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Sample records for cogeneration prototype development

  1. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  2. Cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbentli, Taner

    2006-01-01

    may be done in universities and industry which may serve this purpose. Some of these studies are discussed below. The feasibility studies for cogeneration plants is a field which should be developed.. The hourly, daily, monthly and yearly power and heat demands should be calculated to decide on the correct capacity of the plant. The capacity of the plant may be decided on the electrical power demand or the heat demand. In general it is more economical to base the plant capacity on the electrical power demand. In order to save as much energy as possible, the plant should operate continuously at full load. A study which will survey the cogeneration plants in service today, to determine the annual average fuel utilization efficiency may be a useful guide in sizing new cogeneration plants. It is important to select and size the equipment forming the cogeneration plant so that the sum of the operating and investment costs are minimized. The methodology used for this purpose is called ex ergo economic analysis which is based on the pioneering works of Tsatsaronis, El Sayed and Valero. The use of cogeneration in conjunction with district heating is widely used in northern and eastern Europe. This may well be applied to newly developing residential areas, university campuses and similar complexes. The main obstacle in the application of combined power and district heating is high initial investment costs.Government policies and subsidies in this area may be well worth because of the national savings resulting from the reduction in fuel imports. Micro cogeneration or spread electric power production is becoming more feasible as the technology developers and costs are reduced. The costs of micro cogeneration technologies, such as micro turbines, fuel cells, Stirling cycle engines are starting to become competitive with conventional technologies which cost approximately 500 US dollars per kw today. Another area where research is needed is the use of fuels other than natural gas

  3. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  4. Sustainability assessment of cogeneration sector development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liposcak, Marko; Afgan, Naim H.; Duic, Neven; Graca Carvalho, Maria da

    2006-01-01

    The effective and rational energy generation and supply is one of the main presumptions of sustainable development. Combined heat and power production, or co-generation, has clear environmental advantages by increasing energy efficiency and decreasing carbon emissions. However, higher investment cost and more complicated design and maintenance sometimes-present disadvantages from the economical viability point of view. As in the case of most of economies in transition in Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has a strong but not very efficient co-generation sector, delivering 12% of the final energy consumption. District heating systems in the country's capital Zagreb and in city of Osijek represent the large share of the overall co-generation capacity. Besides district heating, co-generation in industry sector is also relatively well developed. The paper presents an attempt to assess the sustainability of Croatian co-generation sector future development. The sustainability assessment requires multi-criteria assessment of specific scenarios to be taken into consideration. In this respect three scenarios of Croatian co-generation sector future development are taken into consideration and for each of them environmental, social and economic sustainability indicators are defined and calculated. The assessment of complex relationships between environmental, social and economic aspects of the system is based on the multi-criteria decision-making procedure. The sustainability assessment is based on the General Sustainability Index rating for different cases reflecting different criteria and their priority. The method of sustainability assessment is applied to the Croatian co-generation sector contributing to the evaluation of different strategies and definition of a foundation for policy related to the sustainable future cogeneration sector development

  5. Cogenerationdevelopment and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  6. Examination on small-sized cogeneration HTGR for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Goto, Minoru; Ueta, Shohei; Mozumi, Yasuhiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Kubo, Shinji; Takada, Shoji; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The small-sized and safe cogeneration High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) that can be used not only for electric power generation but also for hydrogen production and district heating is considered one of the most promising nuclear reactors for developing countries where sufficient infrastructure such as power grids is not provided. Thus, the small-sized cogeneration HTGR, named High Temperature Reactor 50-Cogeneration (HTR50C), was studied assuming that it should be constructed in developing countries. Specification, equipment configuration, etc. of the HTR50C were determined, and economical evaluation was made. As a result, it was shown that the HTR50C is economically competitive with small-sized light water reactors. (author)

  7. Low power cogeneration prototype system; Prototipo de sistema de co-geracao de pequena potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sara M.; Martins, Jose A.S.; Camara, Paulo R.; Cortes, Breno P.; Neves, Elierton E. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); F. Filho, Roberto; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The fuels from oil and natural gas play an important role, not only in the sector of primary energy, but also in almost all the other sectors of the economy, due to its imbrication as insum of these. The use of the natural gas will have great expansion in Brazil, motivated for the Government decision to increase the participation of this fuel in the Brazilian energy matrix from 4% to 12% up to 2010. Then, it's so important the investment in new technologies and also the improvement. In order to reach the objective related to increase the consumption of natural gas in the energy matrix, and to propose solutions to attend the electric requirements, of heat and refrigeration, using natural gas as primary power plant, the Center of Gas Technologies; CTGAS, in partnership with PETROBRAS and the Fockink Group, has developed the first modular system of generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power, of easy installation and shipment with the characteristics techniques to take care of to companies or industrial sectors that consummate this band of power. The equipment generates 35 kW/55 kVA of electric energy, 7TR (Ton of Refrigeration) of energy for refrigeration and posses the ability to heat 2200 l/h of water in the temperature of 85 deg C. The equipment will be able to produce electric and thermal energy simultaneously, from an only fuel, the natural gas. The main objective of this work is to present the main phases of development of the archetype, functions techniques of the co-generator and its field of performance in the market of systems for generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power. (author)

  8. Introduction to cogeneration; Introducao a cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Martins, Andre Luiz Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a general view of cogeneration. The paper approaches the development of cogeneration, technological aspects, the cogeneration in Brazil, economical aspects, performance of cogeneration systems, viability, costs, cogeneration potentials and technological trends.

  9. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  10. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  11. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  12. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  13. Development of residential PEFC cogeneration systems at Osaka Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Osamu; Echigo, Mitsuaki; Shinke, Norihisa; Tabata, Takeshi [Osaka Gas Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The outline of residential PEFC cogeneration system development at Osaka Gas is described in this presentation. The developments of CO preferential oxidation catalyst, fuel processor, and the evaluation study of MEA are explained in detail. Osaka Gas has developed CO preferential oxidation catalyst, which can reduce the concentration of CO in the reformed gas below 1 ppm at the O{sub 2}/CO of 1.5. The durability of the catalyst for more than 10,000 hours has also been confirmed. A fuel processor in which desulfurization, steam reforming, CO shift conversion and CO removal reactors are integrated has also been developed. Catalysts, the durability of which have been verified for more than 50,000 hours, were employed in the reactors for desulfurization, steam reforming and CO shift conversion, and newly developed catalyst mentioned above was employed for the CO preferential oxidation reactor. The initial performance of the fuel processor has been established. The thermal efficiency of 77% has been accomplished under the condition of S/C: 2.5, O{sub 2}/CO: 1.5 and the utilization rate of fuel at the cell stack (Uf): 80%. And further, the durability for more than 1000 hours was confirmed. Durability of MEAs manufactured by Japan Gore-Tex and 3M have been evaluated. Small degradation rate of ca. 2 mV 11,000 h was found at the current density of 300 mAcm{sup -2}, Uf of 60% and the temperature of 70 {sup o}C. The tolerance of anode for CO has also been investigated, and had confirmed that the decline of cell performance could be negligible when the concentration of CO was less than 10 ppm. (author)

  14. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  15. Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Final Technical Status Report For DOTC 10-01-INIT-017 Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile Reporting Period: 13 May 2015 Ordnance...Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Report: Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER OTA # W15QKN-09-9...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prototyping efforts performed for Development of Prototype Reactive Armor Tile 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  16. LISA phasemeter development: Advanced prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Iouri; Delgado, Juan Jose Esteban; Garcia Marin, Antonio Francisco; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten, E-mail: Iouri.bykov@aei.mpg.d [Institute for Gravitational Physics of the Leibniz University Hannover and Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    We present the status of our investigations on the LISA Phasemeter. The new prototype is based on a custom-designed breadboard with four high-speed ADC and two DAC channels, extended readout capabilities and a large FPGA (field programmable gate array). The required main functionalities and performance of the prototype have been demonstrated in laboratory conditions.

  17. Develop Prototype Microwave Interferometry Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Converse, M. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A prototype microwave interferometer was created at NSTec to characterize moving conductive fronts in upcoming experiments. The interferometer is capable of operation in the ~26-40 GHz band, and interrogating fronts with more than 1 W of power.

  18. Development of a micro-cogeneration laboratory and testing of a natural gas CHP unit based on PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Valenti, G.; Macchi, E.; Lozza, G.; Ravidà, N.

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the design and the development of a Laboratory of Micro-Cogeneration (LMC) at Politecnico di Milano. The LMC laboratory is a unique structure devoted to small-scale power generation, with the main goals of testing and improving the performance of systems that produce or utilize electric and thermal (hot and/or cold) power in a very general sense, spanning from combined heat and power (CHP) units to heaters, from absorption chillers to heat pumps, but also able to perform tests on fuel processors and electrolyzers. The laboratory features a supply of natural gas as well as H 2 and O 2 from a high pressure electrolyzer and of CO, CO 2 and N 2 from bottles, permitting to carry out experiments with simulated synthesis fuels. The maximum allowable electrical power produced, exported to the grid or to an electronic loadbank, or consumed by the system under test is 100 kW; maximum allowable thermal power is roughly 200 kW with variable temperature water circuits (from chilled water up to a 150 °C at 8 bar superheated water loop). This work outlines also the instruments used for on-line recording of thermodynamic properties, emissions and power, aiming at monitoring and reconstructing mass and energy balances. One of the first experimental campaign has been carried out on a CHP system based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM), a promising candidate for distributed CHP thanks to low pollutant emissions and good efficiency, rapid startup and flexibility, although affected by a rather complex fuel processing section to provide the appropriate fuel to the PEM. This work presents the experimental analysis of a 20 kW prototype PEM CHP system complete of natural gas processor. The prototype is operated at LMC to characterize the processing section and the thermodynamic performances of the overall system. Despite its non-optimized layout, the unit has shown encouraging total efficiency (76%) and primary energy saving index (6%). - Highlights

  19. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  20. Development and implementation of a 600-MW natural gas cogeneration project - a financial case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, N.K.; Sherrill, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In February 1990, General Electric Capital Corporation (GECC), through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Electric Power Funding Corporation (GEPFC), provided a number of commitments to a partnership (the Partnership) formed by a company that develops, owns, and operates cogeneration facilities to fund the development, construction, and permanent debt and equity financing of a 614 megawatt (M) cogeneration facility (the Project) to be located near a large refinery in the northeastern United States. The Project is unusual both for the magnitude of its natural gas requirements and for its contractual configuration. The Project's entire transportation needs and a substantial portion of its gas requirements will be met by a joint venture between two local gas distribution companies (the Joint Venture), one of which is a large gas-consuming utility in the eastern United States. The Project's power purchase customer, (the Utility Host), is another very large gas-consuming utility. Thus, the fuel cost recovery of the Project is determined by the Utility Host's gas costs while its actual bill for fuel will be heavily influenced by the Joint Venture's gas commodity and transportation costs. Therefore, in appraising the credit quality of the Project's proposed fuel supply arrangements, the key issue to be answered is: Are the Project's natural gas supply and transportation arrangements compatible with the fuel cost recovery provisions of the power sales agreement with the Utility Host? If so, then the sensitivity of the Project's financing to adverse gas price movements would be minimized

  1. Homogeneous groups of plants, development scenarios, and basic configurations on the cogeneration systems optimization from the alcohol sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Walter, A.C. da; Bajay, S.V.; Carrillo, J.L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of introducing or diffusing new technologies at a macro economic level using micro economic information can be carried out through the careful selection of a small number of homogeneous groups of plants from the point of view of the main technical parameters being considered. In this paper this concept is applied to the study of cogeneration in sugar and alcohol producing plants. The statistical techniques of Cluster Analysis, regressions and mean value testing are used. Basic cogeneration plant designs are proposed for alternatives development scenarios for this industrial branch. These scenarios are based upon differing assumptions about the expansion of alcohol market, use of surplus sugar cane bagasse as saleable commodity, as a fuel or raw material, and price expectations for the sale of surplus power from the cogeneration plants to the local grid. (author)

  2. Cogeneration markets in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poredos, S.

    1993-01-01

    Cogeneration offers a key strategy which supports global competitiveness for Ontario businesses, encourages energy efficiency and environmental protection, and offers natural gas utilities and producers stable long-term incremental markets. By supporting cogeneration projects, electric utilities will benefit from increased flexibility. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for cogeneration, which can in most cases be easily integrated into existing operations. In Ontario, electric demand grew along with the gross domestic product until 1990, but has decreased with the recent economic recession. The provincial utility Ontario Hydro is resizing itself to stabilize total rate increases of 30% over the last three years and supporting reduction of its high debt load. Rate increases are supposed to be limited but this may be difficult to achieve without further cost-cutting measures. Cogeneration opportunities exist with many institutional and industrial customers who are trying to remain globally competitive by cutting operating costs. In general, cogeneration can save 20% or more of total annual energy costs. Due to excess capacity, Ontario Hydro is not willing to purchase electric power, thus only electric load displacement projects are valid at this time. This will reduce overall savings due to economies of scale. In southwestern Ontario, Union Gas Ltd. has been successful in developing 40 MW of electric displacement projects, providing a total load of 5 billion ft 3 of natural gas (50% of which is incremental). Over 3,000 MW of technical cogeneration potential is estimated to exist in the Union Gas franchise area

  3. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  4. Cogeneration. Kraftvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Existing and future technologies for cogeneration in the 1-100 MW ranges are reviewed. Efforts have been made to analyze performance and economy of the different plants in a uniform manner. The technologies presented are supposed to represent the normal status at the beginning of the next century. The economy of the plants have been analyzed through sensitivity analysis. Some main conclusions are: the competitiveness of cogeneration has been identified; the taxation principles for energy are of outmost importance; there is no need to await new technology for starting to build cogeneration plants. In a long perspective, R and D effort should be concentrated on combustion of solid fuels in diesel engines and gas turbines, and on molten carbonate fuel cells. (L.E.).

  5. Experiences Applying Cogeneration Policies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Nortes, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper starts by giving overview of the development of cogeneration in the European Union. The percentage of electricity produced by cogeneration is about 10%. The difference among the countries are however very big, ranging from 40% in Denmark to 2% in France. This is because the development of cogeneration in a country depends on a number of different factors. Political and regulatory factors are of a major importance. This paper tries to show this and to examinate a number of cogeneration policies in some countries in Europe. In each case, the reasons why or why not cogeneration has been successful will be analysed. (author)

  6. Developing IEC prototypes for adolescents. IEC workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Participants of the IEC Workshop for the Production of OHP Material on Reproductive Health for Adolescents and Young Adults held November 25-30 in Japan developed innovative, visually appealing overhead projector (OHP) transparencies to serve as prototype information, education, and communication (IEC) materials for the Asian Region. The materials cover a wide range of topics from early marriage to unwanted pregnancy. This paper briefly describes the prototypes. One group focused upon early marriage, an issue of considerable importance to the health and welfare of young women in countries such as Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Participants from China, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand focused upon the issue of gender equality, while a third group developed OHP material to teach a range of issues related to young people's sexual and reproductive health. Finally, the fourth group, drawn from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam, focused upon the topic of menstruation with a prototype targeted to boys and girls aged 9-14 years. Boys were included to foster their understanding of menstruation as a natural phenomenon.

  7. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  8. Cogeneration development in Mexico and its recent environmental impact; Desarrollo de la cogeneracion en Mexico y su reciente impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Garcia Pelaez, Juan [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the historical development of the electric auto supply systems and cogeneration in Mexico since 1942 to 1995 with the understanding that these are clearly differentiated and defined since 1992. Though it is not, but until 1994 when the first ex profeso permit for cogeneration was granted. It also develops a short prospective vision of the cogeneration in our country, as well as the fuel consumption employed by auto- supply systems during 1993. The pollution emissions to the environment are also analyzed and with it the environmental impact of these electric systems in this year. [Espanol] Se presenta el desarrollo historico de los sistemas de autoabastecimiento electrico y cogeneracion en Mexico desde 1942 a 1995, en el entendido que estos se diferencian y definen claramente desde 1992. Es, sin embargo, hasta 1994 cuando se otorgo el primer permiso ex profeso de cogeneracion. Se desarrolla, ademas, una breve vision prospectiva de la cogeneracion en nuestro pais. Asimismo, se analiza el consumo de combustibles empleados por los sistemas de autoabastecimiento en 1993. Se estiman las emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera y con ello se valora el impacto ambiental de estos sistemas electricos en ese ano.

  9. Prototype development and demonstration for integrated dynamic transit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the Final Report specific to the Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) Prototype Development and Deployment Project, hereafter referred to as IDTO Prototype Deployment or IDTO PD project. This project was performed unde...

  10. Prototype development of user specific climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Systematic consultations in the last years with representatives from sectors particularly affected by climate change have helped the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) to identify the most pressing needs of stakeholders from public and private sectors. Besides the development of innovative climate service products and methods, areas are also identified, for which intensive research activities have to be initiated. An example is the demand of decision makers for high-resolution climate change information needed at regional to local levels for their activities towards climate change adaptation. For questions concerning adaptation to climate change, no standard solutions can be provided. Different from mitigation measures, adaptation measures must be framed in accordance with the specific circumstances prevailing in the local situation. Here, individual solutions, which satisfy the individual requirements and needs, are necessary. They have to be developed in close co-operation with the customers and users. For example, the implications of climate change on strategic and operative decisions, e.g. in enterprises and urban planning, are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-quality consultancy for businesses and public administration is needed, in order to support decision makers in identifying associated risks and opportunities. For the development of prototype products, GERICS has framed a general methodological approach, including the idea generation, the iterative development, and the prototype testing in co-development with the user. High process transparency and high product quality are prerequisite for the success of a product. The co-development process ensures the best possible communication of user tailored climate change information for different target groups.

  11. Europairs project: creating an alliance of nuclear and non-nuclear industries for developing nuclear cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittner, Dominique; Bogusch, Edgar; Viala, Celine; Angulo, Carmen; Chauvet, Vincent; Fuetterer, Michael A.; De Groot, Sander; Von Lensa, Werner; Ruer, Jacques; Griffay, Gerard; Baaten, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Developers of High Temperature Reactors (HTR) worldwide acknowledge that the main asset for market breakthrough is its unique ability to address growing needs for industrial cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) owing to its high operating temperature and flexibility, adapted power level, modularity and robust safety features. HTR are thus well suited to most of the non-electric applications of nuclear energy, which represent about 80% of total energy consumption. This opens opportunities for reducing CO 2 emissions and securing energy supply which are complementary to those provided by systems dedicated to electricity generation. A strong alliance between nuclear and process heat user industries is a necessity for developing a nuclear system for the conventional process heat market, much in the same way as the electronuclear development required a close partnership with utilities. Initiating such an alliance is one of the objectives of the EUROPAIRS project just started in the frame of the EURATOM 7. Framework Programme (FP7) under AREVA coordination. Within EUROPAIRS, process heat user industries express their requirements whereas nuclear industry will provide the performance window of HTR. Starting from this shared information, an alliance will be forged by assessing the feasibility and impact of nuclear CHP from technical, industrial, economical, licensing and sustainability perspectives. This assessment work will allow pointing out the main issues and challenges for coupling an HTR with industrial process heat applications. On this basis, a Road-map will be elaborated for achieving an industrially relevant demonstration of such a coupling. This Road-map will not only take into consideration the necessary nuclear developments, but also the required adaptations of industrial application processes and the possible development of heat transport technologies from the nuclear heat source to application processes. Although only a small and short project (21 months

  12. Z-2 Prototype Space Suit Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Graziosi, David; Jones, Bobby; Lee, Ryan; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit is the highest fidelity pressure garment from both hardware and systems design perspectives since the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) was developed in the late 1970's. Upon completion the Z-2 will be tested in the 11 foot human-rated vacuum chamber and the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center to assess the design and to determine applicability of the configuration to micro-, low- (asteroid), and planetary- (surface) gravity missions. This paper discusses the 'firsts' that the Z-2 represents. For example, the Z-2 sizes to the smallest suit scye bearing plane distance for at least the last 25 years and is being designed with the most intensive use of human models with the suit model.

  13. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Mars. In order to reduce risk and explore system designs, the RP project is attempting two-fold approaches to development as it looks towards flight. We continue to explore flight planning, requirements, and interfaces definition by using Engineering Test Units (ETUs), looking towards lunar deployment, while also using fiscal year 2015 to develop, build and test an earth-terrestrial prototype rover and payload system. This terrestrial prototype, called "RP15", is built to both inform the system design, and to be a partnership advocacy tool for this unique mission. RP15 must be affordable within the resource and time constraints of fiscal year 2015, while working to the following Needs, Goals, and Objectives provided by HEOMD/AES: 1. Demonstrate rover mobility in a 1g environment 2. The Surface Segment (prototype rover + payload system) shall represent the flight system concept with as much fidelity as affordable (limited by cost and schedule) - Surface Segment shall be the approximate size/dimension/footprint -Surface Segment shall package all the expected devices (instruments, systems, etc.), even if some facets are mocked-up due to time/cost constraints -Overall Surface Segment fidelity negotiable to make achievable 3. Priority should be given to illustrating mission functionality over support functionality, which exists solely to support mission functionality This paper will provide an overview of RP project developments, including the design and build, capturing the development and initial integrated testing of RP15 in relevant environments.

  14. Cogeneration Systems; Sistemas de Cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Huante P, Liborio; Romo M, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The present article deals on relevant aspects on the subject of cogeneration within the Mexican territorial limits. In the first place it is presented the role of Mexico in terms of its cogeneration potential, the type of service that has obtained from this predominant modality of cogeneration for self-supplying, the most propitious sectors to develop it, its legislations on the matter, the projects made for the implementation of cogeneration plants, as well as the existing cogeneration schemes for its respective optimization proposals. Without leaving out the analysis on the different types of evaluation on the efficiency of cogeneration systems and the aspects to consider for the election of a generation cycle. [Spanish] El presente articulo trata sobre aspectos relevantes en materia de cogeneracion dentro de los limites territoriales de la nacion mexicana. Se muestra en primer lugar el papel de Mexico en terminos de su potencial de cogeneracion, el tipo de servicio que ha obtenido de esta predominantemente (modalidad de cogeneracion para autoabastecimiento), los sectores mas propicios para desarrollarla, sus legislaciones al respecto, los proyectos realizados para la implementacion de plantas de cogeneracion, asi como los esquemas de cogeneracion existentes con sus respectivas propuestas de optimizacion. Sin dejar de lado el analisis sobre los distintos tipos de evaluacion de la eficiencia de sistemas de cogeneracion y los aspectos a considerar para la eleccion de un ciclo de generacion.

  15. Development of a thermal scheme for a cogeneration combined-cycle unit with an SVBR-100 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    At present, the prospects for development of district heating that can increase the effectiveness of nuclear power stations (NPS), cut down their payback period, and improve protection of the environment against harmful emissions are being examined in the nuclear power industry of Russia. It is noted that the efficiency of nuclear cogeneration power stations (NCPS) is drastically affected by the expenses for heat networks and heat losses during transportation of a heat carrier through them, since NPSs are usually located far away from urban area boundaries as required for radiation safety of the population. The prospects for using cogeneration power units with small or medium power reactors at NPSs, including combined-cycle units and their performance indices, are described. The developed thermal scheme of a cogeneration combined-cycle unit (CCU) with an SBVR-100 nuclear reactor (NCCU) is presented. This NCCU should use a GE 6FA gasturbine unit (GTU) and a steam-turbine unit (STU) with a two-stage district heating plant. Saturated steam from the nuclear reactor is superheated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) to 560-580°C so that a separator-superheater can be excluded from the thermal cycle of the turbine unit. In addition, supplemental fuel firing in HRSG is examined. NCCU effectiveness indices are given as a function of the ambient air temperature. Results of calculations of the thermal cycle performance under condensing operating conditions indicate that the gross electric efficiency η el NCCU gr of = 48% and N el NCCU gr = 345 MW can be achieved. This efficiency is at maximum for NCCU with an SVBR-100 reactor. The conclusion is made that the cost of NCCU installed kW should be estimated, and the issue associated with NCCUs siting with reference to urban area boundaries must be solved.

  16. New developments in surface technology and prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Thomas; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-03-01

    Novel lightweight applications in the automotive and aircraft industries require advanced materials and techniques for surface protection as well as direct and rapid manufacturing of the related components and tools. The manufacturing processes presented in this paper are based on multiple additive and subtractive technologies such as laser cutting, laser welding, direct laser metal deposition, laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique or CNC milling. The process chain is similar to layer-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques. In the first step, the 3D CAD geometry is sliced into layers by a specially developed software. These slices are cut by high speed laser cutting and then joined together. In this way laminated tools or parts are built. To improve surface quality and to increase wear resistance a CNC machining center is used. The system consists of a CNC milling machine, in which a 3 kW Nd:YAG laser, a coaxial powder nozzle and a digitizing system are integrated. Using a new laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique, coatings can be deposited onto parts for surface protection. The layers show a low porosity and high adhesion strength, the thickness is up to 0.3 mm, and the lower effort for preliminary surface preparation reduces time and costs of the whole process.

  17. Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Corsín Jiménez, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The prototyping of method calls for, at a minimum, three operations of design: rethinking the proprietary and legal economy of research; rethinking the frontiers that separate those who use methods from those to whom methods are applied to; designing infrastructures of apprenticeships for every problem.

  18. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  19. Development of a Novel Home Cogeneration System using a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell which Enabled Air Conditioning by Its Low-TemperatureWaste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Nobuya; Honda, Kuniaki; Kawakami, Ryuichiro; Nishikawa, Toshimichi; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Nomura, Tomohiro

    Micro-scale distributed power generation system, which means a micro-cogeneration system in almost cases, has been paid a great attention from a standpoint of saving fossil fuels' consumption and preventing global warming. Especially, polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is considered the most promising power generation system for small scale commercial use and residential use. In the PEFC cogeneration system, small amount of waste heat at low temperature from a cell stack is almost used to produce hot water. Therefore, in the paper, we proposed a new heat utilization method of the waste heat for air conditioning. In the proposed home cogeneration system, absorption refrigerator is introduced in order to produce chilled water. Thermal performances of the proposed system have been analyzed by a computer simulation which was developed for the prediction both of power generation characteristics of PEFC and absorption refrigerator's behavior.

  20. Cogeneration for small SAGD projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albion, Stuart [AMEC BDR Limited (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    As many SAGD projects are being developed in remote locations, the supply of a steady source of power to them becomes an important question. Connecting these remote facilities to a grid can often be difficult and costly. This presentation, by AMEC BDR Limited, promotes the use of cogeneration in small SAGD projects. Cogeneration is the generation of two forms of energy from one fuel source. In this particular case, the energy forms would be electricity and heat. In many SAGD projects, a gas turbine system is used to generate the electricity, while a heat recovery system is utilized to generate steam. The use of cogeneration systems in SAGD projects, as opposed to using separate heat and electricity systems, has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of energy lost, the amount of emissions and power costs, in addition to ensuring that there is a reliable supply of steam and electricity.

  1. Conventional and cogeneration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Two areas must be addressed in the preparation of any feasibility analysis. First is the identification of all cost components, and second is the development of actual cost estimates. In this chapter, the individual cost components are identified and reviewed. Each of them should be considered in the conduct of any feasibility study, for it is the depth to which they are analyzed that is the most significant contributor to the cost of the analysis. The discussion reviews both the operating and the capital cost considerations of cogeneration economics

  2. Development and test of prototype components for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, Wolfgang; Behr, Wilfried; Castano-Bardawil, David

    2015-08-01

    The scientific program of the project is divided into the following partial projects: (1.) ITER Diagnostic Port Plug for the charge-exchange spectroscopy (CXRS) with the subthemes: (a) Development of prototypes for critical mechanical components, (b) development of a roboter for the laser welding of vacuum seals and pipings at the Port Plug, (c) mirror studies, (d) CXRS prototype spectrometer, (2.) ITER tritium retention diagnostics (TR), (3.) ITER disruption mitigation ventile (DMV).

  3. Development and qualification of engineering prototype of digital protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaojin; Zhang Liangju; Shi Mingde; Li Duo

    2005-01-01

    The digital technology was adopted in the development of protection system for an in-construction research reactor. In order to demonstrate that the design scheme can be able to meet all the function and performance requirements from the project, and qualify requirements constrained by the regulations, a 1:1 engineering prototype of the digital RPS was developed. And then the prototype has passed all the function and performance test, the stated items of qualification, and round-the-clock teat. This paper describes the digital protection system's design scheme, the scale and development process of engineering prototype, the approaches of qualification, and the method of round-the-clock test. The test results indicate that the engineering prototype has fully achieved the preconcerted performance index and reliability requirement. (authors)

  4. FY1998 survey on preparation of data collection related to new energy technology development (cogeneration); 1998 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (cogeneration) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    New energy technologies have had the subsidy institutions established in association with advancement of the technologies, and such introduction promoting measures developed as the introduction assistance and advisory project. To promote this development more effectively, it is necessary that different data related to new energies are put into order comprehensively and systematically to be retained as the basic data. Therefore, this paper collects and puts into order the latest published data on cogeneration from among other new energy technology areas, with main regard to system listing, specific introduction examples, subsidy institutions, and how other countries are working on the technologies. Hydroelectric power generation uses up head energy of water by installing power plants along a river from higher location to lower location. Similarly the cogeneration is a kind of multi-stage energy utilization (cascade utilization) system that uses up energy serially from as high oil and natural gas combustion temperature as 1,500 degrees C or higher down to temperature levels used for hot water supply and air conditioning as low as 45 to 50 degrees C. It generates electric power by using a thermal engine, and utilizes waste heat effectively. (NEDO)

  5. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  6. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  7. 'BACO' code: Cogeneration cycles heat balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huelamo Martinez, E.; Conesa Lopez, P.; Garcia Kilroy, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a code, developed by Empresarios Agrupados, sponsored by OCIDE, CSE and ENHER, that, with Electrical Utilities as final users, allows to make combined and cogeneration cycles technical-economical studies. (author)

  8. Model driven development of user interface prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    the whole UI development life cycle, connect all stakeholders involved, and support a wide range of levels of granularity and abstraction. This is achieved by using Window/Event-Diagrams (WEDs), a UI specification notation based on UML 2 state machines. It affords closer collaboration between different user......Many approaches to interface development apply only to isolated aspects of the development of user interfaces (UIs), e.g., exploration during the early phases, design of visual appearance, or implementation in some technology. In this paper we explore an _integrated_ approach to incorporate...... groups like graphic designers and software developers by integrating traditional pen-and-paper based methods with contemporary MDA-based CASE tools. We have implemented our approach in the Advanced Interaction Design Environemnt (AIDE), an application to support WEDs....

  9. Model driven development of user interface prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    the whole UI development life cycle, connect all stakeholders involved, and support a wide range of levels of granularity and abstraction. This is achieved by using Window/Event-Diagrams (WEDs), a UI specification notation based on UML 2 state machines. It affords closer collaboration between different user...... groups like graphic designers and software developers by integrating traditional pen-and-paper based methods with contemporary MDA-based CASE tools. We have implemented our approach in the Advanced Interaction Design Environemnt (AIDE), an application to support WEDs....

  10. Development of Brazilian prototypes for short-term psychotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barcellos Serralta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Psychotherapy Process Q-Set (PQS prototype method is used to measure the extent to which ideal processes of different psychotherapies are present in real cases, allowing researchers to examine how adherence to these models relates to or predicts change. Results from studies of short-term psychotherapies suggest that the original psychodynamic prototype is more suitable for studying psychoanalysis and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy than its time-limited counterparts. Furthermore, culture probably influences how therapies are typically conducted in a given country. Therefore, it seems appropriate to develop Brazilian prototypes on which to base studies of short-term psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral processes in this country. Objective: To develop prototypes for studying processes of short-term psychotherapies and to examine the degree of adherence of two real psychotherapy cases to these models. Methods: Expert clinicians used the PQS to rate a hypothetical ideal session of either short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Ratings were submitted to Q-type factor analysis to confirm the two groups. Regressive factor scores were rank ordered to describe the prototypes. These ideal models were correlated with ratings of actual therapy processes in two complete psychotherapy cases, one STPP and the other CBT. Results: Agreement levels between expert ratings were high and the two ideal models were confirmed. As expected, the PQS ratings for actual STPP and CBT cases had significant correlations with their respective ideal models, but the STPP case also adhered to the CBT prototype. Conclusion: Overall, the findings reveal the adequacy of the prototypes for time-limited therapies, providing initial support of their validity.

  11. Image Understanding Architecture Prototype Evaluation and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    2n. We have developed an algorithm (the MGRA discussed below), based on wormhole routing, that has routed a large number of communication patterns...inference and manipulation of object models are run in the SPA. To support distributed artificial intelligence processing, powerful processors are needed... artificial intelligence. A typical scenario with video input I might require that an interpretation of a changing scene be updated as video frames arrive

  12. Development of Prototype Production ESR Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    Continuo on reverse aide ff necessary and identify by block number) This report describes the procedures employed to produce and develop a technique to...only after the attempted castings of the first and the final ingot in this program. An improved method of cooling the mandrel is through the use of a...refitted by welding to improve their straightness. The vendor gained proficiency in electrode casting too late in the course of this project work

  13. Maritime Analytics Prototype: Final Development Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    and data was assembled in a PostgreSQL database, to support the demonstrations. An installation guide and demonstration instructions are also...et les données ont été assemblées dans une base de données PostgreSQL pour soutenir la démonstration. Un guide d’installation et des instructions pour...MVAP in a PostgreSQL database. The following widgets were developed: • Vessel Summary Card: delivers a unique visual representation of each ship

  14. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  15. Cogeneration. Energy efficiency - Micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudellal, M.

    2010-01-01

    Depletion of natural resources and of non-renewable energy sources, pollution, greenhouse effect, increasing energy needs: energy efficiency is a major topic implying a better use of the available primary energies. In front of these challenges, cogeneration - i.e. the joint production of electricity and heat, and, at a local or individual scale, micro-cogeneration - can appear as interesting alternatives. This book presents in a detailed manner: the present day and future energy stakes; the different types of micro-cogeneration units (internal combustion engines, Stirling engine, fuel cell..), and the available models or the models at the design stage; the different usable fuels (natural gas, wood, biogas..); the optimization rules of a facility; the costs and amortizations; and some examples of facilities. (J.S.)

  16. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  17. Thermal energy storage for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1992-04-01

    Cogeneration is playing an increasingly important role in providing energy efficient power generation and thermal energy for space heating and industrial process heat applications. However, the range of applications for cogeneration could be further increased if the generation of electricity could be coupled from the generation of process heat. Thermal energy storage (TES) can decouple power generation from the production of process heat, allowing the production of dispatchable power while fully utilizing the thermal energy available from the prime mover. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the US Department of Energy`s Thermal Energy Storage Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility applications (utility thermal energy storage (UTES)). Several of these technologies can be used in a cogeneration facility. This paper discusses TES concepts relevant to cogeneration and describes the current status of these TES systems.

  18. Thermal energy storage for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1992-04-01

    Cogeneration is playing an increasingly important role in providing energy efficient power generation and thermal energy for space heating and industrial process heat applications. However, the range of applications for cogeneration could be further increased if the generation of electricity could be coupled from the generation of process heat. Thermal energy storage (TES) can decouple power generation from the production of process heat, allowing the production of dispatchable power while fully utilizing the thermal energy available from the prime mover. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the US Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. The program focuses on developing TES for daily cycling (diurnal storage), annual cycling (seasonal storage), and utility applications (utility thermal energy storage (UTES)). Several of these technologies can be used in a cogeneration facility. This paper discusses TES concepts relevant to cogeneration and describes the current status of these TES systems.

  19. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  20. Applying a manufacturing vision development prototype in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to summarise the empirical application of a designed case-based manufacturing vision (MV) development prototype (CBRM). This empirical application is undertaken using case study strategy, due to its ability to answer the research questions regarding...

  1. applying the design process to apparel prototype development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Applying the design process to apparel prototype development: students' experiences of a community service-learning project. 28 .... advantage for the community is job creation, improvement of the quality of products and ..... from Brown and Rice (2001:47-51), included price/value for money, quality/finishing, aes-.

  2. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  3. Development of Prototype HTS Components for Magnetic Suspension Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J., Jr.; Selvamanickam, V.; Farrell, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A. N.; Peterson, E.; Salazar, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have concentrated on developing prototype lengths of bismuth and thallium based silver sheathed superconductors by the powder-in-tube approach to fabricate high temperature superconducting (HTS) components for magnetic suspension applications. Long lengths of mono and multi filament tapes are presently being fabricated with critical current densities useful for maglev and many other applications. We have recently demonstrated the prototype manufacture of lengths exceeding 1 km of Bi-2223 multi filament conductor. Long lengths of thallium based multi-filament conductor have also been fabricated with practical levels of critical current density and improved field dependence behavior. Test coils and magnets have been built from these lengths and characterized over a range of temperatures and background fields to determine their performance. Work is in progress to develop, fabricate and test HTS windings that will be suitable for magnetic suspension, levitation and other electric power related applications.

  4. Applying a manufacturing vision development prototype in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Luxhøj, James T.; Johansen, John

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to summarise the empirical application of a designed case-based manufacturing vision (MV) development prototype (CBRM). This empirical application is undertaken using case study strategy, due to its ability to answer the research questions regarding the rele......The primary objective of this paper is to summarise the empirical application of a designed case-based manufacturing vision (MV) development prototype (CBRM). This empirical application is undertaken using case study strategy, due to its ability to answer the research questions regarding...... enterprise. The three real world cases (companies) were selected in the USA within different industrial segments. The application results suggest that the CBRM is supportive of the decision-making process for tackling strategic manufacturing issues....

  5. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  6. Cogeneration and local authorities; Cogeneration et collectivites territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This conference is composed of 15 communications concerning cogeneration systems and applications in local communities. The main themes are: the regulation context and administrative procedures for cogeneration projects in France; legal aspects, risk covering, financing and sellback conditions for cogeneration systems; examples of cogeneration and tri-generation (with refrigeration energy) in different cities, airport, hospitals, campus, combined with the upgrading of district heating systems or municipal waste incineration plants. Impacts on energy savings and air pollution are also discussed

  7. Prototype development of radio frequency cavity and quadrupole for ADSS - initial efforts by mechanical design and prototype development section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, Sunil; Choughule, L.S.; Kumar, Sunil; Patankar, S.R.; Phalke, V.M.; Dharmik, D.A.; Singh, Tejinder; Ram, Y.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Marathe, V.V.; Matkar, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical Design and Prototype Development Section has participated in the efforts for development of RF cavity and Quadrupole for ADSS. Recently prototype Super conducting RF cavity, Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Simulation Chamber and related experimental setups were developed, fabricated and delivered for the characterisation of various relevant parameters. Under the program for development of Super conducting RF Cavity for high-energy section of LINAC of ADS first prototype RF Cavity of ETP copper was developed by machining and brazing process. The prototype cavity having elliptical and circular profile is the heart of this setup. The cavity is made up of two symmetrical cups joined together by welding or brazing. Various methods are being tried out by MD and PDS for the fabrication of cups and joining them together. Manufacturing of cup by machining and joining them by conventional brazing technique to make the cavity was the first step in this direction. Another method of manufacturing and joining viz forming of cup by deep drawing and joining them by EB welding is in progress. RFQ is a versatile and efficient system for accelerating ion beams especially at low energy. It works in quadrupole mode, which is at 350M Hz. RFQ Focuses, Bunches and Accelerates the beam simultaneously. The bunching is done in this RFQ, which results in more than 95% transmission where as in the normal buncher the transmission is less than 40%. The actual RFQ, which is designed for the PURNIMA facility, will be fabricated from OFHC copper that will accelerate a deuteron (D+) ion beam from 50keV to 400keV over its 1.37meter length. For the validation of manufacturing process and characterisation of various parameters at low frequency a 500mm long prototype RFQ in Aluminium with an accuracy of ± 25microns and surface finish of 1.6 micron has been fabricated by MD and PDS. A simplified simulation chamber to facilitate the development of RFQ for

  8. Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.

    2009-06-30

    Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall

  9. Testing and firmware development for the ATLAS IBL BOC prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, M.

    2012-12-01

    For the coming upgrade pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider a redesign of the current data readout is necessary. To communicate with the additional 448 front-end chips assembled in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) new FPGA based readout cards consisting of a Back of Crate card (BOC) and a Read Out Driver (ROD) have been developed. This paper describes the firmware and hardware development of the new BOC prototype. Firmware tests, like electrical and optical loopback and communication tests with the new IBL front-end modules and the ROD will also be presented.

  10. Testing and firmware development for the ATLAS IBL BOC prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Wensing, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Mättig, P; Kugel, A; Schroer, N; Krieger, N; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gabrielli, A; Polini, A; Falchieri, D; Travaglini, R; Heim, T; Dopke, J

    2012-01-01

    For the coming upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector at CERN a redesign of the current data readout is necessary. To communicate with the additional 448 front-end chips assembled in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) new FPGA based readout cards consisting of a Back of Crate card (BOC) and a Read Out Driver (ROD) have been developed. This paper will describe the firmware and hardware development of the new BOC prototype. Firmware tests, like electrical and optical loopback and communication tests with the new IBL front-end modules and the ROD will also be presented in the paper.

  11. Testing and firmware development for the ATLAS IBL BOC prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Wensing, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Mättig, P; Kugel, A; Schroer, N; Krieger, N; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gabrielli, A; Polini, A; Falchieri, D; Travaglini, R; Heim, T; Dopke, J

    2012-01-01

    For the coming upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector at CERN a redesign of the current data readout is necessary. To communicate with the additional 448 front-end chips assembled in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) new FPGA readout cards consisting of a Back of Crate card (BOC) and a Read Out Driver (ROD) have been developed. This paper will describe the firmware and hardware development of the new BOC prototype. Firmware tests, like electrical and optical loopback and communication tests with the new IBL front-end modules and the ROD will also be presented in the paper.

  12. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiggemann, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  13. The cogeneration market in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Masaki [Cogeneration Research Society of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Research Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Conventional power generation is only around 35% efficient at demand side in Japan. Cogeneration increases the overall energy efficiency up to 85%. Other merits of cogeneration are energy saving, improvement of the environment, greenhouse gas emission (CO{sub 2}) can be reduced. The energy conditions in Japan are overviewed and the trends for cogeneration - both commercial and industrial - are evaluated. Finally, statutory regulations regarding cogeneration systems are considered. (R.P.)

  14. Design and development of a prototype hot spot identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amit; Thakur, Vaishali M.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Sawant, Pravin; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    The proper assessment of radiological environments inside nuclear facilities require accurate spatial mapping of the gamma ray field. A prototype Hotspot Identification System has been designed and developed in-house for gamma ray imaging by combining a gamma spectrometer with a pinhole collimator and a digital camera. The system can rapidly determine the location, distribution and intensity of gamma ray sources by carrying a scan of the suspected locations. The measured data was compared with simulated values for NaI(Tl) response, generated using the MCNP 4B Transport code. The data obtained by experimental and theoretical method are in good agreement. (author)

  15. CMS Level-1 Upgrade Calorimeter Trigger Prototype Development

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, Pamela Renee

    2013-01-01

    As the LHC increases luminosity and energy, it will become increasingly difficult to select interesting physics events and remain within the readout bandwidth limitations. An upgrade to the CMS Calorimeter Trigger implementing more complex algorithms is proposed. It utilizes AMC cards with Xilinx FPGAs running in micro-TCA crate with card interconnections via crate backplanes and optical links operating at up to 10 Gbps. Prototype cards with Virtex-6 and Virtex-7 FPGAs have been built and software frameworks for operation and monitoring developed. The physics goals, hardware architectures, and software will be described in this talk. More details can be found in a separate poster at this conference.

  16. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayo, Felix; Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration

  17. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayo, Felix [Triple ' E' Systems Associates Ltd. (Nigeria); Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C. [Cadbury Nigeria plc. (Nigeria)

    2001-02-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration.

  18. Development of prototype digital LLRF system at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Sharma, Dheeraj; Chakraborty, Shoubhik; Lad, Mahendra; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    RF field is used in accelerator to accelerate the charge particles. The beam parameters depend highly on the stability of the RF field. Due to dynamic beam loading conditions the variations in RF parameters of accelerating structures needs to be controlled precisely, hence low level RF feedback control system plays vital role. Considering revolutionary development in the field of digital electronics and inherent advantages of digital systems, digital LLRF control system work was taken up. The digital LLRF system consists of two major units namely RF processing and digital processing. RF processing unit uses I/Q modulator for amplitude and phase control. This unit provides synchronized clock using ÷16 pre-scalar and also performs up conversion and down conversion for synchronized LO and IF generation respectively, along with required amplification and filtering. Digital processing unit takes down converted IF signal with appropriate sampling rate for I/Q detection. To extract the amplitude and phase information I/Q data is digitally filtered and processed using CORDIC algorithm in FPGA. I/Q modulator is used for controlling the amplitude and phase of RF field. Prototype development of digital LLRF control system for 325 MHz, 650 MHz is in progress. Digital LLRF system at 505 MHz has been installed in one RF station of Indus-2 RF system. In this paper development of prototype Digital LLRF system at RFSD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and results are presented. (author)

  19. Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

    2007-05-25

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

  20. Intermittency-friendly and high-efficiency cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten; Dotzauer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops, implements, and applies a mathematical model for economic unit dispatch for a novel cogeneration concept (CHP-HP-FG-CS (CHP with compression heat pump and cold storage using flue gas heat)) that increases the plant’s operational flexibility. The CHP-HP-FG-CS concept is a high......-temperature heat source, and an intermediate cold thermal storage allowing for non-concurrent operation of the cogeneration unit and the heat pump unit. The model is applied for a paradigmatic case study that shows how the integration of a heat pump affects the operational strategy of a cogeneration plant......-efficiency and widely applicable option in distributed cogeneration better supporting the co-existence between cogenerators and intermittent renewables in the energy system. The concept involves integrating an efficient high-temperature compression heat pump that uses only waste heat recovered from flue gases as low...

  1. Cogeneration plants: SNAM (Italy) initiatives and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipparelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    First, an overall picture is presented of the extension of the use of cogeneration by the Italian brick industry. The particular suitability and usefulness of this form of energy to the brick industry are pointed out. Then a look is given at the legal and financial incentives which have been built into the National Energy Plan to encourage on-site production by Italian industries. Finally, a review is made of initiatives made by SNAM (the Italian National Methane Distribution Society) to develop a favourable tariff structure for on-site power producers using methane as their energy source, as well as, of the Society's efforts to set up a cogeneration equipment consulting service which would provide advice on cogeneration plant design, operation and maintenance

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  3. Sensor Development and Readout Prototyping for the STAR Pixel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.; Matis, H.S.; Ritter, H.G.; Stezelberger, T.; Szelezniak, M.; Sun, X.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2009-01-14

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designing a new vertex detector. The purpose of this upgrade detector is to provide high resolution pointing to allow for the direct topological reconstruction of heavy flavor decays such as the D{sup 0} by finding vertices displaced from the collision vertex by greater than 60 microns. We are using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) as the sensor technology and have a coupled sensor development and readout system plan that leads to a final detector with a <200 {micro}s integration time, 400 M pixels and a coverage of -1 < {eta} < 1. We present our coupled sensor and readout development plan and the status of the prototyping work that has been accomplished.

  4. Micro-cogeneration with fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Marek; Čierny, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    The article is aimed at perspective and fast developing field of micro-cogeneration with small performance. Fuel cell application which uses natural gas as a fuel is high sophisticated technology of combined produce of heat and electric power. The aim of article is analysis of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which as a fuel uses natural gas. The device is installed in University of Zilina laboratory. Measured parameters were electric input and output, thermal energy and electric, thermal and overall efficiency.

  5. Electric power plants in cogeneration: a promising potential even in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Implantation of cogeneration power plants has increased in France since two years but stays below other countries such as northern Europe. Technical, economical, legal and financial aspects of cogeneration have been debated during the ''Euroforum'' seminar (June 14-16, 1995). The european association Cogen Europe, created in 1993 with the financial support of the SAVE european program, has analysed the barriers that restrain cogeneration development and their solutions. Advantages of cogeneration are undeniable at any scale (from small engines to huge industrial systems) if efficiency of energy used reaches 85%. Opinions of representatives from different industries implied in cogeneration technology are reported. (J.S.). 1 photo

  6. Development and Physical Control Research on Prototype Artificial Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To provide an ideal platform for research on intelligent bionic leg (IBL, this paper proposes a model of a biped robot with heterogeneous legs (BRHL. A prototype of an artificial leg is developed based on biological structure and motion principle analysis of human lower extremities. With regard to the driving sources, servomotors are chosen for the hip joint and ankle joint, while pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs are chosen for the knee joint. The control system of the bionic artificial leg is designed and a physical experimental platform is established. The physical control experiments are done based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID control strategy. The experimental results show that such a system can realize the expected goals.

  7. Rapid prototyping in the development of image processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Fecht, Arno; Kelm, Claus Thomas

    2004-08-01

    This contribution presents a rapid prototyping approach for the real-time demonstration of image processing algorithms. As an example EADS/LFK has developed a basic IR target tracking system implementing this approach. Traditionally in research and industry time-independent simulation of image processing algorithms on a host computer is processed. This method is good for demonstrating the algorithms' capabilities. Rarely done is a time-dependent simulation or even a real-time demonstration on a target platform to prove the real-time capabilities. In 1D signal processing applications time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration has already been used for quite a while. For time-dependent simulation Simulink from The MathWorks has established as an industry standard. Combined with The MathWorks' Real-Time Workshop the simulation model can be transferred to a real-time target processor. The executable is generated automatically by the Real-Time Workshop directly out of the simulation model. In 2D signal processing applications like image processing The Mathworks' Matlab is commonly used for time-independent simulation. To achieve time-dependent simulation and real-time demonstration capabilities the algorithms can be transferred to Simulink, which in fact runs on top of Matlab. Additionally to increase the performance Simulink models or parts of them can be transferred to Xilinx FPGAs using Xilinx' System Generator. With a single model and the automatic workflow both, a time-dependant simulation and the real-time demonstration, are covered leading to an easy and flexible rapid prototyping approach. EADS/LFK is going to use this approach for a wider spectrum of IR image processing applications like automatic target recognition or image based navigation or imaging laser radar target recognition.

  8. External financing of projects on cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Olmedo, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Spanish Institute for Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE), provides technical advisement and economical support to those industries requiring an improvement in the energy efficiency of their production chain. This paper focusses on administrative procedures to get external financing as one way to undertake the construction of cogeneration plants. Relationships among user, promoter and financier should be developed according to the outlined procedures. (Author)

  9. Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) Control System: Design and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo Pinto, J.

    2014-07-01

    Distributed real time control systems in scientific instruments, such as particle accelerators or telescopes, have emerged as a solution to control multiple interconnected devices, which required constant attention and observation, along with a complete integration of each of its parts. This enhancement is provided by the intense technological development that control devices have suffered in recent years. With respect to the control software, libraries and applications have also emerged in recent times. These sets of tools have been developed collaboratively in various laboratories and research centers worldwide. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a set of open source tools capable of controlling most of the devices necessary to operate a particle accelerator, can be pointed as a prime example of this progress. This thesis presents the design and development of the EPICS based control system for Linear IFMIF1 Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), which construction involves several countries and it is currently being carried out in Rokkasho, Japan. LIPAc comprises a succession of devices and systems that focus and accelerate deuteron beam to an energy of 9 MeV with a current of 125mA, developing a previously unobtainable power of 1.125MW for that given energy...(Author)

  10. Variable pathlength cavity spectroscopy development of an automated prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Ryan Andrew

    data acquisition and reduction were performed manually; these functions were both inefficient and tedious. Despite this, the VPCS was validated in "proof of concept" testing, as described with a previous prototype (Frost, 2011). Frost demonstrated that the pathlength enhancement increased 53-fold compared to single-pass absorption measurements in monitoring NO2 (g) at part-per-billion levels. The goal of the present work is to improve upon the previous prototype ("P4") that required manual alignment, data collection, and data reduction by creating a completely automated version of VPCS -- i.e., the "P5" prototype. By developing source code in LabVIEW(TM), demonstration that the VPCS can be completely controlled in an automated fashion is described. Computationally, a Field-Programmable Gate Array is used to automate the process of data collection and reduction in real-time. It is shown that the inputs and outputs of the P5 instrument can be continuously monitored, allowing for real-time triggering of the source laser, collection of all data, and reduction of the data to report absorbance. Furthermore, it is shown that the VPCS can be automatically aligned -- also in real-time on the order of microseconds -- to a high degree of precision by using servo-actuators that adjust the beam position based upon the input from a sensitive CCD camera. With the implementation of this hardware and LabVIEW code, more precise data collection and reduction is done. With this new fully automated design, the instrument characteristics (e.g., to include factors such as rotation speed, off-set angle, and pathlength variation) can improve the enhancement by ˜130-fold vs. single-pass absorption measurements.

  11. Development and Evaluation of the Virtual Prototype of the First Saudi Arabian-Designed Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustufa H. Abidi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prototyping and evaluation are imperative phases of the present product design and development process. Although digital modeling and analysis methods are widely employed at various product development stages, still, building a physical prototype makes the present typical process expensive and time consuming. Therefore, it is necessary to implement new technologies, such as virtual prototyping, which can enable industry to have a rapid and more controlled decision making process. Virtual prototyping has come a long way in recent years, where current environments enable stereoscopic visuals, surround sound and ample interaction with the generated models. It is also important to evaluate how representative the developed virtual prototype is when compared to the real-world counterpart and the sense of presence reported by users of the virtual prototype. This paper describes the systematic procedure to develop a virtual prototype of Gazal-1 (i.e., the first car prototype designed by Saudi engineers in a semi-immersive virtual environment. The steps to develop a virtual prototype from CAD (computer-aided design models are explained in detail. Various issues involved in the different phases for the development of the virtual prototype are also discussed comprehensively. The paper further describes the results of the subjective assessment of a developed virtual prototype of a Saudi Arabian-designed automobile. User’s feedback is recorded using a presence questionnaire. Based on the user-based study, it is revealed that the virtual prototype is representative of the real Saudi Arabian car and offers a flexible environment to analyze design features when compared against its physical prototype. The capabilities of the virtual environment are validated with the application of the car prototype. Finally, vital requirements and directions for future research are also presented.

  12. Current experience with central-station nuclear cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    In considering the potential of the HTGR for nuclear cogeneration, a logical element for investigation is the recent history of nuclear cogeneration experience. Little is found in recent literature; however, the twin nuclear cogeneration plant at Midland is nearing completion and this milestone will no doubt be the basis for a number of reports on the unique cogeneration facility and operating experiences with it. Less well known in the US is the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in Ontario, Canada. Originally designed to cogenerate steam for heavy water production, the Bruce facility is the focus of a major initiative to create an energy park on the shores of Lake Huron. To obtain an improved understanding of the status and implications of current nuclear cogeneration experience, GCRA representatives visited the Ontario Hydro offices in Toronto and subsequently toured the Midland site near Midland, Michigan. The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the results of those visits and to develop a series of conclusions regarding the implications for HTGR cogeneration concepts

  13. Cogeneration in Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakya, S.K. [EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-10-01

    This article presents an overview of cogeneration in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. The status of cogeneration technologies in Southeast Asia is examined, and details are given of some cogeneration projects such as the cogeneration scheme at a new sawmill and moulding factory in Malaysia, and the cogeneration plant at a large rice mill in Thailand. The potential for cogeneration in the region is assessed.

  14. Developing a Prototype ALHAT Human System Interface for Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert L.; Chua, Zarrin K.; Heino, Todd A.; Strahan, Al; Major, Laura; Duda, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project is to safely execute a precision landing anytime/anywhere on the moon. This means the system must operate in any lighting conditions, operate in the presence of any thruster generated regolith clouds, and operate without the help of redeployed navigational aids or prepared landing site at the landing site. In order to reach this ambitious goal, computer aided technologies such as ALHAT will be needed in order to permit these landings to be done safely. Although there will be advanced autonomous capabilities onboard future landers, humans will still be involved (either onboard as astronauts or remotely from mission control) in any mission to the moon or other planetary body. Because many time critical decisions must be made quickly and effectively during the landing sequence, the Descent and Landing displays need to be designed to be as effective as possible at presenting the pertinent information to the operator, and allow the operators decisions to be implemented as quickly as possible. The ALHAT project has established the Human System Interface (HSI) team to lead in the development of these displays and to study the best way to provide operators enhanced situational awareness during landing activities. These displays are prototypes that were developed based on multiple design and feedback sessions with the astronaut office at NASA/ Johnson Space Center. By working with the astronauts in a series of plan/build/evaluate cycles, the HSI team has obtained astronaut feedback from the very beginning of the design process. In addition to developing prototype displays, the HSI team has also worked to provide realistic lunar terrain (and shading) to simulate a "out the window" view that can be adjusted to various lighting conditions (based on a desired date/time) to allow the same terrain to be viewed under varying lighting terrain. This capability will be critical to determining the

  15. Advanced rapid prototyping by laser beam sintering of metal prototypes: design and development of an optimized laser beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Manfred; Coremans, A.; Neubauer, Norbert; Niebling, F.

    1996-08-01

    Fast technological advances and steadily increasing severe worldwide competition force industry to respond all the time faster to new and chanced customer wishes. Some of the recently emerged processes, commonly referred to as 'rapid prototyping' (RP), have proved to be powerful tools for accelerating product and process development. Early approaches aimed at the automated production of plastic models. These techniques achieved industrial maturity extremely fast and are meanwhile established as standard utilities in the field of development/design processes. So far, their applicability to metal working industry was limited to design studies because the mechanical properties of the prototypes, e.g. modulus of elasticity and mechanical strength were not comparable to the final products they represented. Therefore, RP-processes aimed at the direct production of metallic prototypes gained more and more importance during recent years. A technique belonging to this group is manufacturing of prototypes by using a laser beam sintering machine capable of directly processing metal powders. This so called laser beam sintering process showed a great potential for direct manufacturing of functional tools and prototypes in early feasibility studies. Detailed examinations were performed at several research centers to determine the attainable quality of the parts concerning roughness, dimensional accuracy and mechanical strength. These examinations showed, that there still is a considerable demand for quality improvements of the previously mentioned parameters. The practical application and the potential for improvement of the geometrical accuracy of laser beam sintered parts by using a dual beam concept was proven. An innovative beam guiding and forming concept, similar to the previously mentioned patented beam guiding system, was developed and built with the goal to improve the process parameters governing mechanical properties as well as geometrical accuracy. Further reaching

  16. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  17. Development of E-learning prototype for MUET assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mit Anak Mawan, Amylia; Mohamed, Rozlini; Othman, Muhaini; Yusof, Munirah Mohd

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to discuss the development of E-learning prototype for MUET assessment in Fakulti Sains Komputer dan Teknologi Maklumat (FSKTM), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) namely, MUET Online System. The system is considered as a learning centre to study MUET examination that follows the MUET syllabus. The system will be used to assist students in making preparation before sitting for MUET examination. Before student can gain access to the system, students need to sign up and pay some fees before they are enrolled into virtual MUET class. The class will be guided by the English language lecturer from Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development (FSTPI), UTHM as teacher. The system provides learning modules, quiz and test section. At the end of learning session students’ performance are assessed through quizzes and test measure the level of student understands. The teacher will evaluate the student’s mark and provide advices to the student. Therefore, the MUET Online System will be able to improve student knowledge in English language and subsequently help student to obtain the best result in MUET by providing more guided references and practices.

  18. Selected aspects of cogeneration technology in distributed energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchora, Konrad

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents an opinion on the use of distributed cogeneration technologies in the power industry. It offers worked out experiences and views on the idea of using renewable energy sources in the conventional power industry. The effects of the work done are analysed arguments concerning the use of cogeneration and renewable energy sources in the micropower industry, and developed ways of the functioning of the distributed energy generation system. The publication presents conclusions and simulation results of the criterial work of a micropower system containing in its structure renewable energy sources and a cogeneration unit.

  19. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  20. Development of prototype reactor maintenance. (2) Application to piping support of sodium-cooled reactor prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masanobu; Kunogi, Kosuke; Aizawa, Kosuke; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Takaya, Shigeru; Kubo, Shigenobu; Kotake, Shoji; Ito, Takaya; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    A maintenance program on piping support of prototype fast breeder reactor Monju are studied. Based on degradation mechanism, snubbers in Monju primary cooling system showed lifetime more than the plant lifetime of 30 years by experiments conservatively. For the first step during construction, visual inspection on accessible all supports could be available. In that visual inspection, mounting conditions and damages of all accessible supports could be monitored. One of major features of the Monju primary piping system is large thermal expansion due to large temperature difference between maintenance and operation conditions. Thanks to that large thermal expansion, integrity of piping supports could be monitored by measuring piping displacement. When technologies of piping displacement monitoring are matured in Monju, visual inspection on piping support could be shifted to piping displacement monitoring. At that stage, the visual inspection could be limited only on representative supports. (author)

  1. Gaz de France and cogeneration: a story which goes on; Gaz de France et la cogeneration: une histoire qui se poursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    This document presents the principle of natural gas cogeneration (gas turbine and gas engine) and gives a general overview of the cogeneration market in France since 1991 and up to 2001 (development factors, results). The perspectives and opportunities of cogeneration are analyzed with respect to the development of new technologies like fuel cells (principle, advantages and future) and to the future energy markets. Follows a compilation and an analysis of French regulation texts about cogeneration systems, their connection to the power grid, and the tariffs of electricity re-purchase by Electricite de France (EdF). (J.S.)

  2. Procedure for cogeneration plant evaluation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollettini, U.; Savelli, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a step-by-step approach to the evaluation of cogeneration plants for on-site power generation. The aim is to allow prospective cogeneration plant owners to build energy/cost efficient plants and to be able to make a proper assessment of eligible financial assistance which may be obtained through the provisions of energy conservation normatives and laws set up by the Italian National Energy Plan. The approach has three principal phases - the verification of the availability of the required human resources able to perform the plant evaluation (engineering, legal and business consultants), an energy/viability audit of any existing energy plant considered for retrofitting and, finally, the identification of the best technical/economic cogeneration alternative. The programmed set of evaluation tasks includes the determination of optimal contracts with ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board), especially for the case of excess power to be ceded to the national grid, and the making of comparisons with reference cogeneration systems whose relative design/cost data are stored in existing computerized data bases

  3. The cogeneration in France; La cogeneration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Since the years 90 many measures have been decided by the government in favor of the cogeneration, to implement a juridical, fiscal, technical and economical framework. After a presentation of the three main channels and the advantages of the cogeneration, the author presents these measures. (A.L.B.)

  4. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topkar, Anita, E-mail: anita@barc.gov.in; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L.V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-21

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P{sup +} strips on the front side and 64 N{sup +} strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm{sup 2}. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  5. Development of a drivable hybrid drive prototype in a rapid prototyping environment; Entwicklung einer Antriebssteuerung fuer ein Hybridfahrzeug in einer Rapid-Prototyping-Umgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Klaus [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Escherle, Thomas; Nazareth, Dieter [Hochschule Landshut (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Informatik

    2010-07-01

    At least since the automotive crisis hybrid drives for motor vehicles resound throughout the land. All automobile manufacturers and many suppliers are working on appropriate concepts and components. In order to train students in step with actual practice on this relevant topics, mechanical engineering professor Dr. Prexler hat the idea to develop a drivable hybrid drive prototype with students within three terms. A joint project of the departments of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and information technology at university of Landshut succeeded in developing a drivable serial plug-in hybrid named ''MBL-ex-drive''. (orig.)

  6. The alarming future for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2000-01-01

    Low prices and uncertainty in pricing of energy, higher costs for investment and expensive fuels are the most important reasons why the growth of cogeneration capacity in the Netherlands stagnates. The liberalization of the energy market appears to be the malefactor. A brief overview is given of the ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) report 'Toekomst warmtekrachtkoppeling' (Future of cogeneration)

  7. Cogeneration technologies, optimisation and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Frangopoulos, Christos A

    2017-01-01

    Cogeneration refers to the use of a power station to deliver two or more useful forms of energy, for example, to generate electricity and heat at the same time. This book provides an integrated treatment of cogeneration, including a tour of the available technologies and their features, and how these systems can be analysed and optimised.

  8. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  9. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  10. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders......' concerns with respect to a system under development. An architectural prototype is primarily a learning and communication vehicle used to explore and experiment with alternative architectural styles, features, and patterns in order to balance different architectural qualities. The use of architectural...... prototypes in the development process is discussed, and we argue that such prototypes can play a role throughout the entire process. The use of architectural prototypes is illustrated by three distinct cases of creating software systems. We argue that architectural prototyping can provide key insights...

  11. Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders......' concerns with respect to a system under development. An architectural prototype is primarily a learning and communication vehicle used to explore and experiment with alternative architectural styles, features, and patterns in order to balance different architectural qualities. The use of architectural...... prototypes in the development process is discussed, and we argue that such prototypes can play a role throughout the entire process. The use of architectural prototypes is illustrated by three distinct cases of creating software systems. We argue that architectural prototyping can provide key insights...

  12. Developing an aerial manipulator prototype: physical interaction with the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Naldi, Roberto; Macchelli, A.; Macchelli, Alessandro; Forte, Francesco; Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella; Marconi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the design, modeling, and control of an aerial manipulator prototype, i.e., an innovative configuration consisting of a miniature quadrotor helicopter endowed with a robotic manipulator. The overall system is designed to accomplish operations that require physical interaction

  13. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  14. Cogeneration: A marketing opportunity for pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the marketing of dual-purpose power plants by pipeline companies as a long term marketing strategy for natural gas. The author uses case studies to help evaluate a company's attitude toward development of a market for cogeneration facilities. The chapter focuses on strategies for developing markets in the industrial sector and identifying customer groups that are likely to respond in like manner to a marketing strategy

  15. Developing a visualized cultural knowledge transfer proto-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a loss of valuable cultural knowledge, which has been a foundation for the coming generations’ survival and cultural self-awareness. By transferring cultural knowledge contexts into 3D visualizations, we prototyped and evaluated a system to bridge the gap ...... between elders and urban youth in Namibia. The findings from the field experiment indicate that designers together with rural elders and children can reach a shared design platform by communicating visually.......Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a loss of valuable cultural knowledge, which has been a foundation for the coming generations’ survival and cultural self-awareness. By transferring cultural knowledge contexts into 3D visualizations, we prototyped and evaluated a system to bridge the gap...

  16. The renewable energies development policy. Statement of renewable energies. Cogeneration. Gas distribution. Oil rates. The after-mining. The European helps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' comprises 7 papers dealing successively with: the French policy for the development of renewable energies (talk given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of Industry, at the colloquium 'energy diversification and environment protection: the renewable energies at the 2010 vista'); the statement of the renewable energies development policy (wood-fuel, wind energy, thermal solar energy, electrification of isolated areas, biomass for power production, revalorization of the conditions of power repurchase); the recent development of cogeneration in France (advantages, promotion, financial incentives, contracts, future developments); the natural gas distribution or how to combine public utility and market deregulation; the crude oil rates (key-role of Saudi Arabia, effect of speculation, perspectives and uncertainties); the human, technical, financial and legal problems linked with mines decommissioning; the European helps in favour of energy mastery (the fifth R and D management program, the energy program and its 6 specific programs: ETAP, SYNERGY, ALTENER, SAVE, CARNOT, SURE). (J.S.)

  17. Development And Evaluation Of A Prototype Household Wooden Silo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype household wooden silo with 8 kg capacity for storing shelled maize was designed, constructed and evaluated for performance. The structure was rectangular in shape, of total height of 0.6 m and width of 0.3 m, with a conical top inclined at an angle of 30 º with 0.1 m height and 0.3 m width. The silo had a top ...

  18. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO 2 -tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs

  19. Grid integration policies of gas-fired cogeneration in Peninsular Malaysia: Fallacies and counterexamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Azit, A.H.; Nor, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the abundance of natural gas reserves in Malaysia coupled with serious government thrusts to promote cogeneration, its (cogeneration) development pace lags far off expectations. There are widespread fallacies among potential cogeneration developers and concerned professionals that cogeneration is uncompetitive in Malaysia due to existing policies of subsidized gas prices and grid-connection charges. This paper exposes these fallacies through counterexamples of practical cogeneration system design and evaluation of some segments of the industrial and service sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the cogeneration were modeled based on heat rate characteristics at partial loading patterns. A hierarchical mathematical programming approach that uses mixed-integer nonlinear optimization and dynamic programming principle, if necessary, is employed to determine the optimal size of cogeneration and its related auxiliary equipment as well as the optimal operation schedule. Financial assessment is integrated at a later stage to assess the economic viability of the system. Analyses of the cogeneration potential for several facilities of miscellaneous activities were carried out using various gas and electricity prices. Results obtained consistently rebuff the perpetuated fallacies and confirm that there is no real barrier to cogeneration development in Malaysia under current policies of gas prices and electricity tariffs. - Highlights: → Mixed-integer nonlinear programming and dynamic programming are used in the design. → Various loading levels are modeled and hourly operation schedule is determined. → Standby electricity charge has a minimal impact on cogeneration feasibility. → Gas and electricity prices are interrelated and affect cogeneration investment. → Under existing policies, there is no barrier to cogeneration adoption in Malaysia.

  20. Grid integration policies of gas-fired cogeneration in Peninsular Malaysia: Fallacies and counterexamples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaaban, M., E-mail: m.shaaban@fke.utm.my [Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Azit, A.H. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad, Wisma TNB, Jalan Timur, 46200 Petaling Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor, K.M. [Centre of Electrical Energy Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Despite the abundance of natural gas reserves in Malaysia coupled with serious government thrusts to promote cogeneration, its (cogeneration) development pace lags far off expectations. There are widespread fallacies among potential cogeneration developers and concerned professionals that cogeneration is uncompetitive in Malaysia due to existing policies of subsidized gas prices and grid-connection charges. This paper exposes these fallacies through counterexamples of practical cogeneration system design and evaluation of some segments of the industrial and service sectors in Peninsular Malaysia. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the cogeneration were modeled based on heat rate characteristics at partial loading patterns. A hierarchical mathematical programming approach that uses mixed-integer nonlinear optimization and dynamic programming principle, if necessary, is employed to determine the optimal size of cogeneration and its related auxiliary equipment as well as the optimal operation schedule. Financial assessment is integrated at a later stage to assess the economic viability of the system. Analyses of the cogeneration potential for several facilities of miscellaneous activities were carried out using various gas and electricity prices. Results obtained consistently rebuff the perpetuated fallacies and confirm that there is no real barrier to cogeneration development in Malaysia under current policies of gas prices and electricity tariffs. - Highlights: > Mixed-integer nonlinear programming and dynamic programming are used in the design. > Various loading levels are modeled and hourly operation schedule is determined. > Standby electricity charge has a minimal impact on cogeneration feasibility. > Gas and electricity prices are interrelated and affect cogeneration investment. > Under existing policies, there is no barrier to cogeneration adoption in Malaysia.

  1. Electricity and heat production by biomass cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčič, Simon; Marčič, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In Slovenia, approximately 2 % of electricity is generated using cogeneration systems. Industrial and district heating networks ensure the growth of such technology. Today, many existing systems are outdated, providing myriad opportunities for reconstruction. One concept for the development of households and industry envisages the construction of several small biomass units and the application of natural gas as a fuel with a relatively extensive distribution network. This concept has good development potential in Slovenia. Forests cover 56 % of the surface area in Slovenia, which has, as a result, a lot of waste wood to be turned into biomass. Biomass is an important fuel in Slovenia. Biomass is gasified in a gasifier, and the wood gas obtained is used to power the gas engine. This paper describes a biomass cogeneration system as the first of this type in Slovenia, located in Ruše.

  2. Process heat cogeneration using a high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavoalonso3@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ramirez, Ramon [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico); Valle, Edmundo del [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Castillo, Rogelio [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Edo. De Mexico 52750 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • HTR feasibility for process heat cogeneration is assessed. • A cogeneration coupling for HTR is proposed and process heat cost is evaluated. • A CCGT process heat cogeneration set up is also assessed. • Technical comparison between both sources of cogeneration is performed. • Economical competitiveness of the HTR for process heat cogeneration is analyzed. - Abstract: High temperature nuclear reactors offer the possibility to generate process heat that could be used in the oil industry, particularly in refineries for gasoline production. These technologies are still under development and none of them has shown how this can be possible and what will be the penalty in electricity generation to have this additional product and if the cost of this subproduct will be competitive with other alternatives. The current study assesses the likeliness of generating process heat from Pebble Bed Modular Reactor to be used for a refinery showing different plant balances and alternatives to produce and use that process heat. An actual practical example is presented to demonstrate the cogeneration viability using the fact that the PBMR is a modular small reactor where the cycle configuration to transport the heat of the reactor to the process plant plays an important role in the cycle efficiency and in the plant economics. The results of this study show that the PBMR would be most competitive when capital discount rates are low (5%), carbon prices are high (>30 US$/ton), and competing natural gas prices are at least 8 US$/mmBTU.

  3. New purchasing conditions for the electricity produced by cogeneration; Nouvelles conditions d`achat de l`electricite produite par cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch.

    1998-12-31

    This short note summarizes the new conditions of electricity purchase as stipulated in the contracts passed between Electricite de France (EdF) and the independent companies exploiting cogeneration units. These new conditions should allow the continuation of the development of cogeneration units in a power market progressively opened to competition. (J.S.)

  4. Fairchild Stratos Division's Type II prototype lockhopper valve: METC Prototype Test Valve No. F-1 prototype lockhopper valve-testing and development project. Static test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D. R.; Cutright, R. L.; Griffith, R. A.; Loomis, R. B.; Maxfield, D. A.; Moritz, R. S.

    1981-10-01

    METC Prototype Test Valve No. F-1 is a hybrid design, based on a segmented ball termed a visor valve, developed and manufactured by Fairchild Stratos Division under contract to the Department of Energy. The valve uses a visor arm that rotates into position and then translates to seal. This valve conditionally completed static testing at METC with clean gas to pressures of 1600 psig and internal valve temperatures to 600/sup 0/F. External leakage was excessive due to leakage through the stuffing box, purge fittings, external bolts, and other assemblies. The stuffing box was repacked several times and redesigned midway through the testing, but external leakage was still excessive. Internal leakage through the seats, except for a few anomalies, was very low throughout the 2409 cycles of testing. As shown by the low internal leakage, the visor valve concept appears to have potential for lock-hopper valve applications. The problems that are present with METC Prototype Test Valve No. F-1 are in the seals, which are equivalent to the shaft and bonnet seals in standard valve designs. The operating conditions at these seals are well within the capabilities of available seal designs and materials. Further engineering and minor modifications should be able to resolve the problems identified during static testing.

  5. Cogeneration. Section 2: Products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a directory of suppliers of products and services in the area of cogeneration. The subheadings of this directory include developers and owner operators, system packagers, manufacturers of prime movers, equipment manufacturers, instruments and controls manufacturing, consulting services, appraisal and valuation, computer services, environmental services, feasibility services, hydrology, marketing, measurements, meteorology, regulatory and licensing, research, testing, training and personnel, engineering and construction, operations and maintenance, and insurance, financial and legal services

  6. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  7. Prototype bellows sealed nuclear valve development -reliability through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.; Abbas, M.

    1978-01-01

    To assist in appraising bellows sealed valve performance, 10 tests were done on a ''1 in.'' prototype bellows sealed valve design. The tests simulated primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions for a 600 MWe CANDU-PHW. The design approach was to have all valve components outlast the bellows in endurance tests; this was achieved. The valve design meets the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited specification. For comparison, bellows fatigue failure data were fitted to both log-normal and Weibull distributions. A numerical example shows how to select valve stroke amplitude on the basis of valve flow requirement and the minimum acceptable fatigue life. (author)

  8. Cogeneration in Australia. Situation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Research Paper is mainly concerned with the status and prospects for cogeneration in Australia. An introductory chapter reviews the fundamentals of cogeneration, covering both technical and institutional aspects. A range of technologies are employed in cogeneration: these technologies and their efficiency and environmental impact effects are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of cogeneration are a major factor in the profitability of current and potential plants. Potential factors affecting cogeneration economics are discussed .The status of cogeneration in Australia is reviewed for each State and Territory, and includes a number of case studies of existing plants. Government (federal, state, territory) policies that have a significant impact on the attractiveness of cogeneration are reviewed. Finally, the future prospects for cogeneration in Australia, drawing on the preceding chapters and a review of estimated potentials for cogeneration in Australia are presented

  9. Micro cogeneration in residential scale; Bancada de sistema de cogeracao de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Primo, Ana Rosa Mendes; Magnani, Fabio Santana; Henriquez, Jorge R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Moura, Newton Reis de; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio Ricardo T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas (COPERGAS), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cogeneration is very important to spread the use of natural gas in Brazil. Most of the existing cogeneration plants are of considerable size, as used in industries or commercial centers. Places with low demand on electrical or thermal energy (e.g. small industries, blocs of houses, etc.) could also benefit of cogeneration, but there is no available data about micro-cogeneration in Brazil. In order to verify the technical and economical viability of small size systems of cogeneration, FINEP/PETROBRAS/COPERGAS financed a project of micro-cogeneration at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), involving experiments on a micro turbine and a generator group, both with 30 kW power. The laboratory is also composed by two heat exchangers to regenerate the heat from the micro-turbine and generator group, a single effect absorption chiller, with 10 TR capacity, two thermal storage tanks (for hot and cold water) and a compression split of 5 TR. Data to build performance curves of the equipment will be stored and analyzed, in order to build their performance curves, allowing the overall cogeneration efficiency to be found. Most probable situations of thermal and electric power demands will be simulated. The aim of the simulations is to achieve the optimal situation for micro-cogeneration, which will offer the best efficiency, the lowest cost for buying the equipment and the lowest operational cost. A software was also developed, which optimizes micro-cogeneration systems. (author)

  10. Proceedings of the 7th cogeneration and independent power congress, natural gas purchasing '92, HVAC controls and energy conservation '92, 1992 indoor air quality congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: Cogeneration and IPP Market Developments; Natural Gas Marketing and Deliverability Strategies; Identifying the Sources of IAQ Problems; User-Owner Cogeneration Systems; Strategies for International Power Development; Strategic Fuel Purchasing; Cogeneration and utility Power Plant Compliance Issues; New HVAC Design Trends; IAQ Practical solutions: Case Studies

  11. Experience feedback from nuclear cogeneration - 15369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auriault, C.; Fuetterer, M.A.; Baudrand, O.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of 20 companies currently runs the NC2I-R (Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative - Research) project as part of the European Union's 7. Framework Programme. The project supports the development of an industrial initiative to demonstrate nuclear cogeneration of heat and power as an effective low-carbon technology for industrial market applications. As part of this project, operational feedback was collected from previous, existing and planned nuclear cogeneration projