WorldWideScience

Sample records for cogeneration prototype development

  1. Cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbentli, Taner

    2006-01-01

    may be done in universities and industry which may serve this purpose. Some of these studies are discussed below. The feasibility studies for cogeneration plants is a field which should be developed.. The hourly, daily, monthly and yearly power and heat demands should be calculated to decide on the correct capacity of the plant. The capacity of the plant may be decided on the electrical power demand or the heat demand. In general it is more economical to base the plant capacity on the electrical power demand. In order to save as much energy as possible, the plant should operate continuously at full load. A study which will survey the cogeneration plants in service today, to determine the annual average fuel utilization efficiency may be a useful guide in sizing new cogeneration plants. It is important to select and size the equipment forming the cogeneration plant so that the sum of the operating and investment costs are minimized. The methodology used for this purpose is called ex ergo economic analysis which is based on the pioneering works of Tsatsaronis, El Sayed and Valero. The use of cogeneration in conjunction with district heating is widely used in northern and eastern Europe. This may well be applied to newly developing residential areas, university campuses and similar complexes. The main obstacle in the application of combined power and district heating is high initial investment costs.Government policies and subsidies in this area may be well worth because of the national savings resulting from the reduction in fuel imports. Micro cogeneration or spread electric power production is becoming more feasible as the technology developers and costs are reduced. The costs of micro cogeneration technologies, such as micro turbines, fuel cells, Stirling cycle engines are starting to become competitive with conventional technologies which cost approximately 500 US dollars per kw today. Another area where research is needed is the use of fuels other than natural gas

  2. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  3. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  4. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  5. Cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, R.H.J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Cogeneration has dominated generation capacity expansion in the 1980s in many regions in a way that was never envisaged in the 1970s. The author of this paper suspects it will continue to play a major role in the 1990s in providing new power supply, though perhaps as a smaller part of a larger and more diverse market to meet new capacity needs than we have seen in the 1980s. When Congress enacted Section 210 of PURPA in 1978, its central goal was to create, through a series of regulatory protections primarily designed to neutralize the monopsony power of the purchasing utility, a quasi-market for cogeneration and certain other small power technologies. This would provide a truer test of their value in the power supply mix than had traditional regulation. However, Congress envisaged these sources as only a small, though potentially efficient, adjunct to traditional utility capacity additions

  6. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  7. Sustainability assessment of cogeneration sector development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liposcak, Marko; Afgan, Naim H.; Duic, Neven; Graca Carvalho, Maria da

    2006-01-01

    The effective and rational energy generation and supply is one of the main presumptions of sustainable development. Combined heat and power production, or co-generation, has clear environmental advantages by increasing energy efficiency and decreasing carbon emissions. However, higher investment cost and more complicated design and maintenance sometimes-present disadvantages from the economical viability point of view. As in the case of most of economies in transition in Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has a strong but not very efficient co-generation sector, delivering 12% of the final energy consumption. District heating systems in the country's capital Zagreb and in city of Osijek represent the large share of the overall co-generation capacity. Besides district heating, co-generation in industry sector is also relatively well developed. The paper presents an attempt to assess the sustainability of Croatian co-generation sector future development. The sustainability assessment requires multi-criteria assessment of specific scenarios to be taken into consideration. In this respect three scenarios of Croatian co-generation sector future development are taken into consideration and for each of them environmental, social and economic sustainability indicators are defined and calculated. The assessment of complex relationships between environmental, social and economic aspects of the system is based on the multi-criteria decision-making procedure. The sustainability assessment is based on the General Sustainability Index rating for different cases reflecting different criteria and their priority. The method of sustainability assessment is applied to the Croatian co-generation sector contributing to the evaluation of different strategies and definition of a foundation for policy related to the sustainable future cogeneration sector development

  8. Cogenerationdevelopment and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  9. Development of cogeneration in Spain and financing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    From 1980 there is in force in Spain a proper legal framework that could be considered a sound support to further cogeneration development. Despite this cogeneration law, a very few schemes were built. In 1986 IDAE, a state company attached to the Spanish Ministry of Industry and Energy, began a Cogeneration Programme focussed to a higher cogeneration utilisation. This programme has three main foundations: Technology dissemination; Technical support; Investment financing. As a result of these activities more than 1000 MW additional power schemes have been ordered all over the country and, as a consequence, cogenerated electricity will be multiplied by three in respect with the previous situation. A 20% of this new capacity has been developed directly by IDAE, that has invested approximately 90 million US Dollar through third party financing technics. The National Energy Plan 1991-2000 established the energy policy actuations in Spain for the present decade, giving importance to cogeneration development. This paper explains the way this development has been achieved, outlining IDAE's engagement to finance combined heat and power schemes through its comprehensive way of performing third party financing systems. (au)

  10. Development of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Zou, Meng Lin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cogeneration system that provides high-quality electricity and hot water has been developed. A specially designed thermal management system together with a microcontroller embedded with appropriate control algorithm is integrated into a PEM fuel cell system. The thermal management system does not only control the fuel cell operation temperature but also recover the heat dissipated by FC stack. The dynamic behaviors of thermal and electrical characteristics are presented to verify the stability of the fuel cell cogeneration system. In addition, the reliability of the fuel cell cogeneration system is proved by one-day demonstration that deals with the daily power demand in a typical family. Finally, the effects of external loads on the efficiencies of the fuel cell cogeneration system are examined. Results reveal that the maximum system efficiency was as high as 81% when combining heat and power. (author)

  11. Examination on small-sized cogeneration HTGR for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; Mozumi, Yasuhiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Takada, Shoji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The small-sized and safe cogeneration High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) that can be used not only for electric power generation but also for hydrogen production and district heating is considered one of the most promising nuclear reactors for developing countries where sufficient infrastructure such as power grids is not provided. Thus, the small-sized cogeneration HTGR, named High Temperature Reactor 50-Cogeneration (HTR50C), was studied assuming that it should be constructed in developing countries. Specification, equipment configuration, etc. of the HTR50C were determined, and economical evaluation was made. As a result, it was shown that the HTR50C is economically competitive with small-sized light water reactors. (author)

  12. Low power cogeneration prototype system; Prototipo de sistema de co-geracao de pequena potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sara M.; Martins, Jose A.S.; Camara, Paulo R.; Cortes, Breno P.; Neves, Elierton E. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); F. Filho, Roberto; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The fuels from oil and natural gas play an important role, not only in the sector of primary energy, but also in almost all the other sectors of the economy, due to its imbrication as insum of these. The use of the natural gas will have great expansion in Brazil, motivated for the Government decision to increase the participation of this fuel in the Brazilian energy matrix from 4% to 12% up to 2010. Then, it's so important the investment in new technologies and also the improvement. In order to reach the objective related to increase the consumption of natural gas in the energy matrix, and to propose solutions to attend the electric requirements, of heat and refrigeration, using natural gas as primary power plant, the Center of Gas Technologies; CTGAS, in partnership with PETROBRAS and the Fockink Group, has developed the first modular system of generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power, of easy installation and shipment with the characteristics techniques to take care of to companies or industrial sectors that consummate this band of power. The equipment generates 35 kW/55 kVA of electric energy, 7TR (Ton of Refrigeration) of energy for refrigeration and posses the ability to heat 2200 l/h of water in the temperature of 85 deg C. The equipment will be able to produce electric and thermal energy simultaneously, from an only fuel, the natural gas. The main objective of this work is to present the main phases of development of the archetype, functions techniques of the co-generator and its field of performance in the market of systems for generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power. (author)

  13. Introduction to cogeneration; Introducao a cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Martins, Andre Luiz Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a general view of cogeneration. The paper approaches the development of cogeneration, technological aspects, the cogeneration in Brazil, economical aspects, performance of cogeneration systems, viability, costs, cogeneration potentials and technological trends.

  14. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  15. Canadian nuclear desalination/cogeneration technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the CANDESAL program has been to develop innovative applications of existing technologies that would offer an energy efficient, cost effective mechanism for the production of potable water and electricity. Large scale seawater desalination will be an important element in the solution of the global water shortage problem. For nuclear desalination to capture a significant share of this growing market, it must be economically competitive, as well as offer other advantages over more traditional fossil-fueled alternatives. The focus of activities in Canada has been on development of the technology in directions that would result in improved water production efficiency, reduced energy consumption, reduced environmental burden and reduced costs

  16. Nuclear hydrogen - cogeneration and the transitional pathway to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbin, G.M.; Talbot, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the next phase of the Bruce Energy Centre, in cooperation with Ontario Hydro, will see the introduction of a series of integrated energy processes whose end products will have environmental value added. Cogenerated nuclear steam and electricity were selected on the basis of economics, sustainability and carbon emissions. The introduction of hydrogen to combine with CO 2 from alcohol fermentation provided synthetic methanol as a feedstock to refine into ether for the rapidly expanding gasoline fuel additive market, large volumes of O 2 will enhance combustion processes and improve closed-looping of the systems. In the implementation of the commercial development, the first stage will require simultaneous electrolysis, methanol synthesis and additional fermentation capacity. Electricity and steam pricing will be key to viability and an 80-MV 'backup' fossil-fuelled, back pressure turbine cogeneration facility could be introduced in a compatible matter. Successful demonstration of transitional and integrating elements necessary to achieve sustainable development can serve as a model for electric utilities throughout the world. 11 ref., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Cogeneration and CO2 emissions. Impact of the low power decentralized cogeneration development on the CO2 emissions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Facing the economic growth leading the increase of the energy demand, the new european organization of the electric Industry and the development of the renewable energies sources, the cogeneration is developing in France. The aim of this study is the impacts of these cogeneration technologies on the raw materials consumption and on the environment. In a first part the energy profile of the buildings, agriculture and Industry sectors are evaluated. Each sector is divided in sectoral parts of specific thermal and electrical needs. In a second part scenario, established in the study, present significant developments of decentralized technologies of simultaneous production of heat and electric power in the range of few kW to 1 MW. (A.L.B.)

  18. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  19. The prospects of development of the market of cogeneration in Europe; Les perspectives de developpement du marche de la cogeneration eu Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E. [Association Europeenne de Promotion de la Cogeneration, COGEN Europe (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1999-01-01

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power has a high overall efficiency and brings about important environmental advantages in particular in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions. This win-win position is crucial at a time of widespread liberalization in energy markets. However, as shown by the various development rates within the EU, cogeneration is not equally treated across Europe. These differences are not only due to local climates - the development difference can ba as high as over 30% for example between France and The Netherlands. Nevertheless some recent European legislation such as the Gas and the Electricity Directives attempt to harmonize through liberalization. Liberalization should have positive aspects for cogeneration, in particular industrial cogeneration, provided that it is well designed and implemented. (authors)

  20. Survey for making a data book related to the development of new energy technology. Cogeneration; 1999 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa hokokusho. Cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This is a report of 'A data book on cogeneration' surveyed by Japan Cogeneration Center under consignment from NEDO. Together with the advance of technology development, policies of new energy technology are being developed toward the introductory promotion in terms of preparation of subsidy system, field test project, advisory project for support of new energy introduction, etc. To promote the project for introducing/promoting new energy more effectively, it is necessary to arrange various data on new energy comprehensively/systematically and to prepare it as the basic data. Out of the technical fields of new energy, this report deals with the cogeneration field and collected/arranged the most up-to-date published data in terms mainly of a list of system, actual samples of introduction, subsidy system, situation of tackling it in each country, etc. The main items of data included in this report are shown below: (1) trend of cogeneration; (2) outline of system; (3) samples of introduction in Japan and abroad; (4) forecast of introduction; (5) policies on cogeneration in Japan; (6) basic technical terms. (NEDO)

  1. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  2. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  3. Using prototyping in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Miha

    2010-01-01

    Today the business system changers faster than the usual conventional cascade life cycle. Because of that, we can conclude, that today's programming system will no longer be presented as the answer to this topic in the developing age of ever changing user requirements. Neither increased performance or higher productivity will decrease the problem. The appropriate solution to this stated problem is prototyping. Instead of building and developing the whole system, we build a module that can...

  4. Development of miller cycle gas engine for cogeneration; Developpement d'un moteur a gaz a cycle de Miller destine a la cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukida, N; Sakakura, A; Murata, Y; Okamoto, K [Tokyo Gas CO., LTD (Japan); Abe, T; Takemoto, T [YANMAR Diesel Engine CO., LTD (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a 300 kW gas engine cogeneration system for practical use that uses natural gas. Using a gas engine operated under conditions with an excess air ratio {lambda} = 1 that is able to use a three way catalyst to purify the exhaust gases, we were able to achieve high efficiency through the application of the Miller Cycle, as well as a low NO{sub X} output. In terms of product specifications, we were able to achieve an electrical efficiency of 34.2% and a heat recovery efficiency of 49.3%, making an overall efficiency of 83.5% as a cogeneration system. (authors)

  5. Development of small ceramic gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Details of the project at NEDO to develop 300 kW ceramic gas turbines with a thermal efficiency of ≥42% at a turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of 1,350 o C. The project is part of the 'New Sunshine Projects' promoted by Japan's Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. So far, a thermal efficiency of 37% at a TIT of 1,280 o C has been achieved by a basic ceramic gas turbine (CGT). Work to develop pilot CGTs to achieve the final target is being carried out alongside research and development of ceramic parts and improved performance of ceramic components for CGTs. One group of engine and ceramic manufacturers is developing a single shaft regenerative cycle CGT (CGT 301) and a second group a double shaft type (CGT 302). The heat-resistant ceramic parts, nitrogen oxide emissions and performance of these two prototypes are outlined and the properties of the ceramic materials used are indicated. Market estimates and economics are noted

  6. Survey on construction of the database for new energy technology development. Cogeneration; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the activity promoting use of new energy, the data related to cogeneration were systematically compiled. For new energy technology, such various policies for introducing new energy are in promotion with a progress of technological development as preparation of subsidy systems, field test business, and support advisory business for introducing new energy. For further effective promotion, integral systematic compilation of various data, and arrangement as basic data are necessary. Such latest announced data in a cogeneration field were collected and compiled as outline of new energy systems, concrete applications, subsidy systems, and approaches to new energy of various countries. Main data items are as follows: trend of cogeneration, outline of system, domestic and foreign concrete applications, prediction data on the use of new energy, overview of domestic and foreign policies for cogeneration, basic terminology, and tables of main related enterprises and organizations. This database is useful for the present activities promoting use of new energy, and preparation of the future vision. 29 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Cogeneration; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Various policies are being implemented in the field of new energy technology in line with progress in technological development. Examples are about assistance mechanism, field test projects and advisory projects to support the introduction of new energy technology. In order to promote the introduction of new energy efficiently, it is necessary to compile the various information regarding new energy in a comprehensive and systematic way, and formulate a basic data set. Among various new energy technologies, cogeneration is discussed in this report. The latest published data on the respective technologies are compiled particularly regarding their overall systems, examples of introduction, assistance mechanisms and state of implementation in foreign countries. Items included in this report are the trend of cogeneration, outline of system, state of introduction, forecast of introduction, overview of policies, basic terms, and related organizations. 9 figs.

  8. District heating development, air quality improvement, and cogeneration in Krakow, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manczyk, H.; Leach, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Krakow, Poland, is served by a district heating system that includes coal-fired electrical and heating plants and distribution networks and by approximately 200,000 residential coal furnaces. Cogeneration facilities were added in the mid-1970s to supply up to 40% of the regional peak electrical demand and to optimize energy extraction from the low-heating-value coal mined in the region. Several difficulties prevent the district from realizing the potential efficiencies of its technology: the poor condition of the distribution network, the lack of consumption control and metering devices, inadequate plant maintenance, and the lack of economic incentives for operator productivity and energy conservation by users. Environmental concerns have caused the local government and international agencies to plan major improvements to the system. This paper discusses the development of the district heating system, coal use in Poland, cogeneration facilities, environmental concerns and pollution control plans, and improvement strategies

  9. FY1999 annual report on the research and development on practical industrial cogeneration technology; 1999 nendo sangyoyo cogeneration jitsuyo gijutsu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The basic plan aims to quicken the practical application of the industrial HBGT (hybrid gas turbine) cogeneration technology and thereby to realize high-efficiency energy utilization for reduction in CO2 emission. For this purpose, a medium-scale HBGT, expected to be high in efficiency and low in polluting, and its components are subjected to assessment tests and endurance tests to prove that there are reliability and soundness in HBGT. Ceramic members are developed which are high in strength at elevated temperatures and in resistance to oxidation, and are subjected to assessment so that they will be further improved in reliability and durability. An HBGT is designed, fabricated, and operated. The engine system is tested for performance, and the performance is improved. It is put to a long-term operation, which is to confirm the presence of soundness and reliability in HBGT as an industrial cogeneration system. Industrial fields in which HBGT will be useful are selected and surveys are conducted to find out how it will function in such selected fields. Problems which HBGT will encounter upon practical application are extracted, and measures for solving them are clarified. Such an HBGT will have a shaft output of approximately 8,000kW, engine thermal efficiency of not less than 34%, and a turbine inlet temperature of approximately 1,250 degrees C. (NEDO)

  10. Development and implementation of a 600-MW natural gas cogeneration project - a financial case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, N.K.; Sherrill, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In February 1990, General Electric Capital Corporation (GECC), through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Electric Power Funding Corporation (GEPFC), provided a number of commitments to a partnership (the Partnership) formed by a company that develops, owns, and operates cogeneration facilities to fund the development, construction, and permanent debt and equity financing of a 614 megawatt (M) cogeneration facility (the Project) to be located near a large refinery in the northeastern United States. The Project is unusual both for the magnitude of its natural gas requirements and for its contractual configuration. The Project's entire transportation needs and a substantial portion of its gas requirements will be met by a joint venture between two local gas distribution companies (the Joint Venture), one of which is a large gas-consuming utility in the eastern United States. The Project's power purchase customer, (the Utility Host), is another very large gas-consuming utility. Thus, the fuel cost recovery of the Project is determined by the Utility Host's gas costs while its actual bill for fuel will be heavily influenced by the Joint Venture's gas commodity and transportation costs. Therefore, in appraising the credit quality of the Project's proposed fuel supply arrangements, the key issue to be answered is: Are the Project's natural gas supply and transportation arrangements compatible with the fuel cost recovery provisions of the power sales agreement with the Utility Host? If so, then the sensitivity of the Project's financing to adverse gas price movements would be minimized

  11. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  12. Homogeneous groups of plants, development scenarios, and basic configurations on the cogeneration systems optimization from the alcohol sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Walter, A.C. da; Bajay, S.V.; Carrillo, J.L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of introducing or diffusing new technologies at a macro economic level using micro economic information can be carried out through the careful selection of a small number of homogeneous groups of plants from the point of view of the main technical parameters being considered. In this paper this concept is applied to the study of cogeneration in sugar and alcohol producing plants. The statistical techniques of Cluster Analysis, regressions and mean value testing are used. Basic cogeneration plant designs are proposed for alternatives development scenarios for this industrial branch. These scenarios are based upon differing assumptions about the expansion of alcohol market, use of surplus sugar cane bagasse as saleable commodity, as a fuel or raw material, and price expectations for the sale of surplus power from the cogeneration plants to the local grid. (author)

  13. Cogeneration markets in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poredos, S.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration offers a key strategy which supports global competitiveness for Ontario businesses, encourages energy efficiency and environmental protection, and offers natural gas utilities and producers stable long-term incremental markets. By supporting cogeneration projects, electric utilities will benefit from increased flexibility. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for cogeneration, which can in most cases be easily integrated into existing operations. In Ontario, electric demand grew along with the gross domestic product until 1990, but has decreased with the recent economic recession. The provincial utility Ontario Hydro is resizing itself to stabilize total rate increases of 30% over the last three years and supporting reduction of its high debt load. Rate increases are supposed to be limited but this may be difficult to achieve without further cost-cutting measures. Cogeneration opportunities exist with many institutional and industrial customers who are trying to remain globally competitive by cutting operating costs. In general, cogeneration can save 20% or more of total annual energy costs. Due to excess capacity, Ontario Hydro is not willing to purchase electric power, thus only electric load displacement projects are valid at this time. This will reduce overall savings due to economies of scale. In southwestern Ontario, Union Gas Ltd. has been successful in developing 40 MW of electric displacement projects, providing a total load of 5 billion ft 3 of natural gas (50% of which is incremental). Over 3,000 MW of technical cogeneration potential is estimated to exist in the Union Gas franchise area

  14. Experiences Applying Cogeneration Policies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Nortes, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper starts by giving overview of the development of cogeneration in the European Union. The percentage of electricity produced by cogeneration is about 10%. The difference among the countries are however very big, ranging from 40% in Denmark to 2% in France. This is because the development of cogeneration in a country depends on a number of different factors. Political and regulatory factors are of a major importance. This paper tries to show this and to examinate a number of cogeneration policies in some countries in Europe. In each case, the reasons why or why not cogeneration has been successful will be analysed. (author)

  15. Developing IEC prototypes for adolescents. IEC workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Participants of the IEC Workshop for the Production of OHP Material on Reproductive Health for Adolescents and Young Adults held November 25-30 in Japan developed innovative, visually appealing overhead projector (OHP) transparencies to serve as prototype information, education, and communication (IEC) materials for the Asian Region. The materials cover a wide range of topics from early marriage to unwanted pregnancy. This paper briefly describes the prototypes. One group focused upon early marriage, an issue of considerable importance to the health and welfare of young women in countries such as Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Participants from China, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand focused upon the issue of gender equality, while a third group developed OHP material to teach a range of issues related to young people's sexual and reproductive health. Finally, the fourth group, drawn from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, focused upon the topic of menstruation with a prototype targeted to boys and girls aged 9-14 years. Boys were included to foster their understanding of menstruation as a natural phenomenon.

  16. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  17. Cogeneration development in Mexico and its recent environmental impact; Desarrollo de la cogeneracion en Mexico y su reciente impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Garcia Pelaez, Juan [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the historical development of the electric auto supply systems and cogeneration in Mexico since 1942 to 1995 with the understanding that these are clearly differentiated and defined since 1992. Though it is not, but until 1994 when the first ex profeso permit for cogeneration was granted. It also develops a short prospective vision of the cogeneration in our country, as well as the fuel consumption employed by auto- supply systems during 1993. The pollution emissions to the environment are also analyzed and with it the environmental impact of these electric systems in this year. [Espanol] Se presenta el desarrollo historico de los sistemas de autoabastecimiento electrico y cogeneracion en Mexico desde 1942 a 1995, en el entendido que estos se diferencian y definen claramente desde 1992. Es, sin embargo, hasta 1994 cuando se otorgo el primer permiso ex profeso de cogeneracion. Se desarrolla, ademas, una breve vision prospectiva de la cogeneracion en nuestro pais. Asimismo, se analiza el consumo de combustibles empleados por los sistemas de autoabastecimiento en 1993. Se estiman las emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera y con ello se valora el impacto ambiental de estos sistemas electricos en ese ano.

  18. Cogeneration development in Mexico and its recent environmental impact; Desarrollo de la cogeneracion en Mexico y su reciente impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Garcia Pelaez, Juan [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the historical development of the electric auto supply systems and cogeneration in Mexico since 1942 to 1995 with the understanding that these are clearly differentiated and defined since 1992. Though it is not, but until 1994 when the first ex profeso permit for cogeneration was granted. It also develops a short prospective vision of the cogeneration in our country, as well as the fuel consumption employed by auto- supply systems during 1993. The pollution emissions to the environment are also analyzed and with it the environmental impact of these electric systems in this year. [Espanol] Se presenta el desarrollo historico de los sistemas de autoabastecimiento electrico y cogeneracion en Mexico desde 1942 a 1995, en el entendido que estos se diferencian y definen claramente desde 1992. Es, sin embargo, hasta 1994 cuando se otorgo el primer permiso ex profeso de cogeneracion. Se desarrolla, ademas, una breve vision prospectiva de la cogeneracion en nuestro pais. Asimismo, se analiza el consumo de combustibles empleados por los sistemas de autoabastecimiento en 1993. Se estiman las emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera y con ello se valora el impacto ambiental de estos sistemas electricos en ese ano.

  19. Europairs project: creating an alliance of nuclear and non-nuclear industries for developing nuclear cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittner, Dominique; Bogusch, Edgar; Viala, Celine; Angulo, Carmen; Chauvet, Vincent; Fuetterer, Michael A.; De Groot, Sander; Von Lensa, Werner; Ruer, Jacques; Griffay, Gerard; Baaten, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. HTR are thus well suited to most of the non-electric applications of nuclear energy, which represent about 80% of total energy consumption. This opens opportunities for reducing CO 2 emissions and securing energy supply which are complementary to those provided by systems dedicated to electricity generation. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, much in the same way as the electronuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project just started in the frame of the EURATOM 7. Framework Programme (FP7) under AREVA coordination. Within EUROPAIRS, process heat user industries express their requirements whereas nuclear industry will provide the performance window of HTR. Starting from this shared information, an alliance will be forged by assessing the feasibility and impact of nuclear CHP from technical, industrial, economical, licensing and sustainability perspectives. This assessment work will allow pointing out the main issues and challenges for coupling an HTR with industrial process heat applications. On this basis, a Road-map will be elaborated for achieving an industrially relevant demonstration of such a coupling. This Road-map will not only take into consideration the necessary nuclear developments, but also the required adaptations of industrial application processes and the possible development of heat transport technologies from the nuclear heat source to application processes. Although only a small and short project (21 months

  20. Cogenerators stretch the capital markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Danielle.

    1993-01-01

    Independent power generation projects are being planned worldwide. But to finance them, the developers are starting to look increasingly for non-bank sources of funds. Key cogeneration finance deals are discussed in this article. (Author)

  1. Prototype development of user specific climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Systematic consultations in the last years with representatives from sectors particularly affected by climate change have helped the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) to identify the most pressing needs of stakeholders from public and private sectors. Besides the development of innovative climate service products and methods, areas are also identified, for which intensive research activities have to be initiated. An example is the demand of decision makers for high-resolution climate change information needed at regional to local levels for their activities towards climate change adaptation. For questions concerning adaptation to climate change, no standard solutions can be provided. Different from mitigation measures, adaptation measures must be framed in accordance with the specific circumstances prevailing in the local situation. Here, individual solutions, which satisfy the individual requirements and needs, are necessary. They have to be developed in close co-operation with the customers and users. For example, the implications of climate change on strategic and operative decisions, e.g. in enterprises and urban planning, are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-quality consultancy for businesses and public administration is needed, in order to support decision makers in identifying associated risks and opportunities. For the development of prototype products, GERICS has framed a general methodological approach, including the idea generation, the iterative development, and the prototype testing in co-development with the user. High process transparency and high product quality are prerequisite for the success of a product. The co-development process ensures the best possible communication of user tailored climate change information for different target groups.

  2. Prototype development and demonstration for integrated dynamic transit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the Final Report specific to the Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) Prototype Development and Deployment Project, hereafter referred to as IDTO Prototype Deployment or IDTO PD project. This project was performed unde...

  3. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

  4. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Mars. In order to reduce risk and explore system designs, the RP project is attempting two-fold approaches to development as it looks towards flight. We continue to explore flight planning, requirements, and interfaces definition by using Engineering Test Units (ETUs), looking towards lunar deployment, while also using fiscal year 2015 to develop, build and test an earth-terrestrial prototype rover and payload system. This terrestrial prototype, called "RP15", is built to both inform the system design, and to be a partnership advocacy tool for this unique mission. RP15 must be affordable within the resource and time constraints of fiscal year 2015, while working to the following Needs, Goals, and Objectives provided by HEOMD/AES: 1. Demonstrate rover mobility in a 1g environment 2. The Surface Segment (prototype rover + payload system) shall represent the flight system concept with as much fidelity as affordable (limited by cost and schedule) - Surface Segment shall be the approximate size/dimension/footprint -Surface Segment shall package all the expected devices (instruments, systems, etc.), even if some facets are mocked-up due to time/cost constraints -Overall Surface Segment fidelity negotiable to make achievable 3. Priority should be given to illustrating mission functionality over support functionality, which exists solely to support mission functionality This paper will provide an overview of RP project developments, including the design and build, capturing the development and initial integrated testing of RP15 in relevant environments.

  5. Cogeneration Systems; Sistemas de Cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Huante P, Liborio; Romo M, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The present article deals on relevant aspects on the subject of cogeneration within the Mexican territorial limits. In the first place it is presented the role of Mexico in terms of its cogeneration potential, the type of service that has obtained from this predominant modality of cogeneration for self-supplying, the most propitious sectors to develop it, its legislations on the matter, the projects made for the implementation of cogeneration plants, as well as the existing cogeneration schemes for its respective optimization proposals. Without leaving out the analysis on the different types of evaluation on the efficiency of cogeneration systems and the aspects to consider for the election of a generation cycle. [Spanish] El presente articulo trata sobre aspectos relevantes en materia de cogeneracion dentro de los limites territoriales de la nacion mexicana. Se muestra en primer lugar el papel de Mexico en terminos de su potencial de cogeneracion, el tipo de servicio que ha obtenido de esta predominantemente (modalidad de cogeneracion para autoabastecimiento), los sectores mas propicios para desarrollarla, sus legislaciones al respecto, los proyectos realizados para la implementacion de plantas de cogeneracion, asi como los esquemas de cogeneracion existentes con sus respectivas propuestas de optimizacion. Sin dejar de lado el analisis sobre los distintos tipos de evaluacion de la eficiencia de sistemas de cogeneracion y los aspectos a considerar para la eleccion de un ciclo de generacion.

  6. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  7. Cogeneration for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Almost all the electric power in Brazil comes from large-scale hydroelectric plants: only about 3% comes from cogeneration. But, now that the barriers which discouraged cogeneration are being removed, there will be more and more investment in cogeneration and distributed generation. The circumstances which have brought about these changes are described. It is expected that cogeneration will be responsible for producing 10-15% of Brazil's electricity by 2010 and the demand for cogeneration will reach 11-17 GW. It is concluded that Brazil represents one of the world's most attractive market for cogeneration and distributed generation

  8. Space shuttle prototype check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Contaminant-resistant seal designs and a dynamically stable prototype check valve for the orbital maneuvering and reaction control helium pressurization systems of the space shuttle were developed. Polymer and carbide seal models were designed and tested. Perfluoroelastomers compatible with N2O4 and N2H4 types were evaluated and compared with Teflon in flat and captive seal models. Low load sealing and contamination resistance tests demonstrated cutter seal superiority over polymer seals. Ceramic and carbide materials were evaluated for N2O4 service using exposure to RFNA as a worst case screen; chemically vapor deposited tungsten carbide was shown to be impervious to the acid after 6 months immersion. A unique carbide shell poppet/cutter seat check valve was designed and tested to demonstrate low cracking pressure ( 2.0 psid), dynamic stability under all test bench flow conditions, contamination resistance (0.001 inch CRES wires cut with 1.5 pound seat load) and long life of 100,000 cycles (leakage 1.0 scc/hr helium from 0.1 to 400 psig).

  9. New developments in surface technology and prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Thomas; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-03-01

    Novel lightweight applications in the automotive and aircraft industries require advanced materials and techniques for surface protection as well as direct and rapid manufacturing of the related components and tools. The manufacturing processes presented in this paper are based on multiple additive and subtractive technologies such as laser cutting, laser welding, direct laser metal deposition, laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique or CNC milling. The process chain is similar to layer-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques. In the first step, the 3D CAD geometry is sliced into layers by a specially developed software. These slices are cut by high speed laser cutting and then joined together. In this way laminated tools or parts are built. To improve surface quality and to increase wear resistance a CNC machining center is used. The system consists of a CNC milling machine, in which a 3 kW Nd:YAG laser, a coaxial powder nozzle and a digitizing system are integrated. Using a new laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique, coatings can be deposited onto parts for surface protection. The layers show a low porosity and high adhesion strength, the thickness is up to 0.3 mm, and the lower effort for preliminary surface preparation reduces time and costs of the whole process.

  10. Maritime Analytics Prototype: Final Development Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    includes all of the source code required to connect to a Postgres database and manipulate persistent MVAP data objects. 2.2.1 MVAP Data Import Scripts...The MVAP project includes a simple browser based user interface which can be used to populate the Postgres database. To use the DB interface, open a... Postgres ) is the database management system used by the prototype. 5. Download the one-click installer of PostgreSQL: 99 http

  11. Biomass cogeneration: A business assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, J. C.

    1981-11-01

    The biomass cogeneration was reviewed. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  12. Status and first Results of the CBM TRD Prototype Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arend, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of decay products from rare particles in the CBM experiment defines the requirements for the used detector systems. This report describes the approaches for the Transition Radiation Detector to fulfil these requirements and presents the current status of the prototype development. First results from beam tests with these prototypes are discussed.

  13. Cogeneration for small SAGD projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albion, Stuart [AMEC BDR Limited (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    As many SAGD projects are being developed in remote locations, the supply of a steady source of power to them becomes an important question. Connecting these remote facilities to a grid can often be difficult and costly. This presentation, by AMEC BDR Limited, promotes the use of cogeneration in small SAGD projects. Cogeneration is the generation of two forms of energy from one fuel source. In this particular case, the energy forms would be electricity and heat. In many SAGD projects, a gas turbine system is used to generate the electricity, while a heat recovery system is utilized to generate steam. The use of cogeneration systems in SAGD projects, as opposed to using separate heat and electricity systems, has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of energy lost, the amount of emissions and power costs, in addition to ensuring that there is a reliable supply of steam and electricity.

  14. The co-generation file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane; Petitot, Pauline; Mary, Olivier; Sredojevic, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Whereas co-generation has many benefits (increase of energy efficiency, decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, integration of renewable energies, local and efficient production of heat and electricity, and so on), as explained in a first article, it has not enough public support in France any longer, notably for installations of more than 1 MW. However, as shown in some examples (a power and heat plant in Aulnay-sous-Bois, a factory in Graulhet), some co-generation installations have been able to take some benefit from the situation in 2015. Besides, some technological development are addressed: new burners to comply with regulations regarding NO_x and CO emissions, new engines able to operate with various gases such as hydrogen or gas produced by biomass gasification. A last article presents a co-generation boiler installed in a medical care home near Roye in the Somme district

  15. Aeroderivative gas turbines for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, M.W.; Thames, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft jet engine derivative gas turbines have gained acceptance for cogeneration applications through impressive advances in technology and especially in maintainability and reliability. The best advantages of heavy industrial turbines and of reliable commercial airline jet engines have been successfully joined to meet the requirements for industrial cogeneration service. The next generation is under development and offers improved thermal efficiencies, alternate fuel capabilities, low environmental emissions, flexibility of operation and improved competitive system economics. This paper summarizes the current aero-derivative engine features and advantages with various systems, and discusses advanced features under consideration at this time

  16. FY1998 survey on preparation of data collection related to new energy technology development (cogeneration); 1998 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (cogeneration) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    New energy technologies have had the subsidy institutions established in association with advancement of the technologies, and such introduction promoting measures developed as the introduction assistance and advisory project. To promote this development more effectively, it is necessary that different data related to new energies are put into order comprehensively and systematically to be retained as the basic data. Therefore, this paper collects and puts into order the latest published data on cogeneration from among other new energy technology areas, with main regard to system listing, specific introduction examples, subsidy institutions, and how other countries are working on the technologies. Hydroelectric power generation uses up head energy of water by installing power plants along a river from higher location to lower location. Similarly the cogeneration is a kind of multi-stage energy utilization (cascade utilization) system that uses up energy serially from as high oil and natural gas combustion temperature as 1,500 degrees C or higher down to temperature levels used for hot water supply and air conditioning as low as 45 to 50 degrees C. It generates electric power by using a thermal engine, and utilizes waste heat effectively. (NEDO)

  17. Development and test of prototype components for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, Wolfgang; Behr, Wilfried; Castano-Bardawil, David

    2015-08-01

    The scientific program of the project is divided into the following partial projects: (1.) ITER Diagnostic Port Plug for the charge-exchange spectroscopy (CXRS) with the subthemes: (a) Development of prototypes for critical mechanical components, (b) development of a roboter for the laser welding of vacuum seals and pipings at the Port Plug, (c) mirror studies, (d) CXRS prototype spectrometer, (2.) ITER tritium retention diagnostics (TR), (3.) ITER disruption mitigation ventile (DMV).

  18. Cogeneration in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, E. [International Cogeneration Alliance (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The short article discusses pollution abatement and the potential role of cogeneration in Taiwan. A diagram shows the contributions of various energy sources (coal, oil etc.) from 1979-1999 and the growth of cogeneration between 1979 and 1999. The lack of natural gas or diesel does not help the cause of cogeneration in Taiwan, nor does the structure of the local electricity market. Nevertheless, if the proposed new LNG facilities are built in the North, then the opportunities for cogeneration will be very good.

  19. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  20. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  1. 'BACO' code: Cogeneration cycles heat balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huelamo Martinez, E.; Conesa Lopez, P.; Garcia Kilroy, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a code, developed by Empresarios Agrupados, sponsored by OCIDE, CSE and ENHER, that, with Electrical Utilities as final users, allows to make combined and cogeneration cycles technical-economical studies. (author)

  2. The cogeneration in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since the years 90 many measures have been decided by the government in favor of the cogeneration, to implement a juridical, fiscal, technical and economical framework. After a presentation of the three main channels and the advantages of the cogeneration, the author presents these measures. (A.L.B.)

  3. Model driven development of user interface prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    the whole UI development life cycle, connect all stakeholders involved, and support a wide range of levels of granularity and abstraction. This is achieved by using Window/Event-Diagrams (WEDs), a UI specification notation based on UML 2 state machines. It affords closer collaboration between different user...

  4. Network data analysis server (NDAS) prototype development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marka, Szabolcs; Mours, Benoit; Williams, Roy

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a simple and robust system based on standard UNIX tools and frame library code to transfer and merge data from multiple gravitational wave detectors distributed worldwide. The transfer and merger take place with less than 20 minute delay and the output frames are available for all participants. Presently VIRGO and LIGO participate in the exchange and only environmental data are shared. The system is modular to allow future improvements and the use of new tools like Grid

  5. Utilization of virtual prototyping in development of CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneda, A.; Pessi, P.; Siuko, M.; Handroos, H.; Palmer, J.; Vilenius, M.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristic advantages of hydraulics (high power density, simple construction and reliability) together with the characteristics of water as the pressure medium (fire and environmentally safe, chemically neutral, not activated nor affected by radiation) are highlighted in critical applications such as remote handling operations in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, component cost and lack of wide selection of water hydraulic components make it difficult to build and to test complex water hydraulic systems. The use of virtual prototyping for the development of water hydraulic tools can be used to address this problem. Rapidly increased computational power has created conditions for extensive numerical calculations, enabling computer aided virtual prototyping to replace physical prototype phases in product development

  6. The Mexican electricity industry - cogeneration potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    A brief history of Mexico's electric power industry is given. Diagrams show (i) the increase in primary energy production from 1990-1998; (ii) energy consumption by sector and (iii) the change in capacity between 1990 and 1998. The projected energy development for 1998-2007 is discussed. The Mexican government has chosen cogeneration to be an important contributor to future energy-efficient power production. Data on installed cogeneration capacity for years 2000 and 2001 are given according to sector

  7. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  8. HTGR-steam cycle/cogeneration plant economic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    The cogeneration of heat and electricity provides the potential for improved fuel utilization and corresponding reductions in energy costs. In the evaluation of the cogeneration plant product costs, it is advantageous to develop joint-product cost curves for alternative cogeneration plant models. The advantages and incentives for cogeneration are then presented in a form most useful to evaluate the various energy options. The HTGR-Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (SC/C) system is envisioned to have strong cogeneration potential due to its high-quality steam capability, its perceived nuclear siting advantages, and its projected cost advantages relative to coal. The economic information presented is based upon capital costs developed during 1980 and the economic assumptions identified herein

  9. Developing novel extensions to support prototyping for interactive social robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhömer, ten M.; Bartneck, C.; Hu, J.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Tuyls, K.P.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Lego Mindstorms NXT is a platform highly suitable for prototyping in the field of interactive social robotics. During a technology masterclass at Eindhoven University of Technology students from the department of Industrial Design have developed five novel extensions (sensors and actuators) for the

  10. Mini gas turbines. Study related to energy efficient cogeneration applications for new cogeneration markets. Appendix; Mini gasturbiner. Udredning vedr. energieffektive kraftvarmeapplikationer til nye kraftvarmemarkeder. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, J.B.; Weel Hansen, M.; Astrupgaard, N.P.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate, design and increase the energy efficiency in new cogeneration/cooling systems, which are based on new developed mini gas turbines. Hereby cogeneration can primarily based on natural gas and bio-fuels be spread to new market segments. The appendix presents further details related to gas turbine as burner; cogeneration with recuperation gas turbine; gas turbine for cogeneration/absorption refrigerator; the economic and operational basis used in the study. (EHS)

  11. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  12. Design for effective development and prototyping of the HL-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urie, David M.; Floreck, Paul A.; McMorris, John A.; Elvin, John D.

