chimpanzees and sixteen humans (twelve children and four adults) with simulated environments of increasing complexity and size to compare species’ attention to visuo-spatial features during navigation. The specific task required participants to attend to landmarks in navigating along routes in order to localize the goal site. Both species were found to discriminate effectively between positive and negative landmarks. Assessing path efficiency revealed that both species and all age groups used relatively efficient, distance reducing routes during navigation. Compared to the chimpanzees and adult humans however, younger children’s performance decreased as maze complexity and size increased. Surprisingly, in the most complex maze category the humans’ performance was less accurate compared to one female chimpanzee. These results suggest that the method of using virtual reality to test captive primates, and in particular, chimpanzees, affords significant cross-species investigations of spatial cognitive and developmental comparisons. PMID:24390812

  11. Using virtual reality to investigate comparative spatial cognitive abilities in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Klimowicz, Christopher; Kelley, John; Menzel, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of investigating spatial cognitive abilities across two primate species using virtual reality. In this study, we presented four captive adult chimpanzees and 16 humans (12 children and 4 adults) with simulated environments of increasing complexity and size to compare species' attention to visuo-spatial features during navigation. The specific task required participants to attend to landmarks in navigating along routes in order to localize the goal site. Both species were found to discriminate effectively between positive and negative landmarks. Assessing path efficiency revealed that both species and all age groups used relatively efficient, distance reducing routes during navigation. Compared to the chimpanzees and adult humans however, younger children's performance decreased as maze complexity and size increased. Surprisingly, in the most complex maze category the humans' performance was less accurate compared to one female chimpanzee. These results suggest that the method of using virtual reality to test captive primates, and in particular, chimpanzees, affords significant cross-species investigations of spatial cognitive and developmental comparisons. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the stro...

  13. Cognitive abilities of health and art college students a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    AlAbdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlKhamees, Abdullah K.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The selection of a college major is a struggle that high school students undergo every year; however, there is a dearth of studies examining the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool for determining the aptitude of prospective students. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess cognitive ability differences among students. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 60 college students (30 health science and 30 art students) with a mean age of 19 ? 1.6?years, voluntarily...

  14. Influence of hearing loss and cognitive abilities on language development in CHARGE Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, Annemarie; Langereis, Margreet; Free, Rolien; Snik, Ad; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mylanus, Emmanuel

    Hearing loss and cognitive delay are frequently occurring features in CHARGE syndrome that may contribute to impaired language development. However, not much is known about language development in patients with CHARGE syndrome. In this retrospective study, hearing loss, cognitive abilities, and

  15. Preserving cognition, quality of life, physical health and functional ability in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna Aue

    2013-01-01

    ('Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: the Effect of Physical Exercise') trial is to establish whether aerobic exercise is effective in improving cognition as well as in reducing the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among patients...

  16. Heuristics and Biases as Measures of Critical Thinking: Associations with Cognitive Ability and Thinking Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that there are a range of effects usually studied within cognitive psychology that are legitimately thought of as aspects of critical thinking: the cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature. In a study of 793 student participants, the authors found that the ability to avoid these biases was…

  17. Which Aspects of Social Support Are Associated With Which Cognitive Abilities for Which People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fleur, Claire G; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2017-10-01

    To assess the relations between 11 aspects of social support and five cognitive abilities (vocabulary, reasoning, spatial visualization, memory, and speed of processing) and to determine whether these relations between social support and cognition are moderated by age or sex. A sample of 2,613 individuals between the ages of 18 and 99 years completed a battery of cognitive tests and a questionnaire assessing aspects of social support. A measure of general intelligence was computed using principal components analysis. Multiple regressions were used to evaluate whether each aspect of support and/or its interactions with age or sex predicted each cognitive ability and g. Several aspects of social support were significantly related to all five cognitive abilities and to g. When g was included as a predictor, there were few relations with specific cognitive abilities. Age and sex did not moderate any of the relations. These results suggest that contact with family and friends, emotional and informational support, anticipated support, and negative interactions are related to cognition, whereas satisfaction with and tangible support were not. In addition, these aspects of support were primarily related to g, with the exception of family contact. Social support- cognition relations are comparable across the life span and the sexes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bendayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline. Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms, memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory, and visuospatial ability were included. The sample consisted of 671 older Swedish adult participants of the OCTO Twin Study. Linear mixed models with random coefficients were used to analyse change patterns and BIC indexes were used to compare models. Results showed that the time to death model was the best option in analyses of change in all the cognitive measures considered (except for the Information Test. A significant cognitive decline over time was found for all variables. Individuals diagnosed with dementia had lower scores at the study entrance and a faster decline. More educated individuals performed better in all the measures of cognition at study entry than those with poorer education, but no differences were found in the rate of change. Differences were found in age, sex, or time to death at baseline across the different measures. These results support the terminal decline hypothesis when compared to models assuming that cognitive changes are driven by normative aging processes.

  19. A Cognitive Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Communication Ability on Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. S.; Kusnandi, K.; Suhendra, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the difficulties of mathematical communication ability of students in one of secondary school on “three-dimensional space” topic. This research conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. The population in this research was all students of that school and the sample was thirty students that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of mathematical communication were collected through essay test. Furthermore, the data were analyzed with a descriptive way. The results of this study indicate that the percentage of achievement of student mathematical communication indicators as follows 1) Stating a situation, ideas, and mathematic correlation into images, graphics, or algebraic expressions is 35%; 2) Stating daily experience into a mathematic language / symbol, or a mathematic model is 35%; and 3) Associating images or diagrams into mathematical ideas is 53.3%. Based on the percentage of achievement on each indicator, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of students’ mathematical communication ability is still low. It can be caused the students were not used to convey or write their mathematical ideas systematically. Therefore students’ mathematical communication ability need to be improved.

  20. Dynamic testing of cognitive abilities of children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rybářová, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents a dynamic approach to the assessment in school psychology and the current practice of its application with an emphasis on the context of the Czech environment. Characteristics of dynamic assessment, theoretical background and a comparison with traditional assessment are defined. The largest part is devoted to the use of dynamic assessment in practice. Various methods of dynamic assessment and their possible uses and applications are described. The text also discusses the r...

  1. Cognitive ability in childhood and the chronicity and suicidality of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Pietras, Stefanie A.; Carliner, Hannah; Martin, Laurie; Seidman, Larry J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is inconsistent evidence regarding the influence of general cognitive abilities on the long-term course of depression. Aims To investigate the association between general childhood cognitive abilities and adult depression outcomes. Method We conducted a cohort study using data from 633 participants in the New England Family Study with lifetime depression. Cognitive abilities at age 7 were measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Depression outcomes were assessed using structured diagnostic interviews administered up to four times in adulthood between ages 17 and 49. Results In analyses adjusting for demographic factors and parental psychiatric illness, low general cognitive ability (i.e. IQIQ>115) was associated with recurrent depressive episodes (odds ratio (OR) = 2.19, 95% CI 1.20–4.00), longer episode duration (rate ratio 4.21, 95% CI 2.24–7.94), admission to hospital for depression (OR = 3.65, 95% CI 1.34–9.93) and suicide ideation (OR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.79–8.02) and attempt (OR = 4.94, 95% CI 1.67–14.55). Conclusions Variation in cognitive abilities, predominantly within the normal range and established early in childhood, may confer long-term vulnerability for prolonged and severe depression. The mechanisms underlying this vulnerability need to be established to improve the prognosis of depression among individuals with lower cognitive abilities. PMID:26585100

  2. Cognitive ability and self-control in relation to dietary habits, physical activity and bodyweight in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; van Kampen, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that cognitive ability is related to health and mortality. The cause of this relationship remains largely unknown. One plausible explanation is that cognitive ability is related to behaviours that affect health. This study investigates whether cognitive ability is

  3. College Chemistry and Piaget: An Analysis of Gender Difference, Cognitive Abilities, and Achievement Measures Seventeen Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Milakofsky, Louis M.; Bender, David S.; Patterson, Henry O.

    2003-05-01

    This study revisits an analysis of gender difference in the cognitive abilities of college chemistry students using scores from "Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks" (IPDT), the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), and final grades from an introductory college chemistry course. Comparison of 1998 scores with those from 1981 showed an overall decline on most of the measures and a changing pattern among males and females. Gender differences were found in the IPDT subtests measuring imagery, classification, and proportional reasoning, but not conservation, a pattern that differs from the findings reported 17 years earlier. The generational and gender differences revealed in this study suggest that instructors should be cognizant of, and should periodically assess, the diversity of students' cognitive abilities.

  4. Emotional intelligence, need for cognition and cognitive reflective ability related to attitudes towards a further training program among preschool staff

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Joakim

    2017-01-01

    There are currently scarce research regarding further training programs and employees’ attitudes toward them. This present work examined 95 preschool employees from one municipal community in matters of emotional intelligence, need for cognition, and cognitive reflective ability and how these influenced their attitudes toward a further training program called International Child Development Programme, ICDP (study 1). Six participants were also interviewed in regards to more organizational asp...

  5. Genetic and environmental transactions linking cognitive ability, physical fitness, and education in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J; McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive ability and physical fitness are important to the ability to live independently in late life. Both are also related to level of attained education, with better educated older adults tending to display better cognitive ability and better late-life physical health. Chronic illnesses that affect both physical and cognitive function, lifetime cognitive ability that facilitates healthy lifestyle choices, and general biological aging processes have been offered as 3 explanations for the late-life physical-cognitive correlation. Education is generally assumed to provide a protective environment. The authors used a sample of 1,053 twin pairs aged 70 and over and gene-environment moderation models to explore 5 hypotheses that could help to disentangle the genetic and environmental transactions involving physical and cognitive functions and education. Results provide some support for all 3 explanations for the physical-cognitive correlation and indicate the ways in which better education may support better function and lack of education may undermine it.

  6. Probabilistic Thinking Ability of Students Viewed from Their Field Independent and Field Dependent Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taram, A.

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this research are to study: (1) probabilistic thinking ability of mathematics education students, (2) classification of the students’ cognitive style, (3) levelling of the students’ probabilistic thinking ability viewed from their cognitive styles. This research used the qualitative descriptive method and involved 74 subjects. The measured subjects were Group 1 with “fixed FD” classification consisted of 7 students, Group 2 with “mobile FD and mobile FI” classification consisted of 9 students, and Group 3 with “fixed FI” classification consisted of 5 students. The classification of cognitive styles into three groups revealed that there was suitability between cognitive style and probabilistic thinking ability from low to high level. These results could be analysed from the classification of cognitive style and an average of their value of probabilistic thinking ability. The average of probabilistic thinking ability of Group 1 was 42.58; the average of probabilistic thinking ability of Group 2 was 54.44, and the average of probabilistic thinking ability of Group 3 was 68.6. Group 1 and 3 had small standard deviation for the value of probabilistic thinking ability, respectively are 11.36 and 12.30. Thus the data was relatively homogeneous. Meanwhile, Group 2 had a huge standard deviation for the value of probabilistic thinking ability, namely 19.36 which means that the data was relatively heterogeneous. Most of the probabilistic thinking ability level for Group 1 and 2 was Level 2, which is Transitional level, while the most of the probabilistic thinking ability level for Group 3 was Level 4, which is Numeric level.

  7. An investigation of social class inequalities in general cognitive ability in two British birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon

    2017-12-19

    The 'Flynn effect' describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology's standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive ability test scores over time. We analyse data from the National Child Development Study (1958) and the British Cohort Study (1970). These two British birth cohorts are suitable nationally representative large-scale data resources for studying inequalities in general cognitive ability. We observe a large parental social class effect, net of parental education and gender in both cohorts. The overall finding is that large social class divisions in cognitive ability can be observed when children are still at primary school, and similar patterns are observed in each cohort. Notably, pupils with fathers at the lower end of the class structure are at a distinct disadvantage. This is a disturbing finding and it is especially important because cognitive ability is known to influence individuals later in the lifecourse. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  8. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  9. Cognitive capitalism: the effect of cognitive ability on wealth, as mediated through scientific achievement and economic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Thompson, James

    2011-06-01

    Traditional economic theories stress the relevance of political, institutional, geographic, and historical factors for economic growth. In contrast, human-capital theories suggest that peoples' competences, mediated by technological progress, are the deciding factor in a nation's wealth. Using three large-scale assessments, we calculated cognitive-competence sums for the mean and for upper- and lower-level groups for 90 countries and compared the influence of each group's intellectual ability on gross domestic product. In our cross-national analyses, we applied different statistical methods (path analyses, bootstrapping) and measures developed by different research groups to various country samples and historical periods. Our results underscore the decisive relevance of cognitive ability--particularly of an intellectual class with high cognitive ability and accomplishments in science, technology, engineering, and math--for national wealth. Furthermore, this group's cognitive ability predicts the quality of economic and political institutions, which further determines the economic affluence of the nation. Cognitive resources enable the evolution of capitalism and the rise of wealth.

  10. Genetic and Environmental Links between Natural Language Use and Cognitive Ability in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Caitlin F.; Edelson, Lisa R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between language and nonverbal cognitive ability is well-documented, studies examining the etiology of the covariance between these abilities are scant, particularly in very young children. The goal of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the genetic and environmental links between…

  11. Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of 5 specific psychiatric disorders in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Boyle, Stephen H

    2008-01-01

    Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of psychopathology, but much of the evidence for risk is based on individuals who required specialist care. It is unclear whether lower ability influences the risk of particular patterns of comorbidity....

  12. THE DIFFERENCES IN MOTOR AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES IN GIRLS AGED 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Orlić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sample of 164 examinees (divided into three groups according to their IQ – all of them girls from the major towns of Vojvodina – underwent an assessment of motor abilities where battery of 7 motor tests was used and an assessment of cognitive abilities in the case of which Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices were used. The results of the research show that there are statistically significant differences in motor and cognitive abilities between the analyzed groups in this sample of the examinees.

  13. Effect of Spatial Cognitive Ability on Gain in Robot-Assisted Surgical Skills of Urological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teishima, Jun; Hattori, Minoru; Inoue, Shogo; Hieda, Keisuke; Kobatake, Kohei; Shinmei, Shunsuke; Egi, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki; Matsubara, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated the needs for a spatial cognitive ability that can give an accurate understanding of the position, orientation, and size and form of the objects in endoscopic surgery, there has been no study on the relationship between the skills of robot-assisted surgery and spatial cognitive ability. To assess the effect of spatial cognitive ability on gain in robot-assisted surgical skills of urological surgeons. The robot-assisted surgery skills of 24 urological surgeons who had no previous experience with the Mimic dV-Trainer (MdVT) and had not been the main surgeon in robot-assisted surgery and 20 volunteer medical students who had no previous experience of the MdVT were assessed by using a program consisting of 4 kinds of tasks. Their performances were recorded using a built-in scoring algorithm. Their spatial cognitive abilities were also assessed using a mental rotation test. Although there was a significant correlation between the spatial cognitive ability and a score of 2 for the more difficult tasks for student groups using the MdVT, there was no significant correlation between them for all tasks for groups of urological surgeons. The results of the present study indicate that differences in spatial cognitive ability in urological surgeons have no effect on the gain in fundamental robot-assisted surgery skills whereas there was a significant correlation between the spatial cognitive ability and fundamental robot-assisted surgical skills in the volunteers. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Fink, Per

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve functioning in FSS, but their effect on work ability is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of group CBT on work ability in patients with severe FSS. Methods: 120 Pa...

  15. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A.; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation. PMID:27790170

  16. Cognitive abilities, monitoring, and control explain individual differences in heuristics and biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Anthony Jackson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgements, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250 completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and resistance to framing. Using structural equation modelling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  17. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants ( N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  18. Do children with Williams syndrome really have good vocabulary knowledge? Methods for comparing cognitive and linguistic abilities in developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M

    2007-09-01

    The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder in which language abilities are often claimed to be relatively strong. Data from this group were compared with data from typically developing children, children with Down syndrome, and children with non-specific learning difficulties using a number of approaches including comparison of age-equivalent scores, matching, analysis of covariance, and regression-based standardization. Across these analyses children with Williams syndrome consistently demonstrated relatively good receptive vocabulary knowledge, although this effect appeared strongest in the oldest children.

  19. Longitudinal Alterations of Frontoparietal and Frontotemporal Networks Predict Future Creative Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Beaty, Roger E; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Sun, Jiangzhou; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Creative cognition is important to academic performance and career success during late adolescence and adulthood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal data on whether brain structural development could predict improvements in creative thinking, and how such changes interact with other cognitive abilities to support creative performance. Here we examined longitudinal alterations of brain structure and their relation to creative cognitive ability in a sample of 159 healthy young adults who were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging 2-3 times over the course of 3 years. The most robust predictor of future creative ability was the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which in conjunction with baseline creative capacity showed a 31% prediction rate. Longitudinal analysis revealed that slower decreases in gray matter density within left frontoparietal and right frontotemporal clusters predicted enhanced creative ability. Moreoever, the relationship between longitudinal alterations within frontal-related clusters and improved creative ability was moderated by the right DLPFC and working memory ability. We conclude that continuous goal-directed planning and accumulated knowledge are implemented in the right DLPFC and temporal areas, respectively, which in turn support longitudinal gains in creative cognitive ability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Gray matter correlates of cognitive ability tests used for vocational guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Cheuk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences in cognitive abilities provide information that is valuable for vocational guidance, but there is an ongoing debate about the role of ability factors, including general intelligence (g, compared to individual tests. Neuroimaging can help identify brain parameters that may account for individual differences in both factors and tests. Here we investigate how eight tests used in vocational guidance correlate to regional gray matter. We compare brain networks identified by using scores for ability factors (general and specific to those identified by using individual tests to determine whether these relatively broad and narrow approaches yield similar results. Findings Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, we correlated gray matter with independent ability factors (general intelligence, speed of reasoning, numerical, spatial, memory and individual test scores from a battery of cognitive tests completed by 40 individuals seeking vocational guidance. Patterns of gray matter correlations differed between group ability factors and individual tests. Moreover, tests within the same factor showed qualitatively different brain correlates to some degree. Conclusions The psychometric factor structure of cognitive tests can help identify brain networks related to cognitive abilities beyond a general intelligence factor (g. Correlates of individual ability tests with gray matter, however, appear to have some differences from the correlates for group factors.

  1. Which social network or support factors are associated with cognitive abilities in old age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alan J; Corley, Janie; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    Social networks and support have been proposed as cognitively protective in old age. As studies often consider these social factors in isolation the question of which characteristics of the social environment are beneficial remains. The current study examined associations between measures of social networks (including contact with friends/family, marital status and living arrangement), feelings of loneliness and social support, and a range of cognitive outcomes. Social network, loneliness and support data were available in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936, n = 1,091) at age 70. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests, and factor scores were available for general cognitive ability, and the cognitive domains of processing speed and memory. Childhood cognitive ability data from age 11 were also available. When examined in separate ANCOVAs, lower loneliness and more social support were significantly associated with better cognitive abilities at age 70, though not memory (independently of age, sex, childhood cognitive ability and social class), accounting for about 0.5-1.5% of the variance. When the social factors were considered simultaneously, higher loneliness remained associated with lower general cognitive ability (ηp(2) = 0.005, p = 0.046), and those living alone (ηp(2) = 0.007, p = 0.014) or with less social support (ηp(2) = 0.007, p = 0.016) had slower processing speed. When these final models were repeated including a depression symptoms score as a covariate, the associations between loneliness and general cognitive ability, and social support and processing speed, were no longer significant. However, the association between living alone and processing speed remained (ηp(2) = 0.006, p = 0.031). Of the social factors considered, loneliness, social support and living arrangement were most consistently associated with aspects of cognitive ability in older people, and these associations appeared to be partly, though not wholly, accounted for

  2. Personality in Late Midlife: Associations With Demographic Factors and Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, E. L.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Molbo, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic...... factors. Methods: The study sample comprised 5,397 late midlife participants from three cohorts who had completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and a measure of cognitive ability. Results: Associations were demonstrated between the five NEO-FFI personality traits, and all included demographic...... factors. Cognitive ability and years of education correlated with several NEO-FFI personality traits in analyses adjusting for demographic variables. Cohort differences were observed for Extraversion and Openness. Discussion: Robust sex, educational, and social class differences in personality may...

  3. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other Than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mindset, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so. We first address confusion over terminology, including the descriptor “non-cognitive.” We conclude that debate over the optimal name for this broad ca...

  4. Personality and Cognitive Abilities: Predictors of Restrained, Uncontrolled and Emotional Eating Behaviours?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Kirstie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The psychology of eating behaviour merits more attention, due to the increasing prevalence of eating disorders, obesity and other eating related issues. There is a need for a more grounded understanding of the behavioural, emotional and cognitive aspects of dietary habits. Aim: To examine the relationship between personality, cognitive abilities and eating behaviours; Restrained Eating (RE), Uncontrolled Eating (UE) and Emotional Eating (EE). This was based on a series of pre...

  5. General versus executive cognitive ability in pupils with ADHD and with milder attention problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek U

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulla Ek,1 Joakim Westerlund,2 Elisabeth Fernell31Department of Special Education, 2Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 3Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and the Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to analyze two main types of cognitive domains in school children with different types and severities of attention-related problems. The cognitive domains examined were general cognitive ability and executive abilities.Methods: Three different clinical samples of pupils with school problems were analyzed to assess their cognitive Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children profiles. In particular, the general cognitive ability index and the executive markers (ie, verbal memory index and processing speed index were of interest. Of the total sample (n = 198, two main groups were contrasted; one met the full criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/subthreshold ADHD, and one was comprised of those with milder attention problems, insufficient to meet the criteria for ADHD/subthreshold ADHD.Results: It could be demonstrated that both groups had a significantly higher score on the general cognitive ability index than on measures of working memory and processing speed. This difference was more pronounced for boys.Conclusion: These types of cognitive differences need to be considered in children with different kinds of learning, behavior, and attention problems; this is also true for children presenting with an average general intelligence quotient and with milder attention problems. Current educational expectations are demanding for children with mild difficulties, and such cognitive information will add to the understanding of the child's learning problems, hopefully leading to a better adapted education than that conventionally available.Keywords: working memory, processing speed, children, learning and

  6. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D; Desouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to "train the brain." However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selling points: What cognitive abilities are tapped by casual video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Voss, Michelle W.; Basak, Chandramallika; Cosman, Joshua D.; DeSouza, Shanna; Severson, Joan; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    The idea that video games or computer-based applications can improve cognitive function has led to a proliferation of programs claiming to “train the brain.” However, there is often little scientific basis in the development of commercial training programs, and many research-based programs yield inconsistent or weak results. In this study, we sought to better understand the nature of cognitive abilities tapped by casual video games and thus reflect on their potential as a training tool. A moderately large sample of participants (n=209) played 20 web-based casual games and performed a battery of cognitive tasks. We used cognitive task analysis and multivariate statistical techniques to characterize the relationships between performance metrics. We validated the cognitive abilities measured in the task battery, examined a task analysis-based categorization of the casual games, and then characterized the relationship between game and task performance. We found that games categorized to tap working memory and reasoning were robustly related to performance on working memory and fluid intelligence tasks, with fluid intelligence best predicting scores on working memory and reasoning games. We discuss these results in the context of overlap in cognitive processes engaged by the cognitive tasks and casual games, and within the context of assessing near and far transfer. While this is not a training study, these findings provide a methodology to assess the validity of using certain games as training and assessment devices for specific cognitive abilities, and shed light on the mixed transfer results in the computer-based training literature. Moreover, the results can inform design of a more theoretically-driven and methodologically-sound cognitive training program. PMID:23246789

  8. Does cognitive ability buffer the link between childhood disadvantage and adult health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Emma; Daly, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from experiencing the physical and mental health consequences of early life socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; N = 11,522) were followed from birth to age 42, and those from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; N = 13,213) were followed from birth to age 50. Childhood social disadvantage was indexed using 6 indicators gauging parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e., housing tenure and home crowding). Standardized assessments of cognitive ability were completed at ages 10 (BCS) and 11 (NCDS) years. Psychological distress, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality were examined from early adulthood to midlife in both cohorts. Early social disadvantage predicted elevated levels of psychological distress and lower levels of self-rated health in both cohorts and higher mortality risk in the NCDS. Childhood cognitive ability moderated each of these relationships such that the link between early life social disadvantage and poor health in adulthood was markedly stronger at low (-1 SD) compared to high (+1 SD) levels of childhood cognitive ability. This study provides evidence that high childhood cognitive ability is associated with a decrease in the strength of socioeconomic status-driven health inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [General cognitive functioning and psycholinguistic abilities in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Lens Villaverde, María; Moruno López, Esther; Conde Magro, Tatiana; Moura, Luis Felipe; Fernández, Montserrat; Sampaio, Adriana

    2011-11-01

    This study is a neuropsycholinguistic research of a rare genetic syndrome with microdeletion that co-occurs with intellectual disabilities and relatively good language abilities, the Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS). Nevertheless, there are no cognitive and psycholinguistic profile analyses performed with Spanish population. In this sense, we characterized the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile of a sample with 9 participants with SMS (7 to 11 years of age). The cognitive and psychological profile was assessed with diverse standardized tests: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV version, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Results suggest a specific cognitive and psychological profile characterized by a low IQ and relative good abilities in integrating information, whereas attention problems and hyperactive behaviors were displayed when interacting with the child during the assessment. This work is the first evidence of the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile characterization in patients with SMS in Spain, and will help to guide a more accurate diagnosis and differential intervention in rare genetic diseases with similar cognitive and psycholinguistic profiles.

  11. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  12. Sex Differences in Fluid Reasoning: Manifest and Latent Estimates from the Cognitive Abilities Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni M. Lakin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and nature of sex differences in cognitive ability continues to be a source of controversy. Conflicting findings result from the selection of measures, samples, and methods used to estimate sex differences. Existing sex differences work on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT has analyzed manifest variables, leaving open questions about sex differences in latent narrow cognitive abilities and the underlying broad ability of fluid reasoning (Gf. This study attempted to address these questions. A confirmatory bifactor model was used to estimate Gf and three residual narrow ability factors (verbal, quantitative, and figural. We found that latent mean differences were larger than manifest estimates for all three narrow abilities. However, mean differences in Gf were trivial, consistent with previous research. In estimating group variances, the Gf factor showed substantially greater male variability (around 20% greater. The narrow abilities varied: verbal reasoning showed small variability differences while quantitative and figural showed substantial differences in variance (up to 60% greater. These results add precision and nuance to the study of the variability and masking hypothesis.

  13. Health literacy, cognitive ability, and functional health status among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults ("LitCog," prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55-74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Morphological features of the neonatal brain support development of subsequent cognitive, language, and motor abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa N; Bansal, Ravi; Rosen, Tove S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of the role of brain maturation in the development of cognitive abilities derives primarily from studies of school-age children to adults. Little is known about the morphological features of the neonatal brain that support the subsequent development of abilities in early childhood, when maturation of the brain and these abilities are the most dynamic. The goal of our study was to determine whether brain morphology during the neonatal period supports early cognitive development through 2 years of age. We correlated morphological features of the cerebral surface assessed using deformation-based measures (surface distances) of high-resolution MRI scans for 33 healthy neonates, scanned between the first to sixth week of postmenstrual life, with subsequent measures of their motor, language, and cognitive abilities at ages 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. We found that morphological features of the cerebral surface of the frontal, mesial prefrontal, temporal, and occipital regions correlated with subsequent motor scores, posterior parietal regions correlated with subsequent language scores, and temporal and occipital regions correlated with subsequent cognitive scores. Measures of the anterior and middle portions of the cingulate gyrus correlated with scores across all three domains of ability. Most of the significant findings were inverse correlations located bilaterally in the brain. The inverse correlations may suggest either that a more protracted morphological maturation or smaller local volumes of neonatal brain tissue supports better performance on measures of subsequent motor, language, and cognitive abilities throughout the first 2 years of postnatal life. The correlations of morphological measures of the cingulate with measures of performance across all domains of ability suggest that the cingulate supports a broad range of skills in infancy and early childhood, similar to its functions in older children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of motor cognition program for improving temporal-spatial timing memory ability with mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon

    2017-08-01

    This exploratory study evaluated motor cognition program for improving temporal-spatial timing memory ability with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The purpose was to explore the efficacies of motor cognition program according to practice methods, centering on coordination and observation pattern. Two practice methods were applied to the 40 MCI elder. In experiment 1, participants divided into two group as, one-hand practice group (n=20) and both-hands practice group (n=20). In experiment 2, participants divided into two group as, active observation group (n=20) and passive observation group (n=20). The participant was asked to alternatively press two buttons 6 times with the index finger hand with goal rhythm pattern (3,600 msec in total duration). In coordination pattern, bimanual practice was more effective for improving temporal-spatial timing memory ability than unilateral practice. In observation pattern, active observation showed better learning effect than passive observation. However, there was a learning effect even in passive observation pattern. Such a result claimed for the elderly, who has problem to do daily activity, could use observation of temporal-spatial timing task for improving cognitive ability.

  16. General Mathematical Ability Predicts PASAT Performance in MS Patients: Implications for Clinical Interpretation and Cognitive Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandry, Joshua; Paxton, Jessica; Sumowski, James F

    2016-03-01

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used to assess cognitive status in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the mathematical demands of the PASAT seem minor (single-digit arithmetic), cognitive psychology research links greater mathematical ability (e.g., algebra, calculus) to more rapid retrieval of single-digit math facts (e.g., 5+6=11). The present study evaluated the hypotheses that (a) mathematical ability is related to PASAT performance and (b) both the relationship between intelligence and PASAT performance as well as the relationship between education and PASAT performance are both mediated by mathematical ability. Forty-five MS patients were assessed using the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, PASAT and Calculation Subtest of the Woodcock-Johnson-III. Regression based path analysis and bootstrapping were used to compute 95% confidence intervals and test for mediation. Mathematical ability (a) was related to PASAT (β=.61; pMathematical ability represents a source of error in the clinical interpretation of cognitive decline using the PASAT. Domain-specific cognitive reserve is discussed.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTORIC AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES ON THE SUCCESSFULNESS IN SITUATIONAL MOTORIC TESTS IN VOLLEYBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bećir Šabotić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of management of moving in volleyball is significally leaning on the activity of analyst. By practicing the game the sharpness of visual, tactical, cinestatical, vestbular and hearing feelings are significally improving. The aim of this work is to consolidate the relation between motoric and cognitive abilities of situational motoric abilities in volleyball. The sample of examination is taken from the population of pupils in eighth grade of primary school. For the processing of results the method of canonically – corelational analyses has been used. According to the given results it can be concluded that there is a very significant connection between the group of predictorical variables of motoric and cognitive abilities with the group of criteria variables of situational motoric abilities. Results like this are logical as well concerning the structure of performing the exercises in volleyball, which comes from the performing of quick movements and good coordination.

  18. Circulating metabolites and general cognitive ability and dementia: Evidence from 11 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Sven J; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Pool, René; Shipley, Martin J; Teumer, Alexander; Chouraki, Vincent; Melo van Lent, Debora; Tynkkynen, Juho; Fischer, Krista; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Haller, Toomas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Verhoeven, Aswin; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Leeuw, Francisca A; Wagner, Holger; van Dongen, Jenny; Hertel, Johannes; Budde, Kathrin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Weinhold, Leonie; Ikram, M Arfan; Pietzner, Maik; Perola, Markus; Wagner, Michael; Friedrich, Nele; Slagboom, P Eline; Scheltens, Philip; Yang, Qiong; Gertzen, Robert E; Egert, Sarah; Li, Shuo; Hankemeier, Thomas; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Maier, Wolfgang; Peeters, Carel F W; Jörgen Grabe, Hans; Ramirez, Alfredo; Seshadri, Sudha; Metspalu, Andres; Kivimäki, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Demirkan, Ayşe; Boomsma, Dorret I; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Amin, Najaf; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2018-01-06

    Identifying circulating metabolites that are associated with cognition and dementia may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia and provide crucial readouts for preventive and therapeutic interventions. We studied 299 metabolites in relation to cognition (general cognitive ability) in two discovery cohorts (N total = 5658). Metabolites significantly associated with cognition after adjusting for multiple testing were replicated in four independent cohorts (N total = 6652), and the associations with dementia and Alzheimer's disease (N = 25,872) and lifestyle factors (N = 5168) were examined. We discovered and replicated 15 metabolites associated with cognition including subfractions of high-density lipoprotein, docosahexaenoic acid, ornithine, glutamine, and glycoprotein acetyls. These associations were independent of classical risk factors including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Six of the cognition-associated metabolites were related to the risk of dementia and lifestyle factors. Circulating metabolites were consistently associated with cognition, dementia, and lifestyle factors, opening new avenues for prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Copyright © 2018 the Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive ability, neighborhood deprivation, and young children's emotional and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    To examine if cognitive ability moderates the effect of area (neighborhood) deprivation on young children's problem behavior. Data from the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the UK were used. Children were clustered in small areas in nine strata in the UK and were aged 9 months at Sweep 1 and 3 years at Sweep 2. Neighborhood deprivation was measured with the Index of Multiple Deprivation at Sweep 1. Overall and specific problem behavior was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Sweep 2. To explore moderator specificity we used three indices of ability (verbal cognitive ability, non-verbal cognitive ability, and attainment of developmental milestones). Adjustment was made for child's age and sex, and for Sweep 1 family adversity (number of adverse life events), family structure, mother's social class and psychological distress, and family socio-economic disadvantage. We found both support for our main hypothesis, and evidence for specificity. Neighborhood deprivation was, even after adjustment for covariates, significantly associated with children's peer problems. However, verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability moderated this association. Neighborhood deprivation was related to peer problems even at preschool age. Although the effect of neighborhood deprivation on externalizing problems was mediated by family poverty and parental socio-economic position and although its effect on internalizing problems was mediated by parental mental health, its effect on difficulties with peers was independent of both parental and child characteristics. Cognitive ability moderated the effect of neighborhood deprivation on preschoolers' peer relationships difficulties.

  20. Spatial Abilities of Expert Clinical Anatomists: Comparison of Abilities between Novices, Intermediates, and Experts in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ruth; Dror, Itiel E.; Smith, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Spatial ability has been found to be a good predictor of success in learning anatomy. However, little research has explored whether spatial ability can be improved through anatomy education and experience. This study had two aims: (1) to determine if spatial ability is a learned or inherent facet in learning anatomy and (2) to ascertain if there…

  1. Socioeconomic Position Across the Life Course and Cognitive Ability Later in Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. METHOD: Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N...... = 2,479) who completed ability tests at age 12, 18, and 56-58 linked to register-based information on paternal occupational class, educational attainment, and occupational level. Associations were assessed using structural equation models, and different models were estimated to examine the importance...... of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. RESULTS: Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. DISCUSSION...

  2. A study of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities in engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, E.; Baker, M.

    2015-03-01

    Learning preferences have been indirectly linked to student success in engineering programmes, without a significant body of research to connect learning preferences with cognitive abilities. A better understanding of the relationship between learning styles and cognitive abilities will allow educators to optimise the classroom experience for students. The goal of this study was to determine whether relationships exist between student learning styles, as determined by the Felder-Soloman Inventory of Learning Styles (FSILS), and their cognitive performance. Three tests were used to assess student's cognitive abilities: a matrix reasoning task, a Tower of London task, and a mental rotation task. Statistical t-tests and correlation coefficients were used to quantify the results. Results indicated that the global-sequential, active-referential, and visual-verbal FSILS learning styles scales are related to performance on cognitive tasks. Most of these relationships were found in response times, not accuracy. Differences in task performance between gender groups (male and female) were more notable than differences between learning styles groups.

  3. Cognitive Epidemiology: With Emphasis on Untangling Cognitive Ability and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, David

    2009-01-01

    This commentary touches on practical, public policy, and social science domains informed by cognitive epidemiology while pulling together common themes running through this important special issue. As is made clear in the contributions assembled here, and others (Deary, Whalley, & Starr, 2009; Gottfredson, 2004; Lubinski & Humphreys, 1992, 1997),…

  4. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  5. Problem Behaviours of Kindergartners: The Affects of Children's Cognitive Ability, Creativity, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sung-Ae; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, HyunJin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affects of cognitive ability, creativity, and self-esteem on kindergartners' problem behaviour. Participants were 203 children (mean age = 65.8 months) attending kindergartens in Korea. Data collection used the Korean version of Child Behaviour Checklist, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Torrance Test of…

  6. Measurement Matters: Assessing Personal Qualities Other than Cognitive Ability for Educational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Yeager, David Scott

    2015-01-01

    There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self-control, grit, growth mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, we identify serious challenges to doing so.…

  7. How financial incentives and cognitive abilities affect task performance in laboratory settings: an illustration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydval, O.; Ortmann, Andreas

    -, č. 221 (2004), s. 1-9 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : financial incentives * cognitive abilities * experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp221.pdf

  8. How financial incentives and cognitive abilities affect task performance in laboratory settings: an illustration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydval, O.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2004), s. 315-320 ISSN 0165-1765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : financial incentives * cognitive abilities * experiments Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.361, year: 2004

  9. Education, Cognitive Ability and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Structural Approac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Myrskylä, M.; Tynelius, P.; Rasmussen, F.

    Education is negatively associated with mortality for most major causes of death. The literature ignores that cause-specific hazard rates are interdependent and that education and mortality both depend on cognitive ability. We analyze the education-mortality gradient at ages 18-63 using Swedish

  10. Slow sleep spindle activity, declarative memory, and general cognitive abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Heib, Dominik P J; Roell, Judith; Peigneux, Philippe; Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Georg; Schabus, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Functional interactions between sleep spindle activity, declarative memory consolidation, and general cognitive abilities in school-aged children. Healthy, prepubertal children (n = 63; mean age 9.56 ± 0.76 y); ambulatory all-night polysomnography (2 nights); investigating the effect of prior learning (word pair association task; experimental night) versus nonlearning (baseline night) on sleep spindle activity; general cognitive abilities assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). Analysis of spindle activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep (N2 and N3) evidenced predominant peaks in the slow (11-13 Hz) but not in the fast (13-15 Hz) sleep spindle frequency range (baseline and experimental night). Analyses were restricted to slow sleep spindles. Changes in spindle activity from the baseline to the experimental night were not associated with the overnight change in the number of recalled words reflecting declarative memory consolidation. Children with higher sleep spindle activity as measured at frontal, central, parietal, and occipital sites during both baseline and experimental nights exhibited higher general cognitive abilities (WISC-IV) and declarative learning efficiency (i.e., number of recalled words before and after sleep). Slow sleep spindles (11-13 Hz) in children age 8-11 y are associated with inter-individual differences in general cognitive abilities and learning efficiency. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Verbal Measures of Cognitive Ability: The Gifted Low SES Student's Albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Carri, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Scores on cognitive abilities tests administered to students (n=80; grades 4-8) being considered for gifted placement were analyzed for differences between low socioeconomic status (SES) students and average or above average SES students. Analysis indicated that the primary reason low SES students did not meet criteria for gifted placement was low…

  12. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  13. Gender Stereotypic Interest Patterns as Determinants of Cognitive Abilities in Transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mark R.; Heritage, Jeanette G.

    The designation "transsexual" refers to those who persistently believe their gender to be incongruous with their anatomical morphology. This study involves a group of 21 female sexual reversal surgery (SRS) candidates and a group of 59 male SRS candidates to observe if transsexual cognitive ability patterns are correlated with levels of…

  14. The Relation between Specialty Choice of Psychology Students and Their Interests, Personality, and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology were on average more extraverted than students of…

  15. The relation between specialty choice of psychology students and their interests, personality, and cognitive abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate differences in interests, personality, and cognitive abilities between students majoring in the six specialties of psychology at the University of Amsterdam. Results show that students at Social Psychology and Work and Organizational Psychology

  16. Development of Planning Abilities in Normal Aging: Differential Effects of Specific Cognitive Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köstering, Lena; Stahl, Christoph; Leonhart, Rainer; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P.

    2014-01-01

    In line with the frontal hypothesis of aging, the ability to plan ahead undergoes substantial change during normal aging. Although impairments on the Tower of London planning task were reported earlier, associations between age-related declines and specific cognitive demands on planning have not been studied. Here we investigated the impact of…

  17. Answering unresolved questions about the relationship between cognitive ability and prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; Crawford, Jarret T

    2016-01-01

    Previous research finds that lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice. We test two unresolved questions about this association using a heterogeneous set of target groups and data from a representative sample of the United States (N = 5,914). First, we test “who are the targets of

  18. Neonatal Predictors of Cognitive Ability in Adults Born Very Preterm : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/390776114; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    Aim To identify neonatal predictors to allow a developmental prognosis of very preterm / very-low birthweight (VP/VLBW) survivors' cognitive abilities into adult life. Method The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective whole population study that followed 260 VP/VLBW infants from birth to

  19. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  20. Profile of Cognitive Ability and Multiple Intelligence of Vocational Students in Application of Electric Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, A.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Kaniawati, I.; Hasanah, L.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a profile picture of cognitive ability and multiple intelligence of students on physics learning activities in relation to the discourse of conservation of electrical energy. Research activities are conducted in the even semester of the 2015/2016 school year. The subjects of the study were the students of class XI (36 students) in one of the state vocational schools in Bandung consisting of one class chosen at random (cluster random sampling). Research data in the form of cognitive ability test results and multiple intelligences are analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Research data is then analyzed and compared with predetermined success indicators. The results showed that the cognitive abilities profile of students in vocational schools in Bandung is still low. This can be seen from the average score of cognitive ability of students in remember (C1) of 57.75, understanding (C2) of 53.50, applying (C3) of 43.75, and analyzing (C4) of 37.75. The multiple intelligence profiles indicate frequency of linguistic intelligence number 9 students, musical intelligence 3 students, logical mathematical intelligence 13 students, spatial intelligence 7 students, kinesthetic intelligence 5 students, intrapersonal intelligence 7 students, interpersonal intelligence 6 students, and naturalistic intelligence 5 students.

  1. Clinical Importance of Parent Ratings of Everyday Cognitive Abilities in Children with Learning and Attention Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Deborah; Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2003-01-01

    Parent-reported information on 159 children with learning or attention problems was obtained using the Parent Ratings of Everyday Cognitive and Academic Abilities (PRECAA) and compared to information from standardized psychometric assessments. The PRECAA was sensitive to group differences among children with reading disabilities, children with…

  2. Culture-fair cognitive ability assessment: information processing and psychophysiological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Steven P; Granholm, Eric; Marshall, Sandra P; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Saccuzzo, Dennis P

    2005-09-01

    Valid assessment with diverse populations requires tools that are not influenced by cultural elements. This study investigated the relationships between culture, information processing efficiency, and general cognitive capacities in samples of Caucasian and Mexican American college students. Consistent with the neural efficiency hypothesis, pupillary responses (indexing mental effort) and detection accuracy scores on a visual backward-masking task were both significantly related to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full Scale scores. These measures of information processing efficiency were similar in the two groups. However, they were related only to Caucasian American, but not to a comparable sample of Mexican American, students' WAIS-R scores. Therefore, the differential validity in prediction suggests that the WAIS-R test may contain cultural influences that reduce the validity of the WAIS-R as a measure of cognitive ability for Mexican American students. Information processing and psychophysiological approaches may be helpful in developing culture-fair cognitive ability measures.

  3. Influence of social factors on the relation between lie-telling and children's cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Lavoie, Jennifer; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Crossman, Angela M

    2017-07-01

    Lie-telling may be part of a normative developmental process for children. However, little is known about the complex interaction of social and cognitive factors related to this developmental behavior. The current study examined parenting style, maternal exposure to stressors, and children's cognitive abilities in relation to children's antisocial lie-telling behavior in an experimental setting. Children (3-6years, N=157) participated in a modified temptation resistance paradigm to elicit spontaneous lies. Results indicate that high authoritative parenting and high inhibitory control interact to predict a lower propensity to lie, but those who did lie had better semantic leakage control. This suggests that although children's lie-telling may be normative during early development, the relation to children's cognitive abilities can be moderated by responsive parenting behaviors that discourage lying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the link between cognitive abilities and speech recognition in the elderly under different listening conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuesse, Theresa; Steenken, Rike; Neher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    , and it has been suggested that differences in cognitive abilities may also be important. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between performance in cognitive tasks and speech recognition under different listening conditions in older adults with either age appropriate hearing...... or hearing-impairment. To that end, speech recognition threshold (SRT) measurements were performed under several masking conditions that varied along the perceptual dimensions of dip listening, spatial separation, and informational masking. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was administered....... In repeated linear regression analyses, composite scores of cognitive test outcomes (evaluated using PCA) were included to predict SRTs. These associations were different for the two groups. When hearing thresholds were controlled for, composed cognitive factors were significantly associated with the SRTs...

  5. Outdoor and indoor air quality and cognitive ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Kokosi, Theodora; Flouri, Eirini

    2018-02-01

    This study examined outdoor and indoor air quality at ages 9 months and 3 years and their association with cognitive ability at age 3 in England and Wales. Data from 8198 Millennium Cohort Study children were analysed using multilevel regression. Outdoor air quality was assessed with mean annual estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels within a standard small area (ward). Indoor air quality was measured with parent-reports of damp or condensation in the home and exposure to secondhand smoke in the home. Cognitive ability was assessed with the British Ability Scales Naming Vocabulary subscale and the Bracken School Readiness Assessment. In adjusted models, consistent exposure to high levels of NO 2 at age 9 months and age 3 years was associated with lower verbal ability at age 3 years. Damp/condensation and secondhand smoke in the home at either age or at both ages were correlated with lower school readiness at age 3 years. Exposures to damp/condensation at age 3 years or at both ages and secondhand smoke at either age or at both ages were associated with lower verbal ability at age 3 years. Young children's exposures to indoor damp or condensation and secondhand smoke are likely to be detrimental for their cognitive outcomes. However, there do not appear to be any short-term effects of NO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive predictors of a common multitasking ability: Contributions from working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Meier, Matthew E; Montroy, Janelle J; Hicks, Kenny L; Unsworth, Nash; Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, D Zachary; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings. First, although the complex tasks used to assess multitasking differed greatly in their task characteristics and demands, a coherent construct specific to multitasking ability was identified. Second, the cognitive ability predictors accounted for substantial variance in the general multitasking construct, with WM and fluid intelligence accounting for the most multitasking variance compared to attention control. Third, the magnitude of the relationships among the cognitive abilities and multitasking varied as a function of the complexity and structure of the various multitasks assessed. Finally, structural equation models based on a multifaceted model of WM indicated that attention control and capacity fully mediated the WM and multitasking relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Cognitive abilities and genotype in a population-based sample of people with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, J; Holland, A; Webb, T; Butler, J; Clarke, D; Boer, H

    2004-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by extreme floppiness at birth, impaired sexual development, short stature, severe over-eating, characteristic physical features and learning disabilities (LD). Impaired social cognition, literal mindedness and cognitive inflexibility are also present. The syndrome has two main genetic subtypes that both result in the failure of expression of maternally imprinted genes on chromosome 15 at the locus q11-13. Through multiple sources, we attempted to identify all people with PWS living in one health region in the UK. Additional people with PWS identified in other regions were also recruited to augment the study sample. A comparison group of people with LD as a result of aetiologies other than PWS was also identified. All people from these three groups, over age three, who gave their consent, were assessed using tests of ability and attainment. In addition, their main carers were interviewed using a semistructured interview. Blood samples for genetic diagnosis were obtained from all consenting participants. The IQ distribution of the population sample was approximately normal with a mean IQ 40 points below that of the general population. There were systematic differences between the two main genetic subtypes. Those with disomies differed in cognitive profiles from both those with deletions and the comparison LD group (the latter two groups were very similar) in terms of better verbal abilities and impaired coding ability. Some people with PWS deletions had strong visuospatial skills. We propose that the normal distribution of IQ, shifted downwards relative to that of the general population, is the result of a global effect on IQ of the PWS gene(s), and that the different cognitive profile seen in those with chromosome 15 maternal disomies is a specific effect of a gene, or genes, on chromosome 15 which is differentially either expressed or not expressed in those with disomies relative to those with deletions. One hypothesis

  8. Childhood cognitive ability and age at menopause: evidence from two cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, Diana; Butterworth, Suzanne; Kok, Helen; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael E J; Leon, David A

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether poorer cognitive ability in childhood is associated with an earlier menopause. Two cohorts were included: a nationally representative British birth cohort study of 1,350 women born in March 1946 and followed up to age 54 years, and an Aberdeen cohort study of 3,465 women born in Aberdeen from 1950 to 1956 and followed up to age 44 to 50 years. Both cohorts had prospective information on childhood cognitive ability at age 7 or 8 years. In both cohorts, women with lower cognitive scores in childhood reached menopause earlier than women with higher scores. With follow-up of menopause to 49 years, the hazard ratio (HR) for one standard deviation of the cognitive score was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90) in the Aberdeen cohort and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.97) in the older 1946 birth cohort. The effect was still evident in the 1946 birth cohort with follow-up of menopause to 53 years (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95). These ratios were weakly attenuated by adjustment for potential confounding effects of lifetime socioeconomic circumstances, parity, and smoking. The association between early cognitive ability and timing of menopause only partially reflects common risk factors, although residual confounding remains a possibility. Alternatively, early environmental or genetic programming may explain this association, perhaps through setting lifelong patterns of hormone release or causing transient hormonal changes at sensitive periods of development. These findings have implications for the interpretation of studies investigating an association between age at menopause and adult cognitive function.

  9. Health Literacy, Cognitive Ability, and Functional Health Status among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068

  10. Social cognition and social problem solving abilities in individuals with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Roser, Patrik; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin; Suchan, Boris; Thoma, Patrizia

    2016-11-01

    Up to now, little is known about higher order cognitive abilities like social cognition and social problem solving abilities in alcohol-dependent patients. However, impairments in these domains lead to an increased probability for relapse and are thus highly relevant in treatment contexts. This cross-sectional study assessed distinct aspects of social cognition and social problem solving in 31 hospitalized patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 30 matched healthy controls (HC). Three ecologically valid scenario-based tests were used to gauge the ability to infer the mental state of story characters in complicated interpersonal situations, the capacity to select the best problem solving strategy among other less optimal alternatives, and the ability to freely generate appropriate strategies to handle difficult interpersonal conflicts. Standardized tests were used to assess executive function, attention, trait empathy, and memory, and correlations were computed between measures of executive function, attention, trait empathy, and tests of social problem solving. AUD patients generated significantly fewer socially sensitive and practically effective solutions for problematic interpersonal situations than the HC group. Furthermore, patients performed significantly worse when asked to select the best alternative among a list of presented alternatives for scenarios containing sarcastic remarks and had significantly more problems to interpret sarcastic remarks in difficult interpersonal situations. These specific patterns of impairments should be considered in treatment programs addressing impaired social skills in individuals with AUD.

  11. Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity

  12. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships among Cognitive Abilities, Cognitive Style, and Learning Preferences in Students Enrolled in Specialized Degree Courses at a Canadian College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jean; Sardar, Shaila

    2011-01-01

    Although specific cognitive abilities, cognitive style, and learning preferences are assumed to be inter-related, the empirical evidence supporting this assumption is mixed. Cognitive style refers to how individuals represent information, and learning preference refers to how individuals prefer the presentation of information (Mayer & Massa,…

  13. Neural Basis for the Ability of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Uehara, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone, have variable affinities for these receptors. Among the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor is attracting particular interests as a potential target for enhancing cognition, based on preclinical and clinical evidence. The neural network underlying the ability of 5-HT1A agonists to treat cognitive impairments of schizophrenia likely includes dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons. A novel strategy for cognitive enhancement in psychosis may be benefited by focusing on energy metabolism in the brain. In this context, lactate plays a major role, and has been shown to protect neurons against oxidative and other stressors. In particular, our data indicate chronic treatment with tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, recover stress-induced lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model of schizophrenia. Recent advances of electrophysiological measures, e.g., event-related potentials, and their imaging have provided insights into facilitative effects on cognition of some AAPDs acting directly or indirectly on 5-HT1A receptors. These findings are expected to promote the development of novel therapeutics for the improvement of functional outcome in people with schizophrenia. PMID:24137114

  14. Neural basis for the ability of atypical antipsychotic drugs to improve cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Uehara, Takashi

    2013-10-16

    Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone, have variable affinities for these receptors. Among the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor is attracting particular interests as a potential target for enhancing cognition, based on preclinical and clinical evidence. The neural network underlying the ability of 5-HT1A agonists to treat cognitive impairments of schizophrenia likely includes dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons. A novel strategy for cognitive enhancement in psychosis may be benefited by focusing on energy metabolism in the brain. In this context, lactate plays a major role, and has been shown to protect neurons against oxidative and other stressors. In particular, our data indicate chronic treatment with tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, recover stress-induced lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model of schizophrenia. Recent advances of electrophysiological measures, e.g., event-related potentials, and their imaging have provided insights into facilitative effects on cognition of some AAPDs acting directly or indirectly on 5-HT1A receptors. These findings are expected to promote the development of novel therapeutics for the improvement of functional outcome in people with schizophrenia.

  15. No cross-sectional evidence for an increased relation of cognitive and sensory abilities in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    A key question in gerontological research concerns whether good functioning can be maintained in some cognitive abilities in old age, even if deficits occur in other cognitive or sensory abilities. Our goals were to investigate relations of cognitive and sensory abilities in old age, whether these relations differed in size across old age, and whether this was affected by general cognitive ability (processing speed), educational level, and/or general health status. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults (aged 65-101, M = 77.9 years) from the Vivre-Leben-Vivere survey served as cross-sectional sample for the present study. We administered psychometric tests on processing speed (the speed of cognitive processing), cognitive flexibility (the ability to alternate between cognitive operations), and verbal abilities (vocabulary). In addition, we interviewed individuals on their hearing, eyesight, educational level, and general health status. We regressed sizes of relations between abilities (calculated within each 1-year age tranche) on mean age within the corresponding age tranche, with the number of participants within the corresponding age tranche as case weights. We observed a decrease in relations between processing speed and cognitive flexibility in old age that was particularly pronounced in individuals with high educational level (r = -.41). In contrast, we did not find differences in relations between other cognitive and sensory abilities across old age, which held for different levels of general cognitive ability, education, and general health status. Present data do not support the view of a generally increased relation of cognitive and sensory abilities in old age.

  16. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve...... functioning in FSS, but their effect on work ability is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of group CBT on work ability in patients with severe FSS. Methods: 120 Patients from a recently published randomised controlled trial comparing group CBT with enhanced usual care (EUC...... before to 3 years after treatment by means of random effects modelling allowing individual levels and slopes. Results: Compared with the general population, FSS patients showed a continuous decline in self-support, leading to markedly reduced work ability at trial entry. In the following years, EUC...

  17. Theoretical Value Belief, Cognitive Ability, and Personality as Predictors of Student Performance in Object-Oriented Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dianne J.; Cegielski, Casey G.; Wade, James N.

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this article reports the results of a study designed to evaluate the relationship among object-oriented (OO) computer programming task performance and a student's (1) theoretical value belief, (2) cognitive ability, and (3) personality. The results of this study do not support the assertion that cognitive ability is a…

  18. The Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Children Who Suffer from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Kuwait State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…

  19. Modeling the Impact of Test Anxiety and Test Familiarity on the Criterion-Related Validity of Cognitive Ability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Heggestad, Eric D.; Lievens, Filip

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive abilities, whether it is for purposes of basic research or applied decision making, is potentially susceptible to both facilitating and debilitating influences. However, relatively little research has examined the degree to which these factors might moderate the criterion-related validity of cognitive ability tests. To…

  20. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  1. Cognitive ability in early adulthood as a predictor of habitual drug use during later military service and civilian life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, James; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Batty, G David

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have linked cognitive ability (IQ) with alcohol dependency, but the relationship with illegal drug use is not well understood.......Recent reports have linked cognitive ability (IQ) with alcohol dependency, but the relationship with illegal drug use is not well understood....

  2. Personality traits and cognitive ability in individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and community participants.

    OpenAIRE

    Zvinyatskovskiy, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive ability and personality traits usefully characterize psychopathology across individuals presenting with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and ADHD as well as the general population. Working memory and executive functioning are two putative markers of neurobiological impairment associated with pathology in these disorders. Impulsivity and schizotypy are personality traits related to symptoms of mental illness. Although relationships between cognitive ability and personality have been ...

  3. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population.

  4. Self-Esteem Trajectories and Their Social Determinants in Adolescents With Different Levels of Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Craven, Rhonda G; Maïano, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the development of self-esteem in a sample of 138 Australian adolescents (90 males; 48 females) with cognitive abilities in the lowest 15% (L-CA) and a matched sample of 556 Australian adolescents (312 males; 244 females) with average to high levels of cognitive abilities (A/H-CA). These participants were measured annually (Grade 7 to 12). The findings showed that adolescents with L-CA and A/H-CA experience similar high and stable self-esteem trajectories that present similar relations with key predictors (sex, school usefulness and dislike, parenting, and peer integration). Both groups revealed substantial gender differences showing higher levels of self-esteem for adolescent males remaining relatively stable over time, compared to lower levels among adolescent females which decreased until midadolescence before increasing back.

  5. Abilities of phonological awareness in the context of cognitive development in preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grofčíková Soňa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is considered a key phenomenon having crucial position among abilities and processes which are important and responsible for the development of reading and writing (initial literacy. The paper deals with the significance and level of development of selected cognitive functions of a child in relation to the abilities of phonological awareness. The child’s current cognitive development is a predictor for certain level of phonological awareness. The paper is focused on a description of speech perception, language, oral vocabulary and phonological memory of children in preschool age. It is an output of the research project VEGA no. 1/0637/16 Development of a Diagnostic Tool to Assess the Level of Phonemic Awareness of Children in Preschool Age.

  6. Cognitive Abilities Explain Wording Effects in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnambs, Timo; Schroeders, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    There is consensus that the 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) reflect wording effects resulting from positively and negatively keyed items. The present study examined the effects of cognitive abilities on the factor structure of the RSES with a novel, nonparametric latent variable technique called local structural equation models. In a nationally representative German large-scale assessment including 12,437 students competing measurement models for the RSES were compared: a bifactor model with a common factor and a specific factor for all negatively worded items had an optimal fit. Local structural equation models showed that the unidimensionality of the scale increased with higher levels of reading competence and reasoning, while the proportion of variance attributed to the negatively keyed items declined. Wording effects on the factor structure of the RSES seem to represent a response style artifact associated with cognitive abilities.

  7. Cognitive Ageing: The Effects of Disruption on Multitasking Abilities in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask is an incredibly important aspect of everyday life and it is thought that the cognitive processes used for multitasking are mediated by the frontal lobes (Stuss & Alexander, 2000). Patients with frontal lobe damage have been shown to be impaired in their ability to multitask, despite having normal IQ’s. It is thought that as human adult’s age, the frontal lobes deteriorate, so there is a possibility that that multitasking skills will also be impaired in older adults. ...

  8. Association of allostatic load with brain structure and cognitive ability in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tom; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Gow, Alan J.; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Allostatic load (AL) has been proposed as a general framework for understanding the cumulative effects of life stress on individuals. Despite growing interest in AL, limited research has been conducted on aging samples. We consider the association of AL (operationalized by a range of inflammatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic measures) with a range of brain volume measurements and cognitive ability in a large cohort sample of older adults (n = 658, mean age = 72.5 years, standard deviation = 0.7) using structural equation modeling. AL was significantly inversely associated with total brain volume (range of standardized β = −0.16 to −0.20) and white-matter volume (−0.35 to −0.36) and positively with hippocampal volume (0.10–0.15) but not gray-matter volume (0.04). AL was also significantly inversely associated with general cognitive ability (range β = −0.13 to −0.20), processing speed (−0.20 to −0.22), and knowledge (−0.18 to −0.20) but not memory or nonverbal reasoning. The associations of AL with cognitive abilities were not mediated by these brain volume measures. AL did not predict cognitive change from age 11 to approximately age 73. The findings suggest a link between AL and later life brain health and cognitive functioning. PMID:25659881

  9. Connection of students’ academic performance and cognitive abilities with their psychological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    T. O. Tretiak; O. V. Severynovska; M. Boyko

    2016-01-01

    The contents of education must correspond not only to the level of knowledge and competencies, but also be directed to self-determination of the personality and creation of conditions for its self-development and self-realization. The aim of this study was to identify the psycho-physiological peculiarities of Biology students and to establish the connection between the students’ academic performance, their cognitive abilities and their psycho-physiological characteristics, which is essential ...

  10. The significance of spatial cognitive ability in robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System provides three-dimensional images. However, no research has yet been done on the relationship between the system's operation and spatial cognitive ability. This study focuses on the operator's spatial cognitive ability which can impact acquisition of the skills required to operate the da Vinci Surgical System. The participants of the study were 20 volunteers who were students at Hiroshima University (9 men and 11 women, average age 21.1 ± 1.6 years). Depending on the mental rotation test's score the participants were divided into two groups, one with High group (n = 10), and the other with Low group (n = 10). Both groups were tested using Hiroshima University endoscopic surgical assessment device (HUESAD) and the da Vinci Surgical System simulator dV-Trainer. HUESAD; No significant difference was noted between the two groups in terms of smoothness (p = 0.3867). In terms of accuracy and spatial cognitive ability, the High group scored significantly lower values than the Low group. dV-Trainer; In terms of overall Score, no significant difference was seen between the two groups (pick and place: p = 0.1639; peg board: p = 0.1883; thread the rings: p = 0.8928; suture sponge: p = 0.3238). This study indicates that differences in spatial cognitive ability have no impact at the initial stages to operate the da Vinci Surgical System. Despite this, it should be repeated that the da Vinci Surgical System is not something that facilitates simple surgery that can be implemented by anyone.

  11. A sensitive period for musical training: contributions of age of onset and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer; Penhune, Virginia B

    2012-04-01

    The experiences we engage in during childhood can stay with us well into our adult years. The idea of a sensitive period--a window during maturation when our brains are most influenced by behavior--has been proposed. Work from our laboratory has shown that early-trained musicians (ET) performed better on visual-motor and auditory-motor synchronization tasks than late-trained musicians (LT), even when matched for total musical experience. Although the groups of musicians showed no cognitive differences, working memory scores correlated with task performance. In this study, we have replicated these findings in a larger sample of musicians and included a group of highly educated nonmusicians (NM). Participants performed six woodblock rhythms of varying levels of metrical complexity and completed cognitive subtests measuring verbal abilities, working memory, and pattern recognition. Working memory scores correlated with task performance across all three groups. Interestingly, verbal abilities were stronger among the NM, while nonverbal abilities were stronger among musicians. These findings are discussed in context of the sensitive period hypothesis as well as the debate surrounding cognitive differences between musicians and NM. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Learning strategies and general cognitive ability as predictors of gender- specific academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Stephanie; Wach, F-Sophie; Spinath, Frank M; Brünken, Roland; Karbach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that learning behavior is associated with academic achievement at the college level, but the impact of specific learning strategies on academic success as well as gender differences therein are still not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the incremental contribution of learning strategies over general cognitive ability in the prediction of academic achievement. The relationship between these variables was examined by correlation analyses. A set of t-tests was used to test for gender differences in learning strategies, whereas structural equation modeling as well as multi-group analyses were applied to investigate the incremental contribution of learning strategies for male and female students' academic performance. The sample consisted of 461 students (mean age = 21.2 years, SD = 3.2). Correlation analyses revealed that general cognitive ability as well as the learning strategies effort, attention, and learning environment were positively correlated with academic achievement. Gender differences were found in the reported application of many learning strategies. Importantly, the prediction of achievement in structural equation modeling revealed that only effort explained incremental variance (10%) over general cognitive ability. Results of multi-group analyses showed no gender differences in this prediction model. This finding provides further knowledge regarding gender differences in learning research and the specific role of learning strategies for academic achievement. The incremental assessment of learning strategy use as well as gender-differences in their predictive value contributes to the understanding and improvement of successful academic development.

  13. Cognitive Ability as a Determinant of Socioeconomic and Oral Health Status among Adolescent College Students of Bengaluru, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnam, Rekha Rao; Kumar, Naganandini Samapth; Eshwar, Shruthi; Deolia, Shravani

    2016-12-01

    Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Six government and six private first grade colleges were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Cognitive ability was assessed using digit symbol substitution test and digit span test. Dental caries and periodontal status were recorded by extent of bleeding, presence of calculus, periodontal pockets, loss of attachments using Community Periodontal Index, decayed, missing and filled teeth surfaces using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth and Surfaces Index. SES status was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale. Chi-square test was used to check the association of cognitive ability with oral health indicators and SES status. Regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of cognitive ability on oral health indicators after adjusting for SES and effect of SES status on oral health indicators after adjusting for indicators of cognitive ability. Significant association and negative correlation between cognitive ability and indicators for oral health was seen in the regression models. Cognitive ability attributed for nearly 30% changes in the indicators for oral health after adjusting for SES and SES attributed for nearly 25% variance in indicators for oral health after adjusting for cognitive ability. There is a potential role of cognitive ability in SES and oral health.

  14. Cognitive ability influences on written expression: Evidence for developmental and sex-based differences in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Daniel B; Villeneuve, Ethan F; Reynolds, Matthew R; Niileksela, Christopher R; Mason, Benjamin A; Shudak, Nicholas J

    2018-04-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities influence writing; however, little research has investigated whether CHC cognitive abilities influence writing the same way for males and females across grades. We used multiple group structural equation models to investigate whether CHC cognitive ability influences on written expression differed between grades or sex using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition and the Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement, Second Edition co-normed standardization sample data (N=2117). After testing for consistent measurement of cognitive abilities across grades and sex, we tested whether the cognitive ability influences on written expression were moderated by grade level or sex. An important developmental shift was observed equally across sex groups: Learning Efficiency (Gl) influences decreased whereas Crystallized Ability (Gc) influences increased after fourth grade. Further, Short-Term Memory (Gsm) and Retrieval Fluency (Gr) influences on written expression depended on sex at grades 1-4, with larger Gr influences for females and larger Gsm influences for males. We internally replicated our main findings using two different cognitive explanatory models, adding further support for the developmental and sex-based differential cognitive ability influences on writing. Explanatory cognitive models of writing need to incorporate development, and possibly, sex to provide an expanded understanding of writing development and guard against potential generalizability issues characteristic of special population (i.e., male-female) studies. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The association of children's mathematic abilities with both adults' cognitive abilities and intrinsic fronto-parietal networks is altered in preterm-born individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, J G; Meng, C; Daamen, M; Baumann, N; Busch, B; Bartmann, P; Wolke, D; Boecker, H; Wohlschläger, A; Sorg, C; Jaekel, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Mathematic abilities in childhood are highly predictive for long-term neurocognitive outcomes. Preterm-born individuals have an increased risk for both persistent cognitive impairments and long-term changes in macroscopic brain organization. We hypothesized that the association of childhood mathematic abilities with both adulthood general cognitive abilities and associated fronto-parietal intrinsic networks is altered after preterm delivery. 72 preterm- and 71 term-born individuals underwent standardized mathematic and IQ testing at 8 years and resting-state fMRI and full-scale IQ testing at 26 years of age. Outcome measure for intrinsic networks was intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). Controlling for IQ at age eight, mathematic abilities in childhood were significantly stronger positively associated with adults' IQ in preterm compared with term-born individuals. In preterm-born individuals, the association of children's mathematic abilities and adults' fronto-parietal iFC was altered. Likewise, fronto-parietal iFC was distinctively linked with preterm- and term-born adults' IQ. Results provide evidence that preterm birth alters the link of mathematic abilities in childhood and general cognitive abilities and fronto-parietal intrinsic networks in adulthood. Data suggest a distinct functional role of intrinsic fronto-parietal networks for preterm individuals with respect to mathematic abilities and that these networks together with associated children's mathematic abilities may represent potential neurocognitive targets for early intervention.

  16. Cognitive and motor abilities of young children and risk of injuries in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jennifer; Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce; Phelan, Kieran

    2017-02-01

    Residential injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in US children. Rates and types of injury vary by child age but little is known about injury risk based on child cognitive and motor abilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive or motor development in young children is associated with residential injury. We employed data from Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. Parent report of medically attended injury was obtained at regular intervals from 0 to 42 months. Child development was assessed at 12, 24 and 36 months using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 2nd edition, which generates both mental developmental index (MDI) and a psychomotor developmental index (PDI). Injury risk was modelled using multivariable logistic regression as function of child's MDI or PDI. Effects of MDI and PDI on injury risk were examined separately and jointly, adjusting for important covariates. Children with cognitive delay (MDI children without cognitive delay (OR=3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 10.5, p=0.012). There was no significant association of PDI with injury. There was, however, significant interaction of MDI and PDI (p=0.02); children with cognitive delay but normal motor development were at significantly higher risk of injury than children with normal cognitive and motor development (OR=9.6, 95% CI 2.6 to 35.8, p=0.001). Children with cognitive delays, especially those with normal motor development, are at elevated risk for residential injuries. Injury prevention efforts should target children with developmental delays. NCT00129324; post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  18. Analysis of algebraic reasoning ability of cognitive style perspectives on field dependent field independent and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosita, N. T.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse algebraic reasoning ability using the SOLO model as a theoretical framework to assess students’ algebraic reasoning abilities of Field Dependent cognitive (FD), Field Independent (FI) and Gender perspectives. The method of this study is a qualitative research. The instrument of this study is the researcher himself assisted with algebraic reasoning tests, the problems have been designed based on NCTM indicators and algebraic reasoning according to SOLO model. While the cognitive style of students is determined using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT), as well as interviews on the subject as triangulation. The subjects are 15 female and 15 males of the sixth semester students of mathematics education, STKIP Sebelas April. The results of the qualitative data analysis is that most subjects are at the level of unistructural and multi-structural, subjects at the relational level have difficulty in forming a new linear pattern. While the subjects at the extended abstract level are able to meet all the indicators of algebraic reasoning ability even though some of the answers are not perfect yet. Subjects of FI tend to have higher algebraic reasoning abilities than of the subject of FD.

  19. The connectedness of the levels of meta-cognitive student's abilities and educational outcomes in the cognitive area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ivana Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this paper is the analysis of the connection of the students' metacognitive levels and educational outcomes in the area of cognition. The research was performed with a sample of 746 respondents, both genders, first-year students in grammar schools in Novi Sad. The technique used was testing, the instrument was the test of metacognitive abilities of students, construed according the five levels Likert' scale and Physics knowledge test. The results of the questionnaire were processed by statistical procedure. The program used was IBM SPSS 20 Statistics, descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and simple linear regression. In this analysis the criterion was the score that the students got on the knowledge test and subtests on the levels of knowledge, understanding and application, and the predictor was the score obtained on the test of metacognitive abilities. The research enabled a valuable insight into the connectedness of metacognitive abilities and efficiency in learning physics. Statistically significant connectedness was found between metacognitive abilities and efficiency in learning physics on the levels of knowledge, understanding and application, and all three levels together. The paper ends with stating the importance and pedagogic implications of the research results.

  20. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Hallam, Susan

    2005-12-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10 and 11 year olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior for children who listened to popular music compared to the other two groups. These findings are consistent with the view that positive benefits of music listening on cognitive abilities are most likely to be evident when the music is enjoyed by the listener.

  1. Promoting middle school students’ abstract-thinking ability through cognitive apprenticeship instruction in mathematics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to get an in-depth understanding of students’ abstract-thinking ability in mathematics learning. This study was an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control group design. The subject of this study was eighth-grade students from two junior high schools in Bandung. In each schools, two parallel groups were selected and assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was exposed to Cognitive Apprenticeship Instruction (CAI) treatment, whereas the control group was exposed to conventional learning. The results showed that abstract-thinking ability of students in experimental group was better than that of those in control group in which it could be observed from the overall and school level. It could be concluded that CAI could be a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ abstract-thinking ability.

  2. The LonDownS adult cognitive assessment to study cognitive abilities and decline in Down syndrome [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Carla M. Startin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome (DS, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, is associated with an ultra-high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is individual variability in the onset of clinical dementia and in baseline cognitive abilities prior to decline, particularly in memory, executive functioning, and motor coordination. The LonDownS Consortium aims to determine risk and protective factors for the development of dementia and factors relating to cognitive abilities in people with DS. Here we describe our cognitive test battery and related informant measures along with reporting data from our baseline cognitive and informant assessments. Methods: We developed a cognitive test battery to assess general abilities, memory, executive function, and motor coordination abilities in adults with DS, with informant ratings of similar domains also collected, designed to allow for data on a broad range of participants. Participants (n=305 had a range of ages and abilities, and included adults with and without a clinical diagnosis of dementia. Results: Results suggest the battery is suitable for the majority of adults with DS, although approximately half the adults with dementia were unable to undertake any cognitive task. Many test outcomes showed a range of scores with low floor and ceiling effects. Non-verbal age-adjusted IQ scores had lower floor effects than verbal IQ scores. Before the onset of any cognitive decline, females aged 16-35 showed better verbal abilities compared to males. We also identified clusters of cognitive test scores within our battery related to visuospatial memory, motor coordination, language abilities, and processing speed / sustained attention. Conclusions: Our further studies will use baseline and longitudinal assessments to explore factors influencing cognitive abilities and cognitive decline related to ageing and onset of dementia in adults with DS.

  3. The moderating effects of aging and cognitive abilities on the association between work stress and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jinshil; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M; Scott, Stacey B

    2018-05-01

    Given that the association between work stress and negative affect can exacerbate negative health and workplace outcomes, it is important to identify the protective and risk factors that moderate this association. Socioemotional aging and cognitive abilities might influence how people utilize emotion regulation skills and engage in practical problem solving to manage their work stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether age and cognitive abilities independently and interactively moderate the association between work-related stress and negative affect. A diverse working adult sample (N = 139, age 25-65, 69% of females) completed a cross-sectional survey that assessed chronic work stress, negative affect, and fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Results from regression analyses suggested that both fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities, but not age, moderated the association between work stress and negative affect. Further, we found that crystallized cognition had a stronger attenuating effect on the work stress-negative affect association for older compared to younger workers. The moderating effect of fluid cognition was invariant across age. Our findings demonstrate that cognitive abilities are an important personal resource that might protect individuals against the negative impacts of work stress and negative affect. Although the role that fluid cognition plays in work stress-negative affect association is comparably important for both younger and older workers, crystallized cognition might play a more valuable role for older than younger workers.

  4. Comparison of the adhesion ability of Candida albicans strains to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of oral Candida albicans strains to adhere to Caco-2 and Hep-2 epithelial cells, to produce slime using Congo red and Safranin methods and to form a biofilm on polymethylmethacrylate. A total of 20 C. albicans strains were tested in the present work. The biofilm ...

  5. Apolipoprotein E genotype does not moderate the associations of depressive symptoms, neuroticism and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive aging in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

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    Zander Crook

    Full Text Available In this replication-and-extension study, we tested whether depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load (multisystem physiological dysregulation were related to lower baseline cognitive ability and greater subsequent cognitive decline in older adults, and whether these relationships were moderated by the E4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene. We also tested whether allostatic load mediated the relationships between neuroticism and cognitive outcomes.We used data from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n at Waves 1-3: 1,028 [M age = 69.5 y]; 820 [M duration since Wave 1 = 2.98 y]; 659 [M duration since Wave 1 = 6.74 y]. We fitted latent growth curve models of general cognitive ability (modeled using five cognitive tests with groups of APOE E4 non-carriers and carriers. In separate models, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load predicted baseline cognitive ability and subsequent cognitive decline. In addition, models tested whether allostatic load mediated relationships between neuroticism and cognitive outcomes.Baseline cognitive ability had small-to-moderate negative associations with depressive symptoms (β range = -0.20 to -0.17, neuroticism (β range = -0.27 to -0.23, and allostatic load (β range = -0.11 to 0.09. Greater cognitive decline was linked to baseline allostatic load (β range = -0.98 to -0.83 and depressive symptoms (β range = -1.00 to -0.88. However, APOE E4 allele possession did not moderate the relationships of depressive symptoms, neuroticism and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive decline. Additionally, the associations of neuroticism with cognitive ability and cognitive decline were not mediated through allostatic load.Our results suggest that APOE E4 status does not moderate the relationships of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and allostatic load with cognitive ability and cognitive decline in healthy older adults. The most notable positive finding in the current research was

  6. Neural basis for the ability of atypical antipsychotic drugs to improve cognition in schizophrenia

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    Tomiki eSumiyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia.It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs, e.g. clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone, have variable affinities for these receptors. Among the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor is attracting particular interests as a potential target for enhancing cognition, based on preclinical and clinical evidence.The neural network underlying the ability of 5-HT1A agonists to treat cognitive impairments of schizophrenia likely includes dopamine, glutamate, and GABA neurons. A novel strategy for cognitive enhancement in psychosis may be benefitted by focusing on energy metabolism in the brain. In this context, lactate plays a major role, and has been shown to protect neurons against oxidative and other stressors. In particular, our data indicate chronic treatment with tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, recover stress-induced lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model of schizophrenia. Recent advances of electrophysiological measures, e.g. event-related potentials, and their imaging have provided insights into facilitative effects on cognition of some atypical antipsychotic drugs acting directly or indirectly on 5-HT1A receptors.These findings are expected to promote the development of novel therapeutics for the improvement of functional outcome in people with schizophrenia.

  7. RacGAP α2-Chimaerin Function in Development Adjusts Cognitive Ability in Adulthood

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    Ryohei Iwata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major concern in neuroscience is how cognitive ability in adulthood is affected and regulated by developmental mechanisms. The molecular bases of cognitive development are not well understood. We provide evidence for the involvement of the α2 isoform of Rac-specific guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase-activating protein (RacGAP α-chimaerin (chimerin in this process. We generated and analyzed mice with global and conditional knockouts of α-chimaerin and its isoforms (α1-chimaerin and α2-chimaerin and found that α-chimaerin plays a wide variety of roles in brain function and that the roles of α1-chimaerin and α2-chimaerin are distinct. Deletion of α2-chimaerin, but not α1-chimaerin, beginning during early development results in an increase in contextual fear learning in adult mice, whereas learning is not altered when α2-chimaerin is deleted only in adulthood. Our findings suggest that α2-chimaerin acts during development to establish normal cognitive ability in adulthood.

  8. Musical Experience and the Aging Auditory System: Implications for Cognitive Abilities and Hearing Speech in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L.; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18–30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45–65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline. PMID:21589653

  9. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Strait, Dana L; Anderson, Samira; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2011-05-11

    Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30), we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65), potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory). Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.

  10. Musical experience and the aging auditory system: implications for cognitive abilities and hearing speech in noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Parbery-Clark

    Full Text Available Much of our daily communication occurs in the presence of background noise, compromising our ability to hear. While understanding speech in noise is a challenge for everyone, it becomes increasingly difficult as we age. Although aging is generally accompanied by hearing loss, this perceptual decline cannot fully account for the difficulties experienced by older adults for hearing in noise. Decreased cognitive skills concurrent with reduced perceptual acuity are thought to contribute to the difficulty older adults experience understanding speech in noise. Given that musical experience positively impacts speech perception in noise in young adults (ages 18-30, we asked whether musical experience benefits an older cohort of musicians (ages 45-65, potentially offsetting the age-related decline in speech-in-noise perceptual abilities and associated cognitive function (i.e., working memory. Consistent with performance in young adults, older musicians demonstrated enhanced speech-in-noise perception relative to nonmusicians along with greater auditory, but not visual, working memory capacity. By demonstrating that speech-in-noise perception and related cognitive function are enhanced in older musicians, our results imply that musical training may reduce the impact of age-related auditory decline.

  11. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  12. The relationship between cognitive-ability saturation and subgroup mean differences across predictors of job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Sackett, Paul R

    2017-10-01

    The authors quantify the conventional wisdom that predictors' correlations with cognitive ability are positively related to subgroup mean differences. Using meta-analytic and large-N data from diverse predictors, they found that cognitive saturation correlates .84 with predictors' artifact-corrected Black-White d values and .95 with predictors' artifact-corrected Hispanic-White d values. The authors also investigate the extent to which d values are associated with the use of assessor-based scoring and with predictor domains in which differential investment is likely to occur. As a practical application of these findings, they present a procedure to forecast mean differences on a new predictor based on its cognitive saturation and other attributes. They also present a Bayesian framework that allows one to integrate regression-based forecasts with observed d values to achieve more precise estimates of mean differences. The proposed forecasting techniques based on the relationship between mean differences and cognitive saturation can help to mitigate the difficulties inherent in computing precise local estimates of mean differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Impact of Handedness, Sex, and Cognitive Abilities on Left–Right Discrimination: A Behavioral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Martin; Mellet, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between left–right discrimination (LRD) performance and handedness, sex and cognitive abilities. In total, 31 men and 35 women – with a balanced ratio of left-and right-handers – completed the Bergen Left–Right Discrimination Test. We found an advantage of left-handers in both identifying left hands and in verifying “left” propositions. A sex effect was also found, as women had an overall higher error rate than men, and increasing difficulty impacted their reaction time more than it did for men. Moreover, sex interacted with handedness and manual preference strength. A negative correlation of LRD reaction time with visuo-spatial and verbal long-term memory was found independently of sex, providing new insights into the relationship between cognitive skills and performance on LRD. PMID:29636718

  14. Dissociation of musical tonality and pitch memory from nonmusical cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, W R; Cuddy, L L; Holden, R R

    1997-12-01

    The main purposes of this study were to replicate, validate, and extend measures of sensitivity to musical pitch and to determine whether performance on tests of tonal structure and pitch memory was related to, or dissociated from, performance on tests of nonmusical cognitive skills--standardized tests of cognitive abstraction, vocabulary, and memory for digits and nonrepresentational figures. Factor analyses of data from 100 neurologically intact participants revealed a dissociation between music and nonmusic variables, both for the full data set and a set for which the possible contribution of levels of music training was statistically removed. A neurologically impaired participant, C.N., scored within the range of matched controls on nonmusic tests but much lower than controls on music tests. The study provides further evidence of a functional specificity for musical pitch abilities.

  15. The Impact of Handedness, Sex, and Cognitive Abilities on Left–Right Discrimination: A Behavioral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Constant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between left–right discrimination (LRD performance and handedness, sex and cognitive abilities. In total, 31 men and 35 women – with a balanced ratio of left-and right-handers – completed the Bergen Left–Right Discrimination Test. We found an advantage of left-handers in both identifying left hands and in verifying “left” propositions. A sex effect was also found, as women had an overall higher error rate than men, and increasing difficulty impacted their reaction time more than it did for men. Moreover, sex interacted with handedness and manual preference strength. A negative correlation of LRD reaction time with visuo-spatial and verbal long-term memory was found independently of sex, providing new insights into the relationship between cognitive skills and performance on LRD.

  16. Pre-service mathematics teachers’ reasoning ability in solving mathematical non-routine problem according to cognitive style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faradillah, A.; Hadi, W.; Tsurayya, A.

    2018-01-01

    This research described the level of mathematical reasoning ability of preservice teachers in solving the mathematical non-routine problem based on cognitive style. The cognitive style used was fast-accurate, reflective, impulsive and slow-less accurate cognitive style. Researchers used Matching Figure Familiar Test (MFFT) to find each cognitive styles. The total subject of this research was four mathematics education’s preservice teachers. In addition, the category of research method used was explorative research with a qualitative approach where researchers tried to describe the level of preservice teachers’ mathematical reasoning ability in solving the mathematical non-routine problem according to their cognitive style. Moreover, based on the result of this research, there were three of four mathematics education’s preservice teachers who have mathematical reasoning ability in level 2. Meanwhile, there was one preservice teacher who got level 3 of mathematical reasoning ability. Furthermore, it related to their cognitive style. Since the preservice teacher who got level 3 of mathematical reasoning ability, she had fast-accurate cognitive style. Whereas, they who got level 2 had reflective, impulsive and slow-less accurate cognitive styles.

  17. Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Adolescence: The Role of Non-Verbal Cognitive Ability and Negative Cognitive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430…

  18. Observing eye movements and the influence of cognition during a symbol search task: a comparison across three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maxine; Robillard, Manon; Roy-Charland, Annie

    2017-12-01

    This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid. Group comparisons revealed significant differences for accuracy and reaction times. The Leiter-R was used to evaluate cognitive abilities. Sustained attention and cognitive flexibility scores predicted the participants' reaction time and accuracy in symbol selection. Findings suggest that symbol location within AAC devices and individuals' cognitive abilities influence the speed and accuracy of retrieving symbols.

  19. Cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress and cognitive ability in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Phillips, Anna C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Carroll, Douglas; Derooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Given evidence linking blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute stress and a range of adverse behavioral outcomes, the present study examined the associations between cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and cognitive ability measured independently of the stress task exposure.

  20. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  1. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  2. Cognitive-motor dual-task ability of athletes with and without intellectual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Jacobs, Lore; McCulloch, Katina; Janssens, Luc; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2018-03-01

    Cognition is important in many sports, for example, making split-second-decisions under pressure, or memorising complex movement sequences. The dual-task (DT) paradigm is an ecologically valid approach for the assessment of cognitive function in conjunction with motor demands. This study aimed to determine the impact of impaired intelligence on DT performance. The motor task required balancing on one leg on a beam, and the cognitive task was a multiple-object-tracking (MOT) task assessing dynamic visual-search capacity. The sample included 206 well-trained athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II), matched for sport, age and training volume (140 males, 66 females, M age = 23.2 ± 4.1 years, M training experience = 12.3 ± 5.7 years). In the single-task condition, II-athletes showed reduced balance control (F = 55.9, P balance and the MOT task between both groups. The DT costs were significantly larger for the II-athletes (-8.28% versus -1.34% for MOT and -33.13% versus -12.89% for balance). The assessment of MOT in a DT paradigm provided insight in how impaired intelligence constrains the ability of II-athletes to successfully perform at the highest levels in the complex and dynamical sport-environment.

  3. Human Capital and Reemployment Success: The Role of Cognitive Abilities and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Gnambs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary periods of unemployment represent major negative experiences for many individuals. Therefore, it is important to identify factors determining the speed job seekers are able to find new employment. The present study focused on cognitive and non-cognitive abilities of job seekers that determine their reemployment success. A sample of German adults (N = 1366 reported on their employment histories over the course of six years and provided measures on their fluid and crystallized intelligence, mathematical and reading competence, and the Big Five of personality. Proportional hazard regression analyses modeled the conditional probability of finding a new job at a given time dependent on the cognitive and personality scores. The results showed that fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as reading competence increased the probability of reemployment. Moreover, emotionally stable job seekers had higher odds of finding new employment. Other personality traits of the Big Five were less relevant for reemployment success. Finally, crystallized intelligence and emotional stability exhibited unique predictive power after controlling for the other traits and showed incremental effects with regard to age, education, and job type. These findings highlight that stable individual differences have a systematic, albeit rather small, effect on unemployment durations.

  4. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and approximate number system to early mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Cargnelutti, Elisa; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2014-12-01

    Math learning is a complex process that entails a wide range of cognitive abilities to be fulfilled. There is sufficient evidence that both general and specific cognitive skills assume a fundamental role, despite the absence of shared consensus about the relative extent of their involvement. Moreover, regarding general abilities, there is no agreement about the recruitment of the different memory components or of intelligence. In relation to specific factors, great debate subsists regarding the role of the approximate number system (ANS). Starting from these considerations, we wanted to conduct a wide assessment of memory components and ANS, by controlling for the effects associated with intelligence and also exploring possible relationships between all precursors. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 157 children was tested at both beginning and end of their Grade 1. Both general (memory and intelligence) and specific (ANS) precursors were evaluated by a wide battery of tests and put in relation to concurrent and subsequent math skills. Memory was explored in passive and active aspects involving both verbal and visuo-spatial components. Path analysis results demonstrated that memory, and especially the more active processes, and intelligence were the strongest precursors in both assessment times. ANS had a milder role which lost significance by the end of the school year. Memory and ANS seemed to influence early mathematics almost independently. Both general and specific precursors seemed to have a crucial role in early math competences, despite the lower involvement of ANS. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Japanese-English language equivalence of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument among Japanese-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan; Rhoads, Kristoffer; Masaki, Kamal; White, Lon; Borenstein, Amy R.; Larson, Eric B.; Crane, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) was designed for use in cross-cultural studies of Japanese and Japanese-American elderly in Japan and the United States. The measurement equivalence in Japanese and English has not been confirmed in prior studies. Methods We analyzed the 40 CASI items for differential item functioning (DIF) related to test language, as well as self-reported proficiency with written Japanese, age, and educational attainment in two large epidemiologic studies of Japanese-American elderly: the Kame Project (n=1,708) and the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS; n=3,148). DIF was present if the demographic groups differed in the probability of success on an item, controlling for their underlying cognitive functioning ability. Results While 7 CASI items had DIF related to language of testing in Kame (registration of one item; recall of one item; similes; judgment; repeating a phrase; reading and performing a command; and following a 3-step instruction), the impact of DIF on participants’ scores was minimal. Mean scores for Japanese and English speakers in Kame changed by language. In HAAS, there were not enough participants tested in Japanese to assess DIF related to test language. In both studies, DIF related to written Japanese proficiency, age, and educational attainment had minimal impact. Conclusions To the extent that DIF could be assessed, the CASI appeared to meet the goal of measuring cognitive function equivalently in Japanese and English. Stratified data collection would be needed to confirm this conclusion. DIF assessment should be used in other studies with multiple language groups to confirm that measures function equivalently or if not, to form scores that account for DIF. PMID:18947456

  6. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Math Achievement within a Sample of College Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math…

  7. Do different types of school mathematics development depend on different constellations of numerical versus general cognitive abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Geary, David C; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M; Bryant, Joan D; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between basic numerical cognition and domain-general abilities (such as working memory) in explaining school mathematics learning. First graders (N = 280; mean age = 5.77 years) were assessed on 2 types of basic numerical cognition, 8 domain-general abilities, procedural calculations, and word problems in fall and then reassessed on procedural calculations and word problems in spring. Development was indexed by latent change scores, and the interplay between numerical and domain-general abilities was analyzed by multiple regression. Results suggest that the development of different types of formal school mathematics depends on different constellations of numerical versus general cognitive abilities. When controlling for 8 domain-general abilities, both aspects of basic numerical cognition were uniquely predictive of procedural calculations and word problems development. Yet, for procedural calculations development, the additional amount of variance explained by the set of domain-general abilities was not significant, and only counting span was uniquely predictive. By contrast, for word problems development, the set of domain-general abilities did provide additional explanatory value, accounting for about the same amount of variance as the basic numerical cognition variables. Language, attentive behavior, nonverbal problem solving, and listening span were uniquely predictive.

  8. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a number of years, eliminating a language component in testing by using nonverbal cognitive tests has been proposed as a possible solution to the effect of groups’ languages (mother tongues or first languages on test performance. This is particularly relevant in South Africa with its 11 official languages.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups.Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution.Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made.Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  9. Using IQ discrepancy scores to examine the neural correlates of specific cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W; Naglieri, Jack A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-08-28

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N=83 and N=58; age range, 5-57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy.

  10. Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore verbal-nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI and normal-hearing (NH peers. Ten HI-NH and ten NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12;6 years, SD = 2;0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13;7 years, SD = 1;11. Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by nonword repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and nonword repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with hearing impairment and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the hearing impairment in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with hearing impairment to be supported by tasks tapping

  11. Expertise Development With Different Types of Automation: A Function of Different Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipp, Meike

    2016-02-01

    I explored whether different cognitive abilities (information-processing ability, working-memory capacity) are needed for expertise development when different types of automation (information vs. decision automation) are employed. It is well documented that expertise development and the employment of automation lead to improved performance. Here, it is argued that a learner's ability to reason about an activity may be hindered by the employment of information automation. Additional feedback needs to be processed, thus increasing the load on working memory and decelerating expertise development. By contrast, the employment of decision automation may stimulate reasoning, increase the initial load on information-processing ability, and accelerate expertise development. Authors of past research have not investigated the interrelations between automation assistance, individual differences, and expertise development. Sixty-one naive learners controlled simulated air traffic with two types of automation: information automation and decision automation. Their performance was captured across 16 trials. Well-established tests were used to assess information-processing ability and working-memory capacity. As expected, learners' performance benefited from expertise development and decision automation. Furthermore, individual differences moderated the effect of the type of automation on expertise development: The employment of only information automation increased the load on working memory during later expertise development. The employment of decision automation initially increased the need to process information. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences and expertise development when investigating human-automation interaction. The results are relevant for selecting automation configurations for expertise development. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. A randomised comparison of cognitive behavioural therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlijn de Roos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Building on previous research with disaster-exposed children and adolescents, a randomised clinical trial was performed in the treatment of trauma-related symptoms. In the current study two active treatments were compared among children in a broad age range and from a wide diversity of ethnic populations. Objective : The primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR. Design : Children (n=52, aged 4–18 were randomly allocated to either CBT (n=26 or EMDR (n=26 in a disaster mental health after-care setting after an explosion of a fireworks factory. All children received up to four individual treatment sessions over a 4–8 week period along with up to four sessions of parent guidance. Blind assessment took place pre- and post-treatment and at 3 months follow-up on a variety of parent-rated and self-report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and behaviour problems. Analyses of variance (general linear model repeated measures were conducted on the intention-to-treat sample and the completers. Results : Both treatment approaches produced significant reductions on all measures and results were maintained at follow-up. Treatment gains of EMDR were reached in fewer sessions. Conclusion : Standardised CBT and EMDR interventions can significantly improve functioning of disaster-exposed children.For the abstract in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  13. A virtual environment for investigating schizophrenic patients' characteristics: assessment of cognitive and navigation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Cho, Wongeun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Peled, Avi; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Wiederhold, Mark D; Kim, In Y; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, Sun I

    2003-08-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have thinking disorders such as delusions or hallucinations because they have a deficit in the ability to systematize and integrate information. Therefore, they cannot integrate or systematize visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli. The multimodal integration model of the brain can provide a theoretical background from which one can approach multimodal stimulus integration. In this study, we suggest a virtual reality system for the multi-modal assessment of cognitive ability of schizophrenia patients. The virtual reality system can provide multimodal stimuli, such as visual and auditory stimuli, to the patient and can evaluate the patient's multimodal integration and working memory integration abilities by making the patient interpret and react to multimodal stimuli, which must be remembered for a given period of time. The clinical study showed that the virtual reality program developed is comparable to those of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and it provides some information related to the schizophrenic patients' behavior in 3D virtual environment.

  14. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  15. Cognitive ability, academic achievement and academic self-concept: extending the internal/external frame of reference model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S J

    2012-06-01

    Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. To simultaneously examine the influences of domain-specific cognitive ability and grades on domain self-concept in an extended I/E model, including the indirect effect of domain-specific cognitive ability on domain self-concept via grades. Tenth grade respondents (628 male, 452 female) to a national adolescent survey conducted in Taiwan. Respondents completed surveys designed to measure maths and verbal aptitudes. Data on Maths and Chinese class grades and self-concepts were also collected. Statistically significant and positive path coefficients were found between cognitive ability and self-concept in the same domain (direct effect) and between these two constructs via grades (indirect effect). The cross-domain effects of either ability or grades on ASC were negatively significant. Taiwanese 10th graders tend to evaluate their ASCs based on a mix of ability and achievement, with achievement as a mediator exceeding ability as a predictor. In addition, the cross-domain effects suggest that Taiwanese students are likely to view Maths and verbal abilities and achievements as distinctly different. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The role of general cognitive ability in moderating the relation of adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Panourgia, Constantina

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have established the role of various measures of cognitive functioning in dampening the association between adverse life events ('life stress') and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems. However, it is not yet clear if general cognitive ability ('intelligence') is a protective factor. In this study of 1,175 10- to 19-year-olds in five secondary schools in England, we explored this issue. We found that even after controlling for sex, age, family poverty, and special educational needs, the association of life stress with emotional, hyperactivity, and conduct problems was significant. General cognitive ability moderated the association between life stress and conduct problems; among adolescents with higher than average general cognitive ability, the association between life stress and conduct problems was non-significant. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Cognitive abilities and motivational processes in high school students' science achievement and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shun

    The dissertation presents two analytic approaches, a variable-centered and person-centered approach, to investigating holistic patterns of the cognitive, motivational, and affective correlates of science achievement and engagement in a sample of 491 10th and 11th grade high-school students. Building on Snow's (1989) idea of two pathways to achievement outcomes, Study 1 adopted a variable-centered approach to examining how cognitive and motivational factors associated with the performance and commitment pathways, respectively, contributed to the prediction of achievement outcomes in science. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that (a) students' cognitive abilities were the strongest predictors of their performance in science as measured by standardized test scores; (b) motivational processes enhanced the predictive validity for science test scores and grades beyond the variance accounted for by ability and demography; (c) motivational processes were the strongest predictors of students' commitment to science in the form of situational engagement and anticipated choices of science-related college majors and careers; and (d) competence beliefs served as a point of contact between the performance and commitment pathways. These results are consistent with Snow's (1989) conjecture that both performance and commitment pathway-related factors are necessary for understanding the full range of person-level inputs to achievement outcomes. Study 2 adopted a person-centered approach to examining holistic organizations of psychological factors within individuals and their relations to science achievement and engagement. Four types of students characterized by unique configurations of cognitive, motivational, and affective attributes were identified in both the male and female subsamples using inverse factor analysis. Type membership was found to distinguish students in various indicators of science achievement and engagement. Two of the four types were also found

  18. The role of nonverbal cognitive ability in the association of adverse life events with dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether nonverbal cognitive ability buffers the effect of life stress (number of adverse life events in the last year) on diatheses for depression. It was expected that, as problem-solving aptitude, nonverbal cognitive ability would moderate the effect of life stress on those diatheses (such as dysfunctional attitudes) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in information-processing or problem-solving skills, but not on diatheses (such as hopelessness) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in motivation or effort to apply problem-solving skills. The sample included 558 10- to 19-year-olds from a state secondary school in London. Nonverbal cognitive ability was negatively associated with both dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness. As expected, nonverbal cognitive ability moderated the association between life adversity and dysfunctional attitudes. However, hopelessness was not related to life stress, and therefore, there was no life stress effect for nonverbal cognitive ability to moderate. This study adds to knowledge about the association between problem-solving ability and depressogenic diatheses. By identifying life stress as a risk factor for dysfunctional attitudes but not hopelessness, it highlights the importance of considering outcome specificity in models predicting adolescent outcomes from adverse life events. Importantly for practice, it suggests that an emphasis on recent life adversity will likely underestimate the true level of hopelessness among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  20. The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Findings on the association of speaking different languages with cognitive functioning in old age are inconsistent and inconclusive so far. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of the number of languages spoken to cognitive performance and its interplay with several other markers of cognitive reserve in a large sample of older adults. Two thousand eight hundred and twelve older adults served as sample for the present study. Psychometric tests on verbal abilities, basic processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were administered. In addition, individuals were interviewed on their different languages spoken on a regular basis, educational attainment, occupation, and engaging in different activities throughout adulthood. Higher number of languages regularly spoken was significantly associated with better performance in verbal abilities and processing speed, but unrelated to cognitive flexibility. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken predicted cognitive performance over and above leisure activities/physical demand of job/gainful activity as respective additional predictor, but not over and above educational attainment/cognitive level of job as respective additional predictor. There was no significant moderation of the association of the number of languages spoken with cognitive performance in any model. Present data suggest that speaking different languages on a regular basis may additionally contribute to the build-up of cognitive reserve in old age. Yet, this may not be universal, but linked to verbal abilities and basic cognitive processing speed. Moreover, it may be dependent on other types of cognitive stimulation that individuals also engaged in during their life course.

  1. On the Role of Cognitive Abilities in Second Language Vowel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarvand Mokari, Payam; Werner, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the role of different cognitive abilities-inhibitory control, attention control, phonological short-term memory (PSTM), and acoustic short-term memory (AM)-in second language (L2) vowel learning. The participants were 40 Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English. Their perception of L2 vowels was tested through a perceptual discrimination task before and after five sessions of high-variability phonetic training. Inhibitory control was significantly correlated with gains from training in the discrimination of L2 vowel pairs. However, there were no significant correlations between attention control, AM, PSTM, and gains from training. These findings suggest the potential role of inhibitory control in L2 phonological learning. We suggest that inhibitory control facilitates the processing of L2 sounds by allowing learners to ignore the interfering information from L1 during training, leading to better L2 segmental learning.

  2. Triangular relationship between sleep spindle activity, general cognitive ability and the efficiency of declarative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Maric, Angelina; Dürr, Roland; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    EEG sleep spindle activity (SpA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep has been reported to be associated with measures of intelligence and overnight performance improvements. The reticular nucleus of the thalamus is generating sleep spindles in interaction with thalamocortical connections. The same system enables efficient encoding and processing during wakefulness. Thus, we examined if the triangular relationship between SpA, measures of intelligence and declarative learning reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical system. As expected, SpA was associated with general cognitive ability, e.g. information processing speed. SpA was also associated with learning efficiency, however, not with overnight performance improvement in a declarative memory task. SpA might therefore reflect the efficiency of the thalamocortical network and can be seen as a marker for learning during encoding in wakefulness, i.e. learning efficiency.

  3. If you are so smart, why aren't you an entrepreneur? Returns to cognitive and social ability: Entrepreneurs versus employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; van Praag, M.; van der Sluis, J.

    2008-01-01

    How valuable are cognitive and social abilities for entrepreneurs’ incomes as compared to employees? We answer three questions: (1) To what extent does a composite measure of ability affect an entrepreneur's earnings relative to employees? (2) Do different cognitive abilities (e.g. math ability,

  4. If you are so smart, why aren't you an entrepreneur? Returns to cognitive and social ability: Entrepreneurs versus employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; van Praag, M.; van der Sluis, J.

    2008-01-01

    How valuable are cognitive and social abilities for entrepreneurs' incomes as compared to employees? We answer three questions: (1) To what extent does a composite measure of ability affect an entrepreneur's earnings relative to employees? (2) Do different cognitive abilities (e.g. math ability,

  5. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling

    2015-01-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing...... the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression...... with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation...

  6. Relation of callosal structure to cognitive abilities in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC and its relation to cognitive abilities. More specifically, we investigated correlations between intellectual abilities and callosal morphology, while additionally exploring the modulating impact of (a side of seizure onset (b age of disease onset.For this reason a large representative sample of patients with hippocampal sclerosis (n=79; 35 males; 44 females; age: 18-63 years with disease onset ranging from 0 to 50 years of age, and consisting of 46 left and 33 right TLE patients was recruited. Intelligence was measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R.To get localizations of correlations with high anatomic precision, callosal morphology was examined using computational mesh-based modeling methods, applied to anatomical brain MRI scans.Intellectual performance was positively associated with callosal thickness in anterior and midcallosal callosal regions, with anterior parts being slightly more affected by age of disease onset and side of seizure onset than posterior parts. Earlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with lower thickness in anterior and midcallosal regions. In addition, laterality of seizure onset had a significant influence on anterior CC morphology, with left hemispheric origin having stronger effects.We found that in TLE, anterior and midcallosal CC morphology are related to cognitive performance. The findings support recent findings of detrimental effects of early onset mTLE on anterior brain regions and of a distinct effect particularly of left TLE on frontal lobe functioning and structure. The causal nature of the relationship remains an open question, i.e., whether CC morphology impacts IQ development or whether IQ development impacts CC morphology, or both.

  7. Development of cognitive abilities of children infected with helminths through health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lobato

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health education in learning and cognitive development of children infected, previously treated in an endemic area for helminthiasis. METHODS: It is a longitudinal, experimental, with random allocation of participants. The study included 87 children of both sexes enrolled in the school hall of Maranhão, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and divided into two groups: intervention and control. Initially the children were submitted to the parasitological fecal examination for infection diagnosis and, when positive, they were treated. For the data collection, a structured questionnaire and the psychological tests Raven, Wisc-III and DAP III were applied, before and after the educational intervention. For the group comparison, the Mann Whitney test was used, and established significance level of 5%. RESULTS: It was found that previously infected children who received the educational intervention, children showed higher performance than the control group in strutured questionnaire (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It is acceptable to suppose the positive influence and the importance in the use of educational interventions in the cognitive recovery and learning of children previously treated with anthelmintics.

  8. Is body mass index in old age related to cognitive abilities? The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Janie; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2010-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the previously reported association between a higher body mass index (BMI) and poorer cognition in later adulthood is an artifact of confounding by previous cognitive ability and socioeconomic status. Participants were 1,079 adults aged about 70 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study, on whom there are IQ data from age 11. Cognitive outcome measures included: IQ at age 70 using the same test that was administered at age 11; composite measures of general cognitive ability (g factor), speed of information processing, and memory; and two tests of verbal ability. People classified as overweight or obese in later adulthood had significantly lower scores on tests of childhood IQ, age 70 IQ, g factor, and verbal ability. There was no significant association with processing speed or memory performance. After adjusting for childhood IQ and social class in general linear models, associations with age 70 IQ and g factor were nonsignificant or attenuated. However, throughout the models, there was a persistent (inverse) relationship between BMI and performance on the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which remained significant after full adjustment for all sociodemographic and health covariates (for the NART, p = .025; for the WTAR, p = .011). The findings suggest that the previously reported BMI-cognition associations in later adulthood could be largely accounted for by prior ability and socioeconomic status, and by the possible influence of these factors on the adoption of health behaviors in adulthood. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Bright minds and dark attitudes: lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models.

  10. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction.

  11. Changes in White Matter Microstructure Impact Cognition by Disrupting the Ability of Neural Assemblies to Synchronize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bells, Sonya; Lefebvre, Jérémie; Prescott, Steven A; Dockstader, Colleen; Bouffet, Eric; Skocic, Jovanka; Laughlin, Suzanne; Mabbott, Donald J

    2017-08-23

    Cognition is compromised by white matter (WM) injury but the neurophysiological alterations linking them remain unclear. We hypothesized that reduced neural synchronization caused by disruption of neural signal propagation is involved. To test this, we evaluated group differences in: diffusion tensor WM microstructure measures within the optic radiations, primary visual area (V1), and cuneus; neural phase synchrony to a visual attention cue during visual-motor task; and reaction time to a response cue during the same task between 26 pediatric patients (17/9: male/female) treated with cranial radiation treatment for a brain tumor (12.67 ± 2.76 years), and 26 healthy children (16/10: male/female; 12.01 ± 3.9 years). We corroborated our findings using a corticocortical computational model representing perturbed signal conduction from myelin. Patients show delayed reaction time, WM compromise, and reduced phase synchrony during visual attention compared with healthy children. Notably, using partial least-squares-path modeling we found that WM insult within the optic radiations, V1, and cuneus is a strong predictor of the slower reaction times via disruption of neural synchrony in visual cortex. Observed changes in synchronization were reproduced in a computational model of WM injury. These findings provide new evidence linking cognition with WM via the reliance of neural synchronization on propagation of neural signals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By comparing brain tumor patients to healthy children, we establish that changes in the microstructure of the optic radiations and neural synchrony during visual attention predict reaction time. Furthermore, by testing the directionality of these links through statistical modeling and verifying our findings with computational modeling, we infer a causal relationship, namely that changes in white matter microstructure impact cognition in part by disturbing the ability of neural assemblies to synchronize. Together, our human

  12. Age-related changes in auditory and cognitive abilities in elderly persons with hearing aids fitted at the initial stages of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Obuchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relation between the use of hearing aids at the initial stages of hearing loss and age-related changes in the auditory and cognitive abilities of elderly persons. 12 healthy elderly persons participated in an annual auditory and cognitive longitudinal examination for three years. According to their hearing level, they were divided into 3 subgroups - the normal hearing group, the hearing loss without hearing aids group, and the hearing loss with hearing aids group. All the subjects underwent 4 tests: pure-tone audiometry, syllable intelligibility test, dichotic listening test (DLT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R Short Forms. Comparison between the 3 groups revealed that the hearing loss without hearing aids group showed the lowest scores for the performance tasks, in contrast to the hearing level and intelligibility results. The other groups showed no significant difference in the WAIS-R subtests. This result indicates that prescription of a hearing aid during the early stages of hearing loss is related to the retention of cognitive abilities in such elderly people. However, there were no statistical significant correlations between the auditory and cognitive tasks.

  13. The effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on the cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.

  14. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eTrujillo-Pozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe epilepsy. A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere’s patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At 1-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity.

  15. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Pozo, Isabel; Martín-Monzón, Isabel; Rodríguez-Romero, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP) when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test) has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy (TLE). A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic, and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere's patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At one-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language, and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity.

  16. Performance Costs when Emotion Tunes Inappropriate Cognitive Abilities: Implications for Mental Resources and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Emotion tunes cognition, such that approach-motivated positive states promote verbal cognition, whereas withdrawal-motivated negative states promote spatial cognition (Gray, 2001). The current research examined whether self-control resources become depleted and influence subsequent behavior when emotion tunes an inappropriate cognitive tendency.…

  17. Cognitive ability in young adulthood and risk of dementia in a cohort of Danish men, brothers, and twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Christensen, Gunhild T.; Garde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and dementia in Danish men, brothers, and male twins. METHODS: In total, 666,986 men born between 1939 and 1959 were identified for dementia diagnosis in national registries from 1969 to 2016. The association...... between cognitive ability from draft board examination and dementia was examined using Cox regression. RESULTS: During a 44-year follow-up, 6416 (0.96%) men developed dementia, 1760 (0.26%) and 970 (0.15%) of which were classified as Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, respectively. Low cognitive ability...... was associated with increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR]per SD decrease 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.30-1.35]) with the strongest associations for vascular dementia (HRper SD decrease 1.47 [95% CI = 1.31-1.56]) and a weaker for Alzheimer's disease (HRper SD decrease 1.07 [95% CI = 1...

  18. Lexical-Access Ability and Cognitive Predictors of Speech Recognition in Noise in Adult Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kaandorp, Marre W.; Smits, Cas; Merkus, Paul; Festen, Joost M.; Goverts, S. Theo

    2017-01-01

    Not all of the variance in speech-recognition performance of cochlear implant (CI) users can be explained by biographic and auditory factors. In normal-hearing listeners, linguistic and cognitive factors determine most of speech-in-noise performance. The current study explored specifically the influence of visually measured lexical-access ability compared with other cognitive factors on speech recognition of 24 postlingually deafened CI users. Speech-recognition performance was measured with ...

  19. Cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with systemic inflammation in middle age: the Vietnam experience study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Anna C; Batty, G David; van Zanten, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen

    2011-01-01

    , and place of service were extracted from enlistment files. Smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, basic socio-demographics, and whether participants suffered from a physician diagnosed chronic disease were determined by telephone interview in middle-age in 1985. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cholesterol...... erythrocyte sedimentation rate in middle age, ß=-.09. Thus, it would appear that not only does systemic inflammation influence cognition, but also that poor cognitive ability earlier in life is associated with inflammation in middle-age....

  20. The interplay between personality and cognitive ability across 12 years in middle and late adulthood: Evidence for reciprocal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Markus; Tauber, Benjamin; Kuźma, Elżbieta; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-05-01

    Research on relationships between personality and cognitive abilities has so far resulted in inconsistent findings regarding the strength of the associations. Moreover, relationships have rarely been compared longitudinally and bidirectionally between midlife versus late-life cohorts by considering different personality traits as well as multiple cognitive domains over a long-term follow-up period. We hypothesize that the interplay between the "Big Five" personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) and cognitive abilities (information processing speed, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence) may change from midlife to old age due to age-associated changes in cognitive and personality plasticity. We used data from the German Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE study; n = 1,002). Participants were either born in 1950/52 (midlife sample, n = 502) or in 1930/32 (late-life sample, n = 500) and followed up for up to 12 years. Based on bivariate latent change score regression models (adjusted for gender, education, self-rated and physician-rated health), we observed that, apart from very few exceptions, the intervariable cross-lagged associations between personality traits and cognitive abilities were generally similar between cohorts. Moreover, in case of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness, the effects of cognitive abilities on change in personality were stronger than the reversed effects. Our findings thus suggest that the so far predominant perspective of personality in middle adulthood and late-life as a predictor, rather than as an outcome, of cognitive abilities needs more differentiation and reconsideration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Social cognition in schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BP). While these deficits are more severe in schizophrenia, there is a significant overlap between conditions. However, it was hypothesized that social cognitive deficits might be more specific to schizophrenia. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing facial emotion recognition and theory of mind (ToM) abilities in schizophrenia and BP. 26 studies comparing 1301 patients with schizophrenia and 1075 with BP were included. Schizophrenia patients significantly underperformed compared with BP patients in both facial emotion recognition (d=0.39) and ToM (d=0.57). Neurocognitive deficits significantly contributed to schizophrenia-BP group differences for ToM. However, between-group differences for social cognition were not statistically more severe than neurocognition. Social cognitive impairment is more severe in schizophrenia in comparison to BP. However, between-group differences are modest and are comparable to other neurocognitive differences between schizophrenia and BP. There is significant overlap in social cognitive performance deficits observed in both schizophrenia and BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Education, leisure activities and cognitive and functional ability of Alzheimer's disease patients: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Margarida; Paúl, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Education and participation in leisure activities appear to be highly relevant variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and usually form the basis of the Cognitive Reserve construct. [A] To determine the association between education, cognitive and functional ability of AD patients; [B] To determine the association between participation in leisure activities and cognitive and functional ability of AD patients; [C] To evaluate the association of education and participation in leisure activities in the course of AD. Functional and neuropsychological abilities of 120 outpatients with probable AD were evaluated at baseline, at 36 and 54 months. Data collected at baseline included socio-demographics, clinical variables, education and frequency of participation in leisure activities throughout life. All participants and/or caregivers answered the questionnaire, "Participation in leisure activities throughout life" while patients completed the MMSE, the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, neuropsychological tests from the Lisbon Screening for Dementia Assessment, Barthel Index and Lawton and Brody's Index. AD patients with higher levels of education achieved better results on cognitive tests. The participants with higher participation in leisure activities exhibited better results on cognitive and functional tests than those with lower participation. The disease progression was linear and progressed similarly regardless of the level of education of participants. However, the results suggest a slower disease progression in patients with a higher level of participation in leisure activities throughout their lives. AD patients with high education and high participation in leisure activities may benefit from a slower cognitive and functional decline after diagnosis of AD.

  3. Cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with systemic inflammation in middle age: the Vietnam experience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Batty, G David; van Zanten, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen; Mortensen, Laust H; Deary, Ian J; Calvin, Catherine M; Carroll, Douglas

    2011-02-01

    We examined the prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, a marker of inflammation, in middle age. Participants were 4256 male Vietnam era US veterans. Data on cognitive ability, assessed by the Army General Technical Test, ethnicity, and place of service were extracted from enlistment files. Smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, basic socio-demographics, and whether participants suffered from a physician diagnosed chronic disease were determined by telephone interview in middle-age in 1985. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cholesterol, blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at a 3-day medical examination in 1986. In linear regression models that adjusted for age and then additionally for circumstantial, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health factors, poor cognitive ability in early adulthood was associated with greater erythrocyte sedimentation rate in middle age, β=-.09. Thus, it would appear that not only does systemic inflammation influence cognition, but also that poor cognitive ability earlier in life is associated with inflammation in middle-age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive Value of Traditional Measures of Executive Function on Broad Abilities of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, Loes; van der Heijden, Paul T; Oomens, Wouter; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2017-09-01

    The neuropsychological construct of executive functions (EFs), and the psychometric Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities are both approaches that attempt to describe cognitive functioning. The coherence between EF and CHC abilities has been mainly studied using factor-analytical techniques. Through multivariate regression analysis, the current study now assesses the integration of these latent constructs in clinical assessment. The predictive power of six widely used executive tasks on five CHC measures (crystallized and fluid intelligence, visual processing, short-term memory, and processing speed) is examined. Results indicate that executive tasks-except for the Stroop and the Tower of London-predict overall performance on the intelligence tests. Differentiation in predicting performance between the CHC abilities is limited, due to a high shared variance between these abilities. It is concluded that executive processes such as planning and inhibition have a unique variance that is not well-represented in intelligence tests. Implications for the use of EF tests and operationalization of CHC measures in clinical practice are discussed.

  5. An examination of an enhancing effect of music on attentional abilities in older persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jessica I; Goldstein, Felicia C

    2011-02-01

    While the effect of listening to music on cognitive abilities is highly debated, studies reporting an enhancing effect of music in elderly populations appear to be more consistent. In this study, the effects of listening to music on attention in groups of cognitively normal older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were considered. Participants were exposed to both a music and silence condition, and after each condition performed Digit Span and Coding tasks which require attention for maximal performance. The hypothesis that listening to music, compared to a silence condition, enhances performance was not supported for either group. Various explanations for these findings are considered.

  6. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract improves the cognitive abilities of rats with D-galactose induced dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nuan; Chen, Xianming; Geng, Deqin; Huang, Hongli; Zhou, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been used in clinical trials for its beneficial effects on brain functions, particularly in dementia. Substantial experimental evidences indicated that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGB) protected neuronal cells from a variety of insults. We investigated the effect of EGB on cognitive ability and protein kinase B (PKB) activity in hippocampal neuronal cells of dementia model rats. Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose to induce dementia. Forty-eight Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, including the control group, D-galactose group (Gal), low-dose EGB group (EGB-L), mid-dose EGB group (EGB-M), high-dose EGB group (EGB-H) and treatment group. The EGB-L, EGB-M and EGB-H groups were administered with EGB and D-galactose simultaneously. Y-maze, cresyl violet staining, TUNEL assays and immunohistochemistry staining were performed to detect learning and memory abilities, morphological changes in the hippocampus, neuronal apoptosis and the expressing level of phospho-PKB, respectively. Rats in the Gal group showed decreased abilities of learning and memory, and hippocampal pyramidal cell layer was damaged, while EGB administration improved learning and memory abilities. The Gal group exhibited many stained, condensed nuclei and micronuclei, either isolated or within the cytoplasm of cells (39.5±1.4). Apoptotic cells decreased in the groups of EGB-L (35.9±0.9), EGB-M (16.8±1.0) and EGB-H (10.1±0.8), and there were statistical significances compared with the Gal group. Immunoreactivity of phospho-PKB was localized diffusely throughout the cytosol of cells in all groups, while the immunoreactivity of the Gal group was weak. EGB significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in a dose-dependent manner, while it could decrease the nmber of TUNEL-positive cells, and increase the activity of PKB. Our results demonstrated that EGB attenuated memory impairment and cell apoptosis in

  7. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults. Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established. Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured. Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme. Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional intelligence. Contribution/value-add: The study added insights to the field of career psychology regarding the ability of emotional intelligence to predict important outcomes regarding the dimensions of emotional intelligence (EI as

  8. The effects of holistic health group interventions on improving the cognitive ability of persons with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young KW

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim-wan Young,1 Petrus Ng,1 Timothy Kwok,2 Daphne Cheng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, 2Department of Medicine (Geriatric Division, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. Research methods: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT, 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group. The holistic health treatment group attempted to promote the acceptance of their illness, enhance memory and coping skills, develop a positive lifestyle, maintain positive emotions, and facilitate emotional support among participants. The 10-session holistic health group intervention was structured, with each session conducted once per week and ~90 minutes in length. Control group patients and their family caregivers received standardized basic educational materials that provided basic information on cognitive decline for them to read at home. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test was used to assess the cognitive ability of PwMCI in the pre- and posttreatment periods by a research assistant who was blind to the group assignment of the participants. Results: The paired-samples t-test indicated that the treatment group (n=18 showed significant improvement in the MoCA score, whereas the control group (n=20 did not. Moreover, 2×2 (group × time repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA demonstrated that the holistic health group treatment was significantly more effective than the control intervention in improving the MoCA score, with a moderate effect size, and

  9. Contributions of a Child’s Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jazmin Del Carmen; Quackenboss, James J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of a child’s cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negative and positive, over the life course. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence associated with children’s cognitive health, including inherent factors as well as chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Three databases were used to identify recent epidemiological studies (2003–2013) that examined exposure factors associated with general cognitive ability in children. Over 100 factors were evaluated from 258 eligible studies. We found that recent literature mainly assessed the hypothesized negative effects of either inherent factors or chemical exposures present in the physical environment. Prenatal growth, sleep health, lead and water pollutants showed consistent negative effects. Of the few studies that examined social stressors, results consistently showed cognitive development to be influenced by both positive and negative social interactions at home, in school or the community. Among behavioral factors related to diet and lifestyle choices of the mother, breastfeeding was the most studied, showing consistent positive associations with cognitive ability. There were mostly inconsistent results for both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The majority of studies utilized traditional exposure assessments, evaluating chemical and non-chemical stressors separately. Collective evidence from a limited number of studies revealed that cumulative exposure assessment that incorporates multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors over the life course may unravel the variability in effect on cognitive development and help explain the inconsistencies across studies. Future research examining the interactions of multiple stressors

  10. Reverse causation in the association between C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels and cognitive abilities in an aging sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Marioni, Riccardo E; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that increased levels of inflammatory and hemostatic markers are associated with poorer cognitive performance and to assess the influence of childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) and current cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on this relationship. Blood inflammatory markers have been shown to predict late-life cognition, although the mechanism through which this occurs is unknown. Levels of the biomarkers C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were measured in 1053 Scottish participants (50.2% female) from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 ranging in age from 67 to 71 years. Biomarker levels were tested for their association with diverse cognitive abilities. Significant cross-sectional associations were found between the biomarkers and various cognitive abilities: their effect size was around 1% of the variance and was in the direction of higher marker levels conferring poorer cognitive performance. With the exception of the reaction time measures (and fibrinogen), these associations could be explained by childhood IQ, CVD risk factors, or both. Importantly, both the inflammatory markers at age 70 years were associated (p IQ. Whereas inflammatory marker levels predict contemporaneous general cognitive ability, the results support a model of reverse causation because childhood IQ predicts late-life inflammation. This might be through its association with later life CVD risk factors or because it is a measure of system integrity. Unlike general cognitive ability, the association between inflammatory markers (particularly fibrinogen) and processing speed was maintained in the presence of childhood IQ and/or CVD risk factor adjustments. This might also reflect variation in physiological integrity.

  11. Contributions of a Child's Built, Natural, and Social Environments to Their General Cognitive Ability: A Systematic Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jazmin Del Carmen; Quackenboss, James J; Tulve, Nicolle S

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of a child's cognitive ability is complex, with research suggesting that it is not attributed to a single determinant or even a defined period of exposure. Rather, cognitive development is the product of cumulative interactions with the environment, both negative and positive, over the life course. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to collate evidence associated with children's cognitive health, including inherent factors as well as chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments. Three databases were used to identify recent epidemiological studies (2003-2013) that examined exposure factors associated with general cognitive ability in children. Over 100 factors were evaluated from 258 eligible studies. We found that recent literature mainly assessed the hypothesized negative effects of either inherent factors or chemical exposures present in the physical environment. Prenatal growth, sleep health, lead and water pollutants showed consistent negative effects. Of the few studies that examined social stressors, results consistently showed cognitive development to be influenced by both positive and negative social interactions at home, in school or the community. Among behavioral factors related to diet and lifestyle choices of the mother, breastfeeding was the most studied, showing consistent positive associations with cognitive ability. There were mostly inconsistent results for both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The majority of studies utilized traditional exposure assessments, evaluating chemical and non-chemical stressors separately. Collective evidence from a limited number of studies revealed that cumulative exposure assessment that incorporates multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors over the life course may unravel the variability in effect on cognitive development and help explain the inconsistencies across studies. Future research examining the interactions of multiple stressors within

  12. A comparison of 2 screening questionnaires for clinical assessment of canine cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, Trine; Toft, Nils; Berendt, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is a neurobehavioral syndrome occurring in some senior dogs. The diagnosis is currently primarily dependent on owner-based questionnaires addressing changes in behavior and daily routines and the exclusion of other conditions which may display clinical signs...... on the basis of very different strategies. The study population consisted of 50 dogs more than 8years of age. The dogs were evaluated clinically, and the 2 questionnaires were given in a face-to-face interview with the owners. The study found a significant correlation (r= 0.83, P ... questionnaires. The ability to identify dogs with multiple and severe signs of CCD were equally good. This is of importance for research studying CCD case definitions and for comparisons between studies using different questionnaires. If evaluation for longitudinal changes is needed, the canine cognitive rating...

  13. Using implicit association tests in age-heterogeneous samples: The importance of cognitive abilities and quad model processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Egloff, Boris; Riediger, Michaela

    2017-08-01

    Implicit association tests (IATs) are increasingly used to indirectly assess people's traits, attitudes, or other characteristics. In addition to measuring traits or attitudes, IAT scores also reflect differences in cognitive abilities because scores are based on reaction times (RTs) and errors. As cognitive abilities change with age, questions arise concerning the usage and interpretation of IATs for people of different age. To address these questions, the current study examined how cognitive abilities and cognitive processes (i.e., quad model parameters) contribute to IAT results in a large age-heterogeneous sample. Participants (N = 549; 51% female) in an age-stratified sample (range = 12-88 years) completed different IATs and 2 tasks to assess cognitive processing speed and verbal ability. From the IAT data, D2-scores were computed based on RTs, and quad process parameters (activation of associations, overcoming bias, detection, guessing) were estimated from individual error rates. Substantial IAT scores and quad processes except guessing varied with age. Quad processes AC and D predicted D2-scores of the content-specific IAT. Importantly, the effects of cognitive abilities and quad processes on IAT scores were not significantly moderated by participants' age. These findings suggest that IATs seem suitable for age-heterogeneous studies from adolescence to old age when IATs are constructed and analyzed appropriately, for example with D-scores and process parameters. We offer further insight into how D-scoring controls for method effects in IATs and what IAT scores capture in addition to implicit representations of characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The imposition of, but not the propensity for, social subordination impairs exploratory behaviors and general cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas-Zelin, Danielle; Light, Kenneth R; Kolata, Stefan; Wass, Christopher; Denman-Brice, Alexander; Rios, Christopher; Szalk, Kris; Matzel, Louis D

    2012-06-15

    Imposed social subordination, such as that which accompanies physical defeat or alienation, has been associated with impaired cognitive function in both human and non-human animals. Here we examined whether domain-specific and/or domain-general learning abilities (c.f. general intelligence) are differentially influenced by the imposition of social subordination. Furthermore, we assessed whether the impact of subordination on cognitive abilities was the result of imposed subordination per se, or if it reflected deficits intrinsically expressed in subjects that are predisposed to subordination. Subordinate and dominant behaviors were assessed in two groups of CD-1 male mice. In one group (Imposed Stratification), social stratification was imposed (through persistent physical defeat in a colonized setting) prior to the determination of cognitive abilities, while in the second group (Innate Stratification), an assessment of social stratification was made after cognitive abilities had been quantified. Domain-specific learning abilities were measured as performance on individual learning tasks (odor discrimination, fear conditioning, spatial maze learning, passive avoidance, and egocentric navigation) while domain-general learning abilities were determined by subjects' aggregate performance across the battery of learning tasks. We observed that the imposition of subordination prior to cognitive testing decreased exploratory tendencies, moderately impaired performance on individual learning tasks, and severely impaired general cognitive performance. However, similar impairments were not observed in subjects with a predisposition toward a subordinate phenotype (but which had not experienced physical defeat at the time of cognitive testing). Mere colonization, regardless of outcome (i.e., stratification), was associated with an increase in stress-induced serum corticosterone (CORT) levels, and thus CORT elevations were not themselves adequate to explain the effects of

  15. Global, Broad, or Specific Cognitive Differences? Using a MIMIC Model to Examine Differences in CHC Abilities in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the relations between learning disabilities and different levels of latent cognitive abilities, including general intelligence (g), broad cognitive abilities, and specific abilities based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of intelligence (CHC theory). Data from the "Differential Ability…

  16. If you are so smart, why aren't you an entrepreneur? Returns to cognitive and social ability: Entrepreneurs versus employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; van Praag, M.; van der Sluis, J.

    2010-01-01

    How valuable are cognitive and social abilities for entrepreneurs’ relative to employees’ earnings? We answer three questions: (1) To what extent does a composite measure of ability affect an entrepreneur's earnings relative to wages earned by employees? (2) Do different cognitive abilities (e.g.,

  17. Shared and Unique Genetic and Environmental Influences on Aging-Related Changes in Multiple Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related declines occur in many different domains of cognitive function during middle and late adulthood. However, whether a global dimension underlies individual differences in changes in different domains of cognition and whether global genetic influences on cognitive changes exist is less clear. We addressed these issues by applying…

  18. Comparison of chewing ability, oral health related quality of life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of chewing ability, oral health related quality of life and nutritional status before and after insertion of complete denture amongst edentulous patients in a Dental College of Pune. ... denture amongst edentulous participants in a dental college. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non Randomized Intervention study.

  19. The effects of holistic health group interventions on improving the cognitive ability of persons with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus; Kwok, Timothy; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group. The holistic health treatment group attempted to promote the acceptance of their illness, enhance memory and coping skills, develop a positive lifestyle, maintain positive emotions, and facilitate emotional support among participants. The 10-session holistic health group intervention was structured, with each session conducted once per week and ~90 minutes in length. Control group patients and their family caregivers received standardized basic educational materials that provided basic information on cognitive decline for them to read at home. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test was used to assess the cognitive ability of PwMCI in the pre- and posttreatment periods by a research assistant who was blind to the group assignment of the participants. The paired-samples t -test indicated that the treatment group (n=18) showed significant improvement in the MoCA score, whereas the control group (n=20) did not. Moreover, 2×2 (group × time) repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that the holistic health group treatment was significantly more effective than the control intervention in improving the MoCA score, with a moderate effect size, and improving the delayed recall (ie, short-term memory), with a strong effect size, after controlling for age, sex, education, and marital status. This present RCT provides evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of the holistic health group intervention in

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid intake ameliorates ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shucai; Dai, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Hao, Wei; Chen, Hongxian

    2014-09-19

    Several studies have reported the ketamine-induced cognitive impairment. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves cognitive function in human infants and protects against learning impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of DHA on ketamine-induced impairment of spatial cognition and learning ability in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (30mg/kg, twice per day) for 4 weeks led to the decline of spatial cognitive ability in mice, and 420mg/(kgd) DHA supplementation for 6 weeks improved ketamine-induced spatial cognitive impairment to a certain extent. The up-regulation of GABA levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was related to the improvement in spatial learning. Our results suggested that DHA supplementation would be a promising intervention to improve ketamine-induced spatial memory and cognitive dysfunction, and this effect of DHA might be correlated with the up-regulation of GABA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  2. Linguistic and Cognitive Abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment as Compared to Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Jeannette

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27 age-matched children with HFA, and a control group…

  3. Linguistic and other cognitive abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment as compared to children with High-Functioning Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27

  4. Dopamine D1 Sensitivity in the Prefrontal Cortex Predicts General Cognitive Abilities and is Modulated by Working Memory Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to…

  5. Teachers' Cognitive Flexibility on Engagement and Their Ability to Engage Students: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kristy Cooper; Miness, Andrew; Kintz, Tara

    2018-01-01

    Background: Student engagement is a cognitively complex domain that is often oversimplified in theory and practice. Reliance on a single model overlooks the sophisticated nature of student engagement and can lead to misconceptions and limited understandings that hinder teachers' ability to engage all of their students. Assessing varied models…

  6. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  7. Cognitive Ability, Academic Achievement and Academic Self-Concept: Extending the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Kuang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model depicts the relationship between achievement and self-concept in specific academic domains. Few efforts have been made to examine concurrent relationships among cognitive ability, achievement, and academic self-concept (ASC) within an I/E model framework. Aim: To simultaneously…

  8. Do Participants Differ in Their Cognitive Abilities, Task Motivation, or Personality Characteristics as a Function of Time of Participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K.; Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments tested the conventional wisdom in experimental psychology that participants who complete laboratory tasks systematically differ in their cognitive abilities, motivational levels, and personality characteristics as a function of the time at which they participate during an academic term. Across 4 experiments with over 2,900…

  9. The mediating role of cognitive ability on the relationship between motor proficiency and early academic achievement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Duval, Stéphanie; Lemay, Lise; Tremblay, Tania; Lemire, Julie

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motor proficiency and academic achievement in 7 years-old children. A mediating model in which the relation between motor proficiency and academic achievement is mediated by cognitive ability was tested. Participants included 152 children from the longitudinal study Jeunes enfants et leurs milieux de vie (Young Children and their Environments). Motor proficiency was evaluated with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT2), cognitive ability with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and academic achievement with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT II). Results showed that motor proficiency, cognitive ability and academic achievement were positively correlated with each other. A structural equation modeling analysis revealed that motor proficiency had a positive effect on academic achievement through an indirect path via cognitive ability. These results highlight the fundamental importance of motor skills in children's academic achievement in early school years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A prospective study of the trajectories of clinical insight, affective symptoms, and cognitive ability in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Savla, Gauri N.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical insight in bipolar disorder is associated with treatment adherence and psychosocial outcome. The short-term dynamics of clinical insight in relationship to symptoms and cognitive abilities are unknown. Methods In a prospective observational study, a total of 106 outpatients with bipolar disorder I or II were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks. Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, clinical ratings of manic and depressive symptom severity, and self-reported clinical insight. Lagged correlations and linear mixed-effects models were used to determine the temporal associations between symptoms and insight, as well as the moderating influence of global cognitive abilities. Results At baseline, insight was modestly correlated with severity of manic symptoms, but not with depressive symptoms or cognitive abilities. Insight and depressive symptoms fluctuated to approximately the same extent over time. Both lagged correlations and mixed effects models with lagged effects indicated that the severity of manic symptoms predicted worse insight at later assessments, whereas the converse was not significant. There were no direct or moderating influences of global cognitive abilities. Limitations Our sample size was modest, and included relatively psychiatrically stable outpatients, followed for a six month period. Our results may not generalize to acutely symptomatic patients followed over a longer period. Conclusions Clinical insight varies substantially over time within patients with bipolar disorder. Impaired insight in bipolar disorder is more likely to follow than to precede manic symptoms. PMID:24200153

  11. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: findings from two European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Araya, R.; Lawlor, D.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

  12. Tooth loss and caries prevalence in very old Swedish people: the relationship to cognitive function and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether cognitive function and functional ability are related to oral health among community-dwelling older people over the age of 80 years. BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study is based on the Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Survey (KEOHS). The study included oral examinat...

  13. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  14. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  15. Children's Biological Givens, Stress Responses, Language and Cognitive Abilities and Family Background after Entering Kindergarten in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Eira; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari A.

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate stress response regulation, temperament, cognitive and language abilities and family SES in children who entered kindergarten before two years of age. Whilst childrens stress regulatory systems are vulnerable to environmental influences little is known about how temperament and family characteristics impact on stress…

  16. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence : Findings from two European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

  17. The influence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Andersen, Søren B; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    Objective New trajectories of PTSD symptoms have recently been identified in war exposed army veterans. The aim of this army veterans study was to examine whether pre-deployment cognitive ability is associated with the risk of developing PTSD symptoms or non-resilient PTSD trajectories. Method...... (based on logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning) were converted to a mean of 100 and with a standard deviation of 15. Results Higher pre-deployment cognitive ability scores were associated with lower risk of PTSD symptoms as assessed by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist...... deployment and a drastic increase in PTSD symptoms at the final assessments of PTSD symptoms) had significantly lower cognitive scores by a mean difference of 14.5 (95% CI 4.7-24.3). This trajectory (n=9) comprised 26.5% of soldiers with moderate-severe PTSD symptoms 2.5 years post-deployment. Conclusion We...

  18. Illness Severity, Social and Cognitive Ability, and EEG Analysis of Ten Patients with Rett Syndrome Treated with Mecasermin (Recombinant Human IGF-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Giorgio; Congiu, Laura; Benincasa, Alberto; DiMarco, Pietro; Bigoni, Stefania; Dyer, Adam H.; Mortimer, Niall; Della-Chiesa, Andrea; O'Leary, Sean; McNamara, Rachel; Mitchell, Kevin J.; Gill, Michael; Tropea, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by an apparently normal development followed by an arrest and subsequent regression of cognitive and psychomotor abilities. At present, RTT has no definitive cure and the treatment of RTT represents a largely unmet clinical need. Following partial elucidation of the underlying neurobiology of RTT, a new treatment has been proposed, Mecasermin (recombinant human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1), which, in addition to impressive evidence from preclinical murine models of RTT, has demonstrated safety in human studies of patients with RTT. The present clinical study examines the disease severity as assessed by clinicians (International Scoring System: ISS), social and cognitive ability assessed by two blinded, independent observers (RSS: Rett Severity Score), and changes in brain activity (EEG) parameters of ten patients with classic RTT and ten untreated patients matched for age and clinical severity. Significant improvement in both the ISS (p = 0.0106) and RSS (p = 0.0274) was found in patients treated with IGF1 in comparison to untreated patients. Analysis of the novel RSS also suggests that patients treated with IGF1 have a greater endurance to social and cognitive testing. The present clinical study adds significant preliminary evidence for the use of IGF-1 in the treatment of RTT and other disorders of the autism spectrum. PMID:26925263

  19. Common polygenic risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with cognitive ability in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, T-K; Lupton, M K; Fernandez-Pujals, A M; Starr, J; Davies, G; Cox, S; Pattie, A; Liewald, D C; Hall, L S; MacIntyre, D J; Smith, B H; Hocking, L J; Padmanabhan, S; Thomson, P A; Hayward, C; Hansell, N K; Montgomery, G W; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Porteous, D J; Deary, I J; McIntosh, A M

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been suggested that some aspects of intelligence are preserved or even superior in people with ASD compared with controls, but consistent evidence is lacking. Few studies have examined the genetic overlap between cognitive ability and ASD/ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine the polygenic overlap between ASD/ADHD and cognitive ability in individuals from the general population. Polygenic risk for ADHD and ASD was calculated from genome-wide association studies of ASD and ADHD conducted by the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium. Risk scores were created in three independent cohorts: Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n=9863), the Lothian Birth Cohorts 1936 and 1921 (n=1522), and the Brisbane Adolescent Twin Sample (BATS) (n=921). We report that polygenic risk for ASD is positively correlated with general cognitive ability (beta=0.07, P=6 × 10(-7), r(2)=0.003), logical memory and verbal intelligence in GS:SFHS. This was replicated in BATS as a positive association with full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) (beta=0.07, P=0.03, r(2)=0.005). We did not find consistent evidence that polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with cognitive function; however, a negative correlation with IQ at age 11 years (beta=-0.08, Z=-3.3, P=0.001) was observed in the Lothian Birth Cohorts. These findings are in individuals from the general population, suggesting that the relationship between genetic risk for ASD and intelligence is partly independent of clinical state. These data suggest that common genetic variation relevant for ASD influences general cognitive ability.

  20. Investigation of ability to guess safety signs based on cognitive features in one of the petrochemical industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shirali

    2015-07-01

    .Conclusion: According to results of this study, use of principles of ergonomic design of signs and training are necessary to promote the ability to guess the safety signs to the minimum available standards. Therefore, it is possible to balance cognitive features especially “familiarity”, with the lowest score, and “meaningfulness” and “semantic closeness”, with the highest influential relationship with the ability to guess of signs. The developed regression model for this industry can be used to predict the ability to guess of safety signs in future studies

  1. Individual Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities and Team Performance in Dynamic Task Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    .... We completed an experiment that required administration of multiple ability tests, developing teams based on ability, and development of computer software to measure individual and team performance...

  2. Understanding the cognitive and genetic underpinnings of procrastination: Evidence for shared genetic influences with goal management and executive function abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that individual differences in procrastination are tied to everyday goal-management abilities, but little research has been conducted on specific cognitive abilities that may underlie tendencies for procrastination, such as executive functions (EFs). In this study, we used behavioral genetics methodology to investigate 2 hypotheses about the relationships between procrastination and EF ability: (a) that procrastination is negatively correlated with general EF ability, and (b) that this relationship is due to the genetic components of procrastination that are most related to other everyday goal-management abilities. The results confirmed both of these hypotheses. Procrastination was related to worse general EF ability at both the phenotypic and genetic levels, and this relationship was due to the component of procrastination shared with self-report measures of everyday goal-management failures. These results were observed even after controlling for potential self-report biases stemming from the urge to respond in a socially desirable manner. Together, these findings provide strong evidence for growing theories of procrastination emphasizing the importance of goal-related cognitive abilities and further highlight important genetic influences that underlie procrastination. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Douglas; Hill, Robert D.; Woltz, Dan; Gardner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the primary effects of the use of cognitive strategy and a combined measure of numeric ability on recall of every-day numeric information (i.e. prices). Additionally, numeric ability was assessed as a moderator in the relationship between strategy use and memory for prices. One hundred participants memorized twelve prices that varied from 1 to 6 digits; they recalled these immediately and after 7 days. The use of strategies, assessed through self-report, was associated with better overall recall, but not forgetting. Numeric ability was not associated with either better overall recall or forgetting. A small moderating interaction was found, in which higher levels of numeric ability enhanced the beneficial effects of strategy use on overall recall. Exploratory analyses found two further small moderating interactions: simple strategy use enhanced overall recall at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to complex strategy use; and complex strategy use was associated with lower levels of forgetting, but only at higher levels of numeric ability, compared to the simple strategy use. These results provide support for an objective measure of numeric ability, as well as adding to the literature on memory and the benefits of cognitive strategy use. PMID:23483964

  4. The nature of creativity: The roles of genetic factors, personality traits, cognitive abilities, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M; Borkenau, Peter; Penke, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This multitrait multimethod twin study examined the structure and sources of individual differences in creativity. According to different theoretical and metrological perspectives, as well as suggestions based on previous research, we expected 2 aspects of individual differences, which can be described as perceived creativity and creative test performance. We hypothesized that perceived creativity, reflecting typical creative thinking and behavior, should be linked to specific personality traits, whereas test creativity, reflecting maximum task-related creative performance, should show specific associations with cognitive abilities. Moreover, we tested whether genetic variance in intelligence and personality traits account for the genetic component of creativity. Multiple-rater and multimethod data (self- and peer reports, observer ratings, and test scores) from 2 German twin studies-the Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins and the German Observational Study of Adult Twins-were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the expected 2 correlated aspects of creativity. Perceived creativity showed links to openness to experience and extraversion, whereas tested figural creativity was associated with intelligence and also with openness. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses indicated that the heritability of tested figural creativity could be accounted for by the genetic component of intelligence and openness, whereas a substantial genetic component in perceived creativity could not be explained. A primary source of individual differences in creativity was due to environmental influences, even after controlling for random error and method variance. The findings are discussed in terms of the multifaceted nature and construct validity of creativity as an individual characteristic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  6. Education, leisure activities and cognitive and functional ability of Alzheimer's disease patients: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Sobral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Education and participation in leisure activities appear to be highly relevant variables in Alzheimer's disease (AD and usually form the basis of the Cognitive Reserve construct. Objective: [A] To determine the association between education, cognitive and functional ability of AD patients; [B] To determine the association between participation in leisure activities and cognitive and functional ability of AD patients; [C] To evaluate the association of education and participation in leisure activities in the course of AD. Methods: Functional and neuropsychological abilities of 120 outpatients with probable AD were evaluated at baseline, at 36 and 54 months. Data collected at baseline included socio-demographics, clinical variables, education and frequency of participation in leisure activities throughout life. All participants and/or caregivers answered the questionnaire, "Participation in leisure activities throughout life" while patients completed the MMSE, the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, neuropsychological tests from the Lisbon Screening for Dementia Assessment, Barthel Index and Lawton and Brody's Index. Results: AD patients with higher levels of education achieved better results on cognitive tests. The participants with higher participation in leisure activities exhibited better results on cognitive and functional tests than those with lower participation. The disease progression was linear and progressed similarly regardless of the level of education of participants. However, the results suggest a slower disease progression in patients with a higher level of participation in leisure activities throughout their lives. Conclusion: AD patients with high education and high participation in leisure activities may benefit from a slower cognitive and functional decline after diagnosis of AD.

  7. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  8. The relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts: A study of career-exploring adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Dahl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Career exploration can be a stressful experience, often manifested by negative career thoughts. In this article, the factors which influence the ability to cope with negative thinking are investigated.Research purpose: This study investigated the relationship between cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative thoughts pertaining to career in a sample of unemployed, non-student adults.Motivation for study: There is a need for research which investigates the psychological factors that contribute to successful career exploration and decision-making. Cognitive ability is one such factor, whilst emotional intelligence is another whose validity is not yet well established.Research design, approach and method: A survey design and quantitative procedures were used in gathering and analysing data gathered from 193 non-student, middle-aged adults attending a community-based career exploration programme in British Columbia, Canada. Cognitive ability, emotional intelligence and negative career thoughts before and after a career exploration programme were measured.Main findings: Neither cognitive ability nor any aspect of emotional intelligence predicted negative career thinking change. Cognitive ability predicted overall negative career thoughts as well as decision-making confusion, but only after the programme. The ability to manage emotions, however, predicted negative career thoughts both before and after the career decision-making programme.Practical/managerial implications: The managing emotions component of emotional intelligence is significantly associated with negative career thoughts. These findings suggest that career counselling requires that the role of emotions and their influence on behaviours must be given more consideration. Industrial and organisational (IO psychologists would benefit from engaging in programmes that train them to assist clients in becoming more aware of, and increasing, their own emotional

  9. Neural Basis for the Ability of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Uehara, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone...

  10. Low Cognitive Status Is Associated with a Lower Ability to Maintain Standing Balance in Elderly Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijntjes, M.; Pasma, J.H.; van Vuuren, M.; Blauw, G. J.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence is emerging that cognitive performance is involved in maintaining balance and thereby involved in falls in the elderly. Objective: To investigate the association of cognitive status with measures of standing balance in elderly outpatients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study,

  11. Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

  12. Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-11-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory) and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample consisted of 105 (55 female and 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Approximately 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but the adolescents were similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. PMID:24630759

  14. The Internal/External Frame of Reference Model Revisited: Incorporating General Cognitive Ability and General Academic Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986 ) is a highly influential model of self-concept formation, which predicts that domain-specific abilities have positive effects on academic self-concepts in the corresponding domain and negative effects across domains. Investigations of the I/E model do not typically incorporate general cognitive ability or general academic self-concept. This article investigates alternative measurement models for domain-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities and academic self-concepts within an extended I/E model framework using representative data from 25,301 9th-grade students. Empirical support was found for the external validity of a new measurement model for academic self-concepts with respect to key student characteristics (gender, school satisfaction, educational aspirations, domain-specific interests, grades). Moreover, the basic predictions of the I/E model were confirmed, and the new extension of the traditional I/E model permitted meaningful relations to be drawn between domain-general cognitive ability and domain-general academic self-concept as well as between the domain-specific elements of the model.

  15. SIRT1 Regulates Cognitive Performance and Ability of Learning and Memory in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models. In addition, future research directions in this field are discussed, including therapeutic potential of its activator, resveratrol, and application of other compounds in cognitive improvement. Our findings suggest that SIRT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Comparison of trait and ability measures of emotional intelligence in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T; Wahi, Monika M; Arce, Melissa; Johnson, Hazel-Anne; Nazian, Stanley; Goldin, Steven B

    2009-11-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI), the ability to perceive emotions in the self and others, and to understand, regulate and use such information in productive ways, is believed to be important in health care delivery for both recipients and providers of health care. There are two types of EI measure: ability and trait. Ability and trait measures differ in terms of both the definition of constructs and the methods of assessment. Ability measures conceive of EI as a capacity that spans the border between reason and feeling. Items on such a measure include showing a person a picture of a face and asking what emotion the pictured person is feeling; such items are scored by comparing the test-taker's response to a keyed emotion. Trait measures include a very large array of non-cognitive abilities related to success, such as self-control. Items on such measures ask individuals to rate themselves on such statements as: 'I generally know what other people are feeling.' Items are scored by giving higher scores to greater self-assessments. We compared one of each type of test with the other for evidence of reliability, convergence and overlap with personality. Year 1 and 2 medical students completed the Meyer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT, an ability measure), the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS, a trait measure) and an industry standard personality test (the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness [NEO] test). The MSCEIT showed problems with reliability. The MSCEIT and the WLEIS did not correlate highly with one another (overall scores correlated at 0.18). The WLEIS was more highly correlated with personality scales than the MSCEIT. Different tests that are supposed to measure EI do not measure the same thing. The ability measure was not correlated with personality, but the trait measure was correlated with personality.

  17. Common Variance Among Three Measures of Nonverbal Cognitive Ability: WISC-R Performance Scale, WJPB-TCA Reasoning Cluster, and Halstead Category Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Harr, Gale A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationships among two psychometric measures of nonverbal cognitive ability - The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJPB-TCA) and a neuropsychological test of abstract reasoning and concept formation (Halstead Category Test) in 25…

  18. A comparison of capacities for social cognition and metacognition in first episode and prolonged depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Nicolai; Lysaker, Paul H; Larsen, Erik R; Videbech, Poul

    2014-12-30

    There is a growing awareness that social cognition is a valuable construct for understanding the psycho-social disabilities in depressive illness. Numerous studies have linked affective disorders to impairments in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. Only few studies have investigated the relation between the burden of depressive illness and social cognitive ability. To study these issues, we compared a group of first-episode depressed patients with a group of chronically depressed patients (duration >2 years) on a broad array of higher-order social cognitive measures including the metacognition assessment scale abbreviated. Contrary to prediction, deficits in social cognition were roughly equivalent between the two groups and there was no significant link between symptom severity and social cognitive ability. Having moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) could be sufficient to predict the presence of deficits in social cognitive ability.

  19. THE COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL ABILITIES BETWEEN ALPINE SKIING SKIERS' AND TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanis Vassilis.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was the physical abilities diagnosis of Alpine skiing skiers and tennis players, as well the comparison of these before and after the ski period. The sample of 54 individuals emanated from two teams of different sports: skiing (N = 28 and tennis (N = 26, while the level was advancing for both. For the diagnosis and the comparison of physical abilities used four tests of Alpine skiing on dry ground the same day of December 2008 and April 2009 respectively: 30m flight start, eight continuous jumping, slalom on "folder", jumping up and down on a step with height 40cm x 40sec. The statistical analysis done with SPSS 18 program, included controls t - test, p=bilateral, for dependent samples and correlation analysis at significance level a= 0.05 with freedom degrees df = N - 1. In conclusion, in the present research the ski team (men and women presented the improvement afterwards the season in 2 of 4 tests and in the corresponding physical abilities (explosive force, t = 2,970, p < .01 and agility t = 3.533, p < .00, while also the tennis team (men and women presented improvement in 2 of 4 tests (explosive force, t = 2,397, p < .02 and anaerobic ability, t = 3.192, p < .00. Finally the common characteristic of the two teams was the performance improvement in the explosive force and their decreased attribution in speed.

  20. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Daum, Moritz M; Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte

    2018-01-01

    According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM), understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009). To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related) and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related) path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  1. The Two-Systems Account of Theory of Mind: Testing the Links to Social- Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana Meinhardt-Injac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the two-systems account of theory of mind (ToM, understanding mental states of others involves both fast social-perceptual processes, as well as slower, reflexive cognitive operations (Frith and Frith, 2008; Apperly and Butterfill, 2009. To test the respective roles of specific abilities in either of these processes we administered 15 experimental procedures to a large sample of 343 participants, testing ability in face recognition and holistic perception, language, and reasoning. ToM was measured by a set of tasks requiring ability to track and to infer complex emotional and mental states of others from faces, eyes, spoken language, and prosody. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative strengths of a social-perceptual (face processing related and reflexive-cognitive (language and reasoning related path in predicting ToM ability. The two paths accounted for 58% of ToM variance, thus validating a general two-systems framework. Testing specific predictor paths revealed language and face recognition as strong and significant predictors of ToM. For reasoning, there were neither direct nor mediated effects, albeit reasoning was strongly associated with language. Holistic face perception also failed to show a direct link with ToM ability, while there was a mediated effect via face recognition. These results highlight the respective roles of face recognition and language for the social brain, and contribute closer empirical specification of the general two-systems account.

  2. Tooth loss and caries prevalence in very old Swedish people: the relationship to cognitive function and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E

    2004-01-01

    examinations carried out in two local clinics by standardised examiners and interviews using structured questionnaires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Altogether 159 individuals were included in this study. Coronal caries and root caries were assessed using the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...... (NIDCR) diagnostic criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) index and functional ability was assessed by a global measure of self-reported changes. RESULTS: Older adults with a low MMSE score (risk of coronal caries than...... those with higher scores. Participants with mild cognitive decline (MMSE = 24-26) and with a decrease in functional ability had a significantly higher risk of root caries. These associations changed little when adjusted by the covariates. In addition, people with a low MMSE (0-23) had a four times...

  3. Cognition in scientific and everyday domains: Comparison and learning implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Frederick; Larkin, Jill H.

    An analysis and comparison of everyday life and the domain of science reveals significant differences in their goals and in the cognitive means used to attain these goals. Students' lack of awareness of these differences can lead to pervasive learning difficulties in their study of science. Thus many students (a) have erroneous conceptions of scientific goals, (b) import goals and ways of thinking which are effective in everyday life but inadequate in science, and (c) devise ways of thinking ill suited to science. Additional complications arise because science taught in schools often differs both from actual science and from everyday life. Students' learning difficulties are thus increased because scientific goals are distorted and scientific ways of thinking are inadequately taught. The preceding analysis suggests some empirical investigations and instructional improvements.

  4. Bilingual comparison of Mandarin and English cognitive bias tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise; Leung, Wing Gi; Crane, Bryony; Parkinson, Brian; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Yiend, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    Most research into cognitive biases has used Western samples, despite potential East-West socio-cultural differences. One reason is the lack of appropriate measures for non-Westerners. This study is about cross-linguistic equivalence which needs to be established before assessing cross-cultural differences in future research. We developed parallel Mandarin and English measures of interpretation bias and attention bias using back-translation and decentering procedures. We assessed task equivalence by administering both sets of measures to 47 bilingual Mandarin-English speakers. Interpretation bias measurement was similar and reliable across language versions, confirming suitability of the Mandarin versions for future cross-cultural research. By contrast, scores on attention bias tasks did not intercorrelate reliably, suggesting that nonverbal stimuli such as pictures or facial expressions of emotion might present better prospects for cross-cultural comparison. The development of the first set of equivalent measures of interpretation bias in an Eastern language paves the way for future research investigating East-West differences in biased cognition.

  5. The dyslexia candidate locus on 2p12 is associated with general cognitive ability and white matter structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Scerri

    Full Text Available Independent studies have shown that candidate genes for dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI impact upon reading/language-specific traits in the general population. To further explore the effect of disorder-associated genes on cognitive functions, we investigated whether they play a role in broader cognitive traits. We tested a panel of dyslexia and SLI genetic risk factors for association with two measures of general cognitive abilities, or IQ, (verbal and non-verbal in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC cohort (N>5,000. Only the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus showed statistically significant association (minimum P = 0.00009 which was further supported by independent replications following analysis in four other cohorts. In addition, a fifth independent sample showed association between the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus and white matter structure in the posterior part of the corpus callosum and cingulum, connecting large parts of the cortex in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that this locus, originally identified as being associated with dyslexia, is likely to harbour genetic variants associated with general cognitive abilities by influencing white matter structure in localised neuronal regions.

  6. A Pilot Study of the Cognitive Abilities of Two Year Olds Exposed to Temporary Father Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-28

    teenage births). Additionally, time and economic pressures on families that require multiple jobs to be held or long hours worked contribute to the...biologically based and culturally supported interactive styles - a masculine style involving physical play and a feminine style involving care giving...more feminine cognitive approach is some times referred to as a ’global’ or ’field dependent’ style of thinking. In this female style of cognition

  7. Sexual orientation and cognitive ability: A multivariate meta-analytic follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yin; Norton, Sam; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sex shift model of human sexual orientation differences predicts that homosexual men should perform or score in the direction of heterosexual women, and homosexual women in the direction of heterosexual men, in behavioral domains such as cognition and personality. In order to test whether homosexual men and women’s cognitive performance was closer to that of heterosexual men or that of heterosexual women (i.e., sex atypical for their sex), we conducted a multivariate meta-analysis bas...

  8. Adult cognitive ability and educational level in relation to concussions in childhood and adolescence: a population study of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Frøsig, Anna J; Engberg, Aase W

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of concussion(s) suffered through childhood and adolescence with completed level of school education and cognitive ability in young adulthood. Educational level and scores on a test of cognitive ability were obtained for a cohort of 130,298 young men processed by the Danish draft board. Of these, 6146 had, at some age from birth onwards, been briefly admitted to hospital with a main discharge diagnosis of concussion. A further 402 had two such concussions and 48 had three or more. Educational level and cognitive ability test scores were negatively associated with the number of concussions and the age at concussion(s). Most markedly, compared to the 123,684 non-concussed men, those with two or more concussions had lower educational levels (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89), as also did those sustaining one concussion between the age of 13 up to the time of testing (OR = 0.47: 0.42-0.52). Since concussions do not generally have long-term effects, the results suggest that lower educational level is primarily a risk factor for sustaining a concussion at all ages, but in particular in adolescence more than in childhood and in the case of multiple concussions. It should, however, be recognized that, in some proportion of cases, the educational deficits have probably arisen as a consequence of the persistent symptoms of a lengthy post-concussional syndrome.

  9. Cognitive Abilities, Social Adaptation, and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Specific Cascade Effects Across Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-08-01

    Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.

  10. [Effects of Acupuncture at "Shenmen" (HT 7) on Brainwaves and Cognitive Ability in Rats with Sleep Deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Jiao-Ping

    2017-12-25

    To observe the effects of acupuncture at "Shenmen" (HT 7) on brainwaves and cognitive ability in rats with sleep deprivation. SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, acupuncture group and sham acupuncture group, 15 rats in each group. Insomnia model rats were established by sleep deprivation for 72 hours. Acupuncture was applied to acupuncture group at bilateral "Shenmen" (HT 7) for 20 min, once daily for 7 days. Rats in the sham acupuncture group received superficial insertion of 1 mm and without retaining needle. The learning and memory abilities of rats were eva-luated by Hexagonal maze. The BL-420 F physiological recorder was used to record EEG for 30 min on the 1 st , 4 th , 7 th and 10 th day respectively, and the frequency of each wave was analyzed. After sleep deprivation, the frequency of searching the exits of Hexagonal maze in the model group was obviously increased, the searching time was shortened, the number of searching errors was increased obviously, and the cognitive rate was decreased ( P 0.05). Acupuncture at HT 7 can effectively improve the cognitive abilities and brainwaves in sleep deprived rats.

  11. The effects of holistic health group interventions on improving the cognitive ability of persons with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kim-wan; Ng, Petrus; Kwok, Timothy; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. Research methods In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group. The holistic health treatment group attempted to promote the acceptance of their illness, enhance memory and coping skills, develop a positive lifestyle, maintain positive emotions, and facilitate emotional support among participants. The 10-session holistic health group intervention was structured, with each session conducted once per week and ~90 minutes in length. Control group patients and their family caregivers received standardized basic educational materials that provided basic information on cognitive decline for them to read at home. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test was used to assess the cognitive ability of PwMCI in the pre- and posttreatment periods by a research assistant who was blind to the group assignment of the participants. Results The paired-samples t-test indicated that the treatment group (n=18) showed significant improvement in the MoCA score, whereas the control group (n=20) did not. Moreover, 2×2 (group × time) repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that the holistic health group treatment was significantly more effective than the control intervention in improving the MoCA score, with a moderate effect size, and improving the delayed recall (ie, short-term memory), with a strong effect size, after controlling for age, sex, education, and marital status. Conclusion This present RCT provides evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of

  12. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  13. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  14. The Role of Cognitive Ability and Preferred Mode of Processing in Students' Calculus Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to design calculus tasks to determine students' preference for visual or analytic processing as well as examine the role of preferred mode of processing in calculus performance and its relationship to spatial ability and verbal-logical reasoning ability. Data were collected from 150 high school students who were enrolled…

  15. Writing abilities in intellectual disabilities: a comparison between Down and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varuzza, Cristiana; De Rose, Paola; Vicari, Stefano; Menghini, Deny

    2015-02-01

    Writing is a complex task that requires the integration of multiple cognitive, linguistic, and motor abilities. Until now, only a few studies investigated writing abilities in individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID). The aim of the present exploratory study was to provide knowledge on the organization of writing in two populations with ID, Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS), trying to disentangle different components of the process. A battery tapping diverse writing demands as low-level transcription skills as well as high-level writing skills was proposed to 13 individuals with WS, 12 individuals with DS and 11 mental-age-matched typically developing (TD) children. Results showed that the two groups with genetic syndromes did not differ from TD in writing a list of objects placed in bedroom, in the number of errors in the text composition, in a text copying task and in kind of errors made. However, in a word dictation task, individuals with DS made more errors than individuals with WS and TD children. In a pseudoword dictation task, both individuals with DS and WS showed more errors than TD children. Our results showed good abilities in individuals with ID in different aspects of writing, involving not only low-level transcription skills but also high-level composition skills. Contrary to the pessimistic view, considering individuals with ID vulnerable for failure, our results indicate that the presence of ID does not prevent the achievement of writing skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspective taking abilities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, H.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Hort, J.; Vlček, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 281, Mar 15 (2015), s. 229-238 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial transformation * standardized road-map test of direction sense * perspective taking task * sexual differences Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  17. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1809 (2015), s. 1809 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.823, year: 2015

  18. Cognitive Abilities of Alzheimer's Patients: Perceptions of Black and White Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Graney, Marshall J.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Lummus, Allan

    2006-01-01

    This study compared Black (n = 97) and White (n = 143) family caregivers regarding the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive assessments of Alzheimer's patients from the Memphis site of the NIA/NINR Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH) randomized clinical trial. Black and White caregivers' subjective…

  19. Cognitive Training as an Intervention to Improve Driving Ability in the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    The notion that cognitive and motor skills are plastic and can be improved with training is very exciting, because it opens up the possibility for rehabilitation and amelioration of age-related declines in performance. It has been shown that older ad...

  20. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Ability and Skills of Pediatrics Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, James S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The cognitive and skills performances of sleep-deprived pediatrics residents were measured by using questions like those on the pediatrics board certification examination and using tasks that required coordination and dexterity. Implications of findings are discussed in the context of the controversy over the structure and process of medical…

  1. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  2. Association of Heritable Cognitive Ability and Psychopathology With White Matter Properties in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnæs, Dag; Kaufmann, Tobias; Doan, Nhat Trung; Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Wang, Yunpeng; Bettella, Francesco; Moberget, Torgeir; Andreassen, Ole A; Westlye, Lars T

    2018-03-01

    Many mental disorders emerge during adolescence, which may reflect a cost of the potential for brain plasticity offered during this period. Brain dysconnectivity has been proposed as a common factor across diagnostic categories. To investigate the hypothesis that brain dysconnectivity is a transdiagnostic phenotype in adolescence with increased susceptibility and symptoms of psychiatric disease. We investigated clinical symptoms as well as cognitive function in 6487 individuals aged 8 to 21 years from November 1, 2009, to November 30, 2011, in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort and analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging brain scans for 748 of the participants. Independent component analysis was used to derive dimensional psychopathology scores, and genome-wide complex trait analysis was used to estimate its heritability. Multimodal fusion simultaneously modeled contributions of the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging metrics fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, L1 (the principal diffusion tensor imaging eigen value), mode of anisotropy, as well as dominant and secondary fiber orientations, and structural connectivity density, and their association with general psychopathology and cognition. Machine learning with 10-fold cross-validation and permutation testing in 729 individuals (aged 8 to 22 years; mean [SD] age, 15.1 [3.3] years; 343 females [46%]) revealed significant association with general psychopathology levels (r = 0.24, P matter pattern reflecting frontotemporal connectivity and crossing fibers in the uncinate fasciculus was the most associated feature for both traits. Univariate analysis across a range of clinical domains and cognitive test scores confirmed its transdiagnostic importance. Both the general psychopathology (16%; SE, 0.095; P = .05) and cognitive (18%; SE, 0.09; P = .01) factor were heritable and showed a negative genetic correlation. Dimensional and heritable general cognitive and

  3. Self-assessment of social cognitive ability in individuals with schizophrenia: Appraising task difficulty and allocation of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Pinkham, Amy E; Penn, David L; Harvey, Philip D

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe mental illnesses manifest substantial deficits in self-assessment of the abilities that impact everyday functioning. This study compares patients with schizophrenia to healthy individuals on their social cognitive performance, their assessment of that performance, and the convergence between performance and indicators of effort in solving tasks. Patients with schizophrenia (n=57) and healthy controls (HC; n=47) completed the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test (BLERT), a psychometrically sound assessment of emotion recognition. Participants rated their confidence in the accuracy of their responses after each item. Participants were instructed to respond as rapidly as possible without sacrificing accuracy; the time to complete each item was recorded. Patients with schizophrenia performed less accurately on the BLERT than HC. Both patients and HC were more confident on items that they correctly answered than for items with errors, with patients being less confident overall; there was no significant interaction for confidence between group and accuracy. HC demonstrated a more substantial adjustment of response time to task difficulty by taking considerably longer to solve items that they got wrong, whereas patients showed only a minimal adjustment. These results expand knowledge about both self-assessment of social cognitive performance and the ability to appraise difficulty and adjust effort to social cognitive task demands in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cognitive Abilities Underlying Reading Accuracy, Fluency and Spelling Acquisition in Korean Hangul Learners from Grades 1 to 4: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the cognitive abilities that predict reading and spelling performance in Korean children in Grades 1 to 4, depending on expertise and reading experience. As a result, visual cognition, phonological awareness, naming speed and receptive vocabulary significantly predicted reading accuracy in children in Grades 1 and 2, whereas visual cognition, phonological awareness and rapid naming speed did not predict reading accuracy in children in higher grades. For reading, fluency, phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and receptive vocabulary were crucial abilities in children in Grades 1 to 3, whereas phonological awareness was not a significant predictor in children in Grade 4. In spelling, reading ability and receptive vocabulary were the most important abilities for accurate Hangul spelling. The results suggested that the degree of cognitive abilities required for reading and spelling changed depending on expertise and reading experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10 and 11 year-olds: The Blur effect

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, E.; Hallam, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10- and 11-year-olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior fo...

  7. The impact of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy on work ability in patients with depression - a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Dominique; Ariai, Nashmil; Kivi, Marie; Eriksson, Maria Cm; Nejati, Shabnam; Petersson, Eva-Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to investigate the effects of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) treatment for depression compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU) on improving work ability and quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate depression. We also examined whether patients treated with ICBT returned to work more rapidly, that is, had fewer days of sick leave, than patients treated with TAU. This study is based on material from the PRIM-NET RCT that took place between 2010 and 2013. Primary care centers in Region Vastra Gotaland, Sweden, population about 1.6 million. A total of 77 patients with depression randomized to either ICBT (46 patients) or TAU (31 patients). Mean age of participants was 35.8 years, and 67.5% were women. Work ability was measured with the Work Ability Index, depressive symptoms with Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale - self-rating version (MADRS-S), quality of life with EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), and number of sick leave days. Both groups showed an association between improved work ability and reduction of depressive symptoms and between improved work ability and better quality of life. ICBT could not be shown to improve work ability more than TAU among patients with mild-to-moderate depression. There were no differences between the groups concerning number of patients with sick leave or number of sick leave days. Our study indicates that a high level of work ability has an association with high health-related quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate depression, whether they are treated with ICBT or TAU. ICBT has previously been found to be cost-effective and can be seen as a good alternative to TAU. In addition to the ICBT, an intervention oriented toward the work place might improve work ability and reduce the number of sick leave days among patients with depression.

  8. The association between visual, nonverbal cognitive abilities and speech, phonological processing, vocabulary and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Anderson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that specific nonverbal, visual cognitive abilities may be associated with outcomes after pediatric cochlear implantation. The study therefore examined the relationship between visual sequential memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability, and a range of speech, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Sixty-six children aged 5 to 12 years completed tests of visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning, along with tests of speech intelligibility, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading ability (the outcome variables). Auditory memory span was also assessed, and its relationship with the other variables examined. Significant, positive correlations were found between the visual memory and reasoning tests, and each of the outcome variables. A series of regression analyses then revealed that for all the outcome variables, after variance attributable to the age at implantation was accounted for, visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability together accounted for significantly more variance (up to 25%) in each outcome measure. These findings have both clinical and theoretical implications. Clinically, the findings may help improve the identification of children at risk of poor progress after implantation earlier than has been possible to date as the nonverbal tests can be administered to children as young as 2 years of age. The results may also contribute to the identification of children with specific learning or language difficulties as well as improve our ability to develop intervention strategies for individual children based on their specific cognitive processing strengths or difficulties. Theoretically, these results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about learning and development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

  9. Food functionality research as a new national project in special reference to improvement of cognitive and locomotive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2018-04-01

    In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function. The project also involves the analysis of the foods-sports interrelation of chronic importance, and the development of devices for the verification of QOL-associated maintenance of homeostasis. In this review, we provide an overview of these studies, with special reference to cognition as a case of the gut-brain axis which the author is particularly interested in.

  10. Development of cognitive abilities of children infected with helminths through health education

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, Lucas; Miranda, Aline; Faria, Isabela Marinho; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of health education in learning and cognitive development of children infected, previously treated in an endemic area for helminthiasis. METHODS: It is a longitudinal, experimental, with random allocation of participants. The study included 87 children of both sexes enrolled in the school hall of Maranhão, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and divided into two groups: intervention and control. Initially the children were submitted to...

  11. Associations of Prenatal Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations with Child Behaviors and Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Joseph M.; Muckle, Gina; Arbuckle, Tye; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Fraser, William D.; Ouellet, Emmanuel; Séguin, Jean R.; Oulhote, Youssef; Webster, Glenys M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment in epidemiological studies. However, prior studies had limited statistical power to examine sex-specific effects, and few examined child cognition. Objectives: We estimated the association between prenatal BPA exposure and child neurobehavior at 3 y of age in a prospective cohort of 812 mothers and their children. Methods: We measured BPA concentration in urine samples collected at ∼ 12 wk gestat...

  12. Only behavioural but not self-report measures of speech perception correlate with cognitive abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje eHeinrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioural and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioural and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory and attention for behavioural and self-report measures of speech perception were investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild to moderate hearing loss aged between 50-74 years completed a behavioural test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy to words in multi-talker babble (medium and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult. In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioural speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to working memory. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioural and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  13. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Group and Individual Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others

    The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…

  14. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  15. A Test for the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS): Normative Data and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcara, Giorgio; Bambini, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    The Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates (APACS) test is a new tool to evaluate pragmatic abilities in clinical populations with acquired communicative deficits, ranging from schizophrenia to neurodegenerative diseases. APACS focuses on two main domains, namely discourse and non-literal language, combining traditional tasks with refined linguistic materials in Italian, in a unified framework inspired by language pragmatics. The test includes six tasks (Interview, Description, Narratives, Figurative Language 1, Humor, Figurative Language 2) and three composite scores (Pragmatic Productions, Pragmatic Comprehension, APACS Total). Psychometric properties and normative data were computed on a sample of 119 healthy participants representative of the general population. The analysis revealed acceptable internal consistency and good test-retest reliability for almost every APACS task, suggesting that items are coherent and performance is consistent over time. Factor analysis supports the validity of the test, revealing two factors possibly related to different facets and substrates of the pragmatic competence. Finally, excellent match between APACS items and scores and the pragmatic constructs measured in the test was evidenced by experts' evaluation of content validity. The performance on APACS showed a general effect of demographic variables, with a negative effect of age and a positive effect of education. The norms were calculated by means of state-of-the-art regression methods. Overall, APACS is a valuable tool for the assessment of pragmatic deficits in verbal communication. The short duration and easiness of administration make the test especially suitable to use in clinical settings. In presenting APACS, we also aim at promoting the inclusion of pragmatics in the assessment practice, as a relevant dimension in defining the patient's cognitive profile, given its vital role for communication and social interaction in daily life. The combined

  16. Personality and intelligence: persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins’ cognitive abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Fariba; Rozsa, Sandor; Nilsson, Thomas; Archer, Trevor; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background. A person-centered approach focusing on the interaction of an individual’s temperament-character-life events is essential in the path of individuals’ well-being. In this context, three character traits, Self-directedness (e.g., self-acceptance, self-control, goal-directed behavior), Cooperativeness (e.g., social affiliation, social tolerance, empathy and helpfulness) and Self-transcendence (e.g., spiritual acceptance, transpersonal identification), measured using Cloninger’s model of personality are suggested to help the individual to regulate and resolve the conflicts derived from her/his temperament combinations as a reaction to life events. However, if character is related to the individual’s cognitive ability, then this association might limit any intervention that focuses on character development. We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) to investigate the relationship between personality and cognitive ability. Method. The sample consisted of 370 15-year-old twins (159 girls/211 boys), 192 of whom screen-positive with various types of mental health problems. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to measure personality and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV) to measure intelligence. The relationship was investigated using correlation analyses using random-selected twins from each dyad and separately for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Additional analyses investigated the genetic and environmental effects on personality and cognitive ability in this specific sample. Results. There were no significant correlations between the WISC-IV indices and any of the character traits (i.e., Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence). Persistence was significantly related, if weak, to four WISC-IV indices: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and the Full WISC-IV Scale. Post-hoc cross-twin/cross-trait analyses showed that the Persistence-cognitive ability

  17. Personality and intelligence: persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins’ cognitive abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A person-centered approach focusing on the interaction of an individual’s temperament-character-life events is essential in the path of individuals’ well-being. In this context, three character traits, Self-directedness (e.g., self-acceptance, self-control, goal-directed behavior, Cooperativeness (e.g., social affiliation, social tolerance, empathy and helpfulness and Self-transcendence (e.g., spiritual acceptance, transpersonal identification, measured using Cloninger’s model of personality are suggested to help the individual to regulate and resolve the conflicts derived from her/his temperament combinations as a reaction to life events. However, if character is related to the individual’s cognitive ability, then this association might limit any intervention that focuses on character development. We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS to investigate the relationship between personality and cognitive ability.Method. The sample consisted of 370 15-year-old twins (159 girls/211 boys, 192 of whom screen-positive with various types of mental health problems. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to measure personality and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV to measure intelligence. The relationship was investigated using correlation analyses using random-selected twins from each dyad and separately for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Additional analyses investigated the genetic and environmental effects on personality and cognitive ability in this specific sample.Results. There were no significant correlations between the WISC-IV indices and any of the character traits (i.e., Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence. Persistence was significantly related, if weak, to four WISC-IV indices: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and the Full WISC-IV Scale. Post-hoc cross-twin/cross-trait analyses showed that the Persistence-cognitive

  18. Personality and intelligence: persistence, not self-directedness, cooperativeness or self-transcendence, is related to twins' cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Fariba; Rozsa, Sandor; Nilsson, Thomas; Archer, Trevor; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Garcia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background. A person-centered approach focusing on the interaction of an individual's temperament-character-life events is essential in the path of individuals' well-being. In this context, three character traits, Self-directedness (e.g., self-acceptance, self-control, goal-directed behavior), Cooperativeness (e.g., social affiliation, social tolerance, empathy and helpfulness) and Self-transcendence (e.g., spiritual acceptance, transpersonal identification), measured using Cloninger's model of personality are suggested to help the individual to regulate and resolve the conflicts derived from her/his temperament combinations as a reaction to life events. However, if character is related to the individual's cognitive ability, then this association might limit any intervention that focuses on character development. We used data from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) to investigate the relationship between personality and cognitive ability. Method. The sample consisted of 370 15-year-old twins (159 girls/211 boys), 192 of whom screen-positive with various types of mental health problems. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory to measure personality and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV) to measure intelligence. The relationship was investigated using correlation analyses using random-selected twins from each dyad and separately for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Additional analyses investigated the genetic and environmental effects on personality and cognitive ability in this specific sample. Results. There were no significant correlations between the WISC-IV indices and any of the character traits (i.e., Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-transcendence). Persistence was significantly related, if weak, to four WISC-IV indices: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and the Full WISC-IV Scale. Post-hoc cross-twin/cross-trait analyses showed that the Persistence-cognitive ability

  19. Comparison between ability and performance: a study on the functionality of dependent elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nunes Machado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the ability and performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living of dependent elderly individuals cared for in a geriatric healthcare center. METHOD: cross-sectional, observational study with quantitative approach. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM was applied in 109 elderly individuals cared for in a geriatric healthcare center. Of these, 60 individuals were classified as dependent in the case of basic activities of daily living described according to the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF. The process of triangulation reinforced reliability of data, which included information provided by patients and caregivers and that contained in medical files and objective assessment. RESULTS: the average age was 81.0±7.1 with a predominance of women. The difference between ability and performance was statistically significant (p<0.05 in most daily tasks. CONCLUSION: the contribution of this study in using ICF was semi-quantitatively interpreting its qualifiers, which enabled more objective comparisons and inferences, and revealed a clear distance between the performance and ability of these individuals in most of the assessed activities.

  20. A Cognitive Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Problem Solving Ability on Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyda, N. A.; Kusnandi, K.; Suhendra, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze of mathematical problem solving ability of students in one of secondary school on geometry. This research was conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. Population in this research was all students of that school and the sample was twenty five students that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of mathematical problem solving were collected through essay test. The results showed the percentage of achievement of mathematical problem solving indicators of students were: 1) solve closed mathematical problems with context in math was 50%; 2) solve the closed mathematical problems with the context beyond mathematics was 24%; 3) solving open mathematical problems with contexts in mathematics was 35%; And 4) solving open mathematical problems with contexts outside mathematics was 44%. Based on the percentage, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of mathematical problem solving ability in geometry still low. This is because students are not used to solving problems that measure mathematical problem solving ability, weaknesses remember previous knowledge, and lack of problem solving framework. So the students’ ability of mathematical problems solving need to be improved with implement appropriate learning strategy.

  1. Modeling Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities within the Higher-Order Factor Model Using Moderated Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The general differentiation hypothesis states that the strength of the correlations among a set of IQ subtests varies with a given variable. Instances of the general differentiation hypothesis that have been considered in the literature include age and ability differentiation. Traditionally, the differentiation effect is attributed to the varying…

  2. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  3. Beyond the usual cognitive suspects: The importance of speechreading and audiovisual temporal sensitivity in reading ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francisco, A.A.; Groen, M.A.; Jesse, A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether audiovisual processing accounted for variance in reading and reading-related abilities, beyond the effect of a set of measures typically associated with individual differences in both reading and audiovisual processing. Testing adults with and without a

  4. Lexical-Access Ability and Cognitive Predictors of Speech Recognition in Noise in Adult Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Marre W; Smits, Cas; Merkus, Paul; Festen, Joost M; Goverts, S Theo

    2017-01-01

    Not all of the variance in speech-recognition performance of cochlear implant (CI) users can be explained by biographic and auditory factors. In normal-hearing listeners, linguistic and cognitive factors determine most of speech-in-noise performance. The current study explored specifically the influence of visually measured lexical-access ability compared with other cognitive factors on speech recognition of 24 postlingually deafened CI users. Speech-recognition performance was measured with monosyllables in quiet (consonant-vowel-consonant [CVC]), sentences-in-noise (SIN), and digit-triplets in noise (DIN). In addition to a composite variable of lexical-access ability (LA), measured with a lexical-decision test (LDT) and word-naming task, vocabulary size, working-memory capacity (Reading Span test [RSpan]), and a visual analogue of the SIN test (text reception threshold test) were measured. The DIN test was used to correct for auditory factors in SIN thresholds by taking the difference between SIN and DIN: SRT diff . Correlation analyses revealed that duration of hearing loss (dHL) was related to SIN thresholds. Better working-memory capacity was related to SIN and SRT diff scores. LDT reaction time was positively correlated with SRT diff scores. No significant relationships were found for CVC or DIN scores with the predictor variables. Regression analyses showed that together with dHL, RSpan explained 55% of the variance in SIN thresholds. When controlling for auditory performance, LA, LDT, and RSpan separately explained, together with dHL, respectively 37%, 36%, and 46% of the variance in SRT diff outcome. The results suggest that poor verbal working-memory capacity and to a lesser extent poor lexical-access ability limit speech-recognition ability in listeners with a CI.

  5. Relationships between Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and math achievement within a sample of college students with learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive abilities were seven areas identified by Stratum II of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, in addition to the eighth area of Working Memory. Math performance was assessed via math calculation and math reasoning tasks. Instruments include the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Participants were 158 college students with a diagnosed LD in math. Multiple regression analyses found that Processing Speed and Working Memory were related to Math Calculation scores and that Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, and Working Memory were related to Math Reasoning. Implications for the assessment of math LD in the college populations are discussed.

  6. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Latham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favourite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements.

  7. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  8. EFFECTS OF A 12-WEEK AEROBIC EXERCISE PROGRAM COMBINED WITH MUSIC THERAPY AND MEMORY EXERCISES ON COGNITIVE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN PEOPLE WITH MIDDLE TYPE OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Kampragkou; Paris Iakovidis; Eftychia Kampragkou; Eleftherios Kellis

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and represents 60% of its cases. The disease is characterized by cognitive, non-cognitive and functional deficits and it’s incurable. The main of this study was to examine the effects of the aerobic exercise in combination with the music therapy and memory exercises in functional and cognitive ability on a patient with that have been affected by middle type (Second stage) of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Thirty patient...

  9. AN EXAMINATION OF AN ENHANCING EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ATTENTIONAL ABILITIES IN OLDER PERSONS WITH MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT1,2

    OpenAIRE

    LAKE, JESSICA I.; GOLDSTEIN, FELICIA C.

    2011-01-01

    While the effect of listening to music on cognitive abilities is highly debated, studies reporting an enhancing effect of music in elderly populations appear to be more consistent. This study considered the effect of listening to music on attention in groups of cognitively normal older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment. Participants were exposed to both a music and silence condition, and after each condition performed Digit Span and Coding tasks which require attention for maxim...

  10. Individual differences in the dominance of interhemispheric connections predict cognitive ability beyond sex and brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Kenia; Janssen, Joost; Pineda-Pardo, José Ángel; Carmona, Susanna; Román, Francisco Javier; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Garcia-Garcia, David; Escorial, Sergio; Quiroga, María Ángeles; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Navas-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso; Colom, Roberto

    2017-07-15

    Global structural brain connectivity has been reported to be sex-dependent with women having increased interhemispheric connectivity (InterHc) and men having greater intrahemispheric connectivity (IntraHc). However, (a) smaller brains show greater InterHc, (b) larger brains show greater IntraHc, and (c) women have, on average, smaller brains than men. Therefore, sex differences in brain size may modulate sex differences in global brain connectivity. At the behavioural level, sex-dependent differences in connectivity are thought to contribute to men-women differences in spatial and verbal abilities. But this has never been tested at the individual level. The current study assessed whether individual differences in global structural connectome measures (InterHc, IntraHc and the ratio of InterHc relative to IntraHc) predict spatial and verbal ability while accounting for the effect of sex and brain size. The sample included forty men and forty women, who did neither differ in age nor in verbal and spatial latent components defined by a broad battery of tests and tasks. High-resolution T 1 -weighted and diffusion-weighted images were obtained for computing brain size and reconstructing the structural connectome. Results showed that men had higher IntraHc than women, while women had an increased ratio InterHc/IntraHc. However, these sex differences were modulated by brain size. Increased InterHc relative to IntraHc predicted higher spatial and verbal ability irrespective of sex and brain size. The positive correlations between the ratio InterHc/IntraHc and the spatial and verbal abilities were confirmed in 1000 random samples generated by bootstrapping. Therefore, sex differences in global structural connectome connectivity were modulated by brain size and did not underlie sex differences in verbal and spatial abilities. Rather, the level of dominance of InterHc over IntraHc may be associated with individual differences in verbal and spatial abilities in both men and

  11. Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-08-01

    First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. METHODS Preterm children (n=102; 44males; 58 females) with a gestational

  13. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Sonderen, L.; Tamminga, P.; Kok, J.H.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age

  14. WWC Review of the Report "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A recent study, "The Effects of Cognitive Strategy Instruction on Math Problem Solving of Middle School Students of Varying Ability," examined the effectiveness of "Solve It!," a program intended to improve the problem-solving skills of seventh-grade math students. During the program, students are taught cognitive strategies of…

  15. Social and leadership abilities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: relation with cognitive-attentional capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pardos-Véglia, Alexandra; Muñiz-Borrega, Blanca; García-Savaté, Carolina; Prados-Parra, Baldomero; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed social and leadership abilities in children with ADHD and their relationship with execution of tasks involving sustained attention and inhibitory control. A retrospective analysis of 170 patients with ADHD was performed. We evaluated leadership and social abilities, measured through the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) and their relations with the results of different neuropsychological tests, including Wechsler scale for children (WISC-IV) and Conners' continuous performance (CPT II). In the differential analysis between the IQ, results of the tests and their relation to BASC scores, a statistically significant relation was observed between attentional capacity expected according to the patient's intelligence and social skills scores (according to BASC filled out by mothers and teachers) and leadership (according to all informants) sections. Attentional difficulties are closely related to social competence in patients with ADHD, either by a direct cause-effect relationship or a shared dysexecutive substrate of this disorder.

  16. Enhancing Warfighter Cognitive Abilities with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Feasibility Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Abilities with Transcranial N/A Magnetic Stimulation: a Feasibility Analysis 5b. GRANTNUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...has been found to play a part in impulse control, judgment, language production, working memory, motor function, problem-solving, sexual behavior...music. Most often, but not always, savant syndrome is found in individuals with autism . And, unfortunately, savants typically are not able to explain

  17. A comparative study of student-teacher cognitive abilities and skills on evaluation of academic achievement practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirindokht habibzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been some changes on traditional training methodologies in the world, specially, in elementary schools. Many schools have decided to perform their assessments in elementary schools based on qualitative methods compared with traditional quantitative techniques. This paper performs an empirical investigation to find out whether the new evaluation technique has been able to improve student teacher’s cognitive abilities and skills on evaluation of academic achievement practices. These student-teacher people taught at elementary schools while they also were studying at university. There are two types of questionnaires: The first one measures cognitive capabilities in four categories including levels of learning and educational objectives, designing paper and pencil test, functional test design and analysis and interpretation of results. The second test is associated with measuring functional skills in the evaluation of academic progress. The information were analyzed based on t-student test as well as two-way analysis of variance. The result of t-statistics was significant only for the last item, analysis and interpretation. In addition, the results of ANOVA test have indicated that there were some differences on cognitive capabilities between two methods of assessments but gender did not make any meaningful difference on functional skills.

  18. Nxf7 deficiency impairs social exploration and spatio-cognitive abilities as well as hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna eCallaerts-Vegh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear RNA export factors (NXF are conserved in all metazoans and are deemed essential for shuttling RNA across the nuclear envelope and other post-transcriptional processes (such as mRNA metabolism, storage and stability. Disruption of human NXF5 has been implicated in intellectual and psychosocial disabilities. In the present report, we use recently described Nxf7 knockout mice as an experimental model to analyze in detail the behavioral consequences of clinical NXF5 deficiency. We examined male Nxf7 knockout mice using an extended cognitive and behavioral test battery, and recorded extracellular field potentials in the hippocampal CA1 region. We observed various cognitive and behavioral changes including alterations in social exploration, impaired spatial learning and spatio-cognitive abilities. We also defined a new experimental paradigm to discriminate search strategies in Morris water maze and showed significant differences between Nxf7 knockout and control animals. Furthermore, while we observed no difference in nose poke suppression in an conditioned emotional response protocol, Nxf7 knockout mice were impaired in discriminating between differentially reinforced cues in an auditory fear conditioning protocol. This distinct neurocognitive phenotype was accompanied by impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation, while long-term depression was not affected by Nxf7 deficiency. Our data demonstrate that disruption of murine Nxf7 leads to behavioral phenotypes that may relate to the intellectual and social deficits in patients with NXF5 deficiency.

  19. Description of Self-efficacy and Initial Cognitive Abilities on the Students’ Physics Learning of the Direct Current Electrical Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenudin; Maknun, J.; Muslim

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine description of self -efficacy and initial cognitive abilities on the students of MAN 1 Bandung (senior high school) in learning physics on the subject of electrical circuits Direct Current (DC) before they get academy ask assigned in the classroom. From the results of this research can be used as a reference to provide appropriate measures for the advancement of student learning. The theory used in this research is the theory of Bandura. The design in this study using case study and data collection is done by tests and questionnaires, sampling techniques used by random sampling, the study was conducted on 10th grade students of MAN 1 Bandung by the amount of students 35 participants. The results of data analysis showed that the percentage of students who have moderate self-efficacy amounted to 67.05 %, and cognitive ability 50 %, this shows that the process of learning that takes place in school before that junior high school is not much scientific implement processes that provide students the opportunity to discover new things, then learning approaches of right is Problem Based Learning (PBL).

  20. Cognitive dissonance, social comparison, and disseminating untruthful or negative truthful eWOM messages

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y-L; Keng, Ching-Jui

    2014-01-01

    In this research we explored consumers' intentions to provide untruthful or negative truthful electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) messages when undergoing conflicting cognitive dissonance and after experiencing social comparison. We recruited 480 Taiwanese Internet users to participate in a scenario-based experiment. The findings show that after making downward comparisons on the Internet, consumers with high cognitive dissonance were more inclined to disseminate negative truthful eWOM messages c...

  1. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  2. The gambler's fallacy is associated with weak affective decision making but strong cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF. The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.

  3. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler’s fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals’ use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making. PMID:23071701

  4. Improving Cognitive Abilities and e-Inclusion in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinengo, Chiara; Curatelli, Francesco

    Besides overcoming the motor barriers for accessing to computers and Internet, ICT tools can provide a very useful, and often necessary, support for the cognitive development of motor-impaired children with cerebral palsy. In fact, software tools for computation and communication allow teachers to put into effect, in a more complete and efficient way, the learning methods and the educational plans studied for the child. In the present article, after a brief analysis of the general objectives to be pursued for favouring the learning for children with cerebral palsy, we take account of some specific difficulties in the logical-linguistic and logical-mathematical fields, and we show how they can be overcome using general ICT tools and specifically implemented software programs.

  5. Perfiles aptitudinales, estilos de pensamiento y rendimiento académico Ability Profiles, Cognitive Styles And Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tiene por objetivo identificar perfiles aptitudinales y estilos de pensamiento en distintos grupos de carreras universitarias y encontrar factores predictores de rendimiento académico sobre la base de un amplio conjunto de variables cognitivas, socio-demográficas y culturales. Se presentan resultados correspondientes a una muestra de 298 estudiantes universitarios cursantes en cuatro facultades disímiles en cuanto a sus áreas disciplinares (Cs. Exactas, Ingeniería, Cs. Sociales y Psicología. Se administraron las pruebas de Matrices Progresivas (Raven, cinco pruebas integrantes del DAT-Forma T, el Inventario de Estilos de Pensamiento (Sternberg y una Escala de Autoevaluación de Aptitudes. Se han podido definir perfiles diferenciales para la mayoría de las habilidades y competencias cognitivas estudiadas. Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas por carreras en la escala de autoevaluación de aptitudes y en los estilos de pensamiento. La conjunción de razonamiento verbal, habilidad de cálculo y razonamiento abstracto se muestra como un buen predictor de rendimiento académico.This study has as its main goal to identify aptitude pro- files and cognitive styles in university students enrolled in different careers paths. A secondary goal was to find predictors of academic achievement taking into account cognitive, cultural and sociodemografic variables. Participated of the study a sample of 298 university students of four schools in different disciplinary areas (Math, Engineering, Social Sciences and Psychology. Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Differential Aptitude Test (T Form, Cognitive Styles inventory (Sternberg and a self evaluation aptitude scale were administered. Differential profiles were obtained considering the aptitude variables included in the study. Significant difference were obtained between careers in the self evaluation aptitude scale and cognitive styles. Verbal reasoning, calculus ability and abstract

  6. Androgens and cognitive abilities: Mental rotations skills and handedness in adult females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Caroline P.L.; Johannsen, T.H.; Mortensen, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Research on animal and human populations has suggested elevated spatial abilities as well as higher incidence of left-handedness in genetic females exposed to abnormally high androgen levels perinatally. However, findings in humans are inconsistent. We administered the Mental Rotations Test......-wise matched on gender, age and school education were identified on either test. However, non-significant tendencies in the predicted direction on both inventories could be related to higher prenatal androgen levels in probands. Further analyses will reveal the relevance of this hypothesis in the present...

  7. COMPARISON OF MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYERS AND PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Smajić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Football as a complete sport that is rich in a wide variety of possible movements classified in polistructural, sports complex. To be a football player was able to perform tasks football has, among other things, and have the necessary level of motor abilities that can be achieved only through systematic implementation of training physical training. The aim of this research was to determine the differences in some of the motor abilities between the two researched groups. Methods: In a sample of 196 subjects average age of 12.45 ± 0.03 years, made a comparison of motor abilities. The first group consisted of 82 players - Pioneers FC "Red Star" from Belgrade and the other 114 primary school pupils from Novi Sad. A sample of 9 tests of motor abilities were: long jump from the place, running 20 m, 60 m running, bend straddle the gray, endurance in pull-ups, polygon backwards, slalom with three balls, hand tapping and lifting troops. Comparison of motor abilities of young players and pupils of primary schools was carried out by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: An analysis of motor abilities between young players and primary school pupils were found statistically significant differences in all tested variables. Discussion: The research has shown that speed, endurance, coordination and muscle strength of the lower leg predominantly responsible for the success of matching the target foot at a distance, which is an integral part of the training process (Smajic and Molnar, 2007. It is also proven that there is a statistically significant correlation between the explosive and repetitive strength as a predictor of outcome-success rate for jumping in the air at youth players (Stankovic, 2011. References: Kuleš, B., Jerkovic, S. Maric, J. (1991. Influence of running different intentiteta to success in football. Kinesiology, 23 (1-2, 60-65. Malacko, J. (2000. Fundamentals of sports training - a quarter-supplemented and

  8. A 35-year comparison of children labelled as gifted, unlabelled as gifted and average-ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Freeman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X14273Why are some children seen as gifted while others of identical ability are not?  To find out why and what the consequences might be, in 1974 I began in England with 70 children labelled as gifted.  Each one was matched for age, sex and socio-economic level with two comparison children in the same school class. The first comparison child had an identical gift, and the second taken at random.  Investigation was by a battery of tests and deep questioning of pupils, teachers and parents in their schools and homes which went on for 35 years. A major significant difference was that those labelled gifted had significantly more emotional problems than either the unlabelled but identically gifted or the random controls.  The vital aspects of success for the entire sample, whether gifted or not, have been hard work, emotional support and a positive personal outlook.  But in general, the higher the individual’s intelligence the better their chances in life. 

  9. Evaluation of software maintain ability with open EHR - a comparison of architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalag, Koray; Yang, Hong Yul; Tempero, Ewan; Warren, James R

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether it is easier to maintain a clinical information system developed using open EHR model driven development versus mainstream methods. A new open source application (GastrOS) has been developed following open EHR's multi-level modelling approach using .Net/C# based on the same requirements of an existing clinically used application developed using Microsoft Visual Basic and Access database. Almost all the domain knowledge was embedded into the software code and data model in the latter. The same domain knowledge has been expressed as a set of open EHR Archetypes in GastrOS. We then introduced eight real-world change requests that had accumulated during live clinical usage, and implemented these in both systems while measuring time for various development tasks and change in software size for each change request. Overall it took half the time to implement changes in GastrOS. However it was the more difficult application to modify for one change request, suggesting the nature of change is also important. It was not possible to implement changes by modelling only. Comparison of relative measures of time and software size change within each application highlights how architectural differences affected maintain ability across change requests. The use of open EHR model driven development can result in better software maintain ability. The degree to which open EHR affects software maintain ability depends on the extent and nature of domain knowledge involved in changes. Although we used relative measures for time and software size, confounding factors could not be totally excluded as a controlled study design was not feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Comparison of Three Cognitive Treatments in Alleviating Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbach, Amy

    After nearly a decade of empirical studies on the effectiveness of various types of psychotherapy, Beck's cognitive/behavioral therapy apparently remains the most effective psychotherapy for depression. However, because of the complexity and the mixture of cognitive and behavioral modification in Beck's therapy it is impossible to test Beck's…

  11. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  12. When synesthesia and savant abilities are mistaken for hallucinations and delusions: contribution of a cognitive approach for their differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Lucie; Barbier, Jacques-Edouard; Cason, Nia; Bakchine, Serge; Ehrlé, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction. However, some of these symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, can be indicative of other phenomena such as synesthesia and savant abilities. The aim of this paper is to highlight how neurological and psychiatric conditions can be confused and how formal neuropsychological evaluations can be necessary to distinguish them. We report the case of a young woman, VA, who perceived sounds as colors and claimed to have elaborated complex astrophysical reasoning, despite having experienced difficulties at school, especially in mathematics. VA also had difficulties to orient herself, to develop social relationships, and often became confused by daily life situations. These elements were considered as symptoms of schizophrenia. Evaluations revealed that VA exhibited savant abilities in astrophysics and colored-hearing synesthesia. We also found evidence of higher-than-average cognitive functioning. In complex cases, neuropsychological and formal evaluations are necessary to establish a differential diagnosis. Moreover, the case highlights the link between synesthesia and savant abilities.

  13. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  14. Identifying and profiling scholastic cheaters: their personality, cognitive ability, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kevin M; Nathanson, Craig; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2010-09-01

    Despite much research, skepticism remains over the possibility of profiling scholastic cheaters. However, several relevant predictor variables and newer diagnostic tools have been overlooked. We remedy this deficit with a series of three studies. Study 1 was a large-scale survey of a broad range of personality predictors of self-reported cheating. Significant predictors included the Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy) as well as low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. Only psychopathy remained significant in a multiple regression. Study 2 replicated this pattern using a naturalistic, behavioral indicator of cheating, namely, plagiarism as indexed by the Internet service Turn-It-In. Poor verbal ability was also an independent predictor. Study 3 examined possible motivational mediators of the association between psychopathy and cheating. Unrestrained achievement and moral inhibition were successful mediators whereas fear of punishment was not. Practical implications for researchers and educators are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Global, broad, or specific cognitive differences? Using a MIMIC model to examine differences in CHC abilities in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niileksela, Christopher R; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to better understand the relations between learning disabilities and different levels of latent cognitive abilities, including general intelligence (g), broad cognitive abilities, and specific abilities based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of intelligence (CHC theory). Data from the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II) were used to create a multiple-indicator multiple cause model to examine the latent mean differences in cognitive abilities between children with and without learning disabilities in reading (LD reading), math (LD math), and reading and writing(LD reading and writing). Statistically significant differences were found in the g factor between the norm group and the LD groups. After controlling for differences in g, the LD reading and LD reading and writing groups showed relatively lower latent processing speed, and the LD math group showed relatively higher latent comprehension-knowledge. There were also some differences in some specific cognitive abilities, including lower scores in spatial relations and numerical facility for the LD math group, and lower scores in visual memory for the LD reading and writing group. These specific mean differences were above and beyond any differences in the latent cognitive factor means.

  16. On the validity of self-report assessment of cognitive abilities: Attentional control scale associations with cognitive performance, emotional adjustment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Haplotype-based association analysis of general cognitive ability in Generation Scotland, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and UK Biobank [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Howard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive ability is a heritable trait with a polygenic architecture, for which several associated variants have been identified using genotype-based and candidate gene approaches. Haplotype-based analyses are a complementary technique that take phased genotype data into account, and potentially provide greater statistical power to detect lower frequency variants. Methods: In the present analysis, three cohort studies (ntotal = 48,002 were utilised: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA, and the UK Biobank. A genome-wide haplotype-based meta-analysis of cognitive ability was performed, as well as a targeted meta-analysis of several gene coding regions. Results: None of the assessed haplotypes provided evidence of a statistically significant association with cognitive ability in either the individual cohorts or the meta-analysis. Within the meta-analysis, the haplotype with the lowest observed P-value overlapped with the D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA gene coding region. This coding region has previously been associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease, which have all been shown to impact upon cognitive ability. Another potentially interesting region highlighted within the current genome-wide association analysis (GS:SFHS: P = 4.09 x 10-7, was the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE gene coding region. The protein encoded by BCHE has been shown to influence the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its role in cognitive ability merits further investigation. Conclusions: Although no evidence was found for any haplotypes with a statistically significant association with cognitive ability, our results did provide further evidence that the genetic variants contributing to the variance of cognitive ability are likely to be of small effect.

  18. Human's cognitive ability to assess facial cues from photographs: a study of sexual selection in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Wang, Ruoxue; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Reyes-García, Victoria; Nyberg, Colleen; Tanner, Susan; Huanca, Tomás; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2010-06-09

    Evolutionary theory suggests that natural selection favors the evolution of cognitive abilities which allow humans to use facial cues to assess traits of others. The use of facial and somatic cues by humans has been studied mainly in western industrialized countries, leaving unanswered whether results are valid across cultures. Our objectives were to test (i) if previous finding about raters' ability to get accurate information about an individual by looking at his facial photograph held in low-income non western rural societies and (ii) whether women and men differ in this ability. To answer the questions we did a study during July-August 2007 among the Tsimane', a native Amazonian society of foragers-farmers in Bolivia. We asked 40 females and 40 males 16-25 years of age to rate four traits in 93 facial photographs of other Tsimane' males. The four traits were based on sexual selection theory, and included health, dominance, knowledge, and sociability. The rating scale for each trait ranged from one (least) to four (most). The average rating for each trait was calculated for each individual in the photograph and regressed against objective measures of the trait from the person in the photograph. We found that (i) female Tsimane' raters were able to assess facial cues related to health, dominance, and knowledge and (ii) male Tsimane' raters were able to assess facial cues related to dominance, knowledge, and sociability. Our results support the existence of a human ability to identify objective traits from facial cues, as suggested by evolutionary theory.

  19. Human's cognitive ability to assess facial cues from photographs: a study of sexual selection in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Undurraga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theory suggests that natural selection favors the evolution of cognitive abilities which allow humans to use facial cues to assess traits of others. The use of facial and somatic cues by humans has been studied mainly in western industrialized countries, leaving unanswered whether results are valid across cultures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our objectives were to test (i if previous finding about raters' ability to get accurate information about an individual by looking at his facial photograph held in low-income non western rural societies and (ii whether women and men differ in this ability. To answer the questions we did a study during July-August 2007 among the Tsimane', a native Amazonian society of foragers-farmers in Bolivia. We asked 40 females and 40 males 16-25 years of age to rate four traits in 93 facial photographs of other Tsimane' males. The four traits were based on sexual selection theory, and included health, dominance, knowledge, and sociability. The rating scale for each trait ranged from one (least to four (most. The average rating for each trait was calculated for each individual in the photograph and regressed against objective measures of the trait from the person in the photograph. We found that (i female Tsimane' raters were able to assess facial cues related to health, dominance, and knowledge and (ii male Tsimane' raters were able to assess facial cues related to dominance, knowledge, and sociability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the existence of a human ability to identify objective traits from facial cues, as suggested by evolutionary theory.

  20. Training Cognitive Control in Older Adults with the Space Fortress Game: The Role of Training
    Instructions and Basic Motor Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M Blumen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if and how cognitively-healthy older adults can learn to play a complex computer-based action game called the Space Fortress (SF as a function of training instructions (Standard vs. Emphasis Change (EC; e.g. Gopher, Weil & Siegel, 1989 and basic motor ability. A total of 35 cognitively-healthy older adults completed a 3-month SF training program with three SF sessions weekly. Twelve 3-minute games were played during each session. Basic motor ability was assessed with an aiming task, which required rapidly rotating a spaceship to shoot targets. Older adults showed improved performance on the SF task over time, but did not perform at the same level as younger adults. Unlike studies of younger adults, overall SF performance in older adults was greater following standard instructions than following EC instructions. However, this advantage was primarily due to collecting more bonus points and not – the primary goal of the game – shooting and destroying the fortress, which in contrast benefitted from EC instructions. Basic motor ability was low and influenced many different aspects of SF game learning, often interacted with learning rate, and influenced overall SF performance. These findings show that older adults can be trained to deal with the complexity of the SF task but that overall SF performance, and the ability to capitalize on EC instructions, differs when a basic ability such as motor control is low. Hence, the development of this training program as a cognitive intervention that can potentially compensate for age-related cognitive decline should consider that basic motor ability can interact with the efficiency of training instructions that promote the use of cognitive control (e.g. EC instructions – and the confluence between such basic abilities and higher-level cognitive control abilities should be further examined.

  1. [Effects of scalp acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking on cognitive behavior ability in patients with vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Kang; Ding, Ding-Ming; Zhang, Zheng-Long; Ma, Lan; Huang, Hai-Yan; Wu, Xiao-Hong

    2014-05-01

    To compare the therapeutic differences among scalp acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking, body acupuncture and western medication for treatment of vascular dementia (VD). Ninety cases were randomly divided into a combined therapy group (31 cases), a body acupuncture group (29 cases) and a western medication group (30 cases). The combined therapy group was treated with scalp acupuncture at forehead middle line, parieral middle line, temporal front line and temporal rear line as well as auricular point sticking at naogan (AT3,41), shen (CO10), shenmen (TF4), zhen (AT3), once a day; the body acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Fengchi (GB 20), Zusanli (ST 36) and so on, once a day; the western medication group was treated with oral administration of aniracetam tablets, 0.2 g per time, twice a day. Fourteen days were considered as a treatment course, and totally 3 courses were required. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and activities of daily living (ADL) were applied to assess the changes of cognitive behavior ability before and after treatment among three groups. Also the efficacy among three groups were compared. One case dropped out in the body acupuncture group and western medication group, respectively. The total effective rate was 90.334 (28/31) in the combined therapy group, which was superior to 85.734 (24/28) in the body acupuncture group and 79.3% (23/29) in the western medication group (both P acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking could improve the clinical symptoms and cognitive behavior ability in patients with vascular dementia, which has superior total efficacy to body acupuncture and western medication aniracetam tablets.

  2. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Tsutsumimoto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A, working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, and selective attention/response inhibition (difference between the second and third conditions of the color- and picture-word Stroop test. Gray matter volume was computed from brain MRIs and SIENAX from FSL software. Results: Gray matter volume was significantly associated with set-shifting performance after accounting for age, gender, body mass index, education, and global cognition (standardized β = -0.376, p = 0.001, but not with working memory or selective attention/response inhibition. Conclusion: The executive function of set-shifting ability was correlated with gray matter volume in older people with MCI.

  3. Severe hypoglycaemia and late-life cognitive ability in older people with Type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, P P; Strachan, M W J; Frier, B M; Butcher, I; Deary, I J; Price, J F

    2012-03-01

    To determine the association between lifetime severe hypoglycaemia and late-life cognitive ability in older people with Type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1066 men and women aged 60-75 years, with Type 2 diabetes. Frequency of severe hypoglycaemia over a person's lifetime and in the year prior to cognitive testing was assessed using a previously validated self-completion questionnaire. Results of age-sensitive neuropsychological tests were combined to derive a late-life general cognitive ability factor, 'g'. Vocabulary test scores, which are stable during ageing, were used to estimate early life (prior) cognitive ability. After age- and sex- adjustment, 'g' was lower in subjects reporting at least one prior severe hypoglycaemia episode (n = 113), compared with those who did not report severe hypoglycaemia (mean 'g'-0.34 vs. 0.05, P vocabulary test scores did not differ significantly between the two groups (30.2 vs. 31.0, P = 0.13). After adjustment for vocabulary, difference in 'g' between the groups persisted (means -0.25 vs. 0.04, P Type 2 diabetes. Persistence of this association after adjustment for estimated prior cognitive ability suggests that the association may be attributable, at least in part, to an effect of hypoglycaemia on age-related cognitive decline. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  4. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and cognitive abilities in the late-life cohort of the PATH through life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Easteal, Simon; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that has not been well studied in older adults. In this study we examined relationships between ADHD symptoms and cognitive ability and compared them between middle-age (MA; 48-52 years) and older-age (OA; 68-74 years) adults sampled from the same population. ADHD, mood disorder symptoms and cognitive abilities were assessed in a large population-based sample (n = 3443; 50% male). We measured current ADHD symptoms using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), which we found to have the same underlying structure in both cohorts. Older adults reported significantly lower levels of ADHD symptoms and 2.2% of the OA cohort scored equal or above the ASRS cut-off score of 14 (which has been previously associated with ADHD diagnosis) compared with 6.2% of MA adults. Symptom levels were not significantly different between males and females. Using multi-group structural equation modelling we compared ADHD symptom-cognitive performance relationships between the two age groups. Generally higher ADHD symptoms were associated with poorer cognitive performance in the MA cohort. However, higher levels of inattention symptoms were associated with better verbal ability in both cohorts. Surprisingly, greater hyperactivity was associated with better task-switching abilities in older adults. In the OA cohort ADHD symptom-cognition relationships are indirect, mediated largely through the strong association between depression symptoms and cognition. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms decrease with age and that their relationships with co-occurring mood disorders and cognitive performance also change. Although symptoms of depression are lower in older adults, they are much stronger predictors of cognitive performance and likely mediate the effect of ADHD symptoms on cognition in this age group. These results highlight the need for age-appropriate diagnosis and treatment of comorbid ADHD and mood

  5. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and cognitive abilities in the late-life cohort of the PATH through life study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that has not been well studied in older adults. In this study we examined relationships between ADHD symptoms and cognitive ability and compared them between middle-age (MA; 48-52 years and older-age (OA; 68-74 years adults sampled from the same population. ADHD, mood disorder symptoms and cognitive abilities were assessed in a large population-based sample (n = 3443; 50% male. We measured current ADHD symptoms using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS, which we found to have the same underlying structure in both cohorts. Older adults reported significantly lower levels of ADHD symptoms and 2.2% of the OA cohort scored equal or above the ASRS cut-off score of 14 (which has been previously associated with ADHD diagnosis compared with 6.2% of MA adults. Symptom levels were not significantly different between males and females. Using multi-group structural equation modelling we compared ADHD symptom-cognitive performance relationships between the two age groups. Generally higher ADHD symptoms were associated with poorer cognitive performance in the MA cohort. However, higher levels of inattention symptoms were associated with better verbal ability in both cohorts. Surprisingly, greater hyperactivity was associated with better task-switching abilities in older adults. In the OA cohort ADHD symptom-cognition relationships are indirect, mediated largely through the strong association between depression symptoms and cognition. Our results suggest that ADHD symptoms decrease with age and that their relationships with co-occurring mood disorders and cognitive performance also change. Although symptoms of depression are lower in older adults, they are much stronger predictors of cognitive performance and likely mediate the effect of ADHD symptoms on cognition in this age group. These results highlight the need for age-appropriate diagnosis and treatment of comorbid

  6. Family poverty and trajectories of children's emotional and behavioural problems: the moderating roles of self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather

    2014-08-01

    Socio-economic disadvantage is strongly associated with children's emotional (internalising) and behavioural (externalising) problems. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have been related to children's emotional and behavioural resilience to socio-economic disadvantage. Despite being inter-related, self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability have not been examined jointly as promoting resilience in young children. This study investigated the roles of self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability in children's emotional and behavioural resilience to family socio-economic disadvantage from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 7 years; N = 16,916; 49 % girls). Using multivariate response growth curve modelling, we found that the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and internalising problems was stronger for children with lower verbal cognitive ability. Also, poor children with high and low levels of self-regulation showed a widening gap in both emotional and behavioural problems over time. Poor and non-poor children alike benefited from self-regulation, but poor children appeared to be more vulnerable to low self-regulation. Self-regulation and verbal cognitive ability seem to be important protective factors for young children growing up in poor families.

  7. Sleep-Wake Patterns and Cognition of Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI): A Comparison with Cognitively Healthy Adults and Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wams, Emma J; Wilcock, Gordon K; Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Age-related cognitive impairment and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disease contribute to decreasing quality of life in affected individuals and their families as well as demand considerable societal responsibility. Sleep supports overall brain activity and contributes to both physical and mental health. As a result, sleep is an attractive target for exploring ways to promote health in accelerated cognitive aging. The aims of this study were to characterise cognitive performance and sleepwake behaviour in older adults with different degrees of cognitive impairment. Cognitive ability in a variety of domains of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) individuals, moderate AD patients and cognitively healthy adults was assessed with the Mini-Mental-State- Examination and five computerised tests (CANTABeclipse™). It was imperative to exclude mixed diagnosis, comorbidities (psychiatric, neurological, sleep disorders), anti-dementia medication, institutionalised subjects, and to study participants within their home to minimise confounders. Sleep profiles were assessed with the Jupiter Sleep Questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index completed by participants and carers. Participants' sleep-wake activity was monitored for three weeks using a wrist-worn actigraph and a semi-standardised diary. Groups were compared according to their diagnostic category and then pooled to correlate sleep data with cognitive performance. Mild cognitive impairment in aMCI individuals was reflected in domains of verbal and visuospatial memory but not attentional capacity or episodic memory. All self-reported and objective measures of sleep quality and sleep quantity of the aMCIs were within the normal range and comparable to those of cognitively healthy controls. Moderate AD patients scored significantly lower on all cognitive tests and had lower rest-activity amplitudes and distinctively longer nightly sleep periods that were not associated with sleep disorders, sleep

  8. European ability to cope with a gas crisis. Comparison between 2009 and 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Nuria; Zaccarelli, Nicola; Bolado-Lavín, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Regulation (EU) No 994/2010 concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply was adopted following the 2009 commercial dispute between Ukraine and Russia which yield to a gas disruption. Since then, new infrastructure and cooperation measures have being implemented in order to reinforce the European gas system to better cope with gas shortages. Joint Research Centre has developed GEMFLOW, a country-based model of the European gas network, to simulate gas disruptions of different duration and to estimate the survival time and gas non-served per country. In this paper an analysis and comparison of the improvements carried out in the European gas system between 2009 and 2014 is presented and GEMFLOW model is used to evaluate the progress being made to strengthen the security of gas supply at European level. - Highlights: • We analyse the improvements in the EU gas infrastructure between 2009 and 2014. • A model of the EU gas grid is used to study the disruption of the major importers. • We find that Europe has greatly improved its ability to cope with a gas disruption. • We find that Eastern Europe, though enhanced, remains the most vulnerable area.

  9. A cognitive comparison of pathological skin picking and trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2011-12-01

    Pathological Skin Picking (PSP) and Trichotillomania (TTM) share overlapping comorbidity and phenomenology. The extent to which these disorders share a common cognitive phenotype, however, has yet to be examined. This study sought to compare inhibitory control processes in individuals with PSP or TTM. Thirty-one subjects with PSP (mean age 31.2 ± 12.5 years; 93.5% female), 39 subjects with TTM (mean age 35.9 ± 10.7 years; 87.2% female), and 33 matched controls (mean age 31.9 ± 9.9 years; 72.7% female) undertook cognitive assessments using the Stop-Signal Task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (ID/ED) Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Groups were matched for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. PSP was associated with significantly impaired stop-signal reaction times but intact ID/ED cognitive flexibility compared to controls. TTM occupied an intermediate position in terms of stop-signal reaction times between controls and PSP but did not differ significantly from either group on the ID/ED Set Shift Task. These results replicate the finding of impaired inhibitory control in PSP but suggest TTM may be heterogeneous with respect to such impairment. Future work should explore possible subgroups in TTM and whether cognitive variables are predictive of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction in the oldest-old. Results from the longitudinal population study Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkvist Å

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Åsa Enkvist, Henrik Ekström, Sölve Elmståhl Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Studies on the associations between cognitive abilities and life satisfaction (LS in the oldest-old are few. The aim of this study was to explore whether abilities in six different cognitive domains could predict LS in the oldest-old 3 years later. Methods: The study population consisted of 681 individuals aged 78–98 years, drawn from the longitudinal population study “Good Aging in Skåne,” which is part of a national survey (The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. Scores on 13 cognitive tests were related to scores on Neugartens’ LS index A (LSI-A 3 years later. The cognitive tests were added into six different cognitive domains. A multiple regression analysis was constructed for each cognitive domain separately, with scores on the LSI-A as the dependent variable. The model was adjusted stepwise for sex, age, education, functional capacity, and depressive mood. Results: Significant correlations were found between digit cancellation, word recall, verbal fluency (VF A, VF animals, VF occupations, and mental rotations at baseline, as well as LSI-A at follow-up. The domains of spatial abilities (B = 0.453, P = 0.014 and processing speed (B = 0.118, P = 0.020 remained significantly associated with LSI-A 3 years later after adjustment. Conclusion: The cognitive domains of spatial abilities and processing speed predicted LS 3 years later in the oldest-old. Clinical implications are discussed. Keywords: oldest-old, life satisfaction, longitudinal, crystallized and fluid intelligence, cognition

  12. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seven...

  13. Confidence—More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Karina M.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as “online.” Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor—derived from online measures—was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability. PMID:27148126

  14. Confidence-More a Personality or Ability Trait? It Depends on How It Is Measured: A Comparison of Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Karina M; Burns, Nicholas R; Ward, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The current study (N = 244) compared two independently developed and substantively different measures of self-confidence; a self-report measure, and a measure described as "online." Online measures are confidence-accuracy judgments made following each item on a cognitive task; in the current study, online measures were yoked to tasks of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The self-report and online measures had not previously been compared, and it was unknown if they captured the same self-confidence construct. These measures were also compared to self-efficacy and personality for the purpose of defining self-confidence as an independent construct, as well as to clarify the primary comparison. This study also aimed to replicate previous findings of a stable factor of confidence derived from online measures. An age comparison was made between a young adult sample (30 years and under) and an older adult sample (65 years and over) to determine how confidence functions across the lifespan. The primary finding was that self-report and online measures of confidence define two different but modestly correlated factors. Moreover, the self-report measures sit closer to personality, and the online measures sit closer to ability. While online measures of confidence were distinct from self-efficacy and personality, self-report measures were very closely related to the personality trait Emotional Stability. A general confidence factor-derived from online measures-was identified, and importantly was found in not just young adults but also in older adults. In terms of the age comparison, older adults had higher self-report self-confidence, and tended to be more overconfident in their judgments for online measures; however this overconfidence was more striking in the online measures attached to fluid ability than to crystallized ability.

  15. A Comparison of Mindfulness Meditation and Cognitive Self-Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Yvonne; Hiebert, Bryan

    1988-01-01

    Trained 24 college students in either a meditation or a cognitive self-observation procedure. Both groups showed reliable increases in several dimensions of self-actualization (measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory) and decreases in many common stress-related symptoms (measured by the Symptoms of Stress Inventory). No differential…

  16. Cognitive Comparisons of Students' Systems Modeling in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Kathleen; Thomas, David

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the cognition of five pairs of high school students over time as they built quantitative ecological models using STELLA software. One pair of students emerged as being particularly proficient at learning to model, and was able to use models productively to explore and explain ecological system behaviors. We present detailed contrasts between this and the other pairs of students' cognitive behaviors while modeling, in three areas that were crucial to their modeling productivity: (a) focusing on model output and net interactions versus on model input and individual relationships when building and revising models, (b) exploring the nature and implications of dependencies and feedbacks versus just creating these as properties of complex systems, and (c) using variables versus constants to represent continuous and periodic functions. We then apply theories of the multifaceted nature of cognition to describe object-level, metalevel, and emotional dimensions of cognitive performance that help to explain the observed differences among students' approaches to STELLA modeling. Finally, we suggest pedagogical strategies for supporting all types of students in learning the central scientific practice of model-based quantitative thinking.

  17. Effects of Discussion Representation: Comparisons between Social and Cognitive Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyungbin; Park, Su Jin

    2017-01-01

    An online discussion facilitates students' higher order thinking in online classes, especially when adopted with the instructor's guidance. The current experimental study examined the effects of two different discussion representation tools (social and cognitive diagrams) on students' discussion behaviors. The social diagram emphasized…

  18. Social and cognitive outcomes : A comparison of contexts of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guldemond, H; Hofman, R.H.; Hofman, W

    This study determines effects of social learning contexts (classroom, school and boards) on social and cognitive outcomes of primary school pupils. Central to this research are the differential effects of attending private and public schools for pupils' math achievement and sense of well-being at

  19. Preservation of cognitive and musical abilities of a musician following surgery for chronic drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shantala; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Rao, Malla Bhaskara; Shiva, Karthik; Arimappamagan, Arivazhagan; Sinha, Sanjib; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2016-12-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects a range of cognitive functions and musical abilities. We report a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with drug-resistant right-medial TLE. He is a professional musician, trained in Carnatic classical music. Clinical, electrophysiological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography evaluation localized the seizure focus to the right medial temporal lobe. Patient underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluation and functional MRI (fMRI) for musical abilities prior to surgery. He underwent an awake craniotomy and tailored resection of lateral neocortex as well as amygdalohippocampectomy under guidance of cortical stimulation and clinical monitoring. The superior temporal gyrus where activation was revealed on task-based fMRI was preserved. At 16-month follow-up, there was no seizure recurrence and his cognitive functions including musical abilities did not deteriorate with surgery. The task-based fMRI while listening to music revealed bilateral frontotemporal activation. There was evidence of increased left frontotemporal connectivity during the postsurgical period in the resting state fMRI. It is hypothesized that the intact neuropsychological and musical abilities might be as a result of intense musical training from an early age despite the illness leading to functional and neural adaptation of the brain might have contributed to his preserved cognitive functions and musical skills. Intense musical training at a young age perhaps not only honed a range of cognitive functions but also resulted in functionally more efficient cognitive networks despite the surgical resection.

  20. The influence of individual and team cognitive ability on operators' task and safety performance: a multilevel field study in nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators' performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators' GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a "big-fish-little-pond" effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers' extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed.

  1. The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

  2. The influence of individual and team cognitive ability on operators' task and safety performance: a multilevel field study in nuclear power plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Zhang

    Full Text Available While much research has investigated the predictors of operators' performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators' GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a "big-fish-little-pond" effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers' extra-role behaviors (safety participation compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance. The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed.

  3. Dual-task training effects on motor and cognitive functional abilities in individuals with stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Liqing; Pang, Marco Yiu Chung

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of dual-task balance and mobility training in people with stroke. An extensive electronic databases literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Randomized controlled studies that assessed the effects of dual-task training in stroke patients were included for the review (last search in December 2017). The methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration recommendation, and level of evidence was determined according to the criteria described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. About 13 articles involving 457 participants were included in this systematic review. All had substantial risk of bias and thus provided level IIb evidence only. Dual-task mobility training was found to induce more improvement in single-task walking function (standardized effect size = 0.14-2.24), when compared with single-task mobility training. Its effect on dual-task walking function was not consistent. Cognitive-motor balance training was effective in improving single-task balance function (standardized effect size = 0.27-1.82), but its effect on dual-task balance ability was not studied. The beneficial effect of dual-task training on cognitive function was provided by one study only and thus inconclusive. There is some evidence that dual-task training can improve single-task walking and balance function in individuals with stroke. However, any firm recommendation cannot be made due to the weak methodology of the studies reviewed.

  4. Ability Drain: Size, Impact, and Comparison with Brain Drain under Alternative Immigration Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Immigrants or their children founded over 40% of the Fortune 500 US companies. This suggests that 'ability drain' is economically significant. While brain drain associated with migration also induces a brain gain, this cannot occur with ability drain. This paper examines migration's impact on ability, education, and productive human capital or 'skill' (which includes both ability and education) for source country residents and migrants, under three different regimes: (i) a points system that ...

  5. Social Comparison of Abilities at an Elite College: Feeling Outclassed with 1350 SATs. Discussion Paper No. 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Matther B.; Goethals, George R.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies explored the experience and performance of students at Williams College in three-person groups that were homogeneous or heterogeneous in rated academic ability. In accord with hypotheses from Festinger's (1954) social comparison theory, students in academically homogeneous groups had more positive experiences and performed better on…

  6. Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eShatil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training and aerobic training are known to improve cognitive functions. To examine the separate and combined effects of such training on cognitive performance, four groups of healthy older adults embarked on a four months cognitive and/or mild aerobic training. A first group (n=33, mean age=80 [66-90] engaged in cognitive training, a second (n=29, mean age=81 [65-89] in mild aerobic training, a third (n=29, mean age=79 [70-93] in the combination of both and a fourth (n=31, mean age=79 [71-92] control group engaged in book-reading activity. The outcome was a well validated multi-domain computerized cognitive evaluation for older adults. The results indicate that, when compared to older adults who did not engage in cognitive training (the mild aerobic and control groups older adults who engaged in cognitive training (separate or combined training groups showed significant improvement in cognitive performance on Hand-Eye Coordination, Global Visual Memory (working memory and long-term memory, Speed of Information Processing, Visual Scanning and Naming. Indeed, individuals who did not engage in cognitive training showed no such improvements. Those results suggest that cognitive training is effective in improving cognitive performance and that it (and not mild aerobic training is driving the improvement in the combined condition. Results are discussed in terms of the special circumstances of aerobic and cognitive training for older adults who are above 80 years of age.

  7. Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive training and aerobic training are known to improve cognitive functions. To examine the separate and combined effects of such training on cognitive performance, four groups of healthy older adults embarked on a 4 months cognitive and/or mild aerobic training. A first group [n = 33, mean age = 80 (66-90)] engaged in cognitive training, a second [n = 29, mean age = 81 (65-89)] in mild aerobic training, a third [n = 29, mean age = 79 (70-93)] in the combination of both, and a fourth [n = 31, mean age = 79 (71-92)] control group engaged in book-reading activity. The outcome was a well-validated multi-domain computerized cognitive evaluation for older adults. The results indicate that, when compared to older adults who did not engage in cognitive training (the mild aerobic and control groups) older adults who engaged in cognitive training (separate or combined training groups) showed significant improvement in cognitive performance on Hand-Eye Coordination, Global Visual Memory (GVM; working memory and long-term memory), Speed of Information Processing, Visual Scanning, and Naming. Indeed, individuals who did not engage in cognitive training showed no such improvements. Those results suggest that cognitive training is effective in improving cognitive performance and that it (and not mild aerobic training) is driving the improvement in the combined condition. Results are discussed in terms of the special circumstances of aerobic and cognitive training for older adults who are above 80 years of age.

  8. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability

  9. Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? A prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, C R; Allerhand, M; Deary, I J

    2012-10-01

    Cross-sectional surveys of older people commonly find associations between higher levels of depressive symptoms and poorer cognitive performance, but the direction of effect is unclear. We examined whether there was a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and general cognitive ability in non-demented older people, and explored the role of physical health, smoking, exercise, social class and education as potential confounders of this association and as possible determinants of the rate of change of cognitive decline and depressive symptoms. The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing consists of people aged 50 years and over. Cognitive function and self-reported depressive symptoms were measured in 2002-2003, 2004-2005, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. We fitted linear piecewise models with fixed knot positions to allow different slopes for different age groups. Analyses are based on 8611 people. Mean cognitive function declined with age; there was no trend in the trajectory of depressive symptoms. Better cognitive function was associated with less depression up to the age of 80 years. Greater depression was associated with a slightly faster rate of cognitive decline but only in people aged 60-80 years. There were no consistent associations across age groups between sex, smoking, education, social class, exercise or number of chronic physical illnesses and the rate of change of cognitive decline or depressive symptoms. In this longitudinal study of older people, there was no consistent evidence that being more depressed led to an acceleration in cognitive decline and no support for the hypothesis that there might be reciprocal dynamic influences between cognitive ability and depressive symptoms.

  10. Assessing IT Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Bhutani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations. This paper discusses two new approaches to evaluate IT project success: Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (E-FCM & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCM.The limitations of FCM like non consideration for non-linear, conditional, time delay weights and indeterminate relations are targeted using E-FCM and NCM in this paper.

  11. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  12. Comparison of Test Your Memory and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Measures in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MoCA is widely used in Parkinson’s disease (PD to assess cognition. The Test Your Memory (TYM test is a cognitive screening tool that is self-administered. Objectives. We sought to determine (a the optimal value of TYM to discriminate between PD patients with and without cognitive deficits on MoCA testing, (b equivalent MoCA and TYM scores, and (c interrater reliability in TYM testing. Methods. We assessed the discriminant ability of TYM and the equivalence between TYM and MoCA scores and measured the interrater reliability between three raters. Results. Of the 135 subjects that completed both tests, 55% had cognitive impairment according to MoCA. A MoCA score of 25 was equivalent to a TYM score of 43-44. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for TYM to differentiate between PD-normal and PD-cognitive impairment was 0.82 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.89. The optimal cutoff to distinguish PD-cognitive impairment from PD-normal was ≤45 (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 59% thereby correctly classifying 76.3% of patients with PD-cognitive impairment. Interrater agreement was high (0.97 and TYM was completed in under 7 minutes (interquartile range 5.33 to 8.52 minutes. Conclusions. The TYM test is a useful and less resource intensive screening test for cognitive deficits in PD.

  13. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother's education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother's education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01-1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37-3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99-1.71); pooled ALSPAC and TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03-1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother's education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems.

  14. Social Media Social Comparison of Ability (but not Opinion) Predicts Lower Identity Clarity: Identity Processing Style as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chen; Holden, Sean M; Carter, Mollie D K

    2018-01-11

    Social comparison on social media has received increasing attention, but most research has focused on one type of social comparison and its psycho-emotional implications. Little is known about how different types of social comparison influence youth's identity development. Drawing on the theories of identity processing styles and social comparison, we examined how two different forms of social comparison on social media related to three identity processing styles, which in turn predicted youth's global self-esteem and identity clarity. We surveyed 219 college freshmen (M age  = 18.29; 74% female) once in the Fall and once in the Spring. Social comparison of ability on social media was related to concurrent diffuse-avoidant identity processing style, which predicted lower identity clarity months later. In contrast, social comparison of opinion on social media did not influence college freshmen's global self-esteem and identity clarity through identity processing styles. The findings clarified the implications of online social comparison for youth's identity development.

  15. The Contribution of Numerical Magnitude Comparison and Phonological Processing to Individual Differences in Fourth Graders' Multiplication Fact Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M J Schleepen

    Full Text Available Although numerical magnitude processing has been related to individual differences in arithmetic, its role in children's multiplication performance remains largely unknown. On the other hand, studies have indicated that phonological awareness is an important correlate of individual differences in children's multiplication performance, but the involvement of phonological memory, another important phonological processing skill, has not been studied in much detail. Furthermore, knowledge about the relative contribution of above mentioned processes to the specific arithmetic operation of multiplication in children is lacking. The present study therefore investigated for the first time the unique contributions of numerical magnitude comparison and phonological processing in explaining individual differences in 63 fourth graders' multiplication fact ability (mean age = 9.6 years, SD = .67. The results showed that children's multiplication fact competency correlated significantly with symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison as well as with phonological short-term memory. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for intellectual ability and general reaction time, both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison and phonological short-term memory accounted for unique variance in multiplication fact performance. The ability to compare symbolic magnitudes was found to contribute the most, indicating that the access to numerical magnitudes by means of Arabic digits is a key factor in explaining individual differences in children's multiplication fact ability.

  16. The Contribution of Numerical Magnitude Comparison and Phonological Processing to Individual Differences in Fourth Graders’ Multiplication Fact Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleepen, Tamara M. J.; Van Mier, Hanneke I.; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Although numerical magnitude processing has been related to individual differences in arithmetic, its role in children’s multiplication performance remains largely unknown. On the other hand, studies have indicated that phonological awareness is an important correlate of individual differences in children’s multiplication performance, but the involvement of phonological memory, another important phonological processing skill, has not been studied in much detail. Furthermore, knowledge about the relative contribution of above mentioned processes to the specific arithmetic operation of multiplication in children is lacking. The present study therefore investigated for the first time the unique contributions of numerical magnitude comparison and phonological processing in explaining individual differences in 63 fourth graders’ multiplication fact ability (mean age = 9.6 years, SD = .67). The results showed that children’s multiplication fact competency correlated significantly with symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison as well as with phonological short-term memory. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for intellectual ability and general reaction time, both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison and phonological short-term memory accounted for unique variance in multiplication fact performance. The ability to compare symbolic magnitudes was found to contribute the most, indicating that the access to numerical magnitudes by means of Arabic digits is a key factor in explaining individual differences in children’s multiplication fact ability. PMID:27359328

  17. The Contribution of Numerical Magnitude Comparison and Phonological Processing to Individual Differences in Fourth Graders' Multiplication Fact Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Van Mier, Hanneke I; De Smedt, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Although numerical magnitude processing has been related to individual differences in arithmetic, its role in children's multiplication performance remains largely unknown. On the other hand, studies have indicated that phonological awareness is an important correlate of individual differences in children's multiplication performance, but the involvement of phonological memory, another important phonological processing skill, has not been studied in much detail. Furthermore, knowledge about the relative contribution of above mentioned processes to the specific arithmetic operation of multiplication in children is lacking. The present study therefore investigated for the first time the unique contributions of numerical magnitude comparison and phonological processing in explaining individual differences in 63 fourth graders' multiplication fact ability (mean age = 9.6 years, SD = .67). The results showed that children's multiplication fact competency correlated significantly with symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison as well as with phonological short-term memory. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for intellectual ability and general reaction time, both symbolic and nonsymbolic magnitude comparison and phonological short-term memory accounted for unique variance in multiplication fact performance. The ability to compare symbolic magnitudes was found to contribute the most, indicating that the access to numerical magnitudes by means of Arabic digits is a key factor in explaining individual differences in children's multiplication fact ability.

  18. Occupational/Career Indecision for Economically Disadvantaged High School Students of High Intellectual Ability: A Mixed-Methods Cognitive Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; Young, Marie

    2017-01-01

    A mixed-methods design was employed to identify the cognitive processes that lead to occupational/career indecision for economically disadvantaged adolescents of high intellectual ability. In the first phase, interview data collected from 26 economically disadvantaged intellectually gifted Australian adolescents were analyzed using grounded theory…

  19. Brief Report: Predicting Inner Speech Use amongst Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)--The Roles of Verbal Ability and Cognitive Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Studies of inner speech use in ASD have produced conflicting results. Lidstone et al., J "Autism Dev Disord" (2009) hypothesised that Cognitive Profile (i.e., "discrepancy" between non-verbal and verbal abilities) is a predictor of inner speech use amongst children with ASD. They suggested other, contradictory results might be explained in terms…

  20. Revisiting the Relations between the WJ-IV Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Reading Achievement during the School-Age Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Bulut, Okan; Funamoto, Allyson

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations between broad cognitive abilities (Fluid Reasoning [Gf], Short-Term Working Memory [Gwm], Long-Term Storage and Retrieval [Glr], Processing Speed [Gs], Comprehension-Knowledge [Gc], Visual Processing [Gv], and Auditory Processing [Ga]) and reading achievement (Basic Reading Skills, Reading Rate, Reading Fluency,…