    1993-10-01

    A feasibility study of the HL-20 personnel launch system (PLS) concept was conducted by a team which focused on creating a PLS design approach and an accelerated development plan consistent with the historical 'Skunk Works' approach to rapid prototyping. Technical design, manufacturing, system testing, and operations and support elements of the predefined baseline concept were evaluated. An initial phase program, featuring a concurrent system test during design and development, leading to the orbital flight of an unmanned HL-20 prototype on a Titan III launch system, was prescribed. A second-phase development and manufacturing plan leading to system operational status was also formulated. Baseline design feature modifications were made when necessary, without compromise to performance, to satisfy the prototype development plan. Technical design details and off-the-shelf hardware candidates were also identified for several subsystems, including the launch-system interface adapter/emergency escape system. The technical feasibility of the system and applicability of the Skunk Works approach to development of the HL-20/PLS were verified.

  13. Development of a prototype GIS for risk-hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonport, C.

    1992-01-01

    A collaborative research agreement between the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region (OSS) and the Northern Territory University (NTU) aims to develop and assess a computer-based Geographic Information System (GIS) to integrate terrain and geological data for risk-hazard analysis and modelling. This paper outlines initial design and development of the prototype GIS including the input of trial data of various types. It is recognised that the GIS must be flexible enough to accommodate change and provide a base for a variety of research needs. Such functionality is likely to be provided best by an initially small, generic prototype GIS to which functions and data are added as required. Properties of the prototype identified as critical to its usefulness include integration of different types of data into the system, understanding and accommodating inconsistencies between data sets and the recognition and recording of error. Various types of data (elevation data, maps and images) available at the outset of the project are outlined together with a brief discussion on their source, integration into the database, derivative products and the potential usefulness of, and problems associated with, the different data formats. The analytical possibilities offered by the trial data will be explored next and the results of the first development cycle presented by the end of 1992. Subsequently, additional data will be incorporated into the database, analytical techniques will be used to build models, and user-driven development will enable the GIS to begin to support a decision research process. 20 refs

  14. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  15. Applying a manufacturing vision development prototype in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to summarise the empirical application of a designed case-based manufacturing vision (MV) development prototype (CBRM). This empirical application is undertaken using case study strategy, due to its ability to answer the research questions regarding...... enterprise. The three real world cases (companies) were selected in the USA within different industrial segments. The application results suggest that the CBRM is supportive of the decision-making process for tackling strategic manufacturing issues....

  16. Cogeneration and local authorities; Cogeneration et collectivites territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This conference is composed of 15 communications concerning cogeneration systems and applications in local communities. The main themes are: the regulation context and administrative procedures for cogeneration projects in France; legal aspects, risk covering, financing and sellback conditions for cogeneration systems; examples of cogeneration and tri-generation (with refrigeration energy) in different cities, airport, hospitals, campus, combined with the upgrading of district heating systems or municipal waste incineration plants. Impacts on energy savings and air pollution are also discussed

  17. Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.

    2009-06-30

    Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  19. A prototype for a mammographic head and related developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Annovazzi, A.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M.G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Chianella, M.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Galimberti, D.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavanga, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L

    2004-02-01

    The Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project aims to realize innovative instrumentations for morphological and functional mammography, in particular, one of the research topics is the design and development of a prototype of a mammographic head. Innovative industrial processes for the production of GaAs pixel detectors and for their bump-bonding to the read-out VLSI electronics have been developed by AMS. The data acquisition and processing have been developed by LABEN; the power supply and distribution system has been realized by CAEN; while the integration of the head in a standard mammograph has been carried on by the Laboratori di Ricerca Gilardoni.

  20. A prototype for a mammographic head and related developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Annovazzi, A.; Bigongiari, A.; Bisogni, M.G.; Catarsi, F.; Cesqui, F.; Cetronio, A.; Chianella, M.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Galimberti, D.; Lanzieri, C.; Lavanga, S.; Novelli, M.; Passuello, G.; Stefanini, A.; Testa, A.; Venturelli, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Integrated Mammographic Imaging (IMI) project aims to realize innovative instrumentations for morphological and functional mammography, in particular, one of the research topics is the design and development of a prototype of a mammographic head. Innovative industrial processes for the production of GaAs pixel detectors and for their bump-bonding to the read-out VLSI electronics have been developed by AMS. The data acquisition and processing have been developed by LABEN; the power supply and distribution system has been realized by CAEN; while the integration of the head in a standard mammograph has been carried on by the Laboratori di Ricerca Gilardoni

  1. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiggemann, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  2. Prototype development of radio frequency cavity and quadrupole for ADSS - initial efforts by mechanical design and prototype development section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, Sunil; Choughule, L.S.; Kumar, Sunil; Patankar, S.R.; Phalke, V.M.; Dharmik, D.A.; Singh, Tejinder; Ram, Y.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Marathe, V.V.; Matkar, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical Design and Prototype Development Section has participated in the efforts for development of RF cavity and Quadrupole for ADSS. Recently prototype Super conducting RF cavity, Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Simulation Chamber and related experimental setups were developed, fabricated and delivered for the characterisation of various relevant parameters. Under the program for development of Super conducting RF Cavity for high-energy section of LINAC of ADS first prototype RF Cavity of ETP copper was developed by machining and brazing process. The prototype cavity having elliptical and circular profile is the heart of this setup. The cavity is made up of two symmetrical cups joined together by welding or brazing. Various methods are being tried out by MD and PDS for the fabrication of cups and joining them together. Manufacturing of cup by machining and joining them by conventional brazing technique to make the cavity was the first step in this direction. Another method of manufacturing and joining viz forming of cup by deep drawing and joining them by EB welding is in progress. RFQ is a versatile and efficient system for accelerating ion beams especially at low energy. It works in quadrupole mode, which is at 350M Hz. RFQ Focuses, Bunches and Accelerates the beam simultaneously. The bunching is done in this RFQ, which results in more than 95% transmission where as in the normal buncher the transmission is less than 40%. The actual RFQ, which is designed for the PURNIMA facility, will be fabricated from OFHC copper that will accelerate a deuteron (D+) ion beam from 50keV to 400keV over its 1.37meter length. For the validation of manufacturing process and characterisation of various parameters at low frequency a 500mm long prototype RFQ in Aluminium with an accuracy of ± 25microns and surface finish of 1.6 micron has been fabricated by MD and PDS. A simplified simulation chamber to facilitate the development of RFQ for

  3. Cogeneration. Energy efficiency - Micro-cogeneration; La Cogeneration. Efficacite Energetique - Micro-cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudellal, M.

    2010-07-01

    Depletion of natural resources and of non-renewable energy sources, pollution, greenhouse effect, increasing energy needs: energy efficiency is a major topic implying a better use of the available primary energies. In front of these challenges, cogeneration - i.e. the joint production of electricity and heat, and, at a local or individual scale, micro-cogeneration - can appear as interesting alternatives. This book presents in a detailed manner: the present day and future energy stakes; the different types of micro-cogeneration units (internal combustion engines, Stirling engine, fuel cell..), and the available models or the models at the design stage; the different usable fuels (natural gas, wood, biogas..); the optimization rules of a facility; the costs and amortizations; and some examples of facilities. (J.S.)

  4. Thermionic cogeneration burner design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczy, G.; Goodale, D.; Moffat, A. L.; Morgan, D. T.

    Since thermionic converters receive heat at very high temperatures (approximately 1800 K) and reject heat at moderately high temperatures (approximately 800 K), they are useful for cogeneration applications involving high temperature processes. The electric power from thermionic converters is produced as a high amperage, low-voltage direct current. An ideal cogeneration application would be to utilize the reject heat at the collector temperature and the electricity without power conditioning. A cogeneration application in the edible oil industry fulfills both of these requirements since both direct heat and hydrogen gas are required in the hydrogenation of the oils. In this application, the low-voltage direct current would be used in a hydrogen electrolyzer.

  5. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayo, Felix; Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration

  6. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayo, Felix [Triple ' E' Systems Associates Ltd. (Nigeria); Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C. [Cadbury Nigeria plc. (Nigeria)

    2001-02-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration.

  7. Design and development of a prototype hot spot identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amit; Thakur, Vaishali M.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Sawant, Pravin; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    The proper assessment of radiological environments inside nuclear facilities require accurate spatial mapping of the gamma ray field. A prototype Hotspot Identification System has been designed and developed in-house for gamma ray imaging by combining a gamma spectrometer with a pinhole collimator and a digital camera. The system can rapidly determine the location, distribution and intensity of gamma ray sources by carrying a scan of the suspected locations. The measured data was compared with simulated values for NaI(Tl) response, generated using the MCNP 4B Transport code. The data obtained by experimental and theoretical method are in good agreement. (author)

  8. CMS Level-1 Upgrade Calorimeter Trigger Prototype Development

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, Pamela Renee

    2013-01-01

    As the LHC increases luminosity and energy, it will become increasingly difficult to select interesting physics events and remain within the readout bandwidth limitations. An upgrade to the CMS Calorimeter Trigger implementing more complex algorithms is proposed. It utilizes AMC cards with Xilinx FPGAs running in micro-TCA crate with card interconnections via crate backplanes and optical links operating at up to 10 Gbps. Prototype cards with Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs have been built and software frameworks for operation and monitoring developed. The physics goals, hardware architectures, and software will be described in this talk. More details can be found in a separate poster at this conference.

  9. Development of prototype digital LLRF system at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Chakraborty, Shoubhik; Lad, Mahendra; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    RF field is used in accelerator to accelerate the charge particles. The beam parameters depend highly on the stability of the RF field. Due to dynamic beam loading conditions the variations in RF parameters of accelerating structures needs to be controlled precisely, hence low level RF feedback control system plays vital role. Considering revolutionary development in the field of digital electronics and inherent advantages of digital systems, digital LLRF control system work was taken up. The digital LLRF system consists of two major units namely RF processing and digital processing. RF processing unit uses I/Q modulator for amplitude and phase control. This unit provides synchronized clock using ÷16 pre-scalar and also performs up conversion and down conversion for synchronized LO and IF generation respectively, along with required amplification and filtering. Digital processing unit takes down converted IF signal with appropriate sampling rate for I/Q detection. To extract the amplitude and phase information I/Q data is digitally filtered and processed using CORDIC algorithm in FPGA. I/Q modulator is used for controlling the amplitude and phase of RF field. Prototype development of digital LLRF control system for 325 MHz, 650 MHz is in progress. Digital LLRF system at 505 MHz has been installed in one RF station of Indus-2 RF system. In this paper development of prototype Digital LLRF system at RFSD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and results are presented. (author)

  10. Evaluating the role of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doluweera, G.H.; Jordaan, S.M.; Moore, M.C.; Keith, D.W.; Bergerson, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Developing long-term carbon control strategies is important in energy intensive industries such as the oil sands operations in Alberta. We examine the use of cogeneration to satisfy the energy demands of oil sands operations in Alberta in the context of carbon management. This paper evaluates the role of cogeneration in meeting Provincial carbon management goals and discusses the arbitrary characteristics of facility- and product-based carbon emissions control regulations. We model an oil sands operation that operates with and without incorporated cogeneration. We compare CO 2 emissions and associated costs under different carbon emissions control regulations, including the present carbon emissions control regulation of Alberta. The results suggest that incorporating cogeneration into the growing oil sands industry could contribute in the near-term to reducing CO 2 emissions in Alberta. This analysis also shows that the different accounting methods and calculations of electricity offsets could lead to very different levels of incentives for cogeneration. Regulations that attempt to manage emissions on a product and facility basis may become arbitrary and complex as regulators attempt to approximate the effect of an economy-wide carbon price. - Highlights: ► We assess the effectiveness of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta. ► Cogeneration can offset a significant portion of Alberta's high carbon electricity. ► CO 2 reduction potential of cogeneration may be higher if installed immediately. ► Product based policies should approximate the effect of an economy-wide policy.

  11. Cogeneration plants: SNAM (Italy) initiatives and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipparelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    First, an overall picture is presented of the extension of the use of cogeneration by the Italian brick industry. The particular suitability and usefulness of this form of energy to the brick industry are pointed out. Then a look is given at the legal and financial incentives which have been built into the National Energy Plan to encourage on-site production by Italian industries. Finally, a review is made of initiatives made by SNAM (the Italian National Methane Distribution Society) to develop a favourable tariff structure for on-site power producers using methane as their energy source, as well as, of the Society's efforts to set up a cogeneration equipment consulting service which would provide advice on cogeneration plant design, operation and maintenance

  12. ASPEN simulation of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligang Zheng [CANMET Energy Technology Center, Natural Resources Canada, Nepean, ONT (Canada); Furimsky, E. [IMAG Group, Ottawa, ONT (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    A detailed flow sheet of the combined cycle cogeneration plant fuelled by natural gas was prepared. The model for simulation of this plant was developed using the ASPEN PLUS software. The results generated using this model were compared with the operating data of the commercial plant generating about 43.6 MW of electricity by gas turbine and 28.6 MW of electricity by steam turbine. The electricity is supplied to the grid, whereas the low pressure steam is utilised locally for heating purposes. The key data generated using the ASPEN model are in good agreement with the operating data. (author)

  13. ASPEN simulation of cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ligang E-mail: lzheng@nrcan.gc.ca; Furimsky, Edward

    2003-07-01

    A detailed flow sheet of the combined cycle cogeneration plant fuelled by natural gas was prepared. The model for simulation of this plant was developed using the ASPEN PLUS software. The results generated using this model were compared with the operating data of the commercial plant generating about 43.6 MW of electricity by gas turbine and 28.6 MW of electricity by steam turbine. The electricity is supplied to the grid, whereas the low pressure steam is utilised locally for heating purposes. The key data generated using the ASPEN model are in good agreement with the operating data.

  14. ASPEN simulation of cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ligang; Furimsky, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A detailed flow sheet of the combined cycle cogeneration plant fuelled by natural gas was prepared. The model for simulation of this plant was developed using the ASPEN PLUS software. The results generated using this model were compared with the operating data of the commercial plant generating about 43.6 MW of electricity by gas turbine and 28.6 MW of electricity by steam turbine. The electricity is supplied to the grid, whereas the low pressure steam is utilised locally for heating purposes. The key data generated using the ASPEN model are in good agreement with the operating data

  15. Development of a compressive sampling hyperspectral imager prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a new technology that investigates the chance to sample signals at a lower rate than the traditional sampling theory. The main advantage of CS is that compression takes place during the sampling phase, making possible significant savings in terms of the ADC, data storage memory, down-link bandwidth, and electrical power absorption. The CS technology could have primary importance for spaceborne missions and technology, paving the way to noteworthy reductions of payload mass, volume, and cost. On the contrary, the main CS disadvantage is made by the intensive off-line data processing necessary to obtain the desired source estimation. In this paper we summarize the CS architecture and its possible implementations for Earth observation, giving evidence of possible bottlenecks hindering this technology. CS necessarily employs a multiplexing scheme, which should produce some SNR disadvantage. Moreover, this approach would necessitate optical light modulators and 2-dim detector arrays of high frame rate. This paper describes the development of a sensor prototype at laboratory level that will be utilized for the experimental assessment of CS performance and the related reconstruction errors. The experimental test-bed adopts a push-broom imaging spectrometer, a liquid crystal plate, a standard CCD camera and a Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) matrix. The prototype is being developed within the framework of the ESA ITI-B Project titled "Hyperspectral Passive Satellite Imaging via Compressive Sensing".

  16. Development of a prototype of a candidate camera payload

    OpenAIRE

    Oltedal, Jon Kalevi

    2016-01-01

    The second prototype for the NUTS camera module have been tested to confirm if changes made from the first prototype were successful. The first prototype suffered from noise issues when operating at the maximum clock frequency of 96MHz. This needed to be fixed for the MT9P031 image sensor to be usable in further designs. Debugging and testing using the camera prototype hardware and software proved that the prototype managed to produce noise free images with bright parts in the images. These r...

  17. A new market risk model for cogeneration project financing---combined heat and power development without a power purchase agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Timothy A.

    Federal legislative changes in 2006 no longer entitle cogeneration project financings by law to receive the benefit of a power purchase agreement underwritten by an investment-grade investor-owned utility. Consequently, this research explored the need for a new market-risk model for future cogeneration and combined heat and power (CHP) project financing. CHP project investment represents a potentially enormous energy efficiency benefit through its application by reducing fossil fuel use up to 55% when compared to traditional energy generation, and concurrently eliminates constituent air emissions up to 50%, including global warming gases. As a supplemental approach to a comprehensive technical analysis, a quantitative multivariate modeling was also used to test the statistical validity and reliability of host facility energy demand and CHP supply ratios in predicting the economic performance of CHP project financing. The resulting analytical models, although not statistically reliable at this time, suggest a radically simplified CHP design method for future profitable CHP investments using four easily attainable energy ratios. This design method shows that financially successful CHP adoption occurs when the average system heat-to-power-ratio supply is less than or equal to the average host-convertible-energy-ratio, and when the average nominally-rated capacity is less than average host facility-load-factor demands. New CHP investments can play a role in solving the world-wide problem of accommodating growing energy demand while preserving our precious and irreplaceable air quality for future generations.

  18. Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

    2007-05-25

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

  19. Electric power plants in cogeneration: a promising potential even in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Implantation of cogeneration power plants has increased in France since two years but stays below other countries such as northern Europe. Technical, economical, legal and financial aspects of cogeneration have been debated during the ''Euroforum'' seminar (June 14-16, 1995). The european association Cogen Europe, created in 1993 with the financial support of the SAVE european program, has analysed the barriers that restrain cogeneration development and their solutions. Advantages of cogeneration are undeniable at any scale (from small engines to huge industrial systems) if efficiency of energy used reaches 85%. Opinions of representatives from different industries implied in cogeneration technology are reported. (J.S.). 1 photo

  20. Development and Physical Control Research on Prototype Artificial Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide an ideal platform for research on intelligent bionic leg (IBL, this paper proposes a model of a biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL. A prototype of an artificial leg is developed based on biological structure and motion principle analysis of human lower extremities. With regard to the driving sources, servomotors are chosen for the hip joint and ankle joint, while pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs are chosen for the knee joint. The control system of the bionic artificial leg is designed and a physical experimental platform is established. The physical control experiments are done based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy. The experimental results show that such a system can realize the expected goals.

  1. External financing of projects on cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Olmedo, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Spanish Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE), provides technical advisement and economical support to those industries requiring an improvement in the energy efficiency of their production chain. This paper focusses on administrative procedures to get external financing as one way to undertake the construction of cogeneration plants. Relationships among user, promoter and financier should be developed according to the outlined procedures. (Author)

  2. Current experience with central-station nuclear cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    In considering the potential of the HTGR for nuclear cogeneration, a logical element for investigation is the recent history of nuclear cogeneration experience. Little is found in recent literature; however, the twin nuclear cogeneration plant at Midland is nearing completion and this milestone will no doubt be the basis for a number of reports on the unique cogeneration facility and operating experiences with it. Less well known in the US is the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in Ontario, Canada. Originally designed to cogenerate steam for heavy water production, the Bruce facility is the focus of a major initiative to create an energy park on the shores of Lake Huron. To obtain an improved understanding of the status and implications of current nuclear cogeneration experience, GCRA representatives visited the Ontario Hydro offices in Toronto and subsequently toured the Midland site near Midland, Michigan. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the results of those visits and to develop a series of conclusions regarding the implications for HTGR cogeneration concepts

  3. Development and Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of the First Saudi Arabian-Designed Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustufa H. Abidi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prototyping and evaluation are imperative phases of the present product design and development process. Although digital modeling and analysis methods are widely employed at various product development stages, still, building a physical prototype makes the present typical process expensive and time consuming. Therefore, it is necessary to implement new technologies, such as virtual prototyping, which can enable industry to have a rapid and more controlled decision making process. Virtual prototyping has come a long way in recent years, where current environments enable stereoscopic visuals, surround sound and ample interaction with the generated models. It is also important to evaluate how representative the developed virtual prototype is when compared to the real-world counterpart and the sense of presence reported by users of the virtual prototype. This paper describes the systematic procedure to develop a virtual prototype of Gazal-1 (i.e., the first car prototype designed by Saudi engineers in a semi-immersive virtual environment. The steps to develop a virtual prototype from CAD (computer-aided design models are explained in detail. Various issues involved in the different phases for the development of the virtual prototype are also discussed comprehensively. The paper further describes the results of the subjective assessment of a developed virtual prototype of a Saudi Arabian-designed automobile. User’s feedback is recorded using a presence questionnaire. Based on the user-based study, it is revealed that the virtual prototype is representative of the real Saudi Arabian car and offers a flexible environment to analyze design features when compared against its physical prototype. The capabilities of the virtual environment are validated with the application of the car prototype. Finally, vital requirements and directions for future research are also presented.

  4. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  5. Development of an ITER prototype disruption mitigation valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czymek, G., E-mail: g.czymek@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D52425 Jülich (Germany); Giesen, B., E-mail: ingenieurbuero.giesen@gmx.de [IBG, Sibertstr. 22, D-52525 Heinsberg (Germany); Charl, A.; Panin, A.; Hiller, A.; Nicolai, D.; Neubauer, O.; Koslowski, H.R.; Sandri, N. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An ITER-DMV prototype for 100 bar, D = 80 mm, opening time 3.5 ms, is ready for fabrication. • The vacuum part is sealed against the working gas by stainless steel bellows for 110 bar. • The conical Laval gas outlet allows maximal mass flow rate. • The eddy current drive turn ratio was optimized for low tilting moment. • Polyimide is used for the head sealing, the decelerator and for the bearing of the guide tube. - Abstract: Disruptions in tokamaks seem to be unavoidable. Consequences of disruptions are (i) high heat loads on plasma-facing components, (ii) large forces on the vacuum vessel, and (iii) the generation of runaway electron beams. In ITER, the thermal energy of the plasma needs to be evenly distributed on the first wall in order to prevent melting, forces from vertical displacement events have to be minimized, and the generation of runaway electrons suppressed. Massive gas injection using fast valves is a concept for disruption mitigation which is presently being explored in many tokamaks. Fast disruption mitigation valves based on an electromagnetic eddy current drive have been developed in Jülich since the 1990s and models of various sizes have been built and are in operation in the TEXTOR, MAST, and JET tokamaks. A disruption mitigation valve for ITER is of necessity larger with an estimated injected gas volume of ∼20 kPa m{sup 3}[7] for runaway electron suppression and all materials used have to be resistant to much higher levels of neutron and gamma radiation than in existing tokamaks. During the last 5 years, the concept for an ITER prototype disruption mitigation valve has been developed up to the stage that a fully functional valve could be built and tested. Special emphasis was given to the development and functional testing of some critical items: (i) the injection chamber seal, (ii) the piston seal, (iii) the eddy current drive, and (iv) a braking mechanism to avoid too fast closure of the valve, which could damage

  6. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  7. Procedure for cogeneration plant evaluation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollettini, U.; Savelli, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a step-by-step approach to the evaluation of cogeneration plants for on-site power generation. The aim is to allow prospective cogeneration plant owners to build energy/cost efficient plants and to be able to make a proper assessment of eligible financial assistance which may be obtained through the provisions of energy conservation normatives and laws set up by the Italian National Energy Plan. The approach has three principal phases - the verification of the availability of the required human resources able to perform the plant evaluation (engineering, legal and business consultants), an energy/viability audit of any existing energy plant considered for retrofitting and, finally, the identification of the best technical/economic cogeneration alternative. The programmed set of evaluation tasks includes the determination of optimal contracts with ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), especially for the case of excess power to be ceded to the national grid, and the making of comparisons with reference cogeneration systems whose relative design/cost data are stored in existing computerized data bases

  8. Development of E-learning prototype for MUET assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mit Anak Mawan, Amylia; Mohamed, Rozlini; Othman, Muhaini; Yusof, Munirah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to discuss the development of E-learning prototype for MUET assessment in Fakulti Sains Komputer dan Teknologi Maklumat (FSKTM), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) namely, MUET Online System. The system is considered as a learning centre to study MUET examination that follows the MUET syllabus. The system will be used to assist students in making preparation before sitting for MUET examination. Before student can gain access to the system, students need to sign up and pay some fees before they are enrolled into virtual MUET class. The class will be guided by the English language lecturer from Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development (FSTPI), UTHM as teacher. The system provides learning modules, quiz and test section. At the end of learning session students’ performance are assessed through quizzes and test measure the level of student understands. The teacher will evaluate the student’s mark and provide advices to the student. Therefore, the MUET Online System will be able to improve student knowledge in English language and subsequently help student to obtain the best result in MUET by providing more guided references and practices.

  9. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  10. Cogeneration trends in Europe history -- State of the art - Outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunschofsky, H.

    1998-01-01

    Cogeneration, the utilization of heat created while producing electricity from fossil fuels, is by no means a new technology. In 1926, 71 years ago, a brochure from MAN in Germany showed a heat recovery system for diesel engines. Despite the fact that cogeneration has existed for a long time, it took half a century and the first so called ''oil crisis'' in the 1970's for societies to become aware of limited energy resources. Environmental groups gave cogeneration an additional boost in the 1980's. Additionally, governments in the Western European Nations attracted cogeneration investors by not only providing subsidies and tax breaks but also regulating electricity prices. Although there has been much growth in the cogeneration market in the past years, the industry has still not reached its peak in Europe. A variety of studies have shown that there is still significant growth potential in the future: WWF (World Wildlife Fund) published a study in 1996 suggesting a target of 330 Twh of generation will be produced through cogeneration by the year 2005, a tripling of current generation. Due to the EU's belief that cogeneration is an optimal form of generation, it has developed a cogeneration strategy. As part of this strategy, the EC is promoting cogeneration so that it accounts for 20% of all European generation by the year 2010. These factors would give a variety of companies such as equipment suppliers, investment companies, utilities, consultants and energy brokers a wide range of opportunities in Europe. Detailed information and some hints will be given as to how to participate in this fast growing industry. Ways to overcome obstacles in those markets will be shown as well as the pros and cons of different entry strategies

  11. Gaz de France and cogeneration: a story which goes on; Gaz de France et la cogeneration: une histoire qui se poursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    This document presents the principle of natural gas cogeneration (gas turbine and gas engine) and gives a general overview of the cogeneration market in France since 1991 and up to 2001 (development factors, results). The perspectives and opportunities of cogeneration are analyzed with respect to the development of new technologies like fuel cells (principle, advantages and future) and to the future energy markets. Follows a compilation and an analysis of French regulation texts about cogeneration systems, their connection to the power grid, and the tariffs of electricity re-purchase by Electricite de France (EdF). (J.S.)

  12. Development of prototype reactor maintenance. (2) Application to piping support of sodium-cooled reactor prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masanobu; Kunogi, Kosuke; Aizawa, Kosuke; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Takaya, Shigeru; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kotake, Shoji; Ito, Takaya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    A maintenance program on piping support of prototype fast breeder reactor Monju are studied. Based on degradation mechanism, snubbers in Monju primary cooling system showed lifetime more than the plant lifetime of 30 years by experiments conservatively. For the first step during construction, visual inspection on accessible all supports could be available. In that visual inspection, mounting conditions and damages of all accessible supports could be monitored. One of major features of the Monju primary piping system is large thermal expansion due to large temperature difference between maintenance and operation conditions. Thanks to that large thermal expansion, integrity of piping supports could be monitored by measuring piping displacement. When technologies of piping displacement monitoring are matured in Monju, visual inspection on piping support could be shifted to piping displacement monitoring. At that stage, the visual inspection could be limited only on representative supports. (author)

  13. Cogeneration technologies, optimisation and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Frangopoulos, Christos A

    2017-01-01

    Cogeneration refers to the use of a power station to deliver two or more useful forms of energy, for example, to generate electricity and heat at the same time. This book provides an integrated treatment of cogeneration, including a tour of the available technologies and their features, and how these systems can be analysed and optimised.

  14. Controlling systems of cogeneration blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriansky, J.; Suriansky, J. Ml.; Puskajler, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article the main parts of cogeneration unit control system are described. Article is aimed on electric power measurement with electricity protection as with temperature system regulation. In conclusion of the article, the control algorithm with perspective of cogeneration solve is indicated. (authors)

  15. The alarming future for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2000-01-01

    Low prices and uncertainty in pricing of energy, higher costs for investment and expensive fuels are the most important reasons why the growth of cogeneration capacity in the Netherlands stagnates. The liberalization of the energy market appears to be the malefactor. A brief overview is given of the ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) report 'Toekomst warmtekrachtkoppeling' (Future of cogeneration)

  16. Development of a single-ring OpenPET prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-21

    One of the challenging applications of PET is implementing it for in-beam PET, which is an in situ monitoring method for charged particle therapy. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an open-type PET scanner, OpenPET. The original OpenPET had a physically opened field-of-view (FOV) between two detector rings through which irradiation beams pass. This dual-ring OpenPET (DROP) had a wide axial FOV including the gap. This geometry was not necessarily the most efficient for application to in-beam PET in which only a limited FOV around the irradiation field is required. Therefore, we have proposed a new single-ring OpenPET (SROP) geometry which can provide an accessible and observable open space with higher sensitivity and a reduced number of detectors than the DROP. The proposed geometry was a cylinder shape with its ends cut at a slant, in which the shape of each cut end became an ellipse. In this work, we developed and evaluated a small prototype of the SROP geometry for proof-of-concept. The SROP prototype was designed with 2 ellipse-shaped detector rings of 16 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors each. The DOI detectors consisted of 1024 GSOZ scintillator crystals which were arranged in 4 layers of 16×16 arrays, coupled to a 64-channel FP-PMT. Each ellipse-shaped detector ring had a major axis of 281.6 mm and a minor axis of 207.5 mm. For the slant mode, the rings were placed at a 45-deg slant from the axial direction and for the non-slant mode (used as a reference) they were at 90 deg from the axial direction with no gap. The system sensitivity measured from a {sup 22}Na point source was 5.0% for the slant mode. The average spatial resolutions of major and minor axis directions were calculated as 3.8 mm FWHM and 4.9 mm FWHM, respectively for the slant mode. This difference resulted from the ellipsoidal ring geometry and the spatial resolution of the minor axis direction degraded by the parallax error. Comparison between the slant mode and the non

  17. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  18. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  19. Biogas cooperation for cogeneration plants; Biogaskooperation fuer Blockheizkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeg, Thomas [Stadtwerke Schwaebisch Hall GmbH, Schwaebisch Hall (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Since autumn 2010, via a 7 kilometre long biogas conduit an agricultural biogas plant supplies a cogeneration plant in the residential area Teurershof in Schwaebisch Hall. This enables a conversion of biogas with the highest possible efficiency in thermal energy and electricity. This is due to the attachment of the cogeneration plant in Teurershof to the district heating grid of the city Schwaebisch Hall so that the developing thermal energy completely can be used.

  20. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  1. Cogeneration: A marketing opportunity for pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the marketing of dual-purpose power plants by pipeline companies as a long term marketing strategy for natural gas. The author uses case studies to help evaluate a company's attitude toward development of a market for cogeneration facilities. The chapter focuses on strategies for developing markets in the industrial sector and identifying customer groups that are likely to respond in like manner to a marketing strategy

  2. Countertransference as a Prototype: The Development of a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsess, Christy D.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Countertransference is a concept that is widely acknowledged, but there exists little definitional consensus, making research in the area difficult. The authors adopted a prototype theory (E. H. Rosch, 1973a, 1973b; see C. B. Mervis & E. Rosch, 1981, for a review) to examine this construct because it conceptually fits well with constructs that…

  3. Developing a visualized cultural knowledge transfer proto-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a loss of valuable cultural knowledge, which has been a foundation for the coming generations’ survival and cultural self-awareness. By transferring cultural knowledge contexts into 3D visualizations, we prototyped and evaluated a system to bridge the gap...

  4. Design and Development of a Counter Swarm Prototype Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    18 Figure 3. Generic Product Design Process. Source: [33]. ............................ 19 Figure 4. Design of a System Requires Balancing...proceed either to further refinement as required (especially in the case of review of conceptual designs ) or alteration for manufacture vice prototype in... design process presented in Figure 3. Figure 3. Generic Product Design Process. Source: [33]. The generic design process does not include

  5. The renewable energies development policy. Statement of renewable energies. Cogeneration. Gas distribution. Oil rates. The after-mining. The European helps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' comprises 7 papers dealing successively with: the French policy for the development of renewable energies (talk given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of Industry, at the colloquium 'energy diversification and environment protection: the renewable energies at the 2010 vista'); the statement of the renewable energies development policy (wood-fuel, wind energy, thermal solar energy, electrification of isolated areas, biomass for power production, revalorization of the conditions of power repurchase); the recent development of cogeneration in France (advantages, promotion, financial incentives, contracts, future developments); the natural gas distribution or how to combine public utility and market deregulation; the crude oil rates (key-role of Saudi Arabia, effect of speculation, perspectives and uncertainties); the human, technical, financial and legal problems linked with mines decommissioning; the European helps in favour of energy mastery (the fifth R and D management program, the energy program and its 6 specific programs: ETAP, SYNERGY, ALTENER, SAVE, CARNOT, SURE). (J.S.)

  6. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  7. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO 2 -tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs

  8. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-12-31

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO{sub 2}-tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs.

  9. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  10. Development And Evaluation Of A Prototype Household Wooden Silo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype household wooden silo with 8 kg capacity for storing shelled maize was designed, constructed and evaluated for performance. The structure was rectangular in shape, of total height of 0.6 m and width of 0.3 m, with a conical top inclined at an angle of 30 º with 0.1 m height and 0.3 m width. The silo had a top ...

  11. Cogeneration. Section 2: Products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a directory of suppliers of products and services in the area of cogeneration. The subheadings of this directory include developers and owner operators, system packagers, manufacturers of prime movers, equipment manufacturers, instruments and controls manufacturing, consulting services, appraisal and valuation, computer services, environmental services, feasibility services, hydrology, marketing, measurements, meteorology, regulatory and licensing, research, testing, training and personnel, engineering and construction, operations and maintenance, and insurance, financial and legal services

  12. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand.

  13. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon; Valle, Edmundo del; Castillo, Rogelio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU

  14. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavoalonso3@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ramirez, Ramon [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Valle, Edmundo del [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Castillo, Rogelio [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU.

  15. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  16. Grid integration policies of gas-fired cogeneration in Peninsular Malaysia: Fallacies and counterexamples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaaban, M., E-mail: m.shaaban@fke.utm.my [Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Azit, A.H. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Wisma TNB, Jalan Timur, 46200 Petaling Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor, K.M. [Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Despite the abundance of natural gas reserves in Malaysia coupled with serious government thrusts to promote cogeneration, its (cogeneration) development pace lags far off expectations. There are widespread fallacies among potential cogeneration developers and concerned professionals that cogeneration is uncompetitive in Malaysia due to existing policies of subsidized gas prices and grid-connection charges. This paper exposes these fallacies through counterexamples of practical cogeneration system design and evaluation of some segments of the industrial and service sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the cogeneration were modeled based on heat rate characteristics at partial loading patterns. A hierarchical mathematical programming approach that uses mixed-integer nonlinear optimization and dynamic programming principle, if necessary, is employed to determine the optimal size of cogeneration and its related auxiliary equipment as well as the optimal operation schedule. Financial assessment is integrated at a later stage to assess the economic viability of the system. Analyses of the cogeneration potential for several facilities of miscellaneous activities were carried out using various gas and electricity prices. Results obtained consistently rebuff the perpetuated fallacies and confirm that there is no real barrier to cogeneration development in Malaysia under current policies of gas prices and electricity tariffs. - Highlights: > Mixed-integer nonlinear programming and dynamic programming are used in the design. > Various loading levels are modeled and hourly operation schedule is determined. > Standby electricity charge has a minimal impact on cogeneration feasibility. > Gas and electricity prices are interrelated and affect cogeneration investment. > Under existing policies, there is no barrier to cogeneration adoption in Malaysia.

  17. Grid integration policies of gas-fired cogeneration in Peninsular Malaysia: Fallacies and counterexamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Azit, A.H.; Nor, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the abundance of natural gas reserves in Malaysia coupled with serious government thrusts to promote cogeneration, its (cogeneration) development pace lags far off expectations. There are widespread fallacies among potential cogeneration developers and concerned professionals that cogeneration is uncompetitive in Malaysia due to existing policies of subsidized gas prices and grid-connection charges. This paper exposes these fallacies through counterexamples of practical cogeneration system design and evaluation of some segments of the industrial and service sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the cogeneration were modeled based on heat rate characteristics at partial loading patterns. A hierarchical mathematical programming approach that uses mixed-integer nonlinear optimization and dynamic programming principle, if necessary, is employed to determine the optimal size of cogeneration and its related auxiliary equipment as well as the optimal operation schedule. Financial assessment is integrated at a later stage to assess the economic viability of the system. Analyses of the cogeneration potential for several facilities of miscellaneous activities were carried out using various gas and electricity prices. Results obtained consistently rebuff the perpetuated fallacies and confirm that there is no real barrier to cogeneration development in Malaysia under current policies of gas prices and electricity tariffs. - Highlights: → Mixed-integer nonlinear programming and dynamic programming are used in the design. → Various loading levels are modeled and hourly operation schedule is determined. → Standby electricity charge has a minimal impact on cogeneration feasibility. → Gas and electricity prices are interrelated and affect cogeneration investment. → Under existing policies, there is no barrier to cogeneration adoption in Malaysia.

  18. Status report on compact gasifier cogeneration units in Germany. Applications of the cogeneration gasifier technology; Stand kleintechnischer Vergaser-BHKW-Anlagen in Deutschland. Einsatz der BHKW-Vergasertechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschunke, Tobias; Schuessler, Ingmar; Salomo, Bert [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany); Braekow, Dieter [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V., Berlin (Germany); Treppe, Konrad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Umwelttechnik

    2010-07-01

    In contrast to biogas, the use of solid biomass with low water content in cogeneration units is lagging several years of development behind. A promising variant is a wood gas engine cogeneration unit. Different energy sources can be combined, e.g. in an Otto engine and a Stirling engine. The authors describe the technology for compact systems. (orig.)

  19. New purchasing conditions for the electricity produced by cogeneration; Nouvelles conditions d`achat de l`electricite produite par cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    1999-12-31

    This short note summarizes the new conditions of electricity purchase as stipulated in the contracts passed between Electricite de France (EdF) and the independent companies exploiting cogeneration units. These new conditions should allow the continuation of the development of cogeneration units in a power market progressively opened to competition. (J.S.)

  20. New purchasing conditions for the electricity produced by cogeneration; Nouvelles conditions d`achat de l`electricite produite par cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch.

    1998-12-31

    This short note summarizes the new conditions of electricity purchase as stipulated in the contracts passed between Electricite de France (EdF) and the independent companies exploiting cogeneration units. These new conditions should allow the continuation of the development of cogeneration units in a power market progressively opened to competition. (J.S.)

  1. Cogeneration in Australia. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1989. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine for cogeneration); 1989 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saisei ichijikushiki jikuryu turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    With an objective to research and develop a 300-kW class regenerative single-shaft axial-flow turbine having inlet temperature of 1,350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher, activities were performed in the following three fields: 1) heat resistant ceramic members, 2) elementary technologies, and 3) studies on design, prototype fabrication, and operation. In Item 1, a mass production technology was discussed on stator blades and heat transfer pipes for a heat exchanger as the component manufacturing technology, and injection molding conditions were studied and mechanical strength measurement was performed on rotor blades of a separate type axial-flow turbine. In addition, a molding condition producing no cracks was discovered in an integrated type axial-flow turbine whose embedded section has a tapered shape, and the mass production technology was discussed. With regard to the bonding technology, preliminary discussions were given on bonding agents under a prerequisite that a bonding agent shall be used. In Item 2, detailed discussions were launched on the turbine, combustor, heat exchanger, and compressor, including shape decision on the turbine, for example, by using aerodynamic analysis, In Item 3, the basic design was performed following the conceptual design, and a metallic turbine was designed. (NEDO)

  3. Development of a compound energy system for cold region houses using small-scale natural gas cogeneration and a gas hydrate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Yoshiaki, Kashiwaya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an independent energy system for houses in cold regions was developed using a small-scale natural gas CGS (cogeneration), air-source heat pump, heat storage tank, and GHB (gas hydrate battery). Heat sources for the GHB were the ambient air and geothermal resources of the cold region. The heat cycle of CO 2 hydrate as a source of energy was also experimentally investigated. To increase the formation speed of CO 2 hydrates, a ferrous oxide–graphite system catalyst was used. The ambient air of cold regions was used as a heat source for the formation process (electric charge) of the GHB, and the heat supplied by a geothermal heat exchanger was used for the dissociation process (electric discharge). Using a geothermal heat source, fuel consumption was halved because of an increased capacity for hydrate formation in the GHB, a shortening of the charging and discharging cycle, and a decrease in the freeze rate of hydrate formation space. Furthermore, when the GHB was introduced into a cold region house, the application rate of renewable energy was 47–71% in winter. The spread of the GHB can greatly reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gases released from houses in cold regions. - Highlights: • Compound energy system for cold region houses by a gas hydrate battery was proposed. • Heat sources of a gas hydrate battery are exhaust heat of the CGS and geothermal. • Drastic reduction of the fossil fuel consumption in a cold region is realized

  4. Fairchild Stratos Division's Type II prototype lockhopper valve: METC Prototype Test Valve No. F-1 prototype lockhopper valve-testing and development project. Static test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D. R.; Cutright, R. L.; Griffith, R. A.; Loomis, R. B.; Maxfield, D. A.; Moritz, R. S.

    1981-10-01

    METC Prototype Test Valve No. F-1 is a hybrid design, based on a segmented ball termed a visor valve, developed and manufactured by Fairchild Stratos Division under contract to the Department of Energy. The valve uses a visor arm that rotates into position and then translates to seal. This valve conditionally completed static testing at METC with clean gas to pressures of 1600 psig and internal valve temperatures to 600/sup 0/F. External leakage was excessive due to leakage through the stuffing box, purge fittings, external bolts, and other assemblies. The stuffing box was repacked several times and redesigned midway through the testing, but external leakage was still excessive. Internal leakage through the seats, except for a few anomalies, was very low throughout the 2409 cycles of testing. As shown by the low internal leakage, the visor valve concept appears to have potential for lock-hopper valve applications. The problems that are present with METC Prototype Test Valve No. F-1 are in the seals, which are equivalent to the shaft and bonnet seals in standard valve designs. The operating conditions at these seals are well within the capabilities of available seal designs and materials. Further engineering and minor modifications should be able to resolve the problems identified during static testing.

  5. An HTR cogeneration system for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Van Heek, A.I.; Kikstra, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Because of its favourable characteristics of safety and simplicity the high-temperature reactor (HTR) could become a competitive heat source for a cogeneration unit. The Netherlands is a world leading country in the field of cogeneration. As nuclear energy remains an option for the medium and long term in this country, systems for nuclear cogeneration should be explored and developed. Hence, ECN Nuclear Research is developing a conceptual design of an HTR for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP) for the industry in and outside the Netherlands. The design of this small CHP-unit for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. The concept that was subject of that study, INCOGEN, used a 40 MW thermal pebble bed HTR and produced a maximum amount of electricity plus low temperature heat. The system has been improved to produce industrial quality heat, and has been renamed ACACIA. The output of this installation is 14 MW electricity and 17 tonnes of steam per hour, with a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 220C. The economic characteristics of this installation turned out to be much more favourable using modern cost data. 15 refs

  6. A preliminary examination of the economics of cogeneration with fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelrigg, G.A.; Coleman, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration, the process of using reject heat from electric energy generation plants, offers substantial savings in energy consumption and thus is likely to see increased implementation, especially in the form of district heating, over the next few decades. The use of fusion plants for cogeneration offers added advantages of potentially low marginal costs and reduced siting restrictions compared to nuclear and coal plants, and freedom from use of limited fossil fuels. Fusion can thus provide increased economic incentive to the implementation of cogeneration systems. Conversely, cogeneration improves the economics of fusion and thus provides both added incentive for its development and reduced economic requirements on commercial fusion technologies

  7. Developing e-banking services for rural India: making use of socio-technical prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Vaidyanathan, Lakshmi; Gonsalves, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    an experience report based on systematic debriefing of involved project leaders and initiators, triangulated with additional documentation. The concept of Socio-Technical Prototype is developed and used to show how to mitigate the challenges of ICT based banking service provision for socially constrained...... communities. The concept of Socio-Technical Prototype extends the notion of prototypes, as it implies a full functioning implementation of the service including all relevant stakeholders. In order to not only prototype end-user functionality but also the interaction of the solution with the specific social......, technical and physical environment. The implications for software engineering in the development of such large-scale prototypes and pilots are outlined....

  8. Subsea production prototype development for deep water applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibye, B; Varvin, K; Mellingen, T [ed.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents general goals and preliminary results from a prototype and testing program for the next generation of deepwater subsea production systems, in the following main areas: Transportation pipeline pull-in/connection and pig launching systems for multiwell manifolded diverless gas production systems; Inductive and conductive subsea electrical connectors; control system pilot valves and hydraulic fluids; Subsea electric power generation; monitoring of sand particles in gas flow; tools for remotely operated vehicles; pipeline insulation materials; corrosion inhibition and material selection for transporation of unprocessed hydrocarbons. 5 drawings.

  9. Prototype bellows sealed nuclear valve development -reliability through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.; Abbas, M.

    1978-01-01

    To assist in appraising bellows sealed valve performance, 10 tests were done on a ''1 in.'' prototype bellows sealed valve design. The tests simulated primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions for a 600 MWe CANDU-PHW. The design approach was to have all valve components outlast the bellows in endurance tests; this was achieved. The valve design meets the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited specification. For comparison, bellows fatigue failure data were fitted to both log-normal and Weibull distributions. A numerical example shows how to select valve stroke amplitude on the basis of valve flow requirement and the minimum acceptable fatigue life. (author)

  10. Development of prototype DC superconducting cable for railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaru; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Miryala, Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) wire has significant potential for railway system applications. HTSC wire is currently a promising candidate for various engineering applications such as transformers and motors for railway system. HTSC direct current (DC) cable is ideal for a feeder of the overhead contact line system between the substation and the electric train. We completed a prototype Bi-2223 tape based direct current cable for trial purposes of several meters length. In the energizing experiment the current of 1720 A successfully constantly flew.

  11. Prototyping and Active User Involvement in System Development: Towards a Cooperative Prototyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    and techniques that support the cooperation between the actors in system development" at the Computer Science Department, Aarhus University. This project was aimed at continuing the master thesis work carried out by me and two fellow students. In the same period a research program on "Computer Support...... approach in practice. This work was supported economically by the Natural Science Faculty and the Computer Science Department at Aarhus University; and the Natural Science Council with travel funding and project support. I owe several people grateful thanks for their constructive support to my work...

  12. Experience feedback from nuclear cogeneration - 15369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auriault, C.; Fuetterer, M.A.; Baudrand, O.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of 20 companies currently runs the NC2I-R (Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative - Research) project as part of the European Union's 7. Framework Programme. The project supports the development of an industrial initiative to demonstrate nuclear cogeneration of heat and power as an effective low-carbon technology for industrial market applications. As part of this project, operational feedback was collected from previous, existing and planned nuclear cogeneration projects in a number of countries with the aim of identifying a most complete set of boundary conditions which led to successful projects in the past. Stakeholders consulted include in particular utilities and end users. The scope encompassed technical and non-technical information (organizational structure, financial aspects, public relations, etc.) and specifically experience in licensing gained from these projects. The information was collected by a questionnaire and additional face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was formulated to cover 9 categories of in total 56 questions for 36 identified projects: Motivation and initiative, Role of key players, Organizational structure, Technical aspects, Safety and licensing, Financial aspects, Timing, Public relations, General experience feedback. From the 36 identified projects worldwide, 23 from 10 countries have provided feedback on a variety of applications such as district heating, seawater desalination, paper and pulp industry, petrochemical industry, coal gasification or salt processing. This is a surprisingly positive response considering that several of these projects date back to the 1980's and many of them were performed outside Europe. This paper summarizes and analyzes the received information and deduces from there which boundary conditions are favorable for the construction of new nuclear cogeneration projects. (authors)

  13. Design and Development of a Prototype Electrotherapy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J. G.; Correia, V. M. G.; Martins, M. S.; Cabral, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a complete prototype system that can be used in electrotherapy treatments, that is, in medical treatments involving electric currents. The system is composed of two main blocks: the master and the slave. The Master block, whose main component is a CPU, controls the user interface. The Slave block, which is composed of a microcontroller and a wave generator, produces the appropriated voltages and currents compatible with the desired treatment. The whole system is powered by a 12 V power supply and the output signal voltage ranges between -100 V and 100 V. Despite the prototype being able of performing all the electrotherapy treatments in the low-medium frequency ranges, it was tested in aesthetic mesotherapy, namely in anticellulite, located anticellulite, antistretch, and antiflaccidity. In these treatments, the output signal is composed of an overlap of two frequencies: the first one is selected in the range of 1.2 kHz - 1.8 kHz and the second in the range of 0.07 Hz - 2 Hz. The system was tested in a clinical environment with real patients. It showed good results both in effectiveness of treatments and in terms of pain suffered by the patients. PMID:24339835

  14. Micro cogeneration in residential scale; Bancada de sistema de cogeracao de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Primo, Ana Rosa Mendes; Magnani, Fabio Santana; Henriquez, Jorge R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Moura, Newton Reis de; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio Ricardo T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas (COPERGAS), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cogeneration is very important to spread the use of natural gas in Brazil. Most of the existing cogeneration plants are of considerable size, as used in industries or commercial centers. Places with low demand on electrical or thermal energy (e.g. small industries, blocs of houses, etc.) could also benefit of cogeneration, but there is no available data about micro-cogeneration in Brazil. In order to verify the technical and economical viability of small size systems of cogeneration, FINEP/PETROBRAS/COPERGAS financed a project of micro-cogeneration at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), involving experiments on a micro turbine and a generator group, both with 30 kW power. The laboratory is also composed by two heat exchangers to regenerate the heat from the micro-turbine and generator group, a single effect absorption chiller, with 10 TR capacity, two thermal storage tanks (for hot and cold water) and a compression split of 5 TR. Data to build performance curves of the equipment will be stored and analyzed, in order to build their performance curves, allowing the overall cogeneration efficiency to be found. Most probable situations of thermal and electric power demands will be simulated. The aim of the simulations is to achieve the optimal situation for micro-cogeneration, which will offer the best efficiency, the lowest cost for buying the equipment and the lowest operational cost. A software was also developed, which optimizes micro-cogeneration systems. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the 7th cogeneration and independent power congress, natural gas purchasing '92, HVAC controls and energy conservation '92, 1992 indoor air quality congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Cogeneration and IPP Market Developments; Natural Gas Marketing and Deliverability Strategies; Identifying the Sources of IAQ Problems; User-Owner Cogeneration Systems; Strategies for International Power Development; Strategic Fuel Purchasing; Cogeneration and utility Power Plant Compliance Issues; New HVAC Design Trends; IAQ Practical solutions: Case Studies

  16. Development and Testing of a Prototype Connected Vehicle Wrong-Way Driving Detection and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The primary objective of Phase II was to develop a prototype connected vehicle wrong-way driving detection and management system at the Texas A&M University Respect, Excellence, Leadership, Loyalty, Integrity, Selfless Service (RELLIS) campus. The pu...

  17. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbahs A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  18. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahs, A.; Urbaha, M.; Carjova, K.

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT) and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  19. In-silico approach to the development of a prototype clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... In-silico approaches to information management of pediatrics sections of hospitals could ... This study was aimed at developing a prototype clinic information system for keeping track of ...

  20. Designing clinically valuable telehealth resources: processes to develop a community-based palliative care prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Jennifer Joy; Morgan, Deidre Diane; Swetenham, Kate; To, Timothy Hong Man; Currow, David Christopher

    2014-09-04

    Changing population demography and patterns of disease are increasing demands on the health system. Telehealth is seen as providing a mechanism to support community-based care, thus reducing pressure on hospital services and supporting consumer preferences for care in the home. This study examined the processes involved in developing a prototype telehealth intervention to support palliative care patients involved with a palliative care service living in the community. The challenges and considerations in developing the palliative care telehealth prototype were reviewed against the Center for eHealth Research (CeHRes) framework, a telehealth development model. The project activities to develop the prototype were specifically mapped against the model's first four phases: multidisciplinary project management, contextual inquiry, value specification, and design. This project has been developed as part of the Telehealth in the Home: Aged and Palliative Care in South Australia initiative. Significant issues were identified and subsequently addressed during concept and prototype development. The CeHRes approach highlighted the implicit diversity in views and opinions among participants and stakeholders and enabled issues to be considered, resolved, and incorporated during design through continuous engagement. The CeHRes model provided a mechanism that facilitated "better" solutions in the development of the palliative care prototype by addressing the inherent but potentially unrecognized differences in values and beliefs of participants. This collaboration enabled greater interaction and exchange among participants resulting in a more useful and clinically valuable telehealth prototype.

  1. Decision aid prototype development for parents considering adenotonsillectomy for their children with sleep disordered breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Erin; Hong, Paul; Ritchie, Krista; Meier, Jeremy; Archibald, Karen; Chorney, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the process involved in developing a decision aid prototype for parents considering adenotonsillectomy for their children with sleep disordered breathing. Methods A paper-based decision aid prototype was developed using the framework proposed by the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaborative. The decision aid focused on two main treatment options: watchful waiting and adenotonsillectomy. Usability was assessed with parents of pediatric patients and prov...

  2. Development and test of prototype components for ITER; Entwicklung und Test von Prototypkomponenten fuer ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biel, Wolfgang; Behr, Wilfried; Castano-Bardawil, David; and others

    2015-08-15

    The scientific program of the project is divided into the following partial projects: (1.) ITER Diagnostic Port Plug for the charge-exchange spectroscopy (CXRS) with the subthemes: (a) Development of prototypes for critical mechanical components, (b) development of a roboter for the laser welding of vacuum seals and pipings at the Port Plug, (c) mirror studies, (d) CXRS prototype spectrometer, (2.) ITER tritium retention diagnostics (TR), (3.) ITER disruption mitigation ventile (DMV).

  3. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  4. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  5. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  6. Development of ITER shielding blanket prototype mockup by HIP bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Toshihisa; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Office of ITER Project Promotion, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A prototype ({approx}900{sup H} x 1700{sup W} x 350{sup T} mm) of the ITER shielding blanket module has been fabricated following the previous successful fabrication of a small-scale ({approx}500{sup H} x 400{sup W} x 150{sup T} mm) and mid-scale ({approx}800{sup H} x 500{sup W} x 350{sup T} mm) mock-ups. This prototype incorporates most of key design features essential to the fabrication of the ITER shielding blanket module such as 1) the first wall heat sink made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion strengthened Cu (DSCu) with built-in SS316L coolant tubes bonded to a massive SS316LN shield block, 2) toroidally curved first wall with a radius of 5106 mm while straight in poloidal direction, 3) coolant channels oriented in poloidal direction in the first wall and in toroidal direction in the shield block, 4) the first wall coolant channel routing to avoid the interference with the front access holes, 5) coolant channels drilled through the forged SS316LN-IG shield block, and 6) four front access holes of 30 mm in diameter penetrated through the first wall and the shield block. For the joining method, especially for the first wall/side wall parts and the shield block, the solid HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) process was applied. It is difficult to apply conventional joining methods such as field welding, brazing, explosion bonding and mechanical one-axial diffusion bonding to a wide area bonding because sufficient mechanical strengths can not be obtained and excessive deformations occurs. In order to solve these fabrication issues, HIP bonding was applied. The first wall stainless steel (SS) coolant tubes of 10 mm in inner diameter and l mm in thickness were sandwiched by semi-circular grooved DSCu plates at the first wall and the front region of the side wall, and by semi-circular grooved SS plates at the back region of the side wall. After assembling of these first wall/side wall parts with the shield block, they were simultaneously bonded by single step HIP in order to

  7. Can Dutch co-generation survive threats of the liberalisation of the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battjes, J.J.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2000-07-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the effects of liberalisation of the Dutch energy markets on the future development of combined heat and power generation (co-generation) in the Netherlands. First, it reviews the historical growth in co-generation in the Netherlands and the supportive policy measures that have contributed to this growth. Second, the liberalisation process of the Dutch electricity market and the Dutch gas market is described. Subsequently, we discuss the impacts of these new market structures on co-generation by using two scenarios for the Dutch energy markets. Our assessment of the impacts is mainly focused on the cost-effectiveness of co-generation projects. We determine the key aspects that influence the cost-effectiveness of a co-generation project and analyse some of the calculations for different small-scale and large-scale co-generation projects. Based on the results, we conclude that investments in new co-generation plants are unlikely in the short term and the existing plants can barely produce with a positive cash flow. As many parties have an interest in reducing the negative effects of a liberalised energy market on co-generation, approaches are sought to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-generation in the Netherlands. We describe several optional supportive measures for co-generation mainly resulting from the determination of the barriers for co-generation. Moreover, Dutch authorities have already responded to these barriers by preparing policy measures such as investment subsidies and exemption from the energy tax. 2 refs

  8. Impact of support schemes and barriers in Europe on the evolution of cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of different support measures to promote cogeneration in the European Union. The analysis looks into the average progress of cogeneration between two different periods. The economic effect of the support measures in each country is quantified with the help of a cost–benefit analysis carried out by the Cogeneration Observatory and Dissemination Europe (CODE) project. The scope of this study is necessarily affected by the need to limit the number of projects and support measures. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the economic advantage offered by support measures and the deployment of cogeneration in the Member States. The study considers the effect of different barriers (reported by the Member States) on the promotion of cogeneration. The individual analyses of the barriers differ widely in quality and depth. When some barriers are reported, there is an increase of the variability of the penetration of cogeneration. This counter-intuitive fact leads us to conclude that there is a lack of consistency in the barriers reported, and a clear need for consistent reporting on barriers. The possible effect of competition between measures supporting combined heat and power and renewable energy sources is also analysed. - Highlights: • Support measures to promote cogeneration are analysed. • The growth of cogeneration in European countries is not aligned with the measures in place. • None of the reported barriers for cogeneration can be considered a clear show-stopper. • The variation in the development of cogeneration when some barriers are reported raises questions about the reporting. • Countries with a high share of cogeneration are sensitive to the continuity or discontinuity of support

  9. Cogeneration at FIAT AVIO (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, A.

    1991-01-01

    Brief notes are provided on the FIAT (Italy) - Foster Wheeler joint venture to equip about 20 FIAT manufacturing plants with 50 MW(e) combined cycle cogeneration plants which will make use of a gas turbine whose design is based on that of the successful General Electric aeronautic LM 6000 engine. The paper also discusses solutions, e.g., wet and dry methods, being considered for nitrogen ox des control, and cites the need in Italy for the optimization of Government licensing procedures for small and medium sized manufacturing firms opting for on-site power generation through cogeneration plants

  10. Cogeneration feasibility: Otis Elevator Company and Polychrome Corporation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cogeneration at Otis Elevator Company and Polychrome Corporation located in Westchester County, New York. Each plant and its associated thermal and electrical load is reviewed. Three basic cycles for the cogeneration are investigated: power only, power generation with waste heat recovery, and combined cycle. Each case was assessed economically, beginning with a screening method to suggest those configurations most likely to be implemented and continuing through an assessment of the regulatory environment for cogeneration and an analysis of rate structures for buy back power, displaced power, and supplementing service. It is concluded that: for a plant designed to supply the combined loads of the two corporations, interconnection costs coupled to the coincidence of load result in unfavorable economics; for separate cogeneration plants, owned and operated by each individual corporation, energy consumption patterns and the current regulatory environment, in particular the existing and proposed cogeneration system rate structures, do not permit viable economics for the proposed plants; but if the proposed cycle were owned and operated by a new entity (neither Otis/Polychrome nor the utility), an economic scheme with marginal financial benefits can be developed and may be worthy of further study. (LEW)

  11. Environmental licensing issues for cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, G.S.; Bibbo, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The siting and licensing of cogeneration and independent power production (IPP) facilities is a complex process involving a number of interrelated engineering, economic, and environmental impact considerations. Important considerations for the siting and licensing of such facilities include air quality control and air quality impacts, water supply and wastewater disposal, and applicable noise criteria and noise impact considerations. Air quality control and air quality impact considerations for power generation facilities are commonly reviewed in the public forum, and most project developers are generally aware of the key air quality licensing issues. These issues include Best Available Control Technology (BACT) demonstration requirements, and air quality modeling requirements. BACT is a case-by-case determination, which causes uncertainty, in that developers have difficulty in projecting the cost of required control systems. Continuing developments in control technology may cause this problem to continue in the 1990's. Air quality modeling can be a problem in hilly terrain or within or near an urban environment, which could delay or preclude permitting of a new cogeneration or IPP facility in such locations. This paper discusses several environmental issues which are less frequently addressed than air quality issues, namely water/wastewater and noise. The design features of typical cogeneration and IPP facilities that affect water supply requirements, wastewater volumes, and noise emissions are discussed. Then, the site selection and impact review process are examined to identify typical constraints and trade-offs that can develop relative to water, wastewater, and noise issues. Trends in permit review requirements for water, wastewater, and noise are examined. Finally, innovative approaches that can be used to resolve potential development constraints for water, wastewater, and noise issues are discussed

  12. An analysis of the legal and market framework for the cogeneration sector in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, D.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Following a strategic orientation towards sustainable development, the Government of the Republic of Croatia has changed its energy legislation and has put forward a framework for the systematic development and increased use of renewable energy sources and cogeneration. This paper focuses on changes in the regulatory context relevant to the cogeneration sector and also analyses the impact of energy market transition on cogeneration viability in municipal district heating, industry, services and the residential sector. Particular attention has been paid to the expected changes of heat, electricity and gas prices. We present a simple model for quantitative prediction of the cogeneration system profitability at different power levels under given national circumstances. Our findings support a need for a strong institutional support for initial penetration of the micro-cogeneration technologies into the Croatian energy system. (author)

  13. A potential candidate for the sustainable and reliable domestic energy generation–Thermoelectric cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.F.; Yan, Y.Y.; Simpson, K.

    2013-01-01

    Due to being solid-state, noiseless and maintenance free, thermoelectric devices have found wide applications in different areas since they were discovered over 180 years ago. The applications are concerned with environment-friendly refrigeration and power generation in transportation tools, industrial utilities, military devices, medical services and space applications. It is utilisation of waste heat in varying applications that make the modules particularly attractive. Nevertheless, despite a few academic papers, there has not been extensive use in the domestic sector. A concept of thermoelectric cogeneration system (‘TCS’) is proposed to highlight the direction for enhancing the sustainability by improving the energy efficiency in domestic sector. Compared to the thermoelectric systems used in other areas which only uses the part of converted energy but wastes the unconverted part by dissipating it into the environment, the system presented here maximally recover the available heat by generating electrical power and producing hot water simultaneously. The viability of this system concept is evaluated on a bench-scale experimental prototype. The outputs of electrical power and hot water have been investigated at different temperature difference. The cost saving potential and cost recovery period have been estimated using the available heat sources in domestic sector. The results intend to provide reference for developing the real-scale domestic thermoelectric cogeneration system and show the potential benefits

  14. Adsorption thermal energy storage for cogeneration in industrial batch processes: Experiment, dynamic modeling and system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Heike; Graf, Stefan; Lanzerath, Franz; Bardow, André

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption thermal energy storage is investigated for heat supply with cogeneration in industrial batch processes. The feasibility of adsorption thermal energy storage is demonstrated with a lab-scale prototype. Based on these experiments, a dynamic model is developed and successfully calibrated to measurement data. Thereby, a reliable description of the dynamic behavior of the adsorption thermal energy storage unit is achieved. The model is used to study and benchmark the performance of adsorption thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration for batch process energy supply. As benchmark, we consider both a peak boiler and latent thermal energy storage based on a phase change material. Beer brewing is considered as an example of an industrial batch process. The study shows that adsorption thermal energy storage has the potential to increase energy efficiency significantly; primary energy consumption can be reduced by up to 25%. However, successful integration of adsorption thermal storage requires appropriate integration of low grade heat: Preferentially, low grade heat is available at times of discharging and in demand when charging the storage unit. Thus, adsorption thermal energy storage is most beneficial if applied to a batch process with heat demands on several temperature levels. - Highlights: • A highly efficient energy supply for industrial batch processes is presented. • Adsorption thermal energy storage (TES) is analyzed in experiment and simulation. • Adsorption TES can outperform both peak boilers and latent TES. • Performance of adsorption TES strongly depends on low grade heat temperature.

  15. National preceptor development program (PDP) prototype. The third of a 3-part series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Craig D; Mulherin, Katrina; Walter, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    Preceptor development is critical to successful delivery of experiential learning. Although many preceptor development programs exist, a more individualized approach to training is needed. To accomplish this a national preceptor development program should be considered based on the continuing professional development model. A detailed prototype for this program has been described. In this final installment of the series, the twelve evidence-based recommendations from the first installment were utilized to construct a prototype for a preceptor development program. Over a three-month period, investigators experimented with different designs and models before approving the final prototype. The prototype took the form of an electronic learning platform. Several categories were integral to the design and included sections entitled preceptor spotlight, mentorship, global outreach, choose your own adventure, continuing professional development, feedback, virtual online community, highlights/advertisements, what's new, competency assessment, and frequently asked questions. A graphic was developed to depict the process by which a preceptor would navigate through the web-based learning platform. The authors purposefully maintained a creative and unlimited vision for preceptor development. This conceptual model is intended to spark discussion and augment, refine, or develop entirely innovative ideas to meet preceptor needs. Development of a preceptor development platform could foster improved competency performance, enhanced interest in learning, and promote continuing professional development. With a greater focus on experiential education in pharmacy, the need for a national preceptor development resource is only expected to increase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cogeneration system simulation/optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppa, B.A.; Chandrashekar, M.

    1992-01-01

    Companies are increasingly turning to computer software programs to improve and streamline the analysis o cogeneration systems. This paper introduces a computer program which originated with research at the University of Waterloo. The program can simulate and optimize any type of layout of cogeneration plant. An application of the program to a cogeneration feasibility study for a university campus is described. The Steam and Power Plant Optimization System (SAPPOS) is a PC software package which allows users to model any type of steam/power plant on a component-by-component basis. Individual energy/steam balances can be done quickly to model any scenario. A typical days per month cogeneration simulation can also be carried out to provide a detailed monthly cash flow and energy forecast. This paper reports that SAPPOS can be used for scoping, feasibility, and preliminary design work, along with financial studies, gas contract studies, and optimizing the operation of completed plants. In the feasibility study presented, SAPPOS is used to evaluate both diesel engine and gas turbine combined cycle options

  17. Dynamics of decentralization: The case of micro cogeneration diffusion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praetorius, Barbara; Schneider, Lambert

    2005-01-01

    Micro cogeneration is the simultaneous generation of heat and electricity in small units; it is expected to allow for a higher energy efficiency than separate generation. For Germany, the potential of micro cogeneration has been estimated with about 3 GW. Introduced in a larger scale and as part of a general move towards distributed generation, micro cogeneration may contribute to substantial structural changes on electricity and heat markets. We start with an assessment of existing micro cogeneration technologies, including reciprocating engines, Stirling engines and fuel cells, and describe their characteristics and state of development. Based on a model to calculate costs of micro cogeneration operation, we examine their economic feasibility in Germany in a number of typical applications from an operator's and a societal perspective. On this basis, we explore the actual dynamics of its diffusion in Germany. We analyze the interests, attitudes and strategies of actors concerned with implementing micro cogeneration, such as network operators, appliance industry, gas and electricity suppliers, etc. We explore the impacts of their (diverging) interests and strategies and mirror them with the economic potential and institutional setting for micro cogeneration with respect to competition, grid access and transaction costs. We conclude with assessing barriers for and measures to facilitate the diffusion of micro cogeneration in Germany

  18. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  19. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Wen Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  20. Development of the EtsaTrans translation system prototype and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of multilingualism at the University of the Free State (UFS) gained momentum with the development of the EtsaTrans translation system which is being developed according to the principles of example-based machine translation. In this article the development of the system prototype is described, and an ...

  1. An HTR cogeneration system for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Heek, A.I. van; Kikstra, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Because of its favourable characteristics of safety and simplicity the high-temperature reactor (HTR) could become a competitive heat source for a cogeneration unit. The Netherlands is a world leading country in the field of cogeneration. As nuclear energy remains an option for the medium and long term in this country, systems for nuclear cogeneration should be explored and developed. Hence, ECN Nuclear Research is developing a conceptual design of an HTR for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP) for the industry in and outside the Netherlands. The design of this small CHP-unit for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. The concept that was subject of this study, INCOGEN, used a 40 MW thermal pebble bed HTR and produced a maximum amount of electricity plus low temperature heat. The system has been improved to produce industrial quality heat, and has been renamed ACACIA. The output of this installation is 14 MW electricity and 17 tonnes of steam per hour, with a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 220 deg. C. The economic characteristics of this installation turned out to be much more favourable using modern data. The research work for this installation is embedded in a programme that has links to the major HTR projects in the world. Accordingly ECN participates in several IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Besides this, ECN is involved in the South African PBMR-project. Finally, ECN participates in the European Concerted Action on Innovative HTR. (author)

  2. A prototype of a documentation system that supports the development and maintenance of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Degn, Anders; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    , such as shorter lead times, reductions of resources needed and fewer errors. A procedure for the development and maintenance of PCSs, which has been applied in configuration projects for more than ten years, includes three main modelling techniques to support the development and maintenance of PCSs. Unfortunately...... system that supports the development and maintenance of PCSs. This article describes how some of this research has been converted into a prototype of a documentation system and what has been learned from the evaluation of the prototype...

  3. Design and development of a prototype platform for gait analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, T. E.; Marti, M. A.; Jagani, J.; Garcia, V.; Iliff, G. J.; Phoenix, A.; Woolard, A. G.; Malladi, V. V. N. S.; Bales, D. B.; Tarazaga, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    The field of event classification and localization in building environments using accelerometers has grown significantly due to its implications for energy, security, and emergency protocols. Virginia Tech's Goodwin Hall (VT-GH) provides a robust testbed for such work, but a reduced scale testbed could provide significant benefits by allowing algorithm development to occur in a simplified environment. Environments such as VT-GH have high human traffic that contributes external noise disrupting test signals. This paper presents a design solution through the development of an isolated platform for data collection, portable demonstrations, and the development of localization and classification algorithms. The platform's success was quantified by the resulting transmissibility of external excitation sources, demonstrating the capabilities of the platform to isolate external disturbances while preserving gait information. This platform demonstrates the collection of high-quality gait information in otherwise noisy environments for data collection or demonstration purposes.

  4. Development of the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor- Design and Fabrication of the Half-Scale Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory S.; Fisher, John

    2005-01-01

    A half scale version of a device called the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype has been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to deal with plastic based wastes that are expected to be encountered in future human space exploration scenarios such as Lunar or Martian Missions. The Plastic Melt Waste Compactor design was based on the types of wastes produced on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab missions. The half scale prototype unit will lead to the development of a full scale Plastic Melt Waste Compactor prototype that is representative of flight hardware that would be used on near and far term space missions. This report details the progress of the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor Development effort by the Solid Waste Management group at NASA Ames Research Center.

  5. Medication Reconciliation: Work Domain Ontology, prototype development, and a predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Eliz; Bernstam, Elmer V; Herskovic, Jorge; Zhang, Jiajie; Shneiderman, Ben; Plaisant, Catherine; Johnson, Todd R

    2011-01-01

    Medication errors can result from administration inaccuracies at any point of care and are a major cause for concern. To develop a successful Medication Reconciliation (MR) tool, we believe it necessary to build a Work Domain Ontology (WDO) for the MR process. A WDO defines the explicit, abstract, implementation-independent description of the task by separating the task from work context, application technology, and cognitive architecture. We developed a prototype based upon the WDO and designed to adhere to standard principles of interface design. The prototype was compared to Legacy Health System's and Pre-Admission Medication List Builder MR tools via a Keystroke-Level Model analysis for three MR tasks. The analysis found the prototype requires the fewest mental operations, completes tasks in the fewest steps, and completes tasks in the least amount of time. Accordingly, we believe that developing a MR tool, based upon the WDO and user interface guidelines, improves user efficiency and reduces cognitive load.

  6. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  7. Valuation of Real Options as Competitive Prototyping in System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    hedge technology investment risk (Benaroch, 2001), and application to design modularity (Baldwin & Clark, 2000), research and development resource...Valuation Models assume that: (a) future asset behavior and value conform to well-defined processes, (b) markets are complete and arbitrage opportunities

  8. Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  9. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Balodis, M.; Sarma, U.; Cers, A.; Linkevics, O.

    2015-12-01

    Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand. In this paper, the authors attempt to assess the potential conflicts between policy political objectives to increase the share of high-efficiency co-generation and renewable energy sources (RES), based on the example of Riga district heating system (DHS). If a new heat source using biomass is built on the right bank of Riga DHS to increase the share of RES, the society could overpay for additional heat production capacities, such as a decrease in the loading of existing generating units, thereby contributing to an inefficient use of existing capacity. As a result, the following negative consequences may arise: 1) a decrease in primary energy savings (PES) from high-efficiency cogeneration in Riga DHS, 2) an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Baltic region, 3) the worsening security situation of electricity supply in the Latvian power system, 4) an increase in the electricity market price in the Lithuanian and Latvian price areas of Nord Pool power exchange. Within the framework of the research, calculations of PES and GHG emission volumes have been performed for the existing situation and for the situation with heat source, using biomass. The effect of construction of biomass heat source on power capacity balances and Nord Pool electricity prices has been evaluated.

  10. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  11. Developing the Systems Engineering Experience Accelerator (SEEA) Prototype and Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    retiring baby boomer generation , the time to develop competent SEs needs to be significantly shortened. The primary goal of the SEEA, once it is...threats to validity of Experimental design(inability to generalize results),limited availability of suitable subjects and insufficient literature to...authentic. 5. Evaluation - Inconclusive results due to threats to validity of Experimental design (inability to generalize results), limited

  12. Development of the predictive maintenance system prototype for the rod control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Hong, H. P.; Koo, J. M.; Kim, Y. B.; Han, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for safety and reliability of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been constantly increasing and economical operation is also an important issue. Developing and adopting predictive maintenance technology for the major systems or equipment is considered as a way to achieve these goals. This paper describes the development of a predictive maintenance system prototype for the Rod Control System, which adopts an advanced methodology. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) has been adopted for the real time fault diagnosis and prediction of the system. Through a simulation test, it was confirmed that the prototype monitors and secures sound operability of rod drive mechanism and its control system, and also provides the predictive maintenance information

  13. Development of a prototype specialist shuttle vehicle for chipped woodfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report gives details of a project to develop and test a specialist chip shuttle vehicle for conveying woodchips out of the forest with the aim of reducing the cost of woodfuel production. The design objectives are described and include the need to allow easy transfer of the chips from the chipper to the shuttle and on into haulage units, good performance and manoeuvrability on and off roads, and high-tip capacity. Estimates of the improved production and reduced woodfuel production costs are discussed along with the anticipated satisfactory operation of the chipper-shuttle combination in a forestry site.

  14. Development of the Tri-ATHLETE Lunar Vehicle Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly, Matt; Matthews, Jaret; Frost, Matt; Quin, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Tri-ATHLETE (All Terrain Hex Limed Extra Terrestrial Explorer) vehicle is the second generation of a wheel-on-limb vehicle being developed to support the return of humans to the lunar surface. This paper describes the design, assembly, and test of the Tri-ATHLETE robotic system with a specific emphasis on the limb joint actuators. The design and implementation of the structural components is discussed, and a novel and low cost approach to approximating flight-like cabling is also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the "second system effect" and other lessons learned as well as results from a three week long field trial of the vehicle in the Arizona desert.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-07-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of compressor and engine is presented. The superior performance of these two products arises from the superior performance of rotating supersonic shock-wave compression. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A High Risk Technology review was conducted and evaluated by a team of 20 senior engineers and scientists representing various branches of the federal government. The conceptual design of a compression test rig, test rotors, and test cell adaptor was completed. The work conducted lays the foundation for the completed design and testing of the compression test rig, and the design of a supersonic shock-wave compressor matched to a conventional combustor and turbine.

  16. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2018-04-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  17. Development and Testing of Prototype Commercial Gasifier Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelepouga, Serguei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Moery, Nathan [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wu, Mengbai [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Saveliev, Alexei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing at the Wabash River gasifier. The project work was initiated with modification of the sensor software (Task 2) to enable real time temperature data acquisition, and to process and provide the obtained gasifier temperature information to the gasifier operators. The software modifications were conducted by the North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers. The modified software was tested at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) combustion laboratory to assess the temperature recognition algorithm accuracy and repeatability. Task 3 was focused on the sensor hardware modifications needed to improve reliability of the sensor system. NCSU conducted numerical modeling of the sensor probe’s purging flow. Based on the modeling results the probe purging system was redesigned to prevent carbon particulates deposition on the probe’s sapphire window. The modified design was evaluated and approved by the Wabash representative. The modified gasifier sensor was built and installed at the Wabash River gasifier on May 1 2014. (Task 4) The sensor was tested from the startup of the gasifier on May 5, 2015 until the planned autumn gasifier outage starting in the beginning of October, 2015. (Task 5) The project team successfully demonstrated the Gasifier Sensor system’s ability to monitor gasifier temperature while maintaining unobstructed optical access for six months without any maintenance. The sensor examination upon completion of the trial revealed that the system did not sustain any damage.

  18. Preparation of JEREMI Experiment: Development of the Ground Based Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnou, V.; Mialdun, A.; Shevtsova, V.

    2012-12-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of preparing the space experiment JEREMI (Japanese and European Research Experiment on Marangoni Instabilities). The use of forced coaxial gas flow is proposed as a way to stabilize the Marangoni convection in liquid bridges, which might have important technological applications in the floating zone technique. A new set-up is under development and all sub-systems have passed severe tests. Here we present the design of this set-up and preliminary results of experiments for shear-driven two-phase flows in a confined volume of liquid under conditions of normal gravity. The geometry corresponds to a cylindrical liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel with external solid walls. Gas enters into the annular duct, flows between solid walls and upon reaching the liquid zone entrains initially quiescent liquid. The test liquids are ethanol, n-decane and 5 cSt silicone oil, which have different degrees of viscosity and of volatility. The gas flow along the interface strongly enhances the evaporation and, correspondingly, affects the interface shape. Silhouette measurements are used for optical determination of the interface shape. From the digital images the variation of the liquid volume as a function of flow rate is calculated.

  19. Development of prototype virtual testing system for ultrasonic examination engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohji, Hajime; Hide, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of inspection results is affected by the skill of examination personnel, particularly with regard to manual ultrasonic testing (UT). The number and design of test specimens are among the most important points to be considered during training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. For training, a simulated UT training system using a computer mouse or touch sensor was proposed. However, this system proved to be inadequate as a replacement with for actual UT work. In this study, we have developed a novel virtual UT system that simulates actual UT work for piping welds. This system (Tool for Realistic UltraSound Testing) consists of a dummy UT probe, dummy piping, a computer system, and a 3D position detection system. It can detect the state of the dummy probe (3D position, skewing angle), and displays recorded A-scan data corresponding to the dummy probe status with random noise. Furthermore, it does not display A-scan data if the dummy probe is not in contact with the pipe. Thus, in this way, the system simulates actual UT work. Using this system, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of test specimens being utilized for training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. Additionally, highly efficient training and certification will be achieved through this system. (author)

  20. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  1. Prototypic Development and Evaluation of a Medium Format Metric Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastedt, H.; Rofallski, R.; Luhmann, T.; Rosenbauer, R.; Ochsner, D.; Rieke-Zapp, D.

    2018-05-01

    Engineering applications require high-precision 3D measurement techniques for object sizes that vary between small volumes (2-3 m in each direction) and large volumes (around 20 x 20 x 1-10 m). The requested precision in object space (1σ RMS) is defined to be within 0.1-0.2 mm for large volumes and less than 0.01 mm for small volumes. In particular, focussing large volume applications the availability of a metric camera would have different advantages for several reasons: 1) high-quality optical components and stabilisations allow for a stable interior geometry of the camera itself, 2) a stable geometry leads to a stable interior orientation that enables for an a priori camera calibration, 3) a higher resulting precision can be expected. With this article the development and accuracy evaluation of a new metric camera, the ALPA 12 FPS add|metric will be presented. Its general accuracy potential is tested against calibrated lengths in a small volume test environment based on the German Guideline VDI/VDE 2634.1 (2002). Maximum length measurement errors of less than 0.025 mm are achieved with different scenarios having been tested. The accuracy potential for large volumes is estimated within a feasibility study on the application of photogrammetric measurements for the deformation estimation on a large wooden shipwreck in the German Maritime Museum. An accuracy of 0.2 mm-0.4 mm is reached for a length of 28 m (given by a distance from a lasertracker network measurement). All analyses have proven high stabilities of the interior orientation of the camera and indicate the applicability for a priori camera calibration for subsequent 3D measurements.

  2. PROTOTYPIC DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MEDIUM FORMAT METRIC CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hastedt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engineering applications require high-precision 3D measurement techniques for object sizes that vary between small volumes (2–3 m in each direction and large volumes (around 20 x 20 x 1–10 m. The requested precision in object space (1σ RMS is defined to be within 0.1–0.2 mm for large volumes and less than 0.01 mm for small volumes. In particular, focussing large volume applications the availability of a metric camera would have different advantages for several reasons: 1 high-quality optical components and stabilisations allow for a stable interior geometry of the camera itself, 2 a stable geometry leads to a stable interior orientation that enables for an a priori camera calibration, 3 a higher resulting precision can be expected. With this article the development and accuracy evaluation of a new metric camera, the ALPA 12 FPS add|metric will be presented. Its general accuracy potential is tested against calibrated lengths in a small volume test environment based on the German Guideline VDI/VDE 2634.1 (2002. Maximum length measurement errors of less than 0.025 mm are achieved with different scenarios having been tested. The accuracy potential for large volumes is estimated within a feasibility study on the application of photogrammetric measurements for the deformation estimation on a large wooden shipwreck in the German Maritime Museum. An accuracy of 0.2 mm–0.4 mm is reached for a length of 28 m (given by a distance from a lasertracker network measurement. All analyses have proven high stabilities of the interior orientation of the camera and indicate the applicability for a priori camera calibration for subsequent 3D measurements.

  3. WP3 Prototype development for operational planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoffersen, T.; Meibom, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Apfelbeck, J.; Barth, R.; Brand, H. (IER, Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany))

    2008-04-15

    This report documents the model development carried out in work package 3 in the SUPWIND project. It was decided to focus on the estimation of the need for reserve power, and on the reservation of reserve power by TSOs. Reserve power is needed to cover deviations from the day-ahead forecasts of electricity load and wind power production, and to cover forced outages of power plants and transmission lines. Work has been carried out to include load uncertainty and forced outages in the two main components of the Wilmar Planning tool namely the Scenario Tree Tool and the Joint Market Model. This work is documented in chapter 1 and 2. The inclusion of load uncertainty and forced outages in the Scenario Tree Tool enables calculation of the demand for reserve power depending on the forecast horizon. The algorithm is given in Section 3.1. The design of a modified version of the Joint Market Model enabling estimation of the optimal amount of reserve power to reserve day-ahead before the actual operation hour is documented in Section 3.2. With regard to the evaluation of a power system, its ability to cope with extreme events is crucial to be investigated. Chapter 4 gives a definition of such extreme events. Further, the methodology to identify extreme events on the basis of the existing tools is described. Within the SUPWIND consortium there has been an interest in using the Joint Market Model to model smaller parts of a power system but with more detailed representation of the transmission and distribution grid. Chapter 5 documents this work. (author)

  4. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  5. Development of a fresh plutonium fuel container for a prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, T.; Takahashi, S.; Mishima, T.; Kurakami, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohuchi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Japan gives a good deal of encouragement to development of a fast breeder reactor (which is considered as the most likely candidate for nuclear power generation) to secure long-term energy source. And, following an experimental fast breeder reactor Joyo, a prototype fast breeder reactor Monju is now under vigorous construction. Related to development of the prototype fast breeder reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport container which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies from Plutonium Fuel Production Facility to the Monju power plant. Therefore, the container is now being developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, shipment and vibration tests, handling performance tests, shielding performance tests and prototype container tests are executed with prototype containers fabricated according to a final design, in order to experimentally confirm soundness of transport container and its contents, and propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this container and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package

  6. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  7. Development of the power supplies of the prototype ion source for the EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhimin; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Song Shihua; Xie Yahong; Sheng Peng

    2011-01-01

    For the neutral beam injector (NBI) of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), a test stand of a high-current ion source has been in construction. The NBI power supply system includes the plasma generator power supply, plasma electrode power supply, high voltage power divider, negative high voltage power supply, and the transmission lines and the snubber. A multi-megawatt prototype ion source was developed. The arc discharge of the prototype ion source was obtained in the test. The test results for the ion source power supplies and the arc discharge of the ion source are presented. (authors)

  8. Development of a prototype regeneration carbon dioxide absorber. [for use in EVA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P. S.; Baker, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber was developed to maintain the environmental quality of the portable life support system. The absorber works on the alkali metal carbonate-bicarbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The prototype sorber module was designed, fabricated, and tested at simulated extravehicular activity conditions to arrive at optimum design. The unit maintains sorber outlet concentration below 5 mm Hg. An optimization study was made with respect to heat transfer, temperature control, sorbent utilization, sorber life and regenerability, and final size of the module. Important parameters influencing the capacity of the final absorber unit were identified and recommendations for improvement were made.

  9. Prototype development and field measurements of high etendue spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Han, Wei; Pei, Linlin; Bu, Meixia

    2018-03-01

    High etendue spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (HESHIS) is a new pushbroom Fourier transform hyperspectral imager with no moving parts. It is based on a Sagnac interferometer combined with a pair of parallel gratings. In this paper, the basic principle of HESHIS is reviewed and the first prototype of HESHIS is designed and developed. The spectral band of this prototype is designed at O2-A band (757 nm to 777 nm) and the average spectral resolution is 0.04 nm. Using the prototype, the pushbroom imaging experiments are carried out and the original interference images are obtained. The spectral data cube is generated using spectrum reconstruction method and high-resolution spectra are achieved.

  10. Cogeneration offers promise - politics permitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprowski, Gene

    1996-12-01

    India`s Prime Minister H D Deve Gowda and the environmental activist Maneka Gandhi clashed recently over a US1.06 billion cogeneration power plant. Gandhi accused Gowda of moving too fast in giving the plant environmental clearance two days after assuming office. The argument, which delayed the start of a new thermal power plant by US-based Cogenetrix, illustrates the hazards of building such projects in Asia. (author)

  11. Stirling based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, J.S.; Zutt, J.G.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Beckers, G.J.J. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, C.A.W.; Luttikholt, J.J.M. [ATAG Verwarming, Lichtenvoorde (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%. Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. 5 refs.

  12. Tasks and challenges in prototype development with novel technology - an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thematic analysis of 138 monthly reports from a joint industrial and academic project where multiple prototypes were developed based on the same technology. The analysis was based on tasks and challenges described in the reports by project managers over a period of three years...

  13. Prototype Development of an ICT System to Support Construction Management Based on Virtual Models and RFID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    early example) of an ICT system was carried out to identify and formalise user needs in relation to construction management based on virtual models and radio frequency identification (RFID). The prototype was developed to support working processes in real-time project progress management, quality...

  14. Development of a 3D CZT detector prototype for Laue Lens telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Ezio; Auricchio, Natalia; Del Sordo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a 3D position sensitive prototype suitable as focal plane detector for Laue lens telescope. The basic sensitive unit is a drift strip detector based on a CZT crystal, (~19×8 mm2 area, 2.4 mm thick), irradiated transversally to the electric field direction. The anode...

  15. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  16. The use of virtual prototyping and simulation in ITER maintenance device development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Siuko, M.; Saarinen, H.; Maekinen, H.; Verho, S.; Vilenius, M.; Palmer, J.; Irving, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER divertor maintenance takes place approximately every second year. The maintenance occurs in very harsh and mechanically complicated environment. Due to the critical nature of the maintenance operations, the maintenance equipment design and the operation cycle will be verified in DTP2 test platform, in Tampere, Finland. TUT/IHA is working on the ITER divertor maintenance devices. Due to the complexity of the operation environment and tasks to be performed, 3d models and kinematic simulation have been valuable tool when developing the devices. Further, IHA has integrated to the models also dynamic properties of the device, so that it can be discussed as a virtual prototype. The virtual prototype can be used to verify the operation of the device, the operation cycle and also as a platform for developing the control software for the device. For device development, the virtual prototype is used to analyze the dynamic behavior, loading and flexibility of the device. The virtual prototype was also connected to real hardware to verify the operation of one joint. Then, the virtual model in computer was run and the output of the joints was given to a hydraulic cylinder representing disturbance load for an other hydraulic cylinder, which was operating under control software and aiming to move smoothly regardless of the disturbance load. By that way we were able to verify that the real system operates close enough with the simulation model. The virtual model is also used to shorten the time to get the DTP2 platform working. The CMM control software is done with virtual models as ready as possible. The CMM virtual model is connected to one-joint control hardware which allows developing the controller software one joint at time. In this paper, also other possibilities to use virtual prototypes in ITER divertor maintenance development are discussed. (author)

  17. Developing e-banking services for rural India: making use of socio-technical prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Vaidyanathan, Lakshmi; Gonsalves, Timothy A; Jhunjhunwala, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the key enablers for including underserved communities in economic and societal development across the world. Our research analyzes several banking service projects developing technical solutions for rural India. This poster presents an experience report based on systematic debriefing of involved project leaders and initiators, triangulated with additional documentation. The concept of Socio-Technical Prototype is developed and used to ...

  18. Cogeneration: A new opportunity for energy production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minghetti, E.

    1997-03-01

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an advantageous technique based on the simultaneous utilisation of electricity and heat produced. For this purpose existing energetic technologies are used. Cogeneration is based on the thermodynamics principle that producing electricity by combustion process means, at the same time, producing waste heat that can be useful utilised. Three main advantages can be lay out in a cogeneration plant: 1. High efficiency (the global efficiency is often around 80-90%). 2. Economic profit (pay back time is usually not longer than 2-4 years). 3. Low pollutant emissions (as a consequence of the high efficiency less fuel is burned for generating the same quantity of electricity). In this report are analysed various aspects of cogeneration (technical and economical) and the conditions influencing is development. Some figures on the european and national situation are also given. Finally are presented the research and development activities carried out by Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department to improve the efficiency and the competitiveness of this technology

  19. A software prototype development of human system interfaces for human factors engineering validation tests of SMART MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Tae; Han, Kwan Ho; Yang, Seung Won

    2011-02-01

    An integrated system validation test bed used for human factors engineering validation test is being developed. This study has a goal to develop a software prototype for HFE validation of SMART MCR design. To achieve these, first, some prototype specifications of the software was developed. Then software prototypes of alarm reduction logic system, Plant Protection System, ESF-CCS, Elastic Tile Alarm Indication, and EID-based HSIs were implemented as codes. Test procedures for the software prototypes were established to verify the completeness of the codes implemented. The careful software test has been done according to these test procedures, and the result were documented

  20. Development and performance of prototype serologic and molecular tests for hepatitis delta infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Kelly E; Butler, Emily K; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Rodgers, Mary A; Cassidy, Michael; Gersch, Jeffrey; McNamara, Anne L; Kuhns, Mary C; Dawson, George J; Kaptue, Lazare; Bremer, Birgit; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cloherty, Gavin A

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 5% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected people are coinfected with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV infection leads to increased mortality over HBV mono-infection, yet HDV diagnostics are not widely available. Prototype molecular (RNA) and serologic (IgG) assays were developed for high-throughput testing on the Abbott m2000 and ARCHITECT systems, respectively. RNA detection was achieved through amplification of a ribozyme region target, with a limit of detection of 5 IU/ml. The prototype serology assay (IgG) was developed using peptides derived from HDV large antigen (HDAg), and linear epitopes were further identified by peptide scan. Specificity of an HBV negative population was 100% for both assays. A panel of 145 HBsAg positive samples from Cameroon with unknown HDV status was tested using both assays: 16 (11.0%) had detectable HDV RNA, and 23 (15.7%) were sero-positive including the 16 HDV RNA positive samples. Additionally, an archival serial bleed panel from an HDV superinfected chimpanzee was tested with both prototypes; data was consistent with historic testing data using a commercial total anti-Delta test. Overall, the two prototype assays provide sensitive and specific methods for HDV detection using high throughput automated platforms, allowing opportunity for improved diagnosis of HDV infected patients.

  1. Performance analysis of a stationary fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, J.K.; Hwang, J.J.; Lin, C.H. [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, 70005 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The main purpose of our study was to use an experimental method and system dynamic simulation technology to examine a proton exchange membrane fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system that provides both high-quality electric power and heated water. In the second part of our study, we experimentally verified the development of key components of the fuel cell and conducted a comprehensive analysis of the subsystems, including the fuel cell module, hydrogen supply subsystem, air supply subsystem, humidifier subsystem, and heat recovery subsystem. Finally, we integrated all of the subsystems into a PEM fuel cell thermoelectric cogeneration system and performed efficiency tests and analysis of power generation, heat recovery, and thermoelectric cogeneration. After comparing this system's efficiency results using simulation and experimentation, we determined that the accuracy of the simulation values when compared to the experimental values was >95%, showing that this system's simulation nearly approached the efficiency of the actual experiment, including more than 53% for power generation efficiency, more than 39% for heat recovery efficiency, and more than 93% for thermoelectric cogeneration combined efficiency. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  3. 19 CFR 10.91 - Prototypes used exclusively for product development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following use—(1) Sale. Prototypes or any part(s) of prototypes, after having been used for the purposes for...) of this section; and a detailed description of the condition of the prototype following use for the... and the date of execution. (d) Prototypes not sold following use. As to those prototypes or parts of...

  4. 'BACO' code: Cogeneration cycles heat balance; El programa BACO (Balance de Ciclos de Cogeneracion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelamo Martinez, E; Conesa Lopez, P; Garcia Kilroy, P [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    This paper presents a code, developed by Empresarios Agrupados, sponsored by OCIDE, CSE and ENHER, that, with Electrical Utilities as final users, allows to make combined and cogeneration cycles technical-economical studies. (author)

  5. The performance of residential micro-cogeneration coupled with thermal and electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, John

    Over 80% of residential secondary energy consumption in Canada and Ontario is used for space and water heating. The peak electricity demands resulting from residential energy consumption increase the reliance on fossil-fuel generation stations. Distributed energy resources can help to decrease the reliance on central generation stations. Presently, distributed energy resources such as solar photovoltaic, wind and bio-mass generation are subsidized in Ontario. Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology that can be implemented as a distributed energy resource within residential or commercial buildings. Micro-cogeneration has the potential to reduce a building's energy consumption by simultaneously generating thermal and electrical power on-site. The coupling of a micro-cogeneration device with electrical storage can improve the system's ability to reduce peak electricity demands. The performance potential of micro-cogeneration devices has yet to be fully realized. This research addresses the performance of a residential micro-cogeneration device and it's ability to meet peak occupant electrical loads when coupled with electrical storage. An integrated building energy model was developed of a residential micro-cogeneration system: the house, the micro-cogeneration device, all balance of plant and space heating components, a thermal storage device, an electrical storage device, as well as the occupant electrical and hot water demands. This model simulated the performance of a micro-cogeneration device coupled to an electrical storage system within a Canadian household. A customized controller was created in ESP-r to examine the impact of various system control strategies. The economic performance of the system was assessed from the perspective of a local energy distribution company and an end-user under hypothetical electricity export purchase price scenarios. It was found that with certain control strategies the micro-cogeneration system was able to improve the

  6. Design and development of a 3D cadastral prototype based on the LADM and 3D topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, S.; Guo, R.; Li, L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a prototype 3D Cadastral system will be presented. The key aspects of this system are that the model is based on Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and that the spatial profile is based on a full 3D topological structure. The prototype development

  7. Modular cogeneration for commercial light industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhuja, R.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of gas utilities' efforts to market small cogeneration systems could be helpful to entrepreneurs now venturing into this area. Orders have been placed with Thermo Electron, USA for 15 Tecogen modular cogeneration units. Applications range from an airline catering kitchen to a university swimming pool. 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Development of a prototype graphic simulation program for severe accident training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-05-01

    This is a report of the development process and related technologies of severe accident graphic simulators, required in industrial severe accident management and training. Here, we say 'a severe accident graphic simulator' as a graphics add-in system to existing calculation codes, which can show the severe accident phenomena dynamically on computer screens and therefore which can supplement one of main defects of existing calculation codes. With graphic simulators it is fairly easy to see the total behavior of nuclear power plants, where it was very difficult to see only from partial variable numerical information. Moreover, the fast processing and control feature of a graphic simulator can give some opportunities of predicting the severe accident advancement among several possibilities, to one who is not an expert. Utilizing graphic simulators' we expect operators' and TSC members' physical phenomena understanding enhancement from the realistic dynamic behavior of plants. We also expect that severe accident training course can gain better training effects using graphic simulator's control functions and predicting capabilities, and therefore we expect that graphic simulators will be effective decision-aids tools both in sever accident training course and in real severe accident situations. With these in mind, we have developed a prototype graphic simulator having surveyed related technologies, and from this development experiences we have inspected the possibility to build a severe accident graphic simulator. The prototype graphic simulator is developed under IBM PC WinNT environments and is suited to Uljin 3and4 nuclear power plant. When supplied with adequate severe accident scenario as an input, the prototype can provide graphical simulations of plant safety systems' dynamic behaviors. The prototype is composed of several different modules, which are phenomena display module, MELCOR data interface module and graphic database interface module. Main functions of

  9. Development of a prototype graphic simulation program for severe accident training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-05-01

    This is a report of the development process and related technologies of severe accident graphic simulators, required in industrial severe accident management and training. Here, we say 'a severe accident graphic simulator' as a graphics add-in system to existing calculation codes, which can show the severe accident phenomena dynamically on computer screens and therefore which can supplement one of main defects of existing calculation codes. With graphic simulators it is fairly easy to see the total behavior of nuclear power plants, where it was very difficult to see only from partial variable numerical information. Moreover, the fast processing and control feature of a graphic simulator can give some opportunities of predicting the severe accident advancement among several possibilities, to one who is not an expert. Utilizing graphic simulators' we expect operators' and TSC members' physical phenomena understanding enhancement from the realistic dynamic behavior of plants. We also expect that severe accident training course can gain better training effects using graphic simulator's control functions and predicting capabilities, and therefore we expect that graphic simulators will be effective decision-aids tools both in sever accident training course and in real severe accident situations. With these in mind, we have developed a prototype graphic simulator having surveyed related technologies, and from this development experiences we have inspected the possibility to build a severe accident graphic simulator. The prototype graphic simulator is developed under IBM PC WinNT environments and is suited to Uljin 3and4 nuclear power plant. When supplied with adequate severe accident scenario as an input, the prototype can provide graphical simulations of plant safety systems' dynamic behaviors. The prototype is composed of several different modules, which are phenomena display module, MELCOR data interface module and graphic database

  10. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukich, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    A general overview of the Canadian income tax laws under which cogeneration plants will operate was presented. Highlights of some of the more important tax issues associated with cogeneration operations were included. This includes some of the specific rules dealing with the availability of the Manufacturing and Processing tax, credit, capital cost allowance, the Specified Energy Property rules and the tax treatment of Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expenses including the ability of a company to transfer such expenses to shareholders. Since it is expected that future cogeneration plants will have more than one owner, this paper reviewed the various legal structures through which multiple owners can own and run their cogeneration operations. Tax considerations related to the scale of a cogeneration plant were also reviewed

  11. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  12. Development of the prototype data management system of the solar H-alpha full disk observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ka-Ning; Zhao, Shi-Qing; Li, Qiong-Ying; Chen, Dong

    2004-06-01

    The Solar Chromospheric Telescope in Yunnan Observatory generates about 2G bytes fits format data per day. Huge amounts of data will bring inconvenience for people to use. Hence, data searching and sharing are important at present. Data searching, on-line browsing, remote accesses and download are developed with a prototype data management system of the solar H-alpha full disk observation, and improved by the working flow technology. Based on Windows XP operating system and MySQL data management system, a prototype system of browse/server model is developed by JAVA and JSP. Data compression, searching, browsing, deletion need authority and download in real-time have been achieved.

  13. Golf cart prototype development and navigation simulation using ROS and Gazebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimchik Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our approach to development of an autonomous golf cart, which will navigate in inaccessible by regular vehicles private areas. For this purpose, we have built a virtual golf course terrain and golf cart model in Gazebo, selected and modernized ROS-based packages in order to use them with Ackermann steering vehicle simulation. To verify our simulation and algorithms, we navigated the golf cart model from one golf hole to another within a virtual 3D golf course. For the real world algorithms’ verification, we developed a small-size vehicle prototype based on Traxxas radio-controlled car model, which is equipped with an on-board controller and sensors. The autonomous navigation of Traxxas-based vehicle prototype has been tested in indoor environment, where it utilized sensory data about environment and vehicle states, and performed localization, optimal trajectory computation and dynamic obstacles’ recognition with adjusting the route in real time.

  14. Development of CNC prototype for the characterization of the nanoparticle release during physical manipulation of nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Laura; Marchante, Veronica; Abhyankar, Hrushikesh A; Blackburn, Kim; Temple, Clive; Brighton, James L

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the release of nanoparticles from commercially used nanocomposites during machining operations. A reliable and repeatable method was developed to assess the intentionally exposure to nanoparticles, in particular during drilling. This article presents the description and validation of results obtained from a new prototype used for the measurement and monitoring of nanoparticles in a controlled environment. This methodology was compared with the methodologies applied in other studies. Also, some preliminary experiments on drilling nanocomposites are included. Size, shape and chemical composition of the released nanoparticles were investigated in order to understand their hazard potential. No significant differences were found in the amount of nanoparticles released between samples with and without nanoadditives. Also, no chemical alteration was observed between the dust generated and the bulk material. Finally, further developments of the prototype are proposed.

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Regenerative single-shaft ceramic gas turbine for cogeneration); 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Cogeneration yo saiseishiki ichijiku ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop a 300kW-class ceramic gas turbine with a turbine inlet temperature of 1350 degrees C and thermal efficiency of 42% or higher. The soundness in strength of the ceramic rotor blades and their fastening structure is confirmed. Rotor blade cushion thickness is found to decrease in start-and-stop repetitions in the initial period, but not thereafter. The exhaust diffuser and exhaust path shape are studied and improved for an increase in output, which improves turbine efficiency by 1.7%. Under the operating conditions of 1350 degrees C and full load, NOx emissions and combustion efficiency prove to be 5.6ppm and 99.9%. Even in the case using a large-diameter liner with its combustion efficiency under light load improved, the ultimate target value is achieved. Studies are further conducted on centrifugal stage loss reduction towards the ultimate goal set for the compressor. The diffuser shape is improved and the shroud clearance is reduced, and insulation efficiency of 81.1% is attained at the designing stage. In a test run of a pilot ceramic gas turbine in which temperature finally arrives at 1350 degrees C, engine thermal efficiency of 35% and shaft output of 282kW are achieved. (NEDO)

  16. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam cycle/cogeneration application study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Since publication of a report on the application of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (HTGR-SC/C) plant in December of 1980, progress has continued on application related activities. In particular, a reference plant and an application identification effort has been performed, a variable cogeneration cycle balance-of-plant design was developed and an updated economic analysis was prepared. A reference HTGR-SC/C plant size of 2240 MW(t) was selected, primarily on the basis of 2240 MW(t) being in the mid-range of anticipated application needs and the availability of the design data from the 2240 MW(t) Steam Cycle/Electric generation plant design. A variable cogeneration cycle plant design was developed having the capability of operating at a range of process steam loads between the reference design load (full cogeneration) and the no process steam load condition

  17. Pestov spark counter prototype development for the CERN-LHC ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badura, E.; Eschke, J.; Gaiser, H.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kopf, U.; Neyer, C.; Roters, B.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schulze, R.; Steinhaeuser, P.; Stelzer, H.; Frolov, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    A prototype Pestov Spark Counter with 2-dimensional position resolution has been developed. The position resolution is 0.32 mm and <2 mm in transverse and longitudinal direction, respectively. Beam tests yielded both the time resolution and the efficiency in accordance with earlier results obtained at BNIP Novosibirsk. A longterm stability test has been performed and stable behaviour for more then 3 months was observed. (orig.)

  18. Development of a prototype real-time automated filter for operational deep space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, W. C.; Pollmeier, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    Operational deep space navigation has been in the past, and is currently, performed using systems whose architecture requires constant human supervision and intervention. A prototype for a system which allows relatively automated processing of radio metric data received in near real-time from NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) without any redesign of the existing operational data flow has been developed. This system can allow for more rapid response as well as much reduced staffing to support mission navigation operations.

  19. The development of a prototype level-three interoperable catalog system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Carroll A.; Howie, Randy; Verhanovitz, Rich

    1993-08-01

    The development of a level-three interoperable catalog system is defined by a new paradigm for metadata access. The old paradigm is characterized by a hierarchy of metadata layers, the transfer of control to target systems, and the requirement for the user to be familiar with the syntax and data dictionaries of several catalog system elements. Attributes of the new paradigm are exactly orthogonal: the directory and inventories are peer entities, there is a single user interface, and the system manages the complexity of interacting transparently with remote elements. We have designed and implemented a prototype level-three interoperable catalog system based on the new paradigm. Through a single intelligent interface, users can interoperably access a master directory, inventories for selected satellite datasets, and an in situ meteorological dataset inventory. This paper describes the development of the prototype system and three of the formidable challenges that were addressed in the process. The first involved the interoperable integration of satellite and in situ inventories, which to our knowledge, has never been operationally demonstrated. The second was the development of a search strategy for orbital and suborbital granules which preserves the capability to identify temporally or spatially coincident subsets between them. The third involved establishing a method of incorporating inventory-specific search criteria into user queries. We are working closely with selected science data users to obtain feedback on the system's design and performance. The lessons learned from this prototype will help direct future development efforts. Distributed data systems of the 1990s such as EOSDIS and the Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS) will be able to build on this prototype.

  20. A Study on the Development of Prototype Seismic Isolation Device for NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hongpyo; Cho, Myungsug; Kim, Sunyong; Lee, Yonghee; Kang Kyunghun [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korean nuclear power plants have been and still are based on seismic resistance design including all of the natural disasters. However, in regions of high seismic hazard, seismic isolation technology is needed to guarantee the seismic safety on nuclear power plants. To achieve this purpose, the research and development of seismic isolation system for the construction in high seismicity area is on-going in Korea. In this study, prototype seismic isolation devices as mentioned above are developed and tested to identify the basic shear and compressive characteristics of them. In this study, assessment performance of basic characteristics on the prototype LRB and EQS seismic isolation for nuclear power plant structures is employed to compare with design values. Based on the test results of compression and shear characteristics, it is judged that they meet the measuring efficiency range conditions which are presented in ISO 22762 and AASHOT guide specification. Therefore, prototype seismic isolation devices like LRB and EQS developed in this study can be expected to be used as reference data when designing a seismic isolation system for nuclear power plant structures in the future.

  1. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  2. The marginal costs like reference for the decision of electric energy cogeneration in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Eduardo, J.H.B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electric cogeneration question, in a form of optimal utilization of high quality chemical energy in some industrial processes, or a form of employment of any others feedstocks, can be discussed on economics view, with the marginal costs reference, actually in implantation in Brazilian Electrical Sector. In this article, some ideas are presented about the mentioned discussion, in the Brazilian Electric Sector ambient, including analysis of laws and proposed directions for its modifications, looking for the cogeneration activity development in Brazil. (author)

  3. Applying Evolutionary Prototyping In Developing LMIS: A Spatial Web-Based System For Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustiono, W.

    2018-01-01

    Software development project is a difficult task. Especially for software designed to comply with regulations that are constantly being introduced or changed, it is almost impossible to make just one change during the development process. Even if it is possible, nonetheless, the developers may take bulk of works to fix the design to meet specified needs. This iterative work also means that it takes additional time and potentially leads to failing to meet the original schedule and budget. In such inevitable changes, it is essential for developers to carefully consider and use an appropriate method which will help them carry out software project development. This research aims to examine the implementation of a software development method called evolutionary prototyping for developing software for complying regulation. It investigates the development of Land Management Information System (pseudonym), initiated by the Australian government, for use by farmers to meet regulatory demand requested by Soil and Land Conservation Act. By doing so, it sought to provide understanding the efficacy of evolutionary prototyping in helping developers address frequent changing requirements and iterative works but still within schedule. The findings also offer useful practical insights for other developers who seek to build similar regulatory compliance software.

  4. Development and Testing of a Smartphone Application Prototype for Oral Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Sara L; Giblin-Scanlon, Lori J; Boyd, Linda D; Rainchuso, Lori

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a smartphone application (app) prototype, ToothSense, as an oral health promotion tool for the prevention of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Methods: A quantitative and qualitative design process based on the TPB was used for the app development in the first phase of the study. A behavioral intervention technologic model was used to document the app features design, accounting for Doshi's intervention strategies for the TPB. Beta-testing of the app was hosted via an online software program. Testers were presented with a series of tasks and prompts followed by a 5-point Likert-scale questionnaire that quantitatively measured perceptions of the app's interactive design based on Jakob Nielsen's principles and behavioral strategies. A Net Promotor Score was calculated to determine the tester's likelihood to recommend the app prototype. Audio and video aspects of the app were qualitatively measured using a template approach. Results: Beta testers agreed the app met the majority of the five usability statements. The Net Promotor Score indicated a likelihood to recommend the app prototype. Thematic analyses revealed the following themes: interface design, navigation, terminology, information, and oral health promotion. Conclusion: Beta testing results from this study provided health promotion project design information for the prevention of ECC using the TPB and highlighted the importance and usability of smartphone app for oral health promotion. Copyright © 2018 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  5. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  6. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam C.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. The CDS provides a similar function to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD) currently employed on the International Space Station, but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be more straightforward and simpler to implement into a more reliable and efficient system. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). A preliminary design fo the CDS 2.0 was presented to the project in September 2014. Following this review, detailed design of the system continued. The existing ground test prototype was used as a platform to demonstrate key 2.0 design and operational concepts to support this effort and mitigate design risk. A volumetric prototype was also developed to evaluate the packaging design for operability and maintainability. The updated system design was reviewed by the AES LSS Project and other key stakeholders in September 2015. This paper details the status of the CDS 2.0 design.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE SYSTEM FOR REGULATING THERMAL CONDITIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT CABINETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Rashidkhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of the study was to regulate the thermal regime and ensure the reliability of electronic equipmentMethods. In order to conduct experimental studies of the thermoelectric cooling system using heat pipes, a stand was assembled on which the developed and manufactured prototype was studied. The object of the experimental studies was a prototype cooling system, consisting of a thermoelectric battery made of conventional unified thermoelectric materials of ICE-71 type. The solution of the research problems carried out by the method of reduction to ordinary differential equations (Kantorovich method provides acceptable accuracy for such a class of problems.Results. A design of a telecommunication equipment cabinet with a thermal management system based on the use of heat pipes and thermoelectric cooling units is proposed. A mathematical model for the determination of the thermal field in the cabinet volume is considered; an experimental stand for the prototype study is described; the results of experimental studies for various power sources of heat release are presented.Conclusion. Experimental studies confirm the operability of the developed cooling system for cabinets with telecommunication equipment; this cooling method has advantages over conventional forced or natural cooling; the temperature in the block volume and the peak values of the heat sources are significantly reduced; at dissipation powers on one board within 50 W there is no need to use special means to remove heat from hot junctions of the thermoelectric battery.

  8. Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.

  9. First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusoglu, Aysegul; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine cogeneration system is performed. All necessary data are obtained from the actual diesel engine cogeneration plant located at Gaziantep, Turkey. The exergy analysis is aimed to evaluate the exergy destruction in each component as well as the exergetic efficiencies. The thermodynamic performance of a 25.32 MW electricity and 8.1 tons/h steam capacity diesel engine cogeneration system at full load conditions is analyzed. The thermal efficiency of the overall plant is found to be 44.2% and the exergetic efficiency is 40.7%. The exergy balance equations developed in this paper may also be utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis to estimate the production costs depending on various input costs in a diesel cogeneration system

  10. Exploring domestic micro-cogeneration in the Netherlands: An agent-based demand model for technology diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, Albert; Valente, Marco; Janssen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration (micro-CHP) is a new technology at the household level, producing electricity in cogeneration with domestic heating, thereby increasing the overall efficiency of domestic energy production. We have developed a prototypical agent-based simulation model for energy technologies competing for demand at the consumer level. The model is specifically geared towards the competition between micro-CHP and incumbent condensing boilers. In the model, both technologies compete on purchase price and costs of usage, to which various (types of) consumers decide on the installation of either technology. Simulations with various gas and electricity prices show that micro-CHP diffusion could be seriously inhibited if demand for natural gas decreases, e.g. due to insulation measures. Further simulations explore various subsidy schemes. A subsidy for purchase is only found to be effective within a limited range of Euro 1400-3250. A subsidy based on decreasing price difference between the competing technologies is much more cost effective than fixed purchase subsidies. Simulations of a subsidy scheme for usage show that a fast market penetration can be reached, but this does not yet take full advantage of technological progress in terms of decreasing CO 2 emissions. Selection of the most effective scheme thus depends on the policy criteria assumed.

  11. District heating and co-generation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, Franc; Pecaric, Marko; Perovic, Olgica

    2000-01-01

    Recent development of district heating systems, gasification and co-generation processes in local communities in Slovenia as well as current status, potentials, possibilities and plans for further development in this sphere are presented. The current status presents energy production, distribution and use in district heating systems and in local gas distribution networks. An analysis of the energy and power generated and distributed in district power systems, made with regard to the size of the system, fuel used, type of consumers and the way of production, is given. Growth in different areas of local power systems in the period of last years is included. Potentials in the sphere of electrical energy and heat co-generation were assessed. Some possibilities and experience in heat energy storage are given and trends and plans for further development are introduced. (Authors)

  12. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  13. APPLICATION OF NEOTAME IN CATCHUP: DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPES AND SENSORY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. C. BANNWART

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In the present study, fi ve prototypes of catchup were developed, using the sweetener Neotame (NTM as a total or partial replacer for sucrose. Initially, the ideal sweetness of NTM in this application was determined using just-about-right scale. Then, difference and preference tests were carried out to verify the effects of the substitution of sucrose by NTM, at different levels. Time-intensity studies were also performed for the attributes sweetness and tomato fl avor. The results showed that the ideal sweetness of NTM in catchup as the only sweetener is around 9.33 ppm. The substitution of sucrose for NTM is only signifi cantly perceived for the prototypes sweetened with 25:75 sucrose:NTM and 100% NTM, which were the only ones that were less preferred than the control (100% sucrose. The time-intensity studies confi rmed that the prototypes containing combinations of sucrose and NTM are similar in terms of sweetness perception, independently of the proportions. Based on the results, it was concluded that NTM is a suitable sweetener for catchup, in reducedsugar versions, as it can replace up to 50% of sucrose without negative effects on the product´s sensory properties.

  14. Development and test of the readout system for the CBM-MVD prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovic, Borislav; Neuman, Bertram; Wiebusch, Michael; Amar-Youcef, Samir; Froehlich, Ingo; Stroth, Joachim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration; CBM-MVD Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The CBM Experiment at FAIR aims towards better understanding of the QCD phase-diagram and in-medium properties of matter under high densities. In order to enhance the detection of rare probes via their secondary decay vertices and to support the primary tracking system, the CBM Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) is foreseen. Recently, the MVD Prototype has been developed at the IKF in Frankfurt. The module contains one quarter of the first MVD station featuring four prototype-sensors MIMOSA-26 AHR thinned down to 50 μ m. The prototype has been tested at the CERN SPS accelerator with high energetic pions in November 2012. This contribution discusses the stability and scalability of the DAQ, slow-control and monitoring routines during the beamtime, as well as sensor behavior under high load of up to 700 000 particles per second. The readout system partially uses hardware from the HADES detector which will also run at FAIR. Readout rates of 98 MB/s at the limit of gigabit ethernet have been achieved showing no sign of data loss or corruption.

  15. Development and characterization of a coronary polylactic acid stent prototype generated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Christian; Vogt, Felix; Höges, Simon; Jauer, Lucas; Borinski, Mauricio; Schulte, Vera A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Meiners, Wilhelm; Jobmann, Monika; Wissenbach, Konrad; Blindt, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In-stent restenosis is still an important issue and stent thrombosis is an unresolved risk after coronary intervention. Biodegradable stents would provide initial scaffolding of the stenosed segment and disappear subsequently. The additive manufacturing technology Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables rapid, parallel, and raw material saving generation of complex 3- dimensional structures with extensive geometric freedom and is currently in use in orthopedic or dental applications. Here, SLM process parameters were adapted for poly-L-lactid acid (PLLA) and PLLA-co-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) powders to generate degradable coronary stent prototypes. Biocompatibility of both polymers was evidenced by assessment of cell morphology and of metabolic and adhesive activity at direct and indirect contact with human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells. γ-sterilization was demonstrated to guarantee safety of SLM-processed parts. From PLLA and PCL, stent prototypes were successfully generated and post-processing by spray- and dip-coating proved to thoroughly smoothen stent surfaces. In conclusion, for the first time, biodegradable polymers and the SLM technique were combined for the manufacturing of customized biodegradable coronary artery stent prototypes. SLM is advocated for the development of biodegradable coronary PLLA and PCL stents, potentially optimized for future bifurcation applications.

  16. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Canadian income tax laws that apply to cogeneration projects was presented. Certain tax considerations could be taken into account in deciding upon ownership and financing structures for cogeneration projects, particularly those that qualify for class 43.1 capital cost allowance treatment. The tax treatment of project revenues and expenses were described. The paper also reviewed the 1999 federal budget proposals regarding the manufacturing and processing tax credit, the capital cost allowance system applicable to cogeneration assets and the treatment of the Canadian renewable conservation expense

  17. Development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system suitable for use in zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.

  18. Prototype development or multi-cavity ion chamber for depth dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, M.K.; Sahu, T.K.; Haridas, G.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R.M.; Nandedkar, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    In high energy electron accelerators, when the electrons interact with vacuum chamber or surrounding structural material, Bremsstrahlung x-rays are produced. It is having a broad spectrum extending up to the electron energies. Dose measured as a function of depth due to electromagnetic cascade will give rise to depth dose curve. To measure the online depth dose profile in an absorber medium, when high energy electron or Bremsstrahlung is incident, a prototype Multi-Cavity Ion Chamber (MCIC) detector is developed. The paper describes the design and development of the MCIC for measurement of depth dose profile

  19. Development of a Prototype Robotic System for Radiosurgery with Upper Hemispherical Workspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Noh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a specialized robotic system under development for radiosurgery using a small-sized linear accelerator. The robotic system is a 5-DOF manipulator that can be installed above a patient to make an upper hemispherical workspace centered in a target point. In order to determine the optimal lengths of the link, we consider the requirements for the workspace of a linear accelerator for radiosurgery. A more suitable kinematic structure than conventional industrial manipulators is proposed, and the kinematic analysis is also provided. A graphic simulator is implemented and used for dynamic analysis. Based on those results, a prototype manipulator and its control system are under development.

  20. Development of a prototype gamma camera (Aladin) for use in decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbard, G.; Carcreff, H.

    1995-01-01

    Mapping the gamma activity of irradiating zones is often an important prerequisite in dismantling nuclear facilities. This operation is necessary to define a suitable decommissioning strategy before any work begins; it is also required during the procedure to measure the residual activity wherever dose rates are too high to allow human intervention. This paper summarizes the work carried out develop a prototype imaging system designed to display radioactive sources superimposed in real time over a visible light image on a video monitor. This project was developed from an earlier off-line system. (authors). 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Metamorphoses of cogeneration-based district heating in Romania: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacobescu, Flavius; Badescu, Viorel

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. - Research Highlights: →Birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating system in a medium size city. →The industrialization degree is the main factor which controlled the reconfiguration of the district heating system. →Each stage of the evolution of district heating system has been a technological leap. →Cogeneration is a solution for district heating even in case of abrupt social changes.

  2. Cogeneration in Italian agricultural industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfitto, E.; Jacoboni, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the technical, environmental and economical feasibility of an industrial cogeneration system which incorporates combined gas-steam cycles and a biomass/agricultural waste sludge fired fluidized bed combustion system. It cites the suitability of the use of fluidized bed combustion for the combustion of biomass and agricultural waste sludges - high combustion efficiency, uniform and relatively low combustion temperatures (850 C) within the combustion chamber to reduce scaling, reduced nitrogen oxide and micro-pollutant emissions, the possibility to control exhaust gas acidity through the injection of calcium carbonates, the possibility of the contemporaneous feeding of different fuels. Reference is made to test results obtained with an ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) pilot plant fired by vineyard wastes. Attention is given to an analysis of the fuel's physical-chemical characteristics and the resulting flue gas chemical composition and ash characteristics. Comparisons are made with legal release limits

  3. Cogeneration and the regulatory framework of energy law; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der energiewirtschaftliche Ordnungsrahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornehl, Angelika Bettina

    2009-06-15

    The present publication shows that the existing regulatory framework poses numerous impediments to cogeneration plants. This holds especially for industrial operators, but also for municipalities. It has prevented cogeneration from developing its full potential both as an element of competition and as a relief for the environment. Unlike industrial cogeneration plants, those serving the public energy supply at least enjoy the privilege of regional monopoly rights. In today's liberalised electricity market, however, this can be a burden for existing municipal plants which were installed under territorial protection and in many cases have incurred high cost levels and become inflexible and lacking in entrepreneurial spirit as a result. On account of its tendency to promote optimal resource input and efficiency, competition promises positive impulses for the use of cogeneration in small-scale heat grids, where high fuel efficiency matters more. A reform of the competition regime in the power economy would eliminate numerous impediments, particularly for industrial cogeneration operators. Good hopes for the future of cogeneration in a liberalised electricity and gas market are also nurtured by cooperative supply concepts and, within the large domain of services, opportunities held out by special contracting offers.

  4. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacone, M.

    2001-01-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant [it

  5. Full-Scale Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Dillon, Paul; Weaver, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the superior candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. Although a number of design variants were considered, one that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was deemed best for further development. An analysis of test data showed that eight layer stacks of the HoFi sheets that had good exposure on each side of the stack would evaporate water with high efficiency. A design that has 15,000 tubes, with 18 cm of exposed tubes between headers has been built and tested that meets the size, weight, and performance requirements of the SWME. This full-scale prototype consists of 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Testing has been performed to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the sensitivity to surfactants.

  6. Spring Internship 2018 at the Prototype Development Lab: A place of Dreamers and Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Juan F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper covers the role of the design process and the methodology of creating a trophy during my Spring 2018 Internship at the Prototype Development Laboratory at the Kennedy Space Center. In the course of this project I used many new machines and materials while trying to deliver a professional product for a competition that invites college student teams from across the country. The machines covered in this paper include the wood chop saw, CNC mill, water jet, laser engraver, and the 3D printer. This paper also serves as an assembly guide for the trophy.

  7. Prototype Development Capabilities of 3D Spatial Interactions and Failures During Scenario Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  8. The Gravity-Probe-B relativity gyroscope experiment - Development of the prototype flight instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turneaure, J. P.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Parkinson, B. W.; Bardas, D.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity-Probe-B relativity gyroscope experiment (GP-B) will measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precession rates of gyroscopes in a 650 km high polar orbit about the earth. The goal is to measure these two effects, which are predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to 0.01 percent (geodetic) and 1 percent (frame-dragging). This paper presents the development progress for full-size prototype flight hardware including the gyroscopes, gyro readout and magnetic shielding system, and an integrated ground test instrument.

  9. Development of prototype liquid scintillator system for monitoring liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Uk Won; Seon, Kwang Il; Kong, Kyoung Nam; Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Dong Myung; Lee, Sang Kook

    2003-01-01

    A prototype liquid scillatillator system for measurement of multiple beta-labeled mixtures was developed and its characteristic was investigated. The signal processing system consists of two photomultiplier tubes and the coincident count circuit. The characteristic of the system was analyzed using 4 beta-labeled samples ( 3 H, 14 C, 36 Cl and 90 Sr). Beta spectra from the samples were obtained without radiation shielding, and the detection limits for each nuclides were estimated based on the spectra. The estimated detection limits were compared to the legal regulation values. It is found that the liquid radioactive nuclides are detectable well below the legal regulation values

  10. EasyInterface: A toolkit for rapid development of GUIs for research prototype tools

    OpenAIRE

    Doménech, Jesús; Genaim, Samir; Johnsen, Einar Broch; Schlatte, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we describe EasyInterface, an open-source toolkit for rapid development of web-based graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This toolkit addresses the need of researchers to make their research prototype tools available to the community, and integrating them in a common environment, rapidly and without being familiar with web programming or GUI libraries in general. If a tool can be executed from a command-line and its output goes to the standard output, then in few minutes one can m...

  11. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  13. Electricity transport regimes: their impact on cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotard, Erwan [COGEN, Europe (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    In many cases the main product of cogeneration is heat and the surplus electricity is sold to the grid. However, the economics of cogeneration can be influenced by transport networks (transmission and distribution): the structure of network pricing is relatively new. In a recent note from COGEN Europe it was recommended that cogenerators who use only the local distribution system should not pay for the transmission system and that tariffs should be structured in sufficient detail for the advantages of decentralisation to be realised. The article is presented under the sub-headings of (i) why is this important? (the omission of the transmission element reduces the overall price of cogeneration); (ii) the advantages of decentralised cogeneration; (iv) the theory - the different systems (the European Directive on electricity market liberalization); (v) the options for transport fees; (vi) current regimes in some EU states (vii) the case of transborder transport; impact of each system on cogeneration; recommendations to policymakers; (viii) the Netherlands and (ix) the UK.

  14. Developments towards the technical design and prototype evaluation of the anti PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etzelmueller, Erik

    2017-04-15

    The envisaged physics program of the PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at Darmstadt) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) requires excellent particle identification over the full solid angle. The Endcap Disc DIRC (EDD) will cover forward polar angles between 5 and 22 and is one of three dedicated subdetectors for the identification of charged hadrons and the separation of pions and kaons in particular. DIRC stands for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light and implies that the emitted Cherenkov photons are trapped inside the radiator by total internal reflection. The central part of each DIRC detector is its optical system which is responsible for a low-loss and angle-preserving transport of the Cherenkov photons. The work at hand experimentally addresses several objectives in connection with the optical components and the system as a whole. Radiator prototypes were evaluated with high precision and adapted specifications were identified based on the results. The imaging performance of the Focusing Elements (FELs) was verified and different options regarding the coupling of the individual components were evaluated. In addition a radiation hardness study of a new fused silica material provided an insight into the long term behavior of induced defects and confirmed the material to be suitable for high energy physics experiments. A conceptual design for the mechanical integration was developed featuring a rigid optical system which is mounted into a cross-like structure. In this context the spatial constrains for the holding structure and the FELs were identified and an assembly procedure was developed. The existing prototype was revised and newly developed concepts were integrated and tested. Furthermore a data analysis of an earlier prototype test at a mixed hadron beam at CERN was carried out. It was the first evaluation of an EDD prototype which consisted of optical components made of fused silica only and had highly

  15. Additionality in projects of clean development mechanisms (CDM) and cogeneration in Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; Adicionalidade em projetos de MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) e a cogeracao no setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Rodrigo Marcelo; Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduaccao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), the resulting intensification of the greenhouse effect and its relation with climate change, have been pointed out as serious global problem. For this reason, the Kyoto Protocol was established, within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the objective of setting up directives and goals to the stabilization and reduction of GHG emissions. In its Article 12, the Kyoto Protocol institutes the Clean Development Mechanism, an important flexibility instrument to Annex 1 Parties in achieving their emission reduction targets through project implementation in developing countries (non-Annex 1 Parties), promoting Sustainable Development and incurring and lesser costs of emission reductions. Any project, to be qualified within the Clean Development Mechanism, must fulfill the eligibility criterions fixed by the Kyoto Protocol, which are: promotion of Sustainable Development and assurance of the project additionality. In Brazil, the sugarcane industry is a promising opportunity of developing these kind of projects, specially by means of the cogeneration from sugarcane residues. This paper analyses the Additionality of this sort of projects, in the light of the criterions defined by the UNFCCC, with special attention to the two Brazilian cases registered in the CDM Methodologies Panel. (author)

  16. Development work for the manufacture of a blanket shield prototype for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boireau, B.; Boudot, C.; Cottin, A.; Lorenzetto, P.; Jacquinot, F.; Bucci, P.; Gillia, O.; Vidotto, F.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the blanket development for ITER, an R-and-D programme was implemented for the manufacture of a shield prototype by powder Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPping). The shield consists of a Stainless steel forged block drilled and machined, at the back of which 3D bent tubes are HIPped inside a powder layer. This paper describes the development work through the manufacturing of several mock ups that leads us to be confident for the shield prototype manufacturing. The paper is divided into 2 parts, the first one related to the machining development and validation, the second one relating to the HIP development and validation. A partial full scale mock up for the machining development (machined PFSMU) was manufactured with no particular problems, all the main identified difficulties in machining like deep drilling and castellation machining where overcome and the mock up was conform to the specification. The manufacturing of a HIPped PFSMU for the HIP development was done after the manufacturing of smaller mock-ups each representing a particular detailed design point. A computer simulation work gave us some design recommendation, and the compared analysis of the numerical simulation and experimental results lead us to predict the distortions on the PFSMU HIPped mock up. The HIPped distortions that were the main uncertainty were assessed through small mock ups and bigger one. The mechanical characteristics of the joints are conform to the specification. Associated to the mock up manufacturing is the ultrasonic test development which consists in designing and manufacturing a miniaturized probe travelling inside the bent tube after the HIP cycle to examine the joint tube / powder among others. This ultrasonic development allowed the examination of the HIPped PFSMU mock up that concluded this development work. (author)

  17. Optimum design of cogeneration system for nuclear seawater desalination - 15272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.H.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    A nuclear desalination process, which uses the energy released by nuclear fission, has less environmental impact and is generally cost-competitive with a fossil-fuel desalination process. A reference cogeneration system focused on in this study is the APR-1400 coupled with a MED (multi-effect distillation) process using the thermal vapor compression (TVC) technology. The thermal condition of the heat source is the most crucial factor that determines the desalination performance, i.e. energy consumption or freshwater production, of the MED-TVC process. The MED-TVC process operating at a higher motive steam pressure clearly shows a higher desalination performance. However, this increased performance does not necessarily translate to an advantage over processes operated at lower motive steam pressures. For instance, a higher motive steam pressure will increase the heat cost resulting from larger electricity generation loss, and thus may make this process unfavorable from an economic point of view. Therefore, there exists an optimum design point in the coupling configuration that makes the nuclear cogeneration system the most economical. This study is mainly aimed at investigating this optimum coupling design point of the reference nuclear cogeneration system using corresponding analysis tools. The following tools are used: MEE developed by the MEDRC for desalination performance analysis of the MED-TVC process, DE-TOP and DEEP developed by the IAEA for modeling of coupling configuration and economic evaluation of the nuclear cogeneration system, respectively. The results indicate that steam extraction from the MS exhaust and condensate return to HP FWHTR 5 is the most economical coupling design

  18. The development of an autonomous rendezvous and docking simulation using rapid integration and prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, John H.; Saugen, John D.; Wurst, Michael J.; Adler, James

    1991-01-01

    A generic planar 3 degree of freedom simulation was developed that supports hardware in the loop simulations, guidance and control analysis, and can directly generate flight software. This simulation was developed in a small amount of time utilizing rapid prototyping techniques. The approach taken to develop this simulation tool, the benefits seen using this approach to development, and on-going efforts to improve and extend this capability are described. The simulation is composed of 3 major elements: (1) Docker dynamics model, (2) Dockee dynamics model, and (3) Docker Control System. The docker and dockee models are based on simple planar orbital dynamics equations using a spherical earth gravity model. The docker control system is based on a phase plane approach to error correction.

  19. Brain-muscle-computer interface: mobile-phone prototype development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Scott; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2011-07-01

    We report prototype development and testing of a new mobile-phone-based brain-muscle-computer interface for severely paralyzed persons, based on previous results from our group showing that humans may actively create specified power levels in two separate frequency bands of a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. EMG activity on the surface of a single face muscle site (auricularis superior) is recorded with a standard electrode. This analog electrical signal is imported into an Android-based mobile phone and digitized via an internal A/D converter. The digital signal is split, and then simultaneously filtered with two band-pass filters to extract total power within two separate frequency bands. The user-modulated power in each frequency band serves as two separate control channels for machine control. After signal processing, the Android phone sends commands to external devices via a Bluetooth interface. Users are trained to use the device via visually based operant conditioning, with simple cursor-to-target activities on the phone screen. The mobile-phone prototype interface is formally evaluated on a single advanced Spinal Muscle Atrophy subject, who has successfully used the interface in his home in evaluation trials and for remote control of a television. Development of this new device will not only guide future interface design for community use, but will also serve as an information technology bridge for in situ data collection to quantify human sEMG manipulation abilities for a relevant population.

  20. Development of prototype induced-fission-based Pu accountancy instrument for safeguards applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee; Lee, Seung Kyu; An, Su Jung; Park, Se-Hwan; Ku, Jeong-Hoe; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; LaFleur, Adrienne M; Browne, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Prototype safeguards instrument for nuclear material accountancy (NMA) of uranium/transuranic (U/TRU) products that could be produced in a future advanced PWR fuel processing facility has been developed and characterized. This is a new, hybrid neutron measurement system based on fast neutron energy multiplication (FNEM) and passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR) methods. The FNEM method is sensitive to the induced fission rate by fast neutrons, while the PNAR method is sensitive to the induced fission rate by thermal neutrons in the sample to be measured. The induced fission rate is proportional to the total amount of fissile material, especially plutonium (Pu), in the U/TRU product; hence, the Pu amount can be calibrated as a function of the induced fission rate, which can be measured using either the FNEM or PNAR method. In the present study, the prototype system was built using six (3)He tubes, and its performance was evaluated for various detector parameters including high-voltage (HV) plateau, efficiency profiles, dead time, and stability. The system's capability to measure the difference in the average neutron energy for the FNEM signature also was evaluated, using AmLi, PuBe, (252)Cf, as well as four Pu-oxide sources each with a different impurity (Al, F, Mg, and B) and producing (α,n) neutrons with different average energies. Future work will measure the hybrid signature (i.e., FNEM×PNAR) for a Pu source with an external interrogating neutron source after enlarging the cavity size of the prototype system to accommodate a large-size Pu source (~600g Pu). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiviral Information Management System (AIMS): a prototype for operational innovation in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Pravin R; Neal, Lauren; Florian, Jeff; Chen, Ying; Naeger, Lisa; Robertson, Sarah; Soon, Guoxing; Birnkrant, Debra

    2010-09-01

    This article presents a prototype for an operational innovation in knowledge management (KM). These operational innovations are geared toward managing knowledge efficiently and accessing all available information by embracing advances in bioinformatics and allied fields. The specific components of the proposed KM system are (1) a database to archive hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment data in a structured format and retrieve information in a query-capable manner and (2) an automated analysis tool to inform trial design elements for HCV drug development. The proposed framework is intended to benefit drug development by increasing efficiency of dose selection and improving the consistency of advice from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is also hoped that the framework will encourage collaboration among FDA, industry, and academic scientists to guide the HCV drug development process using model-based quantitative analysis techniques.

  2. A Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); McKeown, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Zimmerman, Gregory P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology (MYRP) presents a strategy for specifying, designing, testing, and demonstrating the efficacy of standard modular hydropower (SMH) as an environmentally compatible and cost-optimized renewable electricity generation technology. The MYRP provides the context, background, and vision for testing the SMH hypothesis: if standardization, modularity, and preservation of stream functionality become essential and fully realized features of hydropower technology, project design, and regulatory processes, they will enable previously unrealized levels of new project development with increased acceptance, reduced costs, increased predictability of outcomes, and increased value to stakeholders. To achieve success in this effort, the MYRP outlines a framework of stakeholder-validated criteria, models, design tools, testing facilities, and assessment protocols that will facilitate the development of next-generation hydropower technologies.

  3. Experimental analysis of micro-cogeneration units based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Possidente, R.; Sibilio, S. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipartimento di Storia e Processi dell' ambiente Antropizzato (DiSPAMA), Borgo San Lorenzo, Aversa, CE (Italy); Roselli, C.; Sasso, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, Benevento (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The cogeneration, or the combined production of electric and/or mechanical and thermal energy, is a well-established technology now, which has important environmental benefits and has been noted by the European Community as one of the first elements to save primary energy, to avoid network losses and to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, our interest will be focused on the micro-cogeneration, MCHP (electric power up to 15 kW), which represents a valid and interesting application of this technology which refers, above all, to residential and light commercial users [M. Dentice d'Accadia, M. Sasso, S. Sibilio, Cogeneration for energy saving in household applications, in: P. Bertoldi, A. Ricci, A. de Almeida (Eds.), Energy Efficiency in Household Appliances and Lighting, Springer, Berlin, 2001, pp. 210-221; Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on the useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC, Official Journal of the European Union (2004)]. In particular, our work group started a R and D programme on micro-cogeneration in 1995: a laboratory, equipped with the most common appliances (washing-machine, dishwasher, storage water heater, ...), has been built and some MCHP prototypes have been tested too. In this article, the results of an intense experimental activity on three different micro-cogenerators, one of them made in Japan and in a pre-selling phase, are reported. In a previous paper a detailed analysis of the test facility, with the description of the equipment and the data acquisition systems, can be found [M. Dentice d'Accadia, M. Sasso, S. Sibilio, R. Vanoli, Micro-combined heat and power in residential and light commercial applications, Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 1247-1259]. A typical 3-E (Energetic, Economic and Environmental) approach has been performed to compare the proposed energy system

  4. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  5. Development of a Prototype System for Archiving Integrative/Hybrid Structure Models of Biological Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Brinda; Webb, Benjamin; Westbrook, John D; Sali, Andrej; Berman, Helen M

    2018-04-09

    Essential processes in biology are carried out by large macromolecular assemblies, whose structures are often difficult to determine by traditional methods. Increasingly, researchers combine measured data and computed information from several complementary methods to obtain "hybrid" or "integrative" structural models of macromolecules and their assemblies. These integrative/hybrid (I/H) models are not archived in the PDB because of the absence of standard data representations and processing mechanisms. Here we present the development of data standards and a prototype system for archiving I/H models. The data standards provide the definitions required for representing I/H models that span multiple spatiotemporal scales and conformational states, as well as spatial restraints derived from different experimental techniques. Based on these data definitions, we have built a prototype system called PDB-Dev, which provides the infrastructure necessary to archive I/H structural models. PDB-Dev is now accepting structures and is open to the community for new submissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Harnessing scientific literature reports for pharmacovigilance. Prototype software analytical tool development and usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, Alfred; Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-03-22

    We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers' capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. All usability test participants cited the tool's ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool's automated literature search relative to a manual 'all fields' PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction.

  7. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  8. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  10. Development of a prototype Typhoon Risk Model over the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Y.; Cocke, S.; Shin, D. W.; CHOI, M.; Kwon, J.

    2016-12-01

    Risk can be defined as probability of a given hazard of a given level causing a particular level of loss of damage (Alexander, 2000). Risk management is important for mitigation and developing plans for emergencies. More effective risk management strategies can help reduce potential losses from natural disasters like typhoon, floods, earthquakes, and so on. We are developing a prototype typhoon risk model to assess the current and potentially future hazard due to typhoons in the Western Pacific. To develop the typhoon risk model, a variety of sources of data over Korea are used such as population, damage to buildings, agriculture, ships, etc. The model is based on proven concepts used in catastrophe models that have been used in the U.S. and other regions of the world. Recently, the sea surface temperatures where typhoons have occurred have tended to increase. According to recent studies of global warming, the intensity of typhoons could increase, and the frequency of typhoons may decrease in the future climate. The prototype risk model can help us determine the change in risk as a consequence of the change in typhoon activity. We focus on Korea and other regions of interest to Korean insurers, re-insurers, and related industries. The model can potentially be coupled to various damage models or emergency management systems for planning and mitigation. In addition, the assessment would be useful for emergency planners, coastal community planners, and private and governmental insurance programs. This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA2016-8030.

  11. Prototype Development of a Tradespace Analysis Tool for Spaceflight Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik L; Mulcahy, Robert A; Rubin, David; Blue, Rebecca S; Canga, Michael A; Shah, Ronak

    2018-02-01

    The provision of medical care in exploration-class spaceflight is limited by mass, volume, and power constraints, as well as limitations of available skillsets of crewmembers. A quantitative means of exploring the risks and benefits of inclusion or exclusion of onboard medical capabilities may help to inform the development of an appropriate medical system. A pilot project was designed to demonstrate the utility of an early tradespace analysis tool for identifying high-priority resources geared toward properly equipping an exploration mission medical system. Physician subject matter experts identified resources, tools, and skillsets required, as well as associated criticality scores of the same, to meet terrestrial, U.S.-specific ideal medical solutions for conditions concerning for exploration-class spaceflight. A database of diagnostic and treatment actions and resources was created based on this input and weighed against the probabilities of mission-specific medical events to help identify common and critical elements needed in a future exploration medical capability. Analysis of repository data demonstrates the utility of a quantitative method of comparing various medical resources and skillsets for future missions. Directed database queries can provide detailed comparative estimates concerning likelihood of resource utilization within a given mission and the weighted utility of tangible and intangible resources. This prototype tool demonstrates one quantitative approach to the complex needs and limitations of an exploration medical system. While this early version identified areas for refinement in future version development, more robust analysis tools may help to inform the development of a comprehensive medical system for future exploration missions.Antonsen EL, Mulcahy RA, Rubin D, Blue RS, Canga MA, Shah R. Prototype development of a tradespace analysis tool for spaceflight medical resources. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):108-114.

  12. CANDU co-generation opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Duffey, R.B.; Pendergast, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Modern technology makes use of natural energy 'wealth' (uranium) to produce useful energy 'currency' (electricity) that can be used to society's benefit. This energy currency can be further applied to help solve a difficult problem faced by mankind. Within the next few years we must reduce our use of the same fuels which have made many countries wealthy - fossil fuels. Fortunately, electricity can be called upon to produce another currency, namely hydrogen, which has some distinct advantages. Unlike electricity, hydrogen can be stored and can be recovered for later use as fuel. It also is extremely useful in chemical processes and refining. To achieve the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions hydrogen must, of course, be produced using a method which does not emit such gases. This paper summarizes four larger studies carried out in Canada in the past few years. From these results we conclude that there are several significant opportunities to use nuclear fission for various co-generation technologies that can lead to more appropriate use of energy resources and to reduced emissions. (author)

  13. Development and prototype testing of MgCl 2 /graphite foam latent heat thermal energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Yu, Wenhua; Zhao, Weihuan; Kim, Taeil; France, David M.; Smith, Roger K.

    2018-01-01

    Composites of graphite foam infiltrated with a magnesium chloride phase-change material have been developed as high-temperature thermal energy storage media for concentrated solar power applications. This storage medium provides a high thermal energy storage density, a narrow operating temperature range, and excellent heat transfer characteristics. In this study, experimental investigations were conducted on laboratory-scale prototypes with magnesium chloride/graphite foam composite as the latent heat thermal energy storage system. Prototypes were designed and built to monitor the melt front movement during the charging/discharging tests. A test loop was built to ensure the charging/discharging of the prototypes at temperatures > 700 degrees C. Repeated thermal cycling experiments were carried out on the fabricated prototypes, and the experimental temperature profiles were compared to the predicted results from numerical simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the simulations to validate the thermal models.

  14. Five-Factor Model personality disorder prototypes: a review of their development, validity, and comparison to alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    In this article, the development of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) prototypes for the assessment of DSM-IV PDs are reviewed, as well as subsequent procedures for scoring individuals' FFM data with regard to these PD prototypes, including similarity scores and simple additive counts that are based on a quantitative prototype matching methodology. Both techniques, which result in very strongly correlated scores, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity, and provide clinically useful information with regard to various forms of functioning. The techniques described here for use with FFM data are quite different from the prototype matching methods used elsewhere. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low-Cost Rescue Robot for Disaster Management in a Developing Country: Development of a Prototype Using Locally Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair

    2010-01-01

    The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.

  16. Design, development, and validation of a segment support actuator for the prototype segmented mirror telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Prasanna Gajanan; Mandal, Amaresh; Parihar, Padmakar S.; Nayak, Dayananda; Mishra, Deepta Sundar

    2018-01-01

    Segmented mirror telescopes (SMT) are built using several small hexagonal mirrors positioned and aligned by the three actuators and six edge sensors per segment to maintain the shape of the primary mirror. The actuators are responsible for maintaining and tracking the mirror segments to the desired position, in the presence of external disturbances introduced by wind, vibration, gravity, and temperature. The present paper describes our effort to develop a soft actuator and the actuator controller for prototype SMT at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The actuator designed, developed, and validated is a soft actuator based on the voice coil motor and flexural elements. It is designed for the range of travel of ±1.5 mm and the force range of 25 N along with an offloading mechanism to reduce the power consumption. A precision controller using a programmable system on chip (PSoC 5Lp) and a customized drive board has also been developed for this actuator. The close loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented in the PSoC gets position feedback from a high-resolution linear optical encoder. The optimum PID gains are derived using relay tuning method. In the laboratory, we have conducted several experiments to test the performance of the prototype soft actuator as well as the controller. We could achieve 5.73- and 10.15-nm RMS position errors in the steady state as well as tracking with a constant speed of 350 nm/s, respectively. We also present the outcome of various performance tests carried out when off-loader is in action as well as the actuator is subjected to dynamic wind loading.

  17. Semi-catalyzed deuterium reactors for co-generation of 3He and synfuels (the CoSCD concept)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential of developing semi-catalyzed deuterium reactors for co-generation of 3 He and synthetic fuels is discussed. Such factors as environmental impact, siting, energy basics, and engineering technology are also discussed

  18. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  19. Towards an intermittency-friendly energy system: Comparing electric boilers and heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blarke, Morten B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an “intermittency-friendly” energy system design. ► We compare intermittency-friendly concepts in distributed cogeneration. ► We investigate a new concept involving a heat pump and intermediate cold storage. ► We find significant improvements in operational intermittency-friendliness. ► Well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers. -- Abstract: Distributed cogeneration has played a key role in the implementation of sustainable energy policies for three decades. However, increasing penetration levels of intermittent renewables is challenging that position. The paradigmatic case of West Denmark indicates that distributed operators are capitulating as wind power penetration levels are moving above 25%; some operators are retiring cogeneration units entirely, while other operators are making way for heat-only boilers. This development is jeopardizing the system-wide energy, economic, and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration still has to offer. The solution is for distributed operators to adapt their technology and operational strategies to achieve a better co-existence between cogeneration and wind power. Four options for doing so are analysed including a new concept that integrates a high pressure compression heat pump using low-temperature heat recovered from flue gasses in combination with an intermediate cold storage, which enables the independent operation of heat pump and cogenerator. It is found that an electric boiler provides consistent improvements in the intermittency-friendliness of distributed cogeneration. However, well-designed heat pump concepts are more cost-effective than electric boilers, and in future markets where the gas/electricity price ratio is likely to increase, compression heat pumps in combination with intermediate thermal storages represent a superior potential for combining an intermittency-friendly pattern of operation with the efficient use of

  20. Research and development of a NYNEX switched multi-megabit data service prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, K. H.; Haines, Robert; Chatterjee, Samir

    1991-02-01

    Switched Multi-megabit Data Service (SMDS) is a proposed high-speed packet-switched service which will support broadband applications such as Local Area Network (LAN) interconnections across a metropolitan area and beyond. This service is designed to take advantage of evolving Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standards and technology which will provide customers with 45-mbps and 1 . 5-mbps access to high-speed public data communications networks. This paper will briefly discuss SMDS and review its architecture including the Subscriber Network Interface (SNI) and the SMDS Interface Protocol (SIP). It will review the fundamental features of SMDS such as address screening addressing scheme and access classes. Then it will describe the SMDS prototype system developed in-house by NYNEX Science Technology.

  1. Practice of knowledge management in Prototype and Plant Development Center (PDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Rapieh Aminuddin; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2007-01-01

    As reflecting the evolvement and movement of world economy direction, Malaysia move one step a head towards knowledge based economy (K-Economy). The movement indirectly changes the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) environment to contribute to the K-Economy in the field of science and technology. Therefore, the practice of knowledge management is slowly introduced to the Nuclear Malaysia community to support the K-Economy. This paper describes the detail of the practice of knowledge management at macro and micro level in an organization. The Prototype and Plant Development Center(PDC) under the Technical Support Division, Technical Service Program has been chosen to be the case study in implementing the practice of knowledge management in Nuclear Malaysia. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the right practice of Knowledge management in an organization and PDC as among the first case for this purpose. (Author)

  2. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  3. A Study on the Effects of Heavy Backpack and Development of a Preventative Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. A. Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posture is a bigger concern than most think. With growing workload for school children, the weight of this issue is increasing every day. It can not only affect a child in the present but also have long-term effects on their body and render their spine vulnerable to injuries. Therefore the solutions can be either to decrease their workload, that is, decrease the weight of their backpack, or to constantly guide them to a better posture for the betterment of their spinal shape and thus their health. The aim of this paper is to find which part of the spine is affected the most by the heavy load and develop a prototype: a monitoring system that is effective in guiding a child to constantly keep their posture in check and is also simple enough to be worn every day.

  4. Development of prototype luminosity detector modules for future experiments on linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081248; Idzik, Marek

    The main objective of this dissertation is to develop and validate the prototype module of the LumiCal luminosity detector. The dissertation presents the works executed from the first detector concept, through all subsequent R&D stages, ending with the test beam results obtained using the complete detector module. Firstly, the linear electron positron colliders and planned experiments are introduced, together with their role in our understanding of the basis of matter and sensing for the New Physics. The signal extraction from radiation sensors and further signal processing techniques are discussed in chapter 2. Besides the commonly accepted techniques of amplitude and time measurements, a novel readout implementation, utilizing digital signal processing and deconvolution principle, is proposed, and its properties are analyzed in details. The architecture, design, and measurements of the LumiCal readout chain components are presented in chapter 3. A dedicated test setups prepared for their parameterizatio...

  5. Chapter 43: Assessment of NE Greenland: Prototype for development of Circum-ArcticResource Appraisal methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, D.L.; Stemmerik, L.; Christiansen, F.G.; Sorensen, K.; Bidstrup, T.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J. A.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Geological features of NE Greenland suggest large petroleum potential, as well as high uncertainty and risk. The area was the prototype for development of methodology used in the US Geological Survey (USGS) Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA), and was the first area evaluated. In collaboration with the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), eight "assessment units" (AU) were defined, six of which were probabilistically assessed. The most prospective areas are offshore in the Danmarkshavn Basin. This study supersedes a previous USGS assessment, from which it differs in several important respects: oil estimates are reduced and natural gas estimates are increased to reflect revised understanding of offshore geology. Despite the reduced estimates, the CARA indicates that NE Greenland may be an important future petroleum province. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  6. Development of a cutter-chipper prototype for tree stands; Pystypuuston katkaisuhakettimen proto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polus, P [Tmi P. Polus, Raahe (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Collection of chips and energy wood with conventional methods involves too many operations and hence results in a too high price of chips. The aim of the project was to develop a cutter-chipper suitable for chipping energy and pulp wood from tree stands. This equipment cuts and chips growing trees with branches and tops at site. Many stages involved in chipping would be eliminated and hence the price of chips would be more competitive, for example, with that of peat. In preliminary experiments, the prototype operated as expected. The product chips were homogeneous, did not contain long fractions or branch bits, and the chip size was. The chips were moved into the container by a conveyor. The sale of manufacturing rights for the equipment is under consideration. (orig.)

  7. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarenko, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  8. Development and testing of prototype alpha waste incinerator off-gas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, E.J.; Becker, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    A test program is in progress at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to confirm and develop incinerator design technology for an SRP production Alpha Waste Incinerator (AWI) to be built in the mid-1980's. The Incinerator Components Test Facility (ICTF) is a full-scale (5 kg/h), electrically heated, controlled-air prototype incinerator built to burn nonradioactive solid waste. The incinerator has been operating successfully at SRL since March 1979 and has met or exceeded all design criteria. During the first 1-1/2 years of operation, liquid scrubbers were used to remove particulates and hydrochloric acid from the incinerator exhaust gases. A dry off-gas system is currently being tested to provide data to Savannah River Plant's proposed AWI

  9. Report on Performance of Prototype Dynatronix Power Supplies Developed Under a Phase I DOE SBIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Merriman, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prototype power supplies fabricated by Dynatronix, Inc. This project supports the advancement of electroforming capabilities to produce ultra-high purity copper. Ultra-high purity copper is an essential material used for a range of current and future fundamental nuclear physics programs such as the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The Mach 30 power supplies are a new design built to the specifications from the requirements of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with regard to timing, voltage, current output, and the required tolerances. The parameters used in these tests were developed empirically over a number of years based on a combination of thermodynamic and kinetics of the electroplating process. The power supplies were operated in a typical cleanroom environment for the production electroforming at PNNL. The units that were received by PNNL in July, 2010 have performed satisfactorily and have demonstrated short term durability.

  10. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  11. Recent developments with a prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. G.; Jirasek, A.; Wells, D.

    2013-06-01

    The latest design of a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner is presented. A new beam creation system consists of a 635 nm laser diode module with variable, DC voltage-controlled beam intensity. A change in scanner alignment allows for the elimination of ring artefacts caused by data corruption that is spaced symmetrically across the detector array. These artefacts, as well as a pair of streaking artefacts caused by flask seams, are removed in sinogram space. A flask registration technique has been developed that allows for accurate, reproducible dosimeter placement. Protocol investigations with gel dosimeters have indicated the importance of: i) proper cooling techniques during gel manufacture, and ii) scanning the dosimeter while it is at room temperature. Latest reconstructions of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter are presented as an indicator of current system performance.

  12. Recent developments with a prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W G; Jirasek, A; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The latest design of a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner is presented. A new beam creation system consists of a 635 nm laser diode module with variable, DC voltage-controlled beam intensity. A change in scanner alignment allows for the elimination of ring artefacts caused by data corruption that is spaced symmetrically across the detector array. These artefacts, as well as a pair of streaking artefacts caused by flask seams, are removed in sinogram space. A flask registration technique has been developed that allows for accurate, reproducible dosimeter placement. Protocol investigations with gel dosimeters have indicated the importance of: i) proper cooling techniques during gel manufacture, and ii) scanning the dosimeter while it is at room temperature. Latest reconstructions of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter are presented as an indicator of current system performance.

  13. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-01

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  14. Development of a low-cost, 11 µm spectral domain optical coherence tomography surface profilometry prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliali, Nyasha J.; Baricholo, Peter; Neethling, Pieter H.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2017-06-01

    A spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) surface profilometry prototype has been developed for the purpose of surface metrology of optical elements. The prototype consists of a light source, spectral interferometer, sample fixture and software currently running on Microsoft® Windows platforms. In this system, a broadband light emitting diode beam is focused into a Michelson interferometer with a plane mirror as its sample fixture. At the interferometer output, spectral interferograms of broadband sources were measured using a Czerny-Turner mount monochromator with a 2048-element complementary metal oxide semiconductor linear array as the detector. The software performs importation and interpolation of interferometer spectra to pre-condition the data for image computation. One dimensional axial OCT images were computed by Fourier transformation of the measured spectra. A first reflection surface profilometry (FRSP) algorithm was then formulated to perform imaging of step-function-surfaced samples. The algorithm re-constructs two dimensional colour-scaled slice images by concatenation of 21 and 13 axial scans to form a 10 mm and 3.0 mm slice respectively. Measured spectral interferograms, computed interference fringe signals and depth reflectivity profiles were comparable to simulations and correlated to displacements of a single reflector linearly translated about the arm null-mismatch point. Surface profile images of a double-step-function-surfaced sample, embedded with inclination and crack detail were plotted with an axial resolution of 11 μm. The surface shape, defects and misalignment relative to the incident beam were detected to the order of a micron, confirming high resolution of the developed system as compared to electro-mechanical surface profilometry techniques.

  15. Development of a prototype for dissolved CO2 rapid measurement and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Guo, Jinjia; Zhang, Zhihao; Luo, Zhao; Qin, Chuan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-01

    The measurements of dissolved CO2 in seawater is of great significance for the study of global carbon cycle. At present, the commercial sensors used for dissolved CO2 measurements are mostly equipped with permeable membranes for the purpose of gas-liquid separation, with the advantages of easy operation, low cost, etc.. However, most of these devices measure CO2 after reaching gas equilibrium, so it takes a few minutes to respond, which limited its applications in rapid measurements. In this paper, a set of prototype was developed for the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2. The system was built basing the direct absorption TDLAS. To detect the CO2 absorption line located at 4991.26 cm-1 , a fiber-coupled DFB laser operating at 2004 nm was selected as the light source. A Herriott type multi-pass cavity with an effective optical path length of 10 m and an inner volume of 90 mL was used for absorption measurements. A detection limit of 26 μatm can be obtained with this compact cavity. To realize the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2, a degasser with high degassing rate was necessary. A hollow fiber membrane with a large permeable area used in this paper can achieve degassing rate up to 2.88 kPa/min. Benefitted from the high degassing rate of the degasser and high sensitivity of the compact TDLAS system, a rapid measurement of dissolved CO2 in water can be achieved within 1s time, and the response time of the prototype when the dissolved CO2 concentration changed abruptly in actual measurement was 15 s. To evaluate the performance of the prototype, comparison measurements were carried out with a commercial mass spectrometer. The dissolved CO2 in both seawater and tap-water was measured, and the experimental results showed good consistent trends with R2 of 0.973 and 0.931. The experimental results proved the feasibility of dissolved CO2 rapid measurement. In the near future, more system evaluation experiments will be carried out and the system will be further

  16. Rapid prototyping systems for the development of new fuel-injection concepts for diesel engines; Einspritz-Prototyping-System zur Entwicklung neuer Einspritzkonzepte bei Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, M. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    The article uses the example of solenoid-based fuel injectors for diesel engines to demonstrate how a combination of reconfigurable logic and microcontrollers may be employed towards the rapid implementation of new control concepts for timely testing either directly on the engine or in the vehicle. Emphasis is given to the development and optimization of electronic engine management components. In contrast to the nonexistent modification options on conventional production ECUs, the new concept allows for the modification and fine-tuning of a number of injection parameters. The rapid prototyping system is a joint development of the Research and Advanced Engineering Department of Robert Bosch GmbH and ETAS GmbH. (orig.)

  17. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  18. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  19. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  20. Applying an empathic design model to gain an understanding of consumers’ cognitive orientations and develop a product prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Bang Luh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Consideration of consumer opinion is a key success factor when it comes to developing a new product. However, businesses may lack suitable methods for this, and designers may lack practical training, with both situations meaning that firms are unable to precisely adopt consumer opinions. Moreover, consumer cognitions for a product are widely regarded as changeable and abstract. It is worth studying how to determine consumers’ opinions and transform them into references for prototype development. The purpose of this study is thus to create an Empathic Design Model which would be able to determine consumer cognitive orientation.Design/methodology/approach: This model includes observing related phenomena, laddering the cognition, connecting the elements of the Associations Matrix, producing the hierarchy of the following four items, attributes, functional consequences, psychosocial consequences and values, and then producing a prototype to help designers and consumers reach a consensus on the cognitive structure of products.Findings: As demonstrated in a case study of the design of an “electronic tour guide”, the authors developed a prototype that can help a guide to perform their job on a group package tour. Consequently, the Empathic Design Model can be operated and put into practice. By Mind Mapping, the prototype can be then imitated and reinvented by designers as needed.Originality/value: This model focuses on the early phase of the design process, providing the designing industry with a technique to forecast consumers’ potential needs and develop a prototype effectively.

  1. Cogeneration plants in Italy: Licensing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscaglione, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper focusses on administrative/bureaucratic problems relative to the licensing of cogeneration plants in Italy. The current stumbling block appears to lie in organizational difficulties relative to the coordination of various Government authorized safety committees responsible for the drafting up of suitable legislation governing cogeneration plant fire safety aspects. The author cites the possible environmental benefits in terms of air pollution abatement that could have been had with the timely start-up of a new 7 MW plant (in Lombardia) still awaiting its go-ahead authorization

  2. INCOGEN: Nuclear cogeneration in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heek, A.I. van

    1997-01-01

    A small heat and power cogeneration plant with a pebble bed high temperature reactor (HTR) is discussed. Cogeneration could be a new market for nuclear power and the HTR could be very suitable. The 40 MWth INCOGEN system is presented. Philosophy, layout, characteristics and performance are described. The lower power level, advanced component technologies and inherent safety features are used to obtain a maximally simplified system. Static and dynamic cycle analyses of the energy conversion system are discussed, as well as the behaviour of the reactor cavity cooling system. Although the cost study has not been finished yet, cost reduction trends are indicated. (author)

  3. Potable water cogeneration using nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez, J.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle, E. del [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Mexico is a country with a diversity of conditions; the Peninsula of Baja California is a semi-arid region with a demand of potable water and electricity where small nuclear power can be used. This part of the country has a low density population, a high pressure over the water resources in the region, and their needs of electricity are small. The SMART reactor will be assessed as co-generator for this region; where five different scenarios of cogeneration of electricity and potable water production are considered, the levelized cost of electricity and potable water are obtained to assess their competitiveness. (author)

  4. GE will finance 614-MW cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Power Funding Corporation, a unit of GE Capital, will provide up to $870 million in construction and permanent financing, and letters of credit to Cogen Technologies of Houston, Texas. The agreement will fund the construction of a 614-megawatt (MW), combined-cycle cogeneration plant to be built in Linden, New Jersey, and for the purchase of gas properties. The plant will be owned by Cogen Technologies. The financing is one of the largest packages ever for a cogeneration plant, GE said

  5. Cogeneration an opportunity for industrial energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, R.A.; Butt, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about the cogeneration from industrial energy savings opportunities perspective. The energy crisis in these days forces industry to find ways to cope with critical situation. There are several energy savings options which if properly planned and implemented would be beneficial both for industry and community. One way of energy saving is Cogeneration i.e. Combined Heat and Power. The paper will review the basic methods, types and then discuss the suitability of these options for specific industry. It has been identified that generally process industry can get benefits of energy savings. (author)

  6. Thermal-economic analysis of cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, A.C.S.; Bajay, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 80 countries produce sugar, and fortuitously alcohol, from sugar cane. In all these countries the cogeneration technology of steam turbines is utilized, although almost always inefficient. The greater potential of cogeneration in Brazil is in sugar and alcohol sector, because of the use of sugar cane bagasse as combustible. This work applies the techniques of simulation and economic analysis to different configuration of plants, to determine power generation and associated costs of each alternative. The application of the same procedure at operating condition of several configurations in transient system permits the determination of production profile of exceeding during one day. (C.M.)

  7. Development of a Prototype for the Export Control List Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GwanYoung

    2011-01-01

    The international society has concerned the possibility of a diversion with strategic items into the nuclear weapon development. So they have regulated those, and our country also has done it. Following a accomplishment of a UAE nuclear power plant export contraction in December, 2009 and a Jordan research reactor export contraction in March, 2010, thousands upon thousands of the strategic goods include the strategic technology will be supposed to transfer to UAE and Jordan. A lot of manpower in the government and the company concerned in addition to an enormous amount of time are needed so as to manage transferred items to UAE and Jordan efficiently. Accordingly, the Export Control List Management System has developed 1) to decrease the administrative time required about implementations such as the classification, the export license 2) and to plan the practical use of manpower 3) and to enhance a convenience of businesses, the government and a company concerned by the KINAC and the KOSTI. That system is scheduled to complete after June, and now a management of export items has done manually. This inconvenience can be solved by developing a prototype of the Export Control List Management System. Also an understanding of the Export Control List Management will be enhanced by doing it. A procedure of a system development and results will be presented in this paper

  8. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kessler, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullens, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rath, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  9. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  10. Using three-dimensional rapid prototyping in the design and development of orthopaedic screws in standardised pull-out tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Laura Jane; Connolly, Ashley; Swadener, John G; Junaid, Sarah; Theivendran, Kanthan; Deshmukh, Subodh C

    2018-05-01

    The majority of orthopaedic screws are designed, tested and manufactured by existing orthopaedics companies and are predominantly developed with healthy bone in mind. The timescales and costs involved in the development of a new screw design, for example, for osteoporotic bone, are high. In this study, standard wood screws were used to analyse the concept of using three-dimensional printing, or rapid prototyping, as a viable stage of development in the design of a new bone screw. Six wood screws were reverse engineered and printed in polymeric material using stereolithography. Three of the designs were also printed in Ti6Al4V using direct metal laser sintering; however, these were not of sufficient quality to test further. Both the original metal screws (metal) and polymeric rapid prototyping screws were then tested using standard pull-out tests from low-density polyurethane blocks (Sawbones). Results showed the highest pull-out strengths for screws with the longest thread length and the smallest inner diameter. Of the six screw designs tested, five showed no more than a 17% variance between the metal and rapid prototyping results. A similar pattern of results was shown between the screw designs for both the metal and rapid prototyping screws in five of the six cases. While not producing fully comparable pull-out results to orthopaedic screws, the results from this study do provide evidence of the potential usefulness and cost-effectiveness of rapid prototyping in the early stages of design and testing of orthopaedic screws.

  11. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  12. A novel evaluation of heat-electricity cost allocation in cogenerations based on entropy change method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xuemin; Li, Chunxi

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most significant measures to improve energy utilization efficiency and save energy, cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) has been widely applied and promoted with positive motivations in many countries. A rational cost allocation model should indicate the performance of cogenerations and balance the benefits between electricity generation and heat production. Based on the second law of thermodynamics, the present paper proposes an entropy change method for cost allocation by choosing exhaust steam entropy as a datum point, and the new model works in conjunction with entropy change and irreversibility during energy conversion processes. The allocation ratios of heat cost with the present and existing methods are compared for different types of cogenerations. Results show that the allocation ratios with the entropy change method are more rational and the cost allocation model can make up some limitations involved in other approaches. The future energy policies and innovational directions for cogenerations and heat consumers should be developed. - Highlights: • A rational model of cogeneration cost allocation is established. • Entropy change method integrates the relation of entropy change and exergy losses. • The unity of measuring energy quality and quantity is materialized. • The benefits between electricity generation and heat production are balanced

  13. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  14. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Ogden, J.M.; Hylton, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  15. Prototype of Decision Support System Development in Determining Raskin Recipients Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Desriyanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making support systems for beneficiaries deserving of the poor are a decision support system that can be used as a tool for assessing the feasibility of providing assistance. The established system only knows the rankings of the population proposals, the population data that has not been stored in the population database, the population data that has not been integrated with the data category, the criteria data, and value data so it requires the process of data input. In the process of data collection methods used are Interviews, Observation, Documentation, Literature Review while the software development methodology used is Prototype. The process of making software by using Macromedia Dreamweaver, language programming used is PHP, Javascript, HTML, and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS. This research aims 1 Make the development of decision support system in giving assistance for the poor in Cekok Ponorogo. 2 Conduct the mapping for proposed poor family and received assistance in graphic form. The conclusions of the development of decision support systems are; 1 Population data stored in the form of database that facilitate the process of searching data. 2 The Recorded of the proposed data and who received assistance for each hamlet in Kelurahan Cekok Ponorogo in the form of a graph. 3 Reduce errors in the submission the proposed data of potential beneficiaries

  16. Metal fuel development and verification for prototype generation- IV Sodium- Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Cheon, Jin Sik; Kim, Sung Ho; Park, Jeong Yong; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) to be built by 2028. U-Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U -transuranics (TRU)-Zr fuel will gradually replace U-Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U-Zr fuel, work on U-Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U-TRU-Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochemical processing of spent PWR (pressurized water reactor) fuels, which contains highly radioactive minor actinides and chemically active lanthanide or rare earth elements as carryover impurities. An advanced fuel slug casting system, which can prevent vaporization of volatile elements through a control of the atmospheric pressure of the casting chamber and also deal with chemically active lanthanide elements using protective coatings in the casting crucible, was developed. Fuel cladding of the ferritic-martensitic steel FC92, which has higher mechanical strength at a high temperature than conventional HT9 cladding, was developed and fabricated, and is being irradiated in the fast reactor.

  17. Metal Fuel Development and Verification for Prototype Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Bock Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR to be built by 2028. U–Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U–transuranics (TRU–Zr fuel will gradually replace U–Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U–Zr fuel, work on U–Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U–TRU–Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochemical processing of spent PWR (pressurized water reactor fuels, which contains highly radioactive minor actinides and chemically active lanthanide or rare earth elements as carryover impurities. An advanced fuel slug casting system, which can prevent vaporization of volatile elements through a control of the atmospheric pressure of the casting chamber and also deal with chemically active lanthanide elements using protective coatings in the casting crucible, was developed. Fuel cladding of the ferritic–martensitic steel FC92, which has higher mechanical strength at a high temperature than conventional HT9 cladding, was developed and fabricated, and is being irradiated in the fast reactor.

  18. Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Kelsey M; Kadolph, Christopher; Finamore, Joseph; Cancel, Efrain; McCarty, Catherine A; Okorie, Asha; Thomas, Kate L; Allen Pacheco, Jennifer; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ellis, Stephen B; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Vrabec, Tamara R; Brilliant, Murray H

    2017-01-01

    Background The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Methods Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. Results The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. Conclusions This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities. PMID:28903894

  19. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  20. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  1. Small Nuclear Co-generation Plants Based on Shipbuilding Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V. I.; Veshnyakov, K. B.; Goryunov, E. V.; Zalugin, V. I.; Panov, Yu. K.; Polunichev, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear cogeneration plants and power desalination complexes of relatively small power, using proven shipbuilding technology, becomes more and more attractive for solving the power supply problems of remote districts of the Extreme North and the Far East with small and medium power grids and for removing the shortage of fresh water in different world regions. The idea of transportation of the power unit with high degree of readiness to the place of its location with minimum construction and mounting activities at the site is very attractive. Compactness typical of RP based on shipbuilding technology allows to develop floating or ground-based plants at minimum use of water area and territory. Small construction scope at the site under conditions of minimum anthropogenic loads and high ecological indices are important arguments in favor of floating nuclear cogeneration plant based on ship power units against the alternative fossil sources. At present, the activities on floating nuclear cogeneration plant design, which is developed on the basis of floating power unit with two KLT-40S reactor plant, which is a modified option of standard KLT-40-type ship plant for icebreaker fleet in Russia are the most advanced. To date, a detailed design of reactor plant has been developed and approved, design activities on floating power unit are in the stage of completion, the site for its location has been selected and licensing by GAN, Russia, is in progress. Besides OKBM has developed some designs of nuclear cogeneration plants of different power on the basis of integral reactor plants, using the experience of transport and stationary power plants designing. Nuclear cogeneration plant investment analysis showed acceptable social and economical efficiency of the design that creates conditions for commercial construction of floating power units with KLT-40S reactor plan. At the same time the reduction of the design recovering terms, increase of budget income and

  2. Photogrammetry for rapid prototyping: development of noncontact 3D reconstruction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.

    2002-04-01

    An important stage of rapid prototyping technology is generating computer 3D model of an object to be reproduced. Wide variety of techniques for 3D model generation exists beginning with manual 3D models generation and finishing with full-automated reverse engineering system. The progress in CCD sensors and computers provides the background for integration of photogrammetry as an accurate 3D data source with CAD/CAM. The paper presents the results of developing photogrammetric methods for non-contact spatial coordinates measurements and generation of computer 3D model of real objects. The technology is based on object convergent images processing for calculating its 3D coordinates and surface reconstruction. The hardware used for spatial coordinates measurements is based on PC as central processing unit and video camera as image acquisition device. The original software for Windows 9X realizes the complete technology of 3D reconstruction for rapid input of geometry data in CAD/CAM systems. Technical characteristics of developed systems are given along with the results of applying for various tasks of 3D reconstruction. The paper describes the techniques used for non-contact measurements and the methods providing metric characteristics of reconstructed 3D model. Also the results of system application for 3D reconstruction of complex industrial objects are presented.

  3. Development and Applications of a Prototypic SCALE Control Module for Automated Burnup Credit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Consideration of the depletion phenomena and isotopic uncertainties in burnup-credit criticality analysis places an increasing reliance on computational tools and significantly increases the overall complexity of the calculations. An automated analysis and data management capability is essential for practical implementation of large-scale burnup credit analyses that can be performed in a reasonable amount of time. STARBUCS is a new prototypic analysis sequence being developed for the SCALE code system to perform automated criticality calculations of spent fuel systems employing burnup credit. STARBUCS is designed to help analyze the dominant burnup credit phenomena including spatial burnup gradients and isotopic uncertainties. A search capability also allows STARBUCS to iterate to determine the spent fuel parameters (e.g., enrichment and burnup combinations) that result in a desired k eff for a storage configuration. Although STARBUCS was developed to address the analysis needs for spent fuel transport and storage systems, it provides sufficient flexibility to allow virtually any configuration of spent fuel to be analyzed, such as storage pools and reprocessing operations. STARBUCS has been used extensively at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study burnup credit phenomena in support of the NRC Research program

  4. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. prototype system design document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and demonstration of the : Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) application : bundle, with a focus on the...

  5. Automated sorting of polymer flakes: fluorescence labeling and development of a measurement system prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S; Fomin, P; Kargel, Ch

    2015-04-01

    The extensive demand and use of plastics in modern life is associated with a significant economical impact and a serious ecological footprint. The production of plastics involves a high energy consumption and CO2 emission as well as the large need for (limited) fossil resources. Due to the high durability of plastics, large amounts of plastic garbage is mounting in overflowing landfills (plus 9.6 million tons in Europe in the year 2012) and plastic debris is floating in the world oceans or waste-to-energy combustion releases even more CO2 plus toxic substances (dioxins, heavy metals) to the atmosphere. The recycling of plastic products after their life cycle can obviously contribute a great deal to the reduction of the environmental and economical impacts. In order to produce high-quality recycling products, mono-fractional compositions of waste polymers are required. However, existing measurement technologies such as near infrared spectroscopy show limitations in the sorting of complex mixtures and different grades of polymers, especially when black plastics are involved. More recently invented technologies based on mid-infrared, Raman spectroscopy or laser-aided spectroscopy are still under development and expected to be rather expensive. A promising approach to put high sorting purities into practice is to label plastic resins with unique combinations of fluorescence markers (tracers). These are incorporated into virgin resins during the manufacturing process at the ppm (or sub ppm) concentration level, just large enough that the fluorescence emissions can be detected with sensitive instrumentation but neither affect the visual appearance nor the mechanical properties of the polymers. In this paper we present the prototype of a measurement and classification system that identifies polymer flakes (mill material of a few millimeters size) located on a conveyor belt in real time based on the emitted fluorescence of incorporated markers. Classification performance

  6. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  7. CO2 recovery from cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushing, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    There is a ready market for carbon dioxide for use in industrial processes as well as in food and beverage production. Recovering this gas from flue gas exhausts can provide extra income for cogeneration projects -as well as reducing emissions. (author)

  8. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  9. Cogeneration: One way to use biomass efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, L.; Johansson, B.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration in district heating systems is the most energy-efficient way to convert biomass into heat and electricity with current or nearly commercial technologies. Methanol produced from biomass and used in vehicles instead of petrol or diesel could reduce carbon dioxide emissions nearly as much per unit of biomass as if the biomass were used to replace natural gas for cogeneration, but at some higher cost per unit of carbon dioxide reduction. The most energy-efficient way to use biomass for cogeneration appears to be combined cycle technology, and the world's first demonstration plant is now being built. Potentially, this technology can be used for electricity production in Swedish district heating systems to provide nearly 20% of current Swedish electricity production, while simultaneously reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the district heating systems by some 55%. The heat costs from cogeneration with biomass are higher than the heat costs from fossil fuel plants at current fuel prices. Biomass can only compete with fossil fuel if other advantages, for example a lower environmental impact are considered. (au) (35 refs.)

  10. Software development methodology for computer based I&C systems of prototype fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manimaran, M., E-mail: maran@igcar.gov.in; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Software development methodology adopted for computer based I&C systems of PFBR is detailed. • Constraints imposed as part of software requirements and coding phase are elaborated. • Compliance to safety and security requirements are described. • Usage of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools during software design, analysis and testing phase are explained. - Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled reactor which is in the advanced stage of construction in Kalpakkam, India. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) systems are deployed for Instrumentation & Control of PFBR. RTC systems have to perform safety functions within the stipulated time which calls for highly dependable software. Hence, well defined software development methodology is adopted for RTC systems starting from the requirement capture phase till the final validation of the software product. V-model is used for software development. IEC 60880 standard and AERB SG D-25 guideline are followed at each phase of software development. Requirements documents and design documents are prepared as per IEEE standards. Defensive programming strategies are followed for software development using C language. Verification and validation (V&V) of documents and software are carried out at each phase by independent V&V committee. Computer aided software engineering tools are used for software modelling, checking for MISRA C compliance and to carry out static and dynamic analysis. Various software metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, nesting depth and comment to code are checked. Test cases are generated using equivalence class partitioning, boundary value analysis and cause and effect graphing techniques. System integration testing is carried out wherein functional and performance requirements of the system are monitored.

  11. Software development methodology for computer based I&C systems of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manimaran, M.; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Software development methodology adopted for computer based I&C systems of PFBR is detailed. • Constraints imposed as part of software requirements and coding phase are elaborated. • Compliance to safety and security requirements are described. • Usage of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools during software design, analysis and testing phase are explained. - Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled reactor which is in the advanced stage of construction in Kalpakkam, India. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) systems are deployed for Instrumentation & Control of PFBR. RTC systems have to perform safety functions within the stipulated time which calls for highly dependable software. Hence, well defined software development methodology is adopted for RTC systems starting from the requirement capture phase till the final validation of the software product. V-model is used for software development. IEC 60880 standard and AERB SG D-25 guideline are followed at each phase of software development. Requirements documents and design documents are prepared as per IEEE standards. Defensive programming strategies are followed for software development using C language. Verification and validation (V&V) of documents and software are carried out at each phase by independent V&V committee. Computer aided software engineering tools are used for software modelling, checking for MISRA C compliance and to carry out static and dynamic analysis. Various software metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, nesting depth and comment to code are checked. Test cases are generated using equivalence class partitioning, boundary value analysis and cause and effect graphing techniques. System integration testing is carried out wherein functional and performance requirements of the system are monitored

  12. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  13. Development of a new prototype system for measuring the permittivity of dielectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple prototype for measuring the properties of dielectric materials is introduced in this Letter. A homogeneous dielectric sample placed in a field produced by a nearby antenna will affect the input impedance of the antenna. The permittivity and the loss of the dielectric sample can then be determined from the change of the input impedance of the antenna. The prototype has been validated by experiments.

  14. Developing and Evaluating Prototype of Waste Volume Monitoring Using Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathhan Arief, Mohamad; Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2017-06-01

    In Indonesia, especially Jakarta have a lot of garbage strewn that can be an eyesore and also cause pollution that can carry diseases. Garbage strewn can cause many things, one of her dues is bins are overflowing due to the full so it can not accommodate the waste dumped from other people. Thus, the author created a new method for waste disposal more systematic. In creating new method requires a technology to supports, then the author makes a prototype for waste volume monitoring. By using the internet of things prototype of waste volume monitoring may give notification to the sanitary agency that waste in the trash bin needs to be disposal. In this study, conducted the design and manufactured of prototype waste volume monitoring using LinkItONE board based by Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor for appliance senses. Once the prototype is completed, evaluation in order to determine whether the prototype will function properly. The result showed that the expected function of a prototype waste volume monitoring can work well.

  15. Latest developments on the highly granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype for the International Large Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    High precision physics at future colliders requires unprecedented highly granular calorimeters for the application of the Particle Flow (PF) algorithm. The physical proof of concept was given in the previous campaign of beam tests of physic prototypes within the CALICE collaboration. We present here the latest beam and laboratory test results and R&D developments for the Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype with fully embedded very front-end (VFE) electronics for the International Large Detector at the International Linear Collider project.

  16. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  17. Reviving manufacturing with a federal cogeneration policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Baer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Improving the energy economics of manufacturing is essential to revitalizing the industrial base of advanced economies. This paper evaluates ex-ante a federal policy option aimed at promoting industrial cogeneration—the production of heat and electricity in a single energy-efficient process. Detailed analysis using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and spreadsheet calculations suggest that industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of U.S. electricity requirements by 2035, compared with its current 8.9% market share. Substituting less efficient utility-scale power plants with cogeneration systems would produce numerous economic and environmental benefits, but would also create an assortment of losers and winners. Multiple perspectives to benefit/cost analysis are therefore valuable. Our results indicate that the federal cogeneration policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public sector, cutting energy bills, generating billions of dollars in electricity sales, making producers more competitive, and reducing pollution. Most traditional utilities, on the other hand, would lose revenues unless their rate recovery procedures are adjusted to prevent the loss of profits due to customer owned generation and the erosion of utility sales. From a public policy perspective, deadweight losses would be introduced by market-distorting federal incentives (ranging annually from $30 to $150 million), but these losses are much smaller than the estimated net social benefits of the federal cogeneration policy. - Highlights: ► Industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of US electricity demand by 2035, vs. 8.9% today. ► The policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public. ► Traditional electric utilities would likely lose revenues. ► Deadweight loss would be introduced by tax incentives. ► The policy’s net social benefits would be much larger.

  18. The negative electrode development for a Ni-MH battery prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuscueta, D.J.; Ghilarducci, A.A.; Salva, H.R.; Milocco, R.H.; Castro, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The negative electrode development for a nickel-metal hydride battery (Ni-MH) prototype was performed with the following procedure: (1) the Lm 0.95 Ni 3.8 Co 0.3 Mn 0.3 Al 0.4 (Lm=lanthanum rich mischmetal) intermetallic alloy was elaborated by melting the pure elements in an induction furnace inside a boron nitride crucible under an inert atmosphere, (2) the obtained alloy was crushed and sieved between 44 and 74 μm and mixed with teflonized carbon; (3) the compound was assembled together with a current collector and pressed in a cylindrical matrix. The obtained electrode presented a disc shape, with 11 mm diameter and approximately 1 mm thickness. The crystalline structure of the hydrogen storage alloy was examined using X-ray diffractometry. The measured hcp lattice volume was 1.78% larger than the precursor LaNi 5 intermetallic alloy, increasing the available space for hydrogen movement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) measurements were used before and after hydriding in order to verify the alloy sample homogeneity. The negative electrode was electrochemically tested by using a laboratory cell. It activates almost totally in its first cycle, which is an excellent characteristic from the commercial point of view. The maximum discharge capacity reached was 314.2 mA h/g in the 10th cycle.

  19. An Embedded Sensory System for Worker Safety: Prototype Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chunhee; Park, JeeWoong

    2018-04-14

    At a construction site, workers mainly rely on two senses, which are sight and sound, in order to perceive their physical surroundings. However, they are often hindered by the nature of most construction sites, which are usually dynamic, loud, and complicated. To overcome these challenges, this research explored a method using an embedded sensory system that might offer construction workers an artificial sensing ability to better perceive their surroundings. This study identified three parameters (i.e., intensity, signal length, and delay between consecutive pulses) needed for tactile-based signals for the construction workers to communicate quickly. We developed a prototype system based on these parameters, conducted experimental studies to quantify and validate the sensitivity of the parameters for quick communication, and analyzed test data to reveal what was added by this method in order to perceive information from the tactile signals. The findings disclosed that the parameters of tactile-based signals and their distinguishable ranges could be perceived in a short amount of time (i.e., a fraction of a second). Further experimentation demonstrated the capability of the identified unit signals combined with a signal mapping technique to effectively deliver simple information to individuals and offer an additional sense of awareness to the surroundings. The findings of this study could serve as a basis for future research in exploring advanced tactile-based messages to overcome challenges in environments for which communication is a struggle.

  20. Quality assurance program for prototype stereotactic system developed for neptun 10 Pc linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshbin Khoshnazar, A.R.; Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Hashemiyan, A.R.; Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Salek, R.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype stereotactic radiosurgery set was designed and constructed for a Neptun 10 Pc linac that is currently being used at Imam Reza hospital in Mashad. Materials and Methods: A complete quality assurance program was designed and performed for the constructed system including isocentric accuracy test, localization accuracy test, dose delivery accuracy test and leakage radiation test. Target simulator, control alignment device and plexiglass phantom which were parts of the developed hardware were used to fulfill quality assurance program. Results: The average isocentric shift resulted from the gantry rotation and couch turning were respectively obtained to be 1.4 and 2 mm. The average localization error in the three coordinates was found to be 2.2 mm. The total treatment uncertainty due to all of the probable errors in the system was equal to 4.32 mm. The dose delivery accuracy test was carried out, the result indicated a 3.7% difference between the given and measured dose. Conclusion: The quality assurance tests showed consistent performance of the constructed system within the accepted limits; however, some inconsistency might exist in certain cases. The safety of stereotactic radiosurgery system method is increased when the overall uncertainty is minimized nd the treatment of the lesions adjacent to critical organs is avoided

  1. Development of long-life neutron detectors for the prototype heavy water reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohteru, Shigeru; Shirayama, Shimpey.

    1981-01-01

    The development of long-life neutron detectors as the flux monitors for the prototype heavy water reactor has been made. Three kinds of neutron monitors, namely start-up monitor (SUM), power up monitor (PUM) and local power monitor (LPM), are provided. The LPM consists of 4 ion chamber type neutron detectors and a guide tube of power calibration monitor (PCM). This is useful for reactor control and fuel soundness monitor. The improvement of the neutron detectors was made for the operation under high neutron flux and gamma-ray heating. For the long-life operation, U-234 was mixed into U-235 for the conversion in the detectors. The ratio of U-234 to U-235 is 3 to 1. The PCM is also an ion chamber type detector with U-235. The mixing ratio of U-234 to U-235 was determined by a test with the JMTR. The characteristic performance was also investigated by the JMTR. After the completion of Fugen, various tests on the long-life detectors were performed with Fugen. It was hard to test the output linearity of the detectors with a large scale reactor. Therefore, it was tested that the operation range of the detectors is within the linear region of detector output. The voltage-current characteristics and the correlation of output current and saturation current were measured. The variation of the neutron sensitivity of the detectors with the cumulative dose was also studied. (Kato, T.)

  2. Development of a small prototype for a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Tsuji, Atsushi; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Kinouchi, Shoko; Inaniwa, Taku; Sato, Shinji; Nakajima, Yasunori; Kawai, Hideyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    The OpenPET geometry is our new idea to visualize a physically opened space between two detector rings. In this paper, we developed the first small prototype to show a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging. Two detector rings of 110 mm diameter and 42 mm axial length were placed with a gap of 42 mm. The basic imaging performance was confirmed through phantom studies; the open imaging was realized at the cost of slight loss of axial resolution and 24% loss of sensitivity. For a proof-of-concept of PET image-guided radiation therapy, we carried out the in-beam tests with 11 C radioactive beam irradiation in the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba to visualize in situ distribution of primary particles stopped in a phantom. We showed that PET images corresponding to dose distribution were obtained. For an initial proof-of-concept of real-time multimodal imaging, we measured a tumor-inoculated mouse with 18 F-FDG, and an optical image of the mouse body surface was taken during the PET measurement by inserting a digital camera in the ring gap. We confirmed that the tumor in the gap was clearly visualized. The result also showed the extension effect of an axial field-of-view (FOV); a large axial FOV of 126 mm was obtained with the detectors that originally covered only an 84 mm axial FOV. In conclusion, our initial imaging studies showed promising performance of the OpenPET.

  3. Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR Magnet Development: Field Analysis and Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, John; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Ling, Jiayin; Kim, Youngjae; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2013-01-01

    We are currently working on a program to complete a 1.5 T/75 mm RT bore magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance magnet. The magic-angle-spinning magnet comprises a z-axis 0.866-T solenoid and an x-axis 1.225-T dipole, each to be wound with NbTi wire and operated at 4.2 K in persistent mode. A combination of the fields creates a 1.5-T field pointed at 54.74 degrees (magic angle) from the rotation (z) axis. In the first year of this 3-year program, we have completed magnetic analysis and design of both coils. Also, using a winding machine of our own design and fabrication, we have wound several prototype dipole coils with NbTi wire. As part of this development, we have repeatedly made successful persistent NbTi-NbTi joints with this multifilamentary NbTi wire. PMID:24058275

  4. An Embedded Sensory System for Worker Safety: Prototype Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chunhee; Park, JeeWoong

    2018-01-01

    At a construction site, workers mainly rely on two senses, which are sight and sound, in order to perceive their physical surroundings. However, they are often hindered by the nature of most construction sites, which are usually dynamic, loud, and complicated. To overcome these challenges, this research explored a method using an embedded sensory system that might offer construction workers an artificial sensing ability to better perceive their surroundings. This study identified three parameters (i.e., intensity, signal length, and delay between consecutive pulses) needed for tactile-based signals for the construction workers to communicate quickly. We developed a prototype system based on these parameters, conducted experimental studies to quantify and validate the sensitivity of the parameters for quick communication, and analyzed test data to reveal what was added by this method in order to perceive information from the tactile signals. The findings disclosed that the parameters of tactile-based signals and their distinguishable ranges could be perceived in a short amount of time (i.e., a fraction of a second). Further experimentation demonstrated the capability of the identified unit signals combined with a signal mapping technique to effectively deliver simple information to individuals and offer an additional sense of awareness to the surroundings. The findings of this study could serve as a basis for future research in exploring advanced tactile-based messages to overcome challenges in environments for which communication is a struggle. PMID:29662008

  5. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modeling language. (2). Study with prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Uto, Nariaki; Kasahara, Naoto; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    In the fast reactor development, numerical simulation using analytical codes plays an important role for complementing theory and experiment. It is necessary that the engineering models and analysis methods can be flexibly changed, because the phenomena to be investigated become more complicated due to the diversity of the needs for research. And, there are large problems in combining physical properties and engineering models in many different fields. Aiming to the realization of the next generation code system which can solve those problems, the authors adopted three methods, (1) Multi-language (SoftWIRE.NET, Visual Basic.NET and Fortran) (2) Fortran 90 and (3) Python to make a prototype of the next generation code system. As this result, the followings were confirmed. (1) It is possible to reuse a function of the existing codes written in Fortran as an object of the next generation code system by using Visual Basic.NET. (2) The maintainability of the existing code written by Fortran 77 can be improved by using the new features of Fortran 90. (3) The toolbox-type code system can be built by using Python. (author)

  6. Development of a prototype system for prediction of the group error at the maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Hirotsu, Yuuko

    2001-01-01

    This paper described on development and performance evaluation of a prototype system for prediction of the group error at the maintenance work. The results so far are as follows. (1) When a user inputs the existence and the grade of the feature factor of the maintenance work as a prediction object, an organization and an organization factor and a group PSF put into the system. The maintenance group error to target can be predicted through the prediction model which consists of a class of seven stages. (2) This system by utilizing the information on a prediction result database, it can be use not only for prediction of a maintenance group but for various safe Activity, such as KYT(Kiken Yochi Training) and TBM(Tool Box Meeting). (3) This system predicts a cooperation error at highest rate, and subsequently. Predicts the detection error at a high rate. and to the decision-making. Error, the transfer error and the state cognitive error, and state error, it has the characteristics predicted at almost same rate. (4) if it has full knowledge even if the feature, such as the enforcement conditions of maintenance work, and organization, even if the user has neither the knowledge about a human factor, users experience, anyone of this system is slight about the extent, generating of a maintenance group error made difficult from the former logically and systematically, it can predict with business time for about 15 minutes. (author)

  7. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.; Schieppati, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

  8. What is the future for gas cogeneration in the French context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, D.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this work is devoted to the institutional environment which hold the cogeneration success in France. Cogeneration is indeed a future technology but is under-exploited in France. The future communal lines and the conclusions of the study group, suggested to the Cabinet of the European Union in 1995, should meanwhile cope with some difficulties for its development in France. The second part deals more particularly with the customers listening and with their expectations towards the energy suppliers. (O.M.)

  9. Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peissig, Peggy; Schwei, Kelsey M; Kadolph, Christopher; Finamore, Joseph; Cancel, Efrain; McCarty, Catherine A; Okorie, Asha; Thomas, Kate L; Allen Pacheco, Jennifer; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ellis, Stephen B; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Vrabec, Tamara R; Brilliant, Murray H

    2017-09-13

    The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities. ©Peggy Peissig, Kelsey M Schwei, Christopher Kadolph, Joseph Finamore, Efrain Cancel, Catherine A McCarty, Asha Okorie, Kate L Thomas, Jennifer Allen Pacheco, Jyotishman Pathak, Stephen B Ellis, Joshua C Denny, Luke V Rasmussen, Gerard Tromp, Marc S Williams, Tamara R Vrabec, Murray H Brilliant. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 13.09.2017.

  10. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  11. Cogeneration based on gasified biomass - a comparison of concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Fredrik

    1999-01-01

    utilisation is important in cogeneration. When flue gas condensation is utilised, the conventional plant can achieve values of fuel utilisation exceeding 100% (LHV) and in this respect the new technologies are inferior. In addition to the thermodynamic calculations, some critical components and development needs are reviewed. One area still requiring development is the gas cleaning, critical issues being, for example, hot gas filtration, tar cracking and ammonia removal 87 refs, 81 figs, 21 tabs

  12. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  13. Robins Air Force Base Solar Cogeneration Facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.L.; Bodenschatz, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    A conceptual design and a cost estimate have been developed for a Solar Cogeneration Facility at Robins Air Force Base. This demonstration solar facility was designed to generate and deliver electrical power and process steam to the existing base distribution systems. The facility was to have the potential for construction and operation by 1986 and make use of existing technology. Specific objectives during the DOE funded conceptual design program were to: prepare a Solar Cogeneration Facility (overall System) Specification, select a preferred configuration and develop a conceptual design, establish the performance and economic characteristics of the facility, and prepare a development plan for the demonstration program. The Westinghouse team, comprised of the Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division, Heery and Heery, Inc., and Foster Wheeler Solar Development Corporation, in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force Logistics Command and Georgia Power Company, has selected a conceptual design for the facility that will utilize the latest DOE central receiver technology, effectively utilize the energy collected in the application, operate base-loaded every sunny day of the year, and be applicable to a large number of military and industrial facilities throughout the country. The design of the facility incorporates the use of a Collector System, a Receiver System, an Electrical Power Generating System, a Balance of Facility - Steam and Feedwater System, and a Master Control System.

  14. Multidisciplinary Management of Disorders of Sex Development in Indonesia, A Prototype in Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Disorder of sex development (DSD patients require comprehensive management to improve quality of life. A standardized management protocol for patients in Indonesia is not yet available resulting in patients infrequently received a proper diagnosis. This study reported a multidisciplinary management DSD in Indonesia based on minimal diagnostic facilities and expertise in developing country. Objectives : The purpose of the study is to review the management of DSD patients in Indonesia relates to providing appropriate gender assignment and to improving patients quality of life. Methodology : We analyzed the records of DSD patient admitted to the division of Human Genetics Center for Biomedical Research (CEBIOR Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia from May 2004 - December 2015. Data were collected and analyzed for physical examination, family pedigree karyotyping, hormonal assays and  psychosocial.  Other examination such as ultrasonography, Xray and Cytoscopy were also recorded for selected cases. Bimonthly, Sexual Adjustment Team (SAT meeting was recorded. Results : From the total 617 DSD cases we found 426 cases (69,04 % with 46, XY DSD, 117 cases (18,96% with 46,XX DSD and 74 cases (12% with sex chromosome DSD. Most of the patients in the group of 46, XY DSD are Unknown Male Undervirilization (UMU with 256 cases (60.09%. As the majority cases of 46, XX DSD was Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with 81 cases (69.23%. The remaining cases were Androgen Action Disorder (AAD with 140 cases (32.86%, 46, XY DSD Gonadal Dysgenesis with 30 cases (7.04%, Androgen Excess Disorders with 3 cases (2.56%, Defect of Mullerian Development with 19 cases (16,24%, 3 cases (2.56% of Androgen Excess and 3 cases (2.56% of 46, XX Gonadal Dysgenesis. Conclusion : Comprehensive management for DSD Patients help patient in diagnosis, gender assignment and support patient to improve quality of life. This multidisciplinary of

  15. Achieving emissions reduction through oil sands cogeneration in Alberta’s deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.; Rowe, A.; Sopinka, A.; Wild, P.

    2014-01-01

    The province of Alberta faces the challenge of balancing its commitment to reduce CO 2 emissions and the growth of its energy-intensive oil sands industry. Currently, these operations rely on the Alberta electricity system and on-site generation to satisfy their steam and electricity requirements. Most of the on-site generation units produce steam and electricity through the process of cogeneration. It is unclear to what extent new and existing operations will continue to develop cogeneration units or rely on electricity from the Alberta grid to meet their energy requirements in the near future. This study explores the potential for reductions in fuel usage and CO 2 emissions by increasing the penetration of oil sands cogeneration in the provincial generation mixture. EnergyPLAN is used to perform scenario analyses on Alberta’s electricity system in 2030 with a focus on transmission conditions to the oil sands region. The results show that up to 15–24% of CO 2 reductions prescribed by the 2008 Alberta Climate Strategy are possible. Furthermore, the policy implications of these scenarios within a deregulated market are discussed. - Highlights: • High levels of cogeneration in the oil sands significantly reduce the total fuel usage and CO 2 emissions for the province. • Beyond a certain threshold, the emissions reduction intensity per MW of cogeneration installed is reduced. • The cost difference between scenarios is not significant. • Policy which gives an advantage to a particular technology goes against the ideology of a deregulated market. • Alberta will need significant improvements to its transmission system in order for oil sands cogeneration to persist

  16. Development of a prototype radiation surveillance equipment for a mid-sized unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolander, P.; Kurvinen, K.; Poellaenen, R.; Kettunen, M.; Lyytinen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype radiation surveillance equipment has been developed to be used in a mid-sized Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquired by the Finnish Defence Forces. A multi-detector assembly was designed for the acquisition of dose rate and radionuclide concentration in the release plume. Detector assembly includes a GM-tube based dose rate meter, an inorganic scintillator detector and a semiconductor detector operating at room temperature. A sampling unit was designed for the collection of an aerosol sample of the plume for a detailed analysis in a ground based laboratory. The measurement data from all three detectors and several environmental parameters are collected by the onboard data acquisition computer. Real-time data dissemination is implemented with a TETRA based radio network. Test flights have been carried out with target drones and a small manned airplane. The Northrop KD2R-5 target drones have been used to simulate the high-G launch and vibration environment of the Ranger aerial vehicle. Target drones have been used because their air vehicle classification allows small test packages to be installed without tedious air safety protocols. Stability and survivability of the detectors, GPS navigation and radio frequency communication have been studied with the target drone test flights. Ground station software was developed to visualise the measurement data and to track the position of the air vehicle on a digital map. Test flights with the small manned airplane have been used to study the operational aspects of the detectors with greater detail. The housing for the instruments has been designed and constructed based on the experiences gained with the test flights and the laboratory measurements. The housing satisfies the aviation authority standards. Special attention has been paid to the high modularity, quick installation and ease of use. (orig.)

  17. Development of a prototype radiation surveillance equipment for a mid-sized unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolander, P.; Kurvinen, K.; Poellaenen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Kettunen, M. [Forces Research Institute of Technology, Lakiala (Finland); Lyytinen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Lightweight Structures, Otaniemi (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    A prototype radiation surveillance equipment has been developed to be used in a mid-sized Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquired by the Finnish Defence Forces. A multi-detector assembly was designed for the acquisition of dose rate and radionuclide concentration in the release plume. Detector assembly includes a GM-tube based dose rate meter, an inorganic scintillator detector and a semiconductor detector operating at room temperature. A sampling unit was designed for the collection of an aerosol sample of the plume for a detailed analysis in a ground based laboratory. The measurement data from all three detectors and several environmental parameters are collected by the onboard data acquisition computer. Real-time data dissemination is implemented with a TETRA based radio network. Test flights have been carried out with target drones and a small manned airplane. The Northrop KD2R-5 target drones have been used to simulate the high-G launch and vibration environment of the Ranger aerial vehicle. Target drones have been used because their air vehicle classification allows small test packages to be installed without tedious air safety protocols. Stability and survivability of the detectors, GPS navigation and radio frequency communication have been studied with the target drone test flights. Ground station software was developed to visualise the measurement data and to track the position of the air vehicle on a digital map. Test flights with the small manned airplane have been used to study the operational aspects of the detectors with greater detail. The housing for the instruments has been designed and constructed based on the experiences gained with the test flights and the laboratory measurements. The housing satisfies the aviation authority standards. Special attention has been paid to the high modularity, quick installation and ease of use. (orig.)

  18. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  19. Prototypes reflect normative perceptions: implications for the development of reasoned action theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan

    2018-03-01

    The reasoned action approach is one of the most successful behavioral theories in the history of social psychology. This study outlines the theoretical principles of reasoned action and considers when it is appropriate to augment it with a new variable. To demonstrate, we use survey data collected from a 4 to 17 year old U.S. adolescents to test how the 'prototype' variables fit into reasoned action approach. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we find that the prototype measures are normative pressure measures and when treated as a separate theoretical construct, prototype identity is not completely mediated by the proximal predictors of behavioral intention. We discuss the assumptions of the two theories and finally consider the distinction between augmenting a specific theory versus combining measures derived from different theoretical perspectives.

  20. Development of Wave Dragon from Scale 1:50 to Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, H. C.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Panhauser, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power....... In the period from 1998 to 2001 extensive testing on a scale 1:50 model was carried out. During the last month, testing has started on a prototype of the Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning, Denmark (wave climate in scale 1:4.5 of the North Sea). The prototype has been grid connected in June 2003 as the world...

  1. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  2. Development of 63Ni-voltaic nuclear micro-battery prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaming; Hu Rui; Wang Guanquan; Gao Hui; Liu Guoping; Luo Shunzhong

    2013-01-01

    Crystal silicon based energy-conversion unit was prepared using the parameters from theoretical simulation. A battery prototype was assembled through ascertaining the process of 63 Ni deposition, the formula of sealing materials and the sealing technique. The electric output properties were assessed with accelerating ageing and changing the temperatures. The results show that the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the manufactured nuclear micro-battery prototype are 88.0 mV and 5.97 nA, and the maximum power output and the energy conversion efficiency are 0.255 nW and 0.561%, respectively. It preserves steadily over 220 days. (authors)

  3. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  4. Cogeneration : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, Joyce; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This guidebook focuses on cogeneration development. It is one of a series of four guidebooks recently prepared to introduce the energy developer to the federal, state and local agencies that regulate energy facilities in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington (the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory). It was prepared specifically to help cogeneration developers obtain the permits, licenses and approvals necessary to construct and operate a cogeneration facility. The regulations, agencies and policies described herein are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever energy or a project becomes a political issue, a state legislature meets, a preexisting popular or valuable land use is thought threatened, elected and appointed officials change, and new directions are imposed on states and local governments by the federal government. Accordingly, cogeneration developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans. Developers are cautioned that the regulations described herein may only be a starting point on the road to obtaining all the necessary permits.

  5. A Novel Tetrasubstituted Imidazole as a Prototype for the Development of Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius P S; Munhoz, Antonio C M; Theindl, Lais C; Mohr, Eduarda Talita B; Saleh, Najla; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Rossa, Thaís A; Zamoner, Ariane; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania B; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola B; Sá, Marcus M; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott

    2018-04-14

    Although inflammation is a biological phenomenon that exists to protect the host against infections and/or related problems, its unceasing activation results in the aggravation of several medical conditions. Imidazoles, whether natural or synthetic, are molecules related to a broad spectrum of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we screened eight novel small molecules of the imidazole class synthesized by our research group for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of the selected molecules was confirmed in an in vivo inflammatory model. We also analyzed whether the effects were caused by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor transmigration. Of the eight imidazoles tested, methyl 1-allyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-imidazole-4-acetate (8) inhibited nitric oxide metabolites and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) secretion in J774 macrophages stimulated with LPS. It also attenuated leukocyte migration and exudate formation in the pleural cavity of mice challenged with carrageenan. Furthermore, imidazole 8 reverted the oxidative stress pattern triggered by carrageenan in the pleural cavity by diminishing myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities and reducing the production of nitric oxide metabolites and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Finally, these effects can be attributed, at least in part, to the ability of this compound to prevent NF-κB transmigration. In this context, our results demonstrate that imidazole 8 has promising potential as a prototype for the development of a new anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammatory conditions in which NF-κB and oxidative stress play a prominent role. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Development of a small prototype for a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Tsuji, Atsushi; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Kinouchi, Shoko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Inaniwa, Taku; Sato, Shinji [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasunori [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Kawai, Hideyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2011-02-21

    The OpenPET geometry is our new idea to visualize a physically opened space between two detector rings. In this paper, we developed the first small prototype to show a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging. Two detector rings of 110 mm diameter and 42 mm axial length were placed with a gap of 42 mm. The basic imaging performance was confirmed through phantom studies; the open imaging was realized at the cost of slight loss of axial resolution and 24% loss of sensitivity. For a proof-of-concept of PET image-guided radiation therapy, we carried out the in-beam tests with {sup 11}C radioactive beam irradiation in the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba to visualize in situ distribution of primary particles stopped in a phantom. We showed that PET images corresponding to dose distribution were obtained. For an initial proof-of-concept of real-time multimodal imaging, we measured a tumor-inoculated mouse with {sup 18}F-FDG, and an optical image of the mouse body surface was taken during the PET measurement by inserting a digital camera in the ring gap. We confirmed that the tumor in the gap was clearly visualized. The result also showed the extension effect of an axial field-of-view (FOV); a large axial FOV of 126 mm was obtained with the detectors that originally covered only an 84 mm axial FOV. In conclusion, our initial imaging studies showed promising performance of the OpenPET.

  7. Imagining the prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten, M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the participants with the prototype and how they explicate the points they make in the discussion with or without making use of the prototype. Three techniques for explicating design issues that exploit the proto...

  8. Natural gas cogeneration in the residential sector; La cogeneration au gaz naturel en residentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, C.; Gaudin, S. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas cogeneration offer is now available and operational in the industrial sector. It is based on technologies of piston engines and gas turbines. Currently, this offer is sufficiently diversified, so much from the point of view of the range of powers available (from 1 MW to more than 40 MW electric) that number of manufacturers. In order to widen the cogeneration market in France to the markets of the commercial and residential sectors, Gaz De France has undertaken a technical economic study to validate the potential of those markets. This study led to work on the assembly of a french die to cogeneration packages of low power (less than 1 MW electric). This step has emerged at the beginning of 1999 with the launching of a commercial offer of cogeneration packages. In margin to this work Gaz De France Research division also initiated a study in order to evaluate the offer of micro cogeneration, products delivering an electric output lower than 10 kW. (authors)

  9. Impact of cogeneration on integrated resource planning of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atikol, U.; Gueven, H.

    2003-01-01

    In most developing countries, difficulties in finding sector-specific data on heat rate and power demands make energy planning a hard task. In some countries, although this data is available, it may be four or five years old. In the present work, a new low-cost method is proposed for developing countries aiming at obtaining such data for the industrial sector quickly. Fifty-two textile factories were selected for a survey to represent the industrial sector. The data were processed and used to generate two scenarios of cogeneration applications in the industrial sector; one sized according to the electrical load of the factories, and the other one according to the thermal load. The costs and primary energy requirements of these programs were compared with that of the nuclear alternative. It was found that the most energy efficient and economical option for Turkey was the cogeneration program, the equipment sizing of which was based on the process heat demand of the industrial sector. Turkey would not only save US$ 72.6-billion by deferring the nuclear program, but it will also reduce the total primary energy demand by 11% in 2020

  10. Improvement of the cogeneration facilities, considering the aspects of financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.H.M.; Nogueira, L.A.H.; Costa Bortoni, E. da

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the tools of the Portfolio Theory in the design of the cogeneration facilities. So, the effects of the risk on the return can be take in account. A computer program was developed to simulate the impacts of the thermal and mechanical (or electrical) loads on energy surplus and the potential risk. (C.M.)

  11. Development and validation of a thermodynamic model for the performance analysis of a gamma Stirling engine prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, Joseph A.; Cardozo, Evelyn; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the development and validation of a numerical model that represents the performance of a gamma Stirling engine prototype. The model follows a modular approach considering ideal adiabatic working spaces; limited internal and external heat transfer through the heat exchangers; and mechanical and thermal losses during the cycle. In addition, it includes the calculation of the mechanical efficiency taking into account the crank mechanism effectiveness and the forced work during the cycle. Consequently, the model aims to predict the work that can be effectively taken from the shaft. The model was compared with experimental data obtained in an experimental rig built for the engine prototype. The results showed an acceptable degree of accuracy when comparing with the experimental data, with errors ranging from ±1% to ±8% for the temperature in the heater side, less than ±1% error for the cooler temperatures, and ±1 to ±8% for the brake power calculations. Therefore, the model was probed adequate for study of the prototype performance. In addition, the results of the simulation reflected the limited performance obtained during the prototype experiments, and a first analysis of the results attributed this to the forced work during the cycle. The implemented model is the basis for a subsequent parametric analysis that will complement the results presented. - Highlights: • A numerical model for a Stirling engine was developed. • A mechanical efficiency analysis was included in the model. • The model was validated with experimental data of a novel prototype. • The model results permit a deeper insight into the engine operation

  12. Development of Prototype Outcomes-Based Training Modules for Aesthetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Maricar Joy T.; Borabo, Milagros L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to know the essential components of Aesthetic Dentistry that will be a basis for prototype Outcomes-based training modules. Using a 5-point Likert scale, the researcher-made questionnaire assessed the different elements of Aesthetic Dentistry which are needed in the designing of the training module, the manner of…

  13. Electrochemically active functionalization of graphene for development of prototype biosensing devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    nanosheets, (2) loading of different enzymes on functionalized graphene matrix, and (3) electrochemical performances of the functionalized nanaohybrid materials based prototype sensors. These latest advancements could be crucial for the design and fabrication of low-cost, flexible and disposable biosensors....

  14. Development of a prototype neutral injector for T.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnal, J.F.; Druaux, J.; Oberson, R.

    1975-12-01

    This study is directly related to the project of T.F.R., plasma heating by fast neutral injection. The prototype injector is described, emphasis being put on the technological solutions that were retained. Experimental results for predicting the performance of the ten sources on T.F.R. are analyzed [fr

  15. Development and experimental results from a 1 kW prototype AMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    containing an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) bed. The prototype design facilitates easy exchange of the 24 cassettes, allowing the testing of different material amounts and compositions. Operating with 2.8 kg of commercial grade Gd spheres a maximum no-span cooling power of 1010 W and a maximum zero load...

  16. Mechanical properties used for the qualification of transport casks: Prototype development and extension to serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzbrenner, R.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of material in a specific cask is required to properly analyze the structural response of the cask. An appropriate way to establish this understanding is through laboratory testing of cask material. The laboratory testing that was done to support the MOSAIK Drop Test Program is summarized as an example of how mechanical properties can be mapped for a prototype cask. The broad range behavior to be understood. This is necessary for the proper application of fracture mechanics, and focuses on fracture toughness as the inherent materials property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. The understanding established by a mechanics to a particular prototype, behavior of a prototype must be correctly associated with parameters which can be measured on production casks. Since the production casks cannot be destructively tested, measurements are commonly made on sub-size specimens. This may prevent direct measurement of valid design properties. An additional database may then be required to establish the correlation between sub-size specimen measurements and valid design properties. This is illustrated by outlining the additional testing which would be necessary to allow the successful verification of the MOSAIK Drop Test Program to be extended from the prototype to serially produced casks

  17. The M.A.D Experience: Multiperspective Application Development in Evolutionary Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Crabtree, Andy; Damm, Christian Heide

    1998-01-01

    a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. A major reason for the success of the project is due to an experimental and multiperspective approach to designing for practice. Some of the lessons to be learned for object-orientation are (1) analysis is more than finding nouns...

  18. Development of high-strength concrete mix designs in support of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel design for a HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design optimization studies indicate that a significant reduction in the size of the PCRV for a 2240 MW(t) HTGR plant can be effected through utilization of high-strength concrete in conjunction with large capacity prestressing systems. A three-phase test program to develop and evaluate high-strength concretes (>63.4 MPa) is described. Results obtained under Phase I of the investigation related to materials selection-evaluation and mix design development are presented. 3 refs., 4 figs

  19. Prototype development of a web-based participative decision support platform in risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Zar Chi; Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses the proposed background architecture and prototype development of an internet-based decision support system (DSS) in the field of natural hazards and risk management using open-source geospatial software and web technologies. It is based on a three-tier, client-server architecture with the support of boundless (opengeo) framework and its client side SDK application environment using customized gxp components and data utility classes. The main purpose of the system is to integrate the workflow of risk management systematically with the diverse involvement of stakeholders from different organizations dealing with natural hazards and risk for evaluation of management measures through the active online participation approach. It aims to develop an adaptive user friendly, web-based environment that allows the users to set up risk management strategies based on actual context and data by integrating web-GIS and DSS functionality associated with process flow and other visualization tools. Web-GIS interface has been integrated within the DSS to deliver maps and provide certain geo-processing capabilities on the web, which can be easily accessible and shared by different organizations located in case study sites of the project. This platform could be envisaged not only as a common web-based platform for the centralized sharing of data such as hazard maps, elements at risk maps and additional information but also to ensure an integrated platform of risk management where the users could upload data, analyze risk and identify possible alternative scenarios for risk reduction especially for floods and landslides, either quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the risk information provided by the stakeholders in case study regions. The level of involvement, access to and interaction with the provided functionality of the system varies depending on the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders, for example, only the experts (planners, geological

  20. Qualifying cogeneration in Texas and Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, S.C.; Cabe, R.; Stauffaeher, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that cogeneration of electricity and useful thermal energy by industrials along the Gulf Coast grew significantly more rapidly than in other parts of the country during and immediately following World War II as a result of the concentration of chemical and plastics processing facilities there. In 1982, Texas passed its version of PURPA, the Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) and designated those non-utility generators from which public utilities must purchase electricity as Qualifying Cogenerators. In 1991, there were nearly 7,500 MW of QF power generated for inside-the-fence use or firm capacity sale to utilities, with the two largest utilities in Texas purchasing over half that amount

  1. The use of an automated flight test management system in the development of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Hewett, Marle D.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Tartt, David M.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Agarwal, Arvind K.

    1988-01-01

    An automated flight test management system (ATMS) and its use to develop a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight systems concepts are described. The ATMS provides a flight test engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight planning and simulation. This system will be capable of controlling an aircraft during the flight test by performing closed-loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The rapid-prototyping flight research facility is being developed at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) to provide early flight assessment of emerging AI technology. The facility is being developed as one element of the aircraft automation program which focuses on the qualification and validation of embedded real-time AI-based systems.

  2. Natural gas cogeneration plants: considerations on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcuri, P.; Florio, G.; Fragiacomo, P.

    1996-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most interesting solution to be adopted in order to achieve the goals of the Domestic Energy Plan. Besides the high primary energy savings, remarkable environmental benefits can be obtained. In the article, an energy analysis is carried out on the major cogeneration technologies depending on the parameters which define a generic user tipology. The energy indexes of a cogeneration plant are the shown in charts from which useful information on the achievable performances can be obtained

  3. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  4. Intraday trade is the answer for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomme, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    It is possible for operators of small cogeneration plants to sell electricity on the day-ahead market of the Amsterdam Power Exchange (APX) or through the unbalance market of the Dutch power transmission operator TenneT. However, it is difficult for them to take part in the market. The solution could be a so-called intraday-market, in which electricity trade can be a continuous process, but the question is who will start such a market [nl

  5. Stirling engine based micro co-generation system for single households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribberink, H.; Zutt, S.; Rabou, L.; Beckers, G. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Baijens, K.; Luttikholt, J. [Atag Verwarming BV (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the progress made in the ENATEC development program for a free piston Stirling engine based micro co-generation system that serves the supply of up to 1 kW{sub e} and up to 24 kW heat for domestic heating and/or for hot tap water production for single households at overall system efficiencies of 96%: Experiments show that the free piston Stirling engines from Stirling Technology Company run very reliably and controllably, and that the efficiency targets for the 1 kW{sub e} micro co-generation system are feasible. A ceramic foam burner with good heat transfer characteristics and low NOx emissions was developed. A demonstration micro co-generation unit was built and successfully presented. A 1 kW{sub e} free piston Stirling engine for the European market was developed. High efficiencies at full load and at part load, low emissions, low noise, and minimum maintenance make the Stirling engine based micro co-generation system an attractive candidate for the next generation of domestic boilers in Europe. (orig.)

  6. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon de los Santos, G.

    2009-10-01

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  7. EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF A COGENERATION POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Manuel Nuñez Bosch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration power plants connected to industrial processes have a direct impact on the overall efficiency of the plant and therefore on the economic results. Any modification to the thermal outline of these plants must first include an exergetic analysis to compare the benefits it can bring the new proposal. This research is performed to a cogeneration plant in operation with an installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW, it shows a study made from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Exergetic evaluation of each component of the plant was applied and similarly modified cogeneration scheme was evaluated. The results illustrate that the exergy losses and irreversibilities are completely different from one subsystem to another. In general, the total exergy destruction represented 70,7% from the primary fuel exergy. Steam generator was the subsystem with the highest irreversibility of the plant with 54%. It was demonstrated that the increase of the steam parameters lead to reduce exergy destruction and exergy efficiency elevation. The suppression of the reduction system and the adding of an extraction-condensing steam turbine produce the same effect and contribute to drop off the electrical consumption from the grid.

  8. Steam process cogeneration using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.

    2010-10-01

    Use of energy in a sustainable manner is to make processes more efficient. Oil industry requires of electricity and steam for refinery and petrochemical processes, nuclear energy can be a clean energy alternative. Cogeneration is an option to be assessed by Mexico to provide additional value to electricity generation. Mexico is a country with oil resources that requires process heat for gasoline production among other things. With the concern about the climate change and sustain ability policies it is adequate to use cogeneration as a way to optimize energy resources. Currently there is a national program that considers cogeneration for several Mexican refineries, and the first choices are combined cycle plants and thermo power plants using residual oil. This is long term program. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is a next generation reactors that works with very high temperatures that can be used to produce steam process along with electricity, in this work two different couplings are assessed for the PBMR reactor to produce steam process, the two couplings are compared for using in the Mexican refineries and some conclusions are given. (Author)

  9. Development of a permanently controllable rotating biopsy device. Pt. I. Theoretical considerations and in-vitro results for five different prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Philipp Jost; Jahnke, T.; Andres, H.; Heller, M.; Schaefer, F.K.; Hedderich, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to develop different prototypes of permanently controllable rotating biopsy devices with determination of the most efficient prototype in biopsies in bovine myocardium. Materials and Methods: Five different prototypes of 18-gauge rotating biopsy devices were designed and constructed, four (1-4) with various drill-like cutting edges and one (5) cannula type with a lancet-like helically bent cutting edge. Using bovine myocardium as the biopsy tissue, n = 100 specimens per prototype were obtained, and a quantitative analysis including tissue fragmentation, length in mm and weight in mg was carried out. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test for tissue fragmentation and Kruskal-Wallis test for the parameters length and weight were calculated. Results: prototype 5 showed the highest rate of extraction of one-fragment specimens in n=66 cases and the lowest rate of failure to obtain tissue in n=11 cases. The mean length/weight were 4.15 mm/3.91 mg for prototype 1, 1.80 mm/1.66 mg for prototype 2, 4.61 mm/3.28 mg for prototype 3, 5.20 mm/3.74 mg for prototype 4, and 9.57 mm/6.97 mg for prototype 5. In all three categories, prototype 5 was significantly superior to the prototypes 1-4 with p < 0.001. Conclusion: the cannula type with a lancet-like helically bent cutting edge proved to be the most efficient prototype and may now be tested competitively against established automated biopsy devices in vitro. (orig.)

  10. Market conditions for wind power and biofuel-based cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the prerequisites for biofuel-based cogeneration plants and for wind power, with special emphasis on following factors: 1/ The effect on the Swedish energy market of the opening of the power transmission networks for free competition within the electric power supply sector. 2/ A market model for the connection between the prices on fossil fuels, biomass fuels, electric power, and heating on the Swedish market. The analysis is made for three scenarios concerning carbon dioxide/energy taxation and the oil price development. The three scenarios are: A. Constant prices on heating oil and coal., B. An internationally uniform carbon dioxide tax, which successively is raised to SEK 0.40 per kilo carbon dioxide to the year 2010. In the year 2005 this will correspond to a doubling of the present prices on crude oil., C. An unilateral Swedish energy- and carbon dioxide tax of todays model (without exception for electric power generation), with constant import prices on heating oil and coal. The decisive factors for bio-cogeneration are construction- and operation costs, the costs of biofuels, and the sales price on electric power and heat. For wind power it is the construction- and operation costs that settle the conditions. 18 figs, 6 tabs

  11. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xing L., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850 °C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5 US¢/kW h cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950 °C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/kW h.

  12. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850°C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5US¢/KWh cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950°C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/KWh. (author)

  13. HTTR demonstration program for nuclear cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency initiated a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) demonstration program in accordance with recommendations of a task force established by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology according to the Strategic Energy Plan as of April 2014. The demonstration program is designed to complete helium gas turbine and hydrogen production system technologies aiming at commercial plant deployment in 2030s. The program begins with coupling a helium gas turbine in the secondary loop of the HTTR and expands by adding the H 2 plant to a tertiary loop to enable hydrogen cogeneration. Safety standards for coupling the helium gas turbine and H 2 plant to the nuclear reactor will be established through safety review in licensing. A system design and its control method are planned to be validated with a series of test operations using the HTTR-GT/H 2 plant. This paper explains the outline of HTTR demonstration program with a plant concept of the heat application system directed at establishing an HTGR cogeneration system with 950°C reactor outlet temperature for production of power and hydrogen as recommended by the task force. Commercial deployment strategy including a development plan for the helium gas turbine is also presented. (author)

  14. Development and testing of a prototype NPP information system based on the G2 expert system shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, J.; Bodnar, M.; Brueger, L.; Tanyi, M.; Sefcsik, F.

    1994-01-01

    The components and functioning of the GPCS information system is described as applied for process monitoring and alarm generation in WWER-440 type nuclear power plant. The prototype system was developed by using the G2 real-time expert system shell, measurements were simulated by a WWER-440 compact simulator and by the archive replay of a core monitoring system. The benefits of the object oriented technology description, expert system approach and information integration are emphasized. (author) 21 refs.; 17 figs

  15. Development of an integrated closed loop control system with virtual reality monitoring for Prototype Robotic Articulated System (PRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Naveen; Dutta, Pramit; Gotewal, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Prototype Robotic Articulated System (PRAS) is a servo driven 4 degrees of freedom robotic arm capable of handling of upto 5 kg payload. A virtual reality based monitoring application has been developed in blender and was intergrated with the control system to read the joint values of the robotic arm at 10Hz and update the CAD model to visualize the robotic operations remotely. This paper presents the design details and implementation results of the integrated control system for PRAS

  16. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  17. Mechanical properties used for the qualification of transport casks: Prototype development and extension to serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzbrenner, R.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of material in a specific cask is required to properly analyze the structural response of the cask. An appropriate way to establish this understanding is through laboratory testing of cask material. The laboratory testing that was done to support the MOSAIK Drop Test Program is summarized as an example of how mechanical properties can be mapped for a prototype cask. The broad range of measured properties allows the critical aspects of mechanical behavior to be understood. This is necessary for the proper application of fracture mechanics, and focuses on fracture toughness as the inherent materials property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. The general fracture mechanics approach and its application to specific cask designs are described elsewhere (Salzbrenner et al. 1990, Sorenson et al. 1992a, Sorenson et al. 1992b). The understanding established by a thorough mapping of the mechanical properties is necessary to apply fracture mechanics to a particular prototype, but it is not sufficient for qualifying serially produced casks. The mechanical behavior of a prototype must be correctly associated with parameters which can be measured on production casks. Since the production casks cannot be destructively tested, measurements are commonly made on sub-size specimens. This may prevent direct measurement of valid design properties. An additional database may then be required to establish the correlation between sub-size specimen measurements and valid design properties. This is illustrated by outlining the additional testing which would be necessary to allow the successful verification of the MOSAIK Drop Test Program to be extended from the prototype to serially produced casks

  18. Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Malay K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Horenstein, Mark N. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Joglekar, Nitin R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The feasibility of integrating and retrofitting transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) on the front surfaces of solar collectors was established as a means to provide active self-cleaning properties for parabolic trough and heliostat reflectors, solar panels, and Fresnel lenses. Prototype EDS-integrated solar collectors, including second-surface glass mirrors, metallized Acrylic-film mirrors, and dielectric mirrors, were produced and tested in environmental test chambers for removing the dust layer deposited on the front surface of the mirrors. The evaluation of the prototype EDS-integrated mirrors was conducted using dust and environmental conditions that simulate the field conditions of the Mojave Desert. Test results showed that the specular reflectivity of the mirrors could be maintained at over 90% over a wide range of dust loadings ranging from 0 to 10 g/m2, with particle diameter varying from 1 to 50 μm. The measurement of specular reflectivity (SR) was performed using a D&S Reflectometer at wavelength 660 nm. A non-contact reflectometer was designed and constructed for rapid measurement of specular reflectivity at the same wavelength. The use of this new noncontact instrument allowed us to measure SR before and after EDS activation. Several EDS prototypes were constructed and evaluated with different electrode configurations, electrode materials, and encapsulating dielectric materials.

  19. Development of a 352 MHz Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Cuvet, Y; Völlinger, C; Vretenar, M; Gerigk, F

    2004-01-01

    At linac energies above 40 MeV, alternative structures to the conventional Drift Tube Linac can be used to increase efficiency and to simplify construction and alignment. In the frame of the R&D activities for the CERN SPL and Linac4, a prototype of Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) at 352 MHz has been designed and built. This particular CCDTL concept is intended to cover the energy range from 40 to 90 MeV and consists of modules of ~5 m length made of 3-gap DTL tanks linked by coupling cells. The focusing quadrupoles are placed between tanks, and are aligned independently from the RF structure. The CCDTL prototype consists of two half tanks connected by a coupling cell and requires an RF power of 120 kW to achieve the design gradient. RF tests will be made at low and high power, the latter up to a 20% duty cycle. This paper introduces the main features of this CCDTL design and describes the RF and mechanical design of the prototype.

  20. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  1. Refinement of Foam Backfill Technology for Expedient Airfield Damage Repair; Phase 2: Development of Prototype Foam Dispensing Equipment and Improved Tactics, Techniques and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ER D C TR -1 7- 14 U.S. Air Force Rapid Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program Refinement of Foam Backfill Technology for...Backfill Technology for Expedient Airfield Damage Repair Phase II: Development of Prototype Foam Dispensing Equipment and Improved Tactics...procedures (TTPs) for rapid airfield damage repair (RADR) using foam backfill technology . Three different prototype foam dispensing systems were

  2. A novel cogeneration system: A proton exchange membrane fuel cell coupled to a heat transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huicochea, A.; Romero, R.J.; Rivera, W.; Gutierrez-Urueta, G.; Siqueiros, J.; Pilatowsky, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the potential of a novel cogeneration system which consists of a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and an absorption heat transformer (AHT). The dissipation heat resulting from the operation of the PEMFC would be used to feed the absorption heat transformer, which is integrated to a water purification system. Therefore, the products of the proposed cogeneration system are heat, electricity and distilled water. The study includes a simulation for the PEMFC as well as experimental results obtained with an experimental AHT facility. Based on the simulation results, experimental tests were performed in order to estimate the performance parameters of the overall system. This is possible due to the matching in power and temperatures between the outlet conditions of the simulated fuel cell and the inlet requirements of the AHT. Experimental coefficients of performance are reported for the AHT as well as the overall cogeneration efficiency for the integrated system. The results show that experimental values of coefficient of performance of the AHT and the overall cogeneration efficiency, can reach up to 0.256 and 0.571, respectively. This represents an increment in 12.4% of efficiency, compared to the fuel cell efficiency working individually. This study shows that the combined use of AHT systems with a PEMFC is possible and it is a very feasible project to be developed in the Centro de Investigación en Energía (Centre of Energy Research), México.

  3. Economic potential of natural gas-fired cogeneration in Brazil: two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno [Rio de Janeiro Federal Univ., Energy Planning Program (COPPE), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cidade Univ., Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2000-11-01

    Recent restructuring of Brazil's power sector, allied to the expected larger share of natural gas in the nation's grid and the cost reductions of gas-fired power generation technologies, has introduced a set of situations apparently favorable to the expansion of natural gas-fired cogeneration. However, electricity self-generation applications are restricted to specific cases in Brazil. In order to deal with this issue, the COGEN model was developed to assess the economic potential of cogeneration ventures from the standpoint of the investor and guide incentive public policies. This model has been applied to two cases in Brazil -- a chemical plant and a shopping mall -- showing that the highest economic potential for gas-fired cogeneration in Brazil is found in industrial plants faced with high values of loss of load. In the commercial sector, measures reshaping the load curve of enterprises -- such as cold storage --- might be much more interesting than fired cogeneration. (Author)

  4. THE ROLE OF PROTOTYPING AND SIMULATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF AN ELASTIC COUPLING WITH FLEXIBLE MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRE Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of a competitive market, the use of 3D modelling, visualisation and simulation tools enable the entire coupling to be designed and developed in the pre-manufacturing phase. Several advantages of introducing virtual prototyping are offered. The goal for the coupling prototype is to answer questions about performance and reliability in order to identify necessary engineering changes for the final coupling variant. Facilitating the virtual reality communication capability, different variations of the geometry and other characteristics can be studied and discussed in a more efficient mode. Virtual features of the coupling structure are described and analysed for the efficient realization of coupling project. At the end, the paper presents design simulations to prove the behaviour and functionality of the coupling for different operational scenarios: mechanical stress, buckling stability and modal analysis.

  5. Developing and Testing the Health Care Safety Hotline: A Prototype Consumer Reporting System for Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C; Ridgely, M Susan; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Leuschner, Kristin J; Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the design, development, and testing of the Health Care Safety Hotline, a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events. The prototype was designed and developed with ongoing review by a technical expert panel and feedback obtained during a public comment period. Two health care delivery organizations in one metropolitan area collaborated with the researchers to demonstrate and evaluate the system. The prototype was deployed and elicited information from patients, family members, and caregivers through a website or an 800 phone number. The reports were considered useful and had little overlap with information received by the health care organizations through their usual risk management, customer service, and patient safety monitoring systems. However, the frequency of reporting was lower than anticipated, suggesting that further refinements, including efforts to raise awareness by actively soliciting reports from subjects, might be necessary to substantially increase the volume of useful reports. It is possible that a single technology platform could be built to meet a variety of different patient safety objectives, but it may not be possible to achieve several objectives simultaneously through a single consumer reporting system while also establishing trust with patients, caregivers, and providers.

  6. Energy performance of a micro-cogeneration device during transient and steady-state operation: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration is a well-established technology and its deployment has been considered by the European Community as one of the most effective measure to save primary energy and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As a consequence, the estimation of the potential impact of micro-cogeneration devices is necessary to design policy and to energetically, ecologically and economically rank these systems among other potential energy saving and CO 2 -reducing measures. Even if transient behaviour can be very important when the engine is frequently started and stopped and allowed to cool-down in between, for the sake of simplicity mainly static and simplified methods are used for assessing the performance of cogeneration devices, completely neglecting the dynamic response of the units themselves. In the first part of this paper a series of experiments is illustrated and discussed in detail in order to highlight and compare the transient and stationary operation of a natural gas fuelled reciprocating internal combustion engine based cogeneration unit with 6.0 kW as nominal electric output and 11.7 kW as nominal thermal output. The measured performance of the cogeneration device is also compared with the performance of the system calculated on the basis of the efficiency values suggested by the manufacturer in order to highlight and quantify the discrepancy between the two approaches in evaluating the unit operation. Finally the experimental data are also compared with those predicted by a simulation model developed within IEA/ECBCS Annex 42 and experimentally calibrated by the authors in order to assess the model reliability for studying and predicting the performance of the system under different operating scenarios. -- Highlights: ► Transient operation of a cogeneration system has been experimentally investigated. ► Steady-state operation of a cogeneration device has been experimentally evaluated. ► Measured data have been compared with those predicted by a

  7. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  8. Development of automated prototype for studying the effect of solar aging on sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2015-06-01

    The first Brazilian standard for UV protection sunglasses, NBR15111, was drafted and published in 2003, hitherto a faithful copy (mirror) of European, BSEN1836 standard. From 2010 to 2013 the Laboratório de Instrumentação Oftálmica of the School of Engineering of São Carlos (USP) made contribution in the review and drafting of this standard and the main change so far is on the extension of the UV range analysis for protection of sunglasses, i.e. from 280 - 380nm to 280-400nm. In previous studies, there are indications that ultraviolet protection degrades with use and exposure of sunglasses to natural ultraviolet radiation. Thus, this project aims to build a prototype for irradiating sunglasses lenses, where one of the spectacles will be submitted to the solar simulator; and the other to the prototype. This prototype consists of a panel with cover, which houses 100 lenses arranged in the vertical (user's) position and which will be irradiated by the sun from sunrise until sunset. The lid opens automatically and should turn towards the sun, so that the lens will always be irradiated facing the sun. Sensors will be installed to close the cover and protect the lenses of undesirable weather conditions and to determine the ultraviolet index to which the lenses are being subjected to. The exposure time and UV index will be recorded and automatic opening or closing the lid may also be interfered by a PC by online software. Previously to irradiation, spectroscopy will be performed and then repeated after every 30 days of exposure.

  9. Development of a prototype commonality analysis tool for use in space programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1988-01-01

    A software tool to aid in performing commonality analyses, called Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS), was designed, and a prototype version (CAPS 1.0) was implemented and tested. The CAPS 1.0 runs in an MS-DOS or IBM PC-DOS environment. The CAPS is designed around a simple input language which provides a natural syntax for the description of feasibility constraints. It provides its users with the ability to load a database representing a set of design items, describe the feasibility constraints on items in that database, and do a comprehensive cost analysis to find the most economical substitution pattern.

  10. Development and Experimental Results from a 1 kW Prototype AMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    containing an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) bed. As outlined in Pryds et al. (2009) a small scale AMR test device has been used for materials choice and optimising operation, with each component being thoroughly characterised and tested before implementation. The prototype design facilitates easy......A novel rotary magnetic refrigeration device has been designed and constructed following the concepts recently outlined in Bahl et al. (2011). The magnet and flow system design allow for almost continuous usage of both the magnetic field and the magnetocaloric material in 24 cassettes, each...

  11. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  12. Development of a prototype interactive learning system using multi-media technology for mission independent training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jack E.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacelab Mission Independent Training Program provides an overview of payload operations. Most of the training material is currently presented in workbook form with some lecture sessions to supplement selected topics. The goal of this project was to develop a prototype interactive learning system for one of the Mission Independent Training topics to demonstrate how the learning process can be improved by incorporating multi-media technology into an interactive system. This report documents the development process and some of the problems encountered during the analysis, design, and production phases of this system.

  13. A Software Prototype Development of Human System Interfaces for Human Factors Engineering Validation Tests of SMART MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Tae; Kang, Young Sun; Park, Byung Yul; Han, Kwan Ho; Yang, Sung Won; Oh, In Su; Kim, Myung Ju; Bae, Mun Jin; Nam, Gi Ho; Lim, Do Yeun

    2009-12-01

    This report's aim is to develop a software prototype that will be used in the partial dynamic mockup of SMART MCR(main control room). The software mainly consist of the plant a dynamic model and various operation displays that will be installed into MCR. They includes the codes such as main data processing logics like alarm reduction logic and display methods like ecological interface display and elastic tile alarm display developed by KAERI. The unit test and integrated test of them are performed according to predefined test procedure

  14. A new protection system against high voltage vacuum breakdowns developed for the Tore Supra neutral beam injector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.; Jequier, F.; Pamela, J.

    1988-01-01

    A passive protection system against high voltage vacuum breakdowns has been developed. This system is based on the principle of oscillatory discharges in an RLC circuit coupled with the use of a diode. It allows the interruption of a vacuum breakdown in a few milliseconds. This study has been made for protecting some parts of the neutral beam injectors of the Tore Supra Tokamak experiment, but its field of application should be quite large. The conception of the whole high voltage electrical circuit developed for the Tore Supra injector prototype experiments is also presented

  15. Development and test of the DAQ system for a Micromegas prototype installed into the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zibell, Andre; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianco, Michele; Martoiu, Victor Sorin

    2015-01-01

    A Micromegas (MM) quadruplet prototype with an active area of 0.5 m$^2$ that adopts the general design foreseen for the upgrade of the innermost forward muon tracking systems (Small Wheels) of the ATLAS detector in 2018-2019, has been built at CERN and is going to be tested in the ATLAS cavern environment during the LHC RUN-II period 2015-2017. The integration of this prototype detector into the ATLAS data acquisition system using custom ATCA equipment is presented. An ATLAS compatible ReadOutDriver (ROD) based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS), the Scalable Readout Unit (SRU), will be used in order to transmit the data after generating valid event fragments to the high-level Read Out System (ROS). The SRU will be synchronized with the LHC bunch crossing clock (40.08 MHz) and will receive the Level-1 trigger signals from the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) through the TTCrx receiver ASIC. The configuration of the system will be driven directly from the ATLAS Run Control System. By using the ATLAS TDAQ Soft...

  16. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai [Dept. of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 EUR kW h{sup -1}. As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate. (author)

  17. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of Stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 Euro kW h -1 . As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate.

  18. Practical design considerations for nuclear cogeneration installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koupal, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dual-purpose nuclear plants, cogeneration electricity and steam, offer significant economic benefits over comparable electricity generating stations. The design of such a nuclear facility requires the resolution of unique technical challenges. This paper reports on experience gained in the detailed design of such a dual-purpose facility with the steam supplied to a chemical plant for process heating. The following topics are discussed: Siting, Radioactivity of Export Steam, Optimization for Load Combinations, Steam Supply Reliability, Steam Transportation, Water Chemistry, Cost Allocation. (author)

  19. Development of prototype components for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton

    2013-06-26

    . A detector module is a basic functional unit that includes a sensor, an analogue microcable and frontend electronics mounted on a support structure. The objective of the thesis is to perform quality assurance tests of the prototype module components in order to validate the concept of the detector module and to demonstrate its operation using radioactive sources and particle beams. Double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been chosen as sensor technology for the STS because of the combination of a good spatial resolution, two-dimensional coordinate measurement achieved within low material budget (0.3%X{sub 0}), high readout speed and sufficient radiation tolerance. Several generations of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors have been manufactured in order to explore the radiation hard design features and the concept of a large-area sensor compatible with ladder-type structure of the detector module. In particular, sensors with double metal layer on both sides and active area of 62 x 62 mm{sup 2} have been produced. Electrical characterization of the sensors has been performed in order to establish the overall operability as well as to extract the device parameters. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage characteristics and interstrip parameters have been measured. Readout of the sensors has been done using self-triggering front-end electronics. A front-end board has been developed based on the n-XYTER readout chip with data driven architecture and capable of operating at 32 MHz readout rate. The front-end board included an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Calibration of the ADC has been performed using both {sup 241}Am X-ray source and external pulse generator. Threshold calibration and investigation of temperature dependence of chip parameters has been carried out. Low-mass support structures have been developed using carbon fibre that has the rigidity to hold the detector modules and introduce minimal Coulomb scattering of the particle tracks

  20. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. prototype system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document provides the high-level system architecture for the Prototype Development and Demonstration of a : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. system. The requirements addressed in this document are based upon those that can be found in : previous R.E.S.C.U.M.E. re...

  1. Implementation of gas district cooling and cogeneration systems in Malaysia; Mise en oeuvre de systemes de gas district cooling et de cogeneration en Malaisie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. [Gas District Cooling, M, Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    With its energy demand in the early 1990's growing at a high rate due to the country's strong economic growth, Malaysia studied various options to improve the efficiency of its energy use. Since its natural gas reserves are almost four times that of its crude oil reserves, efforts were therefore centered on seeking ways to boost the use of natural gas to mitigate the growing domestic energy need. PETRONAS, the national oil company, subsequently studied and chose the District Cooling System using natural gas as the primary source of fuel. The Kuala Lumpur City Center development, which houses the PETRONAS Twin Towers, was subsequently chosen as the first project to use the Gas District Cooling (GDC) System. To acquire the technology and implement this project, PETRONAS created a new subsidiary, Gas District Cooling (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad (GDC(M)). In the process of improving the plant's efficiency, GDC(M) discovered that the GDC system's efficiency and project economics would be significantly enhanced if its is coupled to a Cogeneration system. Having proven the success of the GDC/Cogeneration system, GDC(M) embarked on a campaign to aggressively promote and seek new opportunities to implement the system, both in Malaysia-and abroad. Apart from enhancing efficiency of energy use, and providing better project economics, the GDC/Cogeneration system also is environment friendly. Today, the GDC/Cogeneration systems is the system of choice for several important developments in Malaysia, which also includes the country's prestigious projects such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and the New Federal Government Administrative Center in Putrajaya. (author)

  2. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-01-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  3. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-03-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  4. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection, the Arab World is moving to further improve energy conversion efficiency. The equivalent of over 2.7 MM bbl is being daily burnt to fuel the thermal power plants that represent 92% of the total Arab power generation. This adds up to close to one billion barrels annually. At a conservative 30$ per barrel, this represents a daily cost of over $81 Million. This paper will introduce two strategies with the ultimate objective to cut-off up to half of the current fuel consumption. Firstly, Cogeneration Technology is able to improve thermal efficiency from the current average of less than 25% to up to 80%. Just 1% improvement in power plant thermal efficiency represents 3 million $/day in fuel cost savings. In addition, a well-designed and operated cogeneration plant will: - Reduce unfriendly emissions by burning less fuel as a result of higher thermal efficiency, - Increase the decentralization of electrical generation, - Improve the reliability of electricity supply. As an example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's experience of implementing cogeneration will be presented, in particular within its hydrocarbon facilities and desalination plants. This will include the existing facilities and the planned and on-going projects. Secondly, by interconnecting the power networks of all the adjacent Arab countries, the following benefits could be reached: - Reduce generation reserves and enhance the system reliability, - Improve the economic efficiency of the electricity power systems, - Provide power exchange and strengthen the supply reliability, - Adopt technological development and use the best modern technologies. At least two factors plead for this direction. On one hand, the four-hour time zone difference from Eastern to Western Arab World makes it easy to exchange power. On the other hand, this will help to reduce the reserve capacity and save on corresponding Capital investment, fuel, and O and M

  5. Development and Manufacturing Technology of Prototype Monoblock Low Pressure Rotor Shaft by 650ton Large Ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Duk-Yong; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jungyeup; Lee, Jongwook; Ko, Seokhee [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to establish the manufacturing technology for monoblock LP rotor shaft, DHI has produced the prototype monoblock LP rotor shaft with a maximum diameter of φ 2,800 mm using 650 ton ingot and investigated the mechanical properties and the internal quality of the ingot. As a result, the quality and mechanical properties required the large rotor shaft for nuclear power plant met a target. These results indicate that DHI can be contributed to increasing demands with high efficiency and capacity at the nuclear power plant. Additionally, some tests such as high cycle fatigue (HCF), low cycle fatigue (LCF), fracture toughness (K1C/J1C) and dynamic crack propagation velocity (da/dN) are in progress.

  6. Development in design of test infrastructure for ITER prototype cryoline test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketan, Choukekar; Ritendra, Bhattacharya; Nitin, Shah; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Himanshu, Kapoor; Pratik, Patel; Uday, Kumar; Biswanath, Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    The prototype cryoline (PTCL) for ITER is a representative cryoline from the complex network of all cryolines for the project. PTCL consist of six process pipes (of which four are operating at 4 K temperature level while two are operating at 80 K temperature level), thermal shield and outer vacuum jacket. PTCL will be tested for its thermal performance, mechanical integrity, leak tightness and functioning of components at cryogenic temperatures. The test infrastructure requirements for testing of PTCL have been identified based on the optimized test methodology. The best suited infrastructure option to test PTCL involves 80K system with helium compressor, test boxes, liquid helium Dewar, liquid nitrogen Dewar and interconnecting cryolines. Process study and various analyses have been performed to finalize the specifications of test infrastructure. The present work describes study on global thermo-hydraulic analysis of PTCL test infrastructure. Preliminary process simulation using the ASPEN HYSYS® has been performed to study the dynamic behavior of 80K system. (author)

  7. Luminosity Measurement at ATLAS Development, Construction and Test of Scintillating Fibre Prototype Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ask, S; Braem, André; Cheiklali, C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fournier, D; de La Taille, C; Di Girolamo, B; Grafström, P; Joram, C; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hedberg, V; Lavigne, B; Maio, A; Mapelli, A; Mjörnmark, U; Puzo, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Stenzel, H; Thioye, M; Valladolid, E; Vorobel, V

    2006-01-01

    We are reporting about a scintillating fibre tracking detector which is proposed for the precise determination of the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at interaction point 1 where the ATLAS experiment is located. The detector needs to track protons elastically scattered under $\\mu$rad angles in direct vicinity to the LHC beam. It is based on square shaped scintillating plastic fibres read out by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes and is housed in Roman Pots. We describe the design and construction of prototype detectors and the results of a beam test experiment at DESY. The excellent detector performance established in this test validates the detector design and supports the feasibility of the proposed challenging method of luminosity measurement.

  8. Independent power and cogeneration in Ontario's new competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstable, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The factors influencing the initial market pricing in the early years of Ontario's new electricity market were discussed with particular insight on the potential for near term development of independent power and cogeneration. The major factors influencing prices include: (1) no increase in retail prices, (2) financial restructuring of Ontario Hydro, (3) the Market Power Mitigation Agreement, (4) tighter power plant emissions standards, and (5) an electricity supply and demand balance. Generation competition is not expected to influence market pricing in the early years of the new electricity market. Prices will instead reflect the restructuring decisions of the Ontario government. The decision to have Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPGI) as a single generator for Ontario Hydro's generation assets will ensure that average spot market pricing in the early market years will be close to a 3.8 c/kWh revenue cap

  9. Cogeneration using a nuclear reactor to generate process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Some of the new nuclear reactor technologies (Generation III+) are claiming the production of process heat as an additional value to electricity generation. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product. The current study assess the likeliness of generate process heat from a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balance and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor and also the challenges that this option has. (author)

  10. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  11. Prototype detector development for measurement of high altitude Martian dust using a future orbiter platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Patel, Darshil; Chokhawala, Vimmi; Bogavelly, Anvesh

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils mostly occur during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer on Mars and play a key role in the background dust opacity. Due to continuous bombardment of micrometeorites, secondary ejecta come out from the Moons of the Mars and can easily escape. This phenomenon can contribute dust around the Moons and therefore, also around the Mars. Similar to the Moons of the Earth, the surfaces of the Martian Moons get charged and cause the dust levitation to occur, adding to the possible dust source. Also, interplanetary dust particles may be able to reach the Mars and contribute further. It is hypothesized that the high altitude Martian dust could be in the form of a ring or tori around the Mars. However, no such rings have been detected to the present day. Typically, width and height of the dust torus is ~5 Mars radii wide (~16950 km) in both the planes as reported in the literature. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, a langmuir probe cannot explain the source of such dust particles. It is a puzzling question to the space scientist how dust has reached to such high altitudes. A dedicated dust instrument on future Mars orbiter may be helpful to address such issues. To study origin, abundance, distribution and seasonal variation of Martian dust, a Mars Orbit Dust Experiment (MODEX) is proposed. In order to measure the Martian dust from a future orbiter, design of a prototype of an impact ionization dust detector has been initiated at PRL. This paper presents developmental aspects of the prototype dust detector and initial results. The further work is underway.

  12. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modelling language. 3. Study with prototyping. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Chiba, Go; Kasahara, Naoto; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2004-04-01

    In the fast reactor development, numerical simulations using analysis code play and important role for complementing theory and experiment. In order to efficiently advance the research and development of fast reactors, JNC promotes the development of next generation simulation code (NGSC). In this report, an investigation research result by prototyping which carried out for the conceptual design of the NGSC is described. From the viewpoint of the cooperative research with CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) in France, a trend survey on several platforms for numerical analysis and an applicability evaluation of the SALOME platform in CEA for the NGSC were carried out. As a result of the evaluation, it is confirmed that the SALOME had been satisfied the features of efficiency, openness, universality, expansibility and completeness that are required by the NGSC. In addition, it is confirmed that the SALOME had the concept of the control layer required by the NGSC and would be one of the important candidates as a platform of the NGSC. In the field of the structure analysis, the prototype of the PRTS.NET code was reexamined from the viewpoint of class structure and input/output specification in order to improve the data processing efficiency and maintainability. In the field of the reactor physics analysis, a development test of a new code with C++ and a reuse test of an existing code written in Fortran was carried out in view of utilizing the SALOME for the NGSC. (author)

  13. Optimization of a gas turbine cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.; Wessman, M.

    1991-11-01

    This work describes an analytical method of optimizing a cogeneration with a gas turbine as prime mover. The method is based on an analytical function. The function describes the total costs of the heat production, described by the heat load duration curve. The total costs consist of the prime costs and fixed costs of the gas turbine and the other heating plants. The parameters of interest at optimization are the heat efficiency produced by the gas turbine and the utilization time of the gas turbine. With todays prices for electricity, fuel and heating as well as maintenance- personnel and investment costs, extremely good conditions are needed to make the gas turbine profitable. Either a raise of the price for the electricity with about 33% is needed or that the ratio of electricity and fuel increases to approx 2.5. High investment subsidies for the gas turbines could make a gas turbine profitable, even with todays electricity- and fuel prices. Besides being a good help when projecting cogeneration plants with a gas turbine as prime mover, the method gives a possibility to optimize the annual operating time for a certain gas turbine when changing the operating conditions. 6 refs

  14. High temperature cogeneration with thermionic burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Britt, E.J.; Dick, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The thermionic cogeneration combustor was conceived to meet industrial requirements for high-temperature direct heat, typically in the form of gas at temperatures from 800 to 1900 K, while at the same time supplying electricity. The thermionic combustor is entirely self-contained, with heat from the combustion region absorbed by the emitters of thermionic converters to be converted to electric power and the high-temperature reject heat from the converters used to preheat the air used for combustion. Depending on the temperature of the process gas produced, energy savings of around 10% with respect to that used to produce the same amount of electricity and heat without cogeneration are possible with present technology, and savings of up to 20% may be possible with advanced converters. Possible thermionic combustor designs currently under investigation include a configuration in which heat is collected by heat pipes lining the periphery of the combustion region, and a fire-tube converter in which combustion occurs within the cylindrical emitter of each converter. Preliminary component tests of these designs have been encouraging

  15. Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

  16. High temperature cogeneration with thermionic burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Britt, E. J.; Dick, R. S.

    The thermionic cogeneration combustor was conceived to meet industrial requirements for high-temperature direct heat, typically in the form of gas at temperatures from 800 to 1900 K, while at the same time supplying electricity. The thermionic combustor is entirely self-contained, with heat from the combustion region absorbed by the emitters of thermionic converters to be converted to electric power and the high-temperature reject heat from the converters used to preheat the air used for combustion. Depending on the temperature of the process gas produced, energy savings of around 10% with respect to that used to produce the same amount of electricity and heat without cogeneration are possible with present technology, and savings of up to 20% may be possible with advanced converters. Possible thermionic combustor designs currently under investigation include a configuration in which heat is collected by heat pipes lining the periphery of the combustion region, and a fire-tube converter in which combustion occurs within the cylindrical emitter of each converter. Preliminary component tests of these designs have been encouraging.

  17. A Prototype Lisp-Based Soft Real-Time Object-Oriented Graphical User Interface for Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan; Wong, Edmond; Simon, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype Lisp-based soft real-time object-oriented Graphical User Interface for control system development is presented. The Graphical User Interface executes alongside a test system in laboratory conditions to permit observation of the closed loop operation through animation, graphics, and text. Since it must perform interactive graphics while updating the screen in real time, techniques are discussed which allow quick, efficient data processing and animation. Examples from an implementation are included to demonstrate some typical functionalities which allow the user to follow the control system's operation.

  18. Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the most recent trends and concepts in power engineering, especially with regard to prosumer and civic energy generation. In so doing, it draws widely on his experience gained during the development of steam microturbines for use in small combined heat and power stations based on the organic Rankine cycle (CHP-ORC). Major issues concerning the dynamic properties of mechanical systems, in particular rotating systems, are discussed, and the results obtained when using unconventional bearing systems, presented. Modeling and analysis of radial-flow and axial-flow microturbines a

  19. Development and demonstration of prototype transportation equipment for emplacing HL vitrified waste canisters into small diameter bored horizontal disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidler, Wolf K.; Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel; Londe, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Over a period of 4 and years the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), working with a variety of Contractors mostly specializing in nuclear orientated mechanical applications, successfully designed, fabricated and demonstrated 2 very different prototype high level waste transport systems. The first system, based on air cushion technology, was developed primarily for very heavy loads (17 to 45 tonnes). The results of this work are described in a separate presentation (Paper 21) at this Conference. The second system, developed by Andra within the framework of the ESDRED Project, generally referred to as the 'Pushing Robot System' for vitrified waste canisters, is the subject of this paper. The 'Pushing Robot System' is a part of the French national disposal concept that is described in Andra's 'Dossier 2005'. The latter is a public document that can be viewed on Andra's web site (www.andra.fr). The 'Pushing Robot System' system is designed for the deep geological disposal (in clay formations) of 'C' type vitrified waste canisters. In its entirety the system provides for the transport, emplacement and, if necessary, the retrieval of those canisters. Nothing in the design of the Andra emplacement equipment would preclude its utilization in horizontal openings in other types of geological settings. Over a period of some 8 years Andra has developed the 'Pushing Robot System' in 3 phases. Initially there was only the 'Conceptual Design' (Phase 1) which was incorporated in the Dossier 2005. This was followed by Phase 2 i.e. the design and fabrication of a simplified full scale prototype system henceforth referred to a P1, which includes a Pushing Robot, a Dummy Canister and a Test Bench. P1 details were also incorporated in the Dossier 2005. Finally, during Phase 3, a second more comprehensive full scale prototype system P2 has been designed and is being assembled and tested this month. This system includes a Transport Shuttle, a Transfer Shielding Cask, a

  20. District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St Paul area. Executive summary; overall feasibility and economic viability for a district heating/new cogeneration system in Minneapolis-St. Paul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margen, P.; Larsson, K.; Cronholm, L.A.; Marklund, J.E.

    1979-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of introducing a large-scale, hot-water, district-heating system for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. The analysis was based on modern European hot-water district-heating concepts in which cogeneration power plants supply the base-load thermal energy. Heat would be supplied from converted turbines of existing coal-fired power plants in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Toward the end of the 20-year development period, one or two new cogeneration units would be required. Thus, the district-heating system could use low-grade heat from either coal-fired or nuclear cogeneration power stations to replace the space-heating fuels currently used - natural gas and distillate oil. The following conclusions can be drawn: the concept is technically feasible, it has great value for fuel conservation, and with appropriate financing the system is economically viable.

  1. Development of a time-of-flight Compton camera prototype for online control of ion therapy and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Hadron-therapy is one of the modalities available for treating cancer. This modality uses light ions (protons, carbon ions) to destroy cancer cells. Such particles have a ballistic accuracy thanks to their quasi-rectilinear trajectory, their path and the finished profile maximum dose in the end. Compared to conventional radiotherapy, this allows to spare the healthy tissue located adjacent downstream and upstream of the tumor. One of this modality's quality assurance challenges is to control the positioning of the dose deposited by ions in the patient. One possibility to perform this control is to detect the prompt gammas emitted during nuclear reactions induced along the ion path in the patient. A Compton camera prototype, theoretically allowing to maximize the detection efficiency of the prompt gammas, is being developed under a regional collaboration. This camera was the main focus of my thesis, and particularly the following points: i) studying, throughout Monte Carlo simulations, the operation of the prototype in construction, particularly with respect to the expected counting rates on the different types of accelerators in hadron-therapy ii) conducting simulation studies on the use of this camera in clinical imaging, iii) characterising the silicon detectors (scatterer) iv) confronting Geant4 simulations on the camera's response with measurements on the beam with the help of a demonstrator. As a result, the Compton camera prototype developed makes a control of the localization of the dose deposition in proton therapy to the scale of a spot possible, provided that the intensity of the clinical proton beam is reduced by a factor 200 (intensity of 10 8 protons/s). An application of the Compton camera in nuclear medicine seems to be attainable with the use of radioisotopes of an energy greater than 300 keV. These initial results must be confirmed by more realistic simulations (homogeneous and heterogeneous PMMA targets). Tests with the progressive

  2. Development of a prototype of the tele-localisation system in radiotherapy using personal digital assistant via wireless communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent Wing-Cheung; Tang, Fuk-hay; Cheung, Wai-kwan; Chan, Kit-chi

    2013-02-01

    In localisation of radiotherapy treatment field, the oncologist is present at the simulator to approve treatment details produced by the therapist. Problems may arise if the oncologist is not available and the patient requires urgent treatment. The development of a tele-localisation system is a potential solution, where the oncologist uses a personal digital assistant (PDA) to localise the treatment field on the image sent from the simulator through wireless communication and returns the information to the therapist after his or her approval. Our team developed the first tele-localisation prototype, which consisted of a server workstation (simulator) for the administration of digital imaging and communication in medicine localisation images including viewing and communication with the PDA via a Wi-Fi network; a PDA (oncologist's site) installed with the custom-built programme that synchronises with the server workstation and performs treatment field editing. Trial tests on accuracy and speed of the prototype system were conducted on 30 subjects with the treatment regions covering the neck, skull, chest and pelvis. The average time required in performing the localisation using the PDA was less than 1.5 min, with the blocked field longer than the open field. The transmission speed of the four treatment regions was similar. The average physical distortion of the images was within 4.4% and the accuracy of field size indication was within 5.3%. Compared with the manual method, the tele-localisation system presented with an average deviation of 5.5%. The prototype system fulfilled the planned objectives of tele-localisation procedure with reasonable speed and accuracy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  4. The cogeneration potential of the sugar industry in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Thang, D.N.Q.

    2004-01-01

    Vietnam produces about 15 million tons of sugarcane per year and about five mt of bagasse. There is the potential for cogeneration using bagasse, which can also help overcome power shortages in the country. This paper analyses the potential for cogeneration from the sugar industry in Vietnam under three different scenarios and finds that between 100 and 300 megawatts of power-generating capacity could be supported by the bagasse generated from sugar mills, depending on the technology considered for sugar mills and cogeneration and the possibility of renovation of the existing mills. The paper also assesses the expense of cogeneration and finds it to be a cost-effective option for all types of sugar mill. It is found that the cost savings from cogeneration would more than offset the cost of introducing cogeneration in sugar mills with inefficient cane processing technologies. Sugar mills with modern technologies would have a significant amount of excess power and most of these plants would break-even if they sold excess power at around 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. The break-even cost and the average production cost are sensitive to the investment cost assumptions. The paper thus suggests that cogeneration from the sugar industry is an attractive option for investors in existing mills or new sugar mills alike. (Author)

  5. High-efficiency Gas Cogeneration – an Assessment of the Support Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sołtysik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a single European energy market implies the need to harmonise national laws and the directions of the sector’s growth to EU determinants. One of these elements was the introduction of a system to support the development of high-efficiency cogeneration, including gas cogeneration. Several years of the mechanisms’ performance allows for analysis of the advisability and correctness of the support model format, and assessment of its impact on the sub-sector’s development and the cost of its operation. Against the background of the support system introduction origins, the paper presents results of volumetric and price analyses, trends, and assessment of the balance of property rights and of the mechanism’s effectiveness.

  6. Mathematical Modelling of a Hybrid Micro-Cogeneration Group Based on a Four Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol Valentin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a part of the work conducted in the first stage of a Research Grant called ”Hybrid micro-cogeneration group of high efficiency equipped with an electronically assisted ORC” acronym GRUCOHYB. The hybrid micro-cogeneration group is equipped with a four stroke Diesel engine having a maximum power of 40 kW. A mathematical model of the internal combustion engine is presented. The mathematical model is developed based on the Laws of Thermodynamics and takes into account the real, irreversible processes. Based on the mathematical model a computation program was developed. The results obtained were compared with those provided by the Diesel engine manufacturer. Results show a very high correlation between the manufacturer’s data and the simulation results for an engine running at 100% load. Future developments could involve using an exergetic analysis to show the ability of the ORC to generate electricity from recovered heat

  7. Automated Work Packages Prototype: Initial Design, Development, and Evaluation. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Al Rashdan, Ahmad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The goal of the Automated Work Packages (AWP) project is to demonstrate how to enhance work quality, cost management, and nuclear safety through the use of advanced technology. The work described in this report is part of the digital architecture for a highly automated plant project of the technical program plan for advanced instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies. This report addresses the DOE Milestone M2LW-15IN0603112: Describe the outcomes of field evaluations/demonstrations of the AWP prototype system and plant surveillance and communication framework requirements at host utilities. A brief background to the need for AWP research is provided, then two human factors field evaluation studies are described. These studies focus on the user experience of conducting a task (in this case a preventive maintenance and a surveillance test) while using an AWP system. The remaining part of the report describes an II&C effort to provide real time status updates to the technician by wireless transfer of equipment indications and a dynamic user interface.

  8. Development of Prototype Laboratory Setup for Selective Detection of Ethylene Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kathirvelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a prototype laboratory setup for detecting ethylene (C2H4 in ppm level employing a sensor made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes of 40 nm average tube diameter. The proposed reversible chemoresistive ethylene sensor is fabricated using Kapton as the substrate onto which carbon nanotubes are coated using thick film technology. IDT silver electrodes are printed using piezo head based ink-jet printing technology. The increases in electrical resistance of the sensor element are measured on exposure to ethylene for different ethylene concentrations using a potentiostat and data acquisition system. The increase in resistance of the calibrated sensor element on exposure to ethylene (analyte is about 18.4% at room temperature for 50 ppm ethylene concentration. This change is reversible. Our sensor element exhibits a better performance than those reported earlier (1.8% and it has got the rise and fall time of 10 s and 60 s, respectively. It could be used for testing the ripening of fruits.

  9. Automated Work Packages Prototype: Initial Design, Development, and Evaluation. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Al Rashdan, Ahmad; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Bly, Aaron Douglas; Agarwal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the Automated Work Packages (AWP) project is to demonstrate how to enhance work quality, cost management, and nuclear safety through the use of advanced technology. The work described in this report is part of the digital architecture for a highly automated plant project of the technical program plan for advanced instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies. This report addresses the DOE Milestone M2LW-15IN0603112: Describe the outcomes of field evaluations/demonstrations of the AWP prototype system and plant surveillance and communication framework requirements at host utilities. A brief background to the need for AWP research is provided, then two human factors field evaluation studies are described. These studies focus on the user experience of conducting a task (in this case a preventive maintenance and a surveillance test) while using an AWP system. The remaining part of the report describes an II&C effort to provide real time status updates to the technician by wireless transfer of equipment indications and a dynamic user interface.

  10. Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Debasis; Ghose, Sanjit; Medasani, Bharat K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Legg, Benjamin A.; Zhou, Yufan; Zhu, Zihua; Sushko, Maria L.; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Billinge, Simon L.

    2018-03-28

    Given the wide-ranging potential applications of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging imperative is to understand their formation with atomic scale precision. This will aid in designing syntheses for next-generation MOFs with enhanced properties and functionalities. Major challenges are to characterize the early-stage seeds, and the pathways to framework growth, which require synthesis coupled with in situ structural characterization sensitive to nanoscale structures in solution. Here we report measurements of an in situ synthesis of a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8, utilizing synchrotron X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis optimized for sensitivity to dilute species, complemented by mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We observe that despite rapid formation of the crystalline product, a high concentration of Zn(2-MeIm)4 (2-MeIm = 2-methylimidazolate) initially forms and persists as stable clusters over long times. A secondary, amorphous phase also pervades during the synthesis, which has a structural similarity to the final ZIF-8 and may act as an intermediate to the final product.

  11. Development of a prototype plan for the effective closure of a waste disposal site in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Barnes, F.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of a semiarid low-level waste disposal site. This prototype plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos based on previous shallow land burial (SLB) field research both at the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), and at a waste disposal area at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems at Waste Disposal Area B having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that one of the two models tested represented soil moisture more accurately than the second model. The accuracy of modeling all of the parameters of the water balance equation was then evaluated using field data from the Integrated Systems Demonstration plots at the EETF. Optimized parameters were developed for one model to describe observed values of deep percolation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from the field plots containing an SLB trench cap configuration

  12. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M; Majid, A

    2013-01-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO 2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO 2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO 2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants

  13. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  14. The development and evaluation of a hydrological seasonal forecast system prototype for predicting spring flood volumes in Swedish rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kean; Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Olsson, Jonas

    2018-05-01

    Hydropower makes up nearly half of Sweden's electrical energy production. However, the distribution of the water resources is not aligned with demand, as most of the inflows to the reservoirs occur during the spring flood period. This means that carefully planned reservoir management is required to help redistribute water resources to ensure optimal production and accurate forecasts of the spring flood volume (SFV) is essential for this. The current operational SFV forecasts use a historical ensemble approach where the HBV model is forced with historical observations of precipitation and temperature. In this work we develop and test a multi-model prototype, building on previous work, and evaluate its ability to forecast the SFV in 84 sub-basins in northern Sweden. The hypothesis explored in this work is that a multi-model seasonal forecast system incorporating different modelling approaches is generally more skilful at forecasting the SFV in snow dominated regions than a forecast system that utilises only one approach. The testing is done using cross-validated hindcasts for the period 1981-2015 and the results are evaluated against both climatology and the current system to determine skill. Both the multi-model methods considered showed skill over the reference forecasts. The version that combined the historical modelling chain, dynamical modelling chain, and statistical modelling chain performed better than the other and was chosen for the prototype. The prototype was able to outperform the current operational system 57 % of the time on average and reduce the error in the SFV by ˜ 6 % across all sub-basins and forecast dates.

  15. Micro-size cogeneration plants and virtual power plants. New energy landscapes; Mikro-KWK und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Neue Energielandschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Combined heat and power generation is an established technology. With micro-size cogeneration units, the technology is now available to private single or multiple dwellings and for decentral power supply of residential blocks. With the right political boundary conditions and integrated into virtual power stations, this is an option for enhanced use of renewable energy sources and for decentral, flexible and climate-friendly heat and power generation in buildings. Economic efficiency analyses by experts, high utilisation rates, innovative developments of the manufacturers and a positive public image are all in favour of a great future for micro-size cogeneration units. (orig.)

  16. Development of an expert system prototype for determining software functional requirements for command management activities at NASA Goddard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of an expert system prototype for software functional requirement determination for NASA Goddard's Command Management System, as part of its process of transforming general requests into specific near-earth satellite commands, is described. The present knowledge base was formulated through interactions with domain experts, and was then linked to the existing Knowledge Engineering Systems (KES) expert system application generator. Steps in the knowledge-base development include problem-oriented attribute hierarchy development, knowledge management approach determination, and knowledge base encoding. The KES Parser and Inspector, in addition to backcasting and analogical mapping, were used to validate the expert system-derived requirements for one of the major functions of a spacecraft, the solar Maximum Mission. Knowledge refinement, evaluation, and implementation procedures of the expert system were then accomplished.

  17. Modelling the dynamics of the cogeneration power plant gas-air duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy N. Bundyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing into wide practice the cogeneration power plants (or CHP is one of promising directions of the Ukrainian small-scale power engineering development. Thermal and electric energy generation using the same fuel kind can increase the overall plant efficiency. That makes it appropriate to use CHPs at compact residential areas, isolated industrial enterprises constituting one complex with staff housing area, at sports complexes, etc. The gas-air duct of the cogeneration power plant has been considered as an object of the diesel-generator shaft velocity control. The developed GAD mathematical model, served to analyze the CHP dynamic characteristics as acceleration curves obtained under different external disturbances in the MathWorks MATLAB environment. According to the electric power generation technology requirements a convenient transition process type has been selected, with subsequent identification of the diesel-generator shaft rotation speed control law.

  18. The RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies to distributed generation, cogeneration and thermoelectric in developing the natural gas in Brazil; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a geracao distribuida, cogeracao e termeletrica, no desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    From the PETROBRAS Strategic Plan, where 2015 mission and vision are defined, one search to reach the corporative strategy: 'to lead the natural gas market (NG) and to act in a integrated way in the energy market'. Amongst the corporative politics to guide the business strategies, we will be focusing the new businesses development, having as guide line the annual average growth in the domestic demand of NG, 14.2%. The Investment Plan foresees for the energy and gas area investments around US$ 1.8 billion for the 2003/2007 period, being approximately US$ 500 million destined to the conclusion of the already initiated projects of thermoelectric plants. The Strategic Technological Committee of Energy and Gas (COMEG 2003) defined as technologies of interest for PETROBRAS: renewed energies; sustainable development; NG chemical transformation; NG transport, distribution and storage; distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric; production, distribution and use of hydrogen as energy vector; industrial, commercial and residential applications of NG; energy efficiency; automotive systems applications; high power electrical systems and environment. The technology explained in this work, for development of the Brazilian Natural Gas Industry, highly compliant with the NG mass use plan, is the distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric and its associated technologies (combustion, IGCC, thermoelectric cycles optimization, gas turbines, boiler/heat recovers, microturbines, fuel cells, combustion engines, renewed energies and cold generation among others). There are several business strategies related to this technology: to play in the electric energy business to assure the NG and derivatives market commercialized by PETROBRAS; to play in the development of alternative sources of energy and; to invest in conservation of energy and renewable energy to add value to the company business. The RedeGasEnergia portfolio has 22 projects in this

  19. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  20. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  1. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  2. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  3. Klickitat Cogeneration Project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA's contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA's proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact)

  4. High temperature reactors for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)

    2016-05-15

    There is a large potential for nuclear energy also in the non-electric heat market. Many industrial sectors have a high demand for process heat and steam at various levels of temperature and pressure to be provided for desalination of seawater, district heating, or chemical processes. The future generation of nuclear plants will be capable to enter the wide field of cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), to reduce waste heat and to increase efficiency. This requires an adjustment to multiple needs of the customers in terms of size and application. All Generation-IV concepts proposed are designed for coolant outlet temperatures above 500 C, which allow applications in the low and medium temperature range. A VHTR would even be able to cover the whole temperature range up to approx. 1 000 C.

  5. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  6. Engineering study, development and prototype fabrication of the supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068725; Karyotakis, Yannis; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Alexopoulos, Theo; MEIS, Costantin; De Conto, Jean Marie; Jeremie, Andrea; Puzot, Patrique

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is based on the international collaboration in the field of high-energy particle physics research. The experiments carried out in its facilities are achieved through the existing particle accelerators. In addition, advanced accelerator research and development is one of the goals of CERN. For this reason, CLIC (the Compact LInear Collider) a new electron-positron linear accelerator is being studied at CERN. CLIC is built by the assembly of the Two-Beam Modules and takes advantage of an innovative acceleration principle, the Two-Beam acceleration. Each Module contains several technical systems that contribute to its successful operation. This thesis presents the development of the prototype supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module. At first, the physics requirements are translated into technical specifications and the fundamental parts of the supporting system are defined. The CLIC operational conditions are identified and the corresponding boundaries...

  7. Cogeneration steam turbine plant for district heating of Berovo (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    A plant for combined heat and electric power production, for central heating of the town Berovo (Macedonia) is proposed. The common reason to use a co-generation unit is the energy efficiency and a significant reduction of environmental pollution. A coal dust fraction from B rik' - Berovo coal mine is the main energy resource for cogeneration steam turbine plant. The heat consumption of town Berovo is analyzed and determined. Based on the energy consumption of a whole power plant, e. i. the plant for combined and simultaneous production of power is proposed. All necessary facilities of cogeneration plant is examined and determined. For proposed cogeneration steam turbine power plant for combined heat and electric production it is determined: heat and electric capacity of the plant, annually heat and electrical quantity production and annually coal consumption, the total investment of the plant, the price of both heat and electric energy as well as the pay back period. (Authors)

  8. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  9. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  10. Methodology study: Co-generation feasibility at sawmills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the various factors that should be studied and evaluated before establishing a cogeneration plant. The results of three case studies and a survey of energy needs in smaller and medium size sawmills are also presented. In general, cogeneration is feasible for supplying electric energy required for processing logs using fuelbark and other residues from the manufacturing process. A rebuilt turbine-generator unit is an initial cost saving alternative that is advantageous throughout the life of the operation

  11. Electric power supply: the viability of natural gas cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, C.P. de; Ennes, S.A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The technical and economical aspects of Natural Gas conversion into electricity through cogeneration, analysing the potentials and costs of the power systems connections to downstream processes is related. The insertion impacts of these cogeneration potentials into the Electrical Network are also analysed, with special emphasis on the supply deficit risk reduction. The generation conditions for both auto-sufficiency and exceeding supply to network are determined, regarding the purposes of attendance efficiency improvement and the necessary new service stimulus. (author)

  12. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  13. Development of a Prototype 2 mm Fiber-Coupled Seed Laser for Integration in Lidar Transmitter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimize the performance of Gallium Antimonide (GaSb)-based 2.05 mm lasers (previously developed under JPL’s Research and Technology Development (R&TD) Program)...

  14. Modelling of a chemisorption refrigeration and power cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Huashan; Wang, Yaodong; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An adsorption cogeneration was proposed and simulated for cooling and electricity. • A dynamic model was built and studied to demonstrate the variability of the system. • A dynamic model included the complex coupling of thermodynamic and chemical kinetic. • Mutual constrains between main components and optimisation methods were discussed. • The highest theoretical COP and exergy efficiency of cogeneration is 0.57 and 0.62. - Abstract: The present work for the first time explores the possibility of a small-scale cogeneration unit by combining solid–gas chemisorption refrigeration cycle and a scroll expander. The innovation in this work is the capability of producing refrigeration and electricity continuously and simultaneously without aggravating the energy scarcity and environmental impact. Individual modelling for each component, which has been validated by experimental data, was firstly investigated in order to identify the proper operation condition for the cogeneration mode achieving 1000 W power output. Subsequently, with the integrated modelling of two components the cogeneration performance was studied to demonstrate the viability of this concept. However, because of the mutual constraint between the chemisorption and the expansion when they link in series, the power output of the cogeneration mode was only around one third of the original expectation under the same condition identified in the individual modelling. Methods of improving the global performance including the selection of reactive mediums were also discussed and would be of referable value for the future practical investigation

  15. Using in-house expertise in negotiating power sales contracts for industrial cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yott, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy has always been a strategic component of Air Products and Chemicals production costs. In fact, Air Products is among the top consumers of electricity and natural gas in the U.S. Consequently, Air Products has developed a multifaceted Corporate Energy Department. The advent of PURPA in 1978 and the success enjoyed by Air Products in selling industrial gases over the fence to industrial customers as a integral part of their manufacturing system led Air Products into the industrial cogeneration business. This paper briefly summarizes Air Products entry into the industrial cogeneration market and the role that Air Products Energy Department has played in making this new business focus a success. It highlights how Air Products has been able to transfer its in-house expertise in purchasing power to the marketing, bidding, contract negotiation and avoided cost forecasting functions so critical in the successful development of industrial cogeneration opportunities. At Air Products we believe our long association with the utility industry first as a cost-conscious customer and more recently as an electric energy supplier has enhanced our competitive position. The same success story could be repeated at your company if you know what to look for and are not afraid to expand the horizons and responsibilities of your energy department

  16. Evaluation of high temperature gas reactor for demanding cogeneration load follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Hino, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Modular nuclear reactor systems are being developed around the world for new missions among which is cogeneration for industries and remote areas. Like existing fossil energy counterpart in these markets, a nuclear plant would need to demonstrate the feasibility of load follow including (1) the reliability to generate power and heat simultaneously and alone and (2) the flexibility to vary cogeneration rates concurrent to demand changes. This article reports the results of JAEA's evaluation on the high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) to perform these duties. The evaluation results in a plant design based on the materials and design codes developed with JAEA's operating test reactor and from additional equipment validation programs. The 600 MWt-HTGR plant generates electricity efficiently by gas turbine and 900degC heat by a topping heater. The heater couples via a heat transport loop to industrial facility that consumes the high temperature heat to yield heat product such as hydrogen fuel, steel, or chemical. Original control methods are proposed to automate transition between the load duties. Equipment challenges are addressed for severe operation conditions. Performance limits of cogeneration load following are quantified from the plant system simulation to a range of bounding events including a loss of either load and a rapid peaking of electricity. (author)

  17. Development of a Commercial Prototype of the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System Final Report CRADA No. TC-02077-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haigh, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and GE Ion Track, Inc. (GEIT) to develop a commercial prototype of the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), an instrument that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses and toxins). This was originally a one year CRADA project, with the cost of the work at LLNL being funded by the Department of Homeland Security's Office of National Laboratories. The original project consisted of five major tasks and deliverables. The CRADA was then amended, converting the CRADA from a programmatically funded CRADA to a funds-in CRADA, extending the project for an additional 14 months, and adding four new tasks and deliverable to the project.

  18. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Performance Testing of the Generation 1.0 Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Admininstration and Honeywell co-developed a five-stage vacuum rotary distillation water recovery system referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). Over the past three years, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) has been working toward the development of a flight-forward CDS design. In 2012 the original CDS prototype underwent a series of incremental upgrades and tests intened to both demonstrate the feasibility of a on-orbit demonstration of the system and to collect operational and performance data to be used to inform a second generation design. The latest testing of the CDS Generation 1.0 prototype was conducted May 29 through July 2, 2014. Initial system performance was benchmarked by processing deionized water and sodium chloride. Following, the system was challenged with analogue urine waste stream solutions stabilized with an Oxone-based and the two International Space Station baseline and alternative pretreatment solutions. During testing, the system processed more than 160 kilograms of wastewater with targeted water recoveries between 75 and 85% depending on the specific waste stream tested. For all wastewater streams, contaminant removals from wastewater feed to product water distillate, were estimated at greater than 99%. The average specific energy of the system was less than 120 Watt-hours/kilogram. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the WRP test objectives.

  19. Applying XML-Based Technologies to Developing Online Courses: The Case of a Prototype Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejowicz, Joanna; Neumann, Jakub

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe XML technologies and to show how they can be applied for developing web-based courses and supporting authors who do not have much experience with the preparation of web-based courses. Design/methodology/approach: When developing online courses the academic staff has to address the following problem--how to…

  20. Smart intermittency-friendly cogeneration: Techno-economic performance of innovative double storage concept for integrating compression heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2011-01-01

    cogeneration plants rather than central power plants are giving way for wind power in the electricity mix. Could intermittent renewables be a threat to the system-wide energy, economic and environmental benefits that distributed cogeneration have to offer? This paper investigates how existing cogeneration...... plants may adapt their plant design and operational strategy to improve the co-existence between cogeneration and intermittent renewables. A novel intermittency-friendly and super-efficient concept in cogeneration is presented that involves integrating a high-pressure compression heat pump using heat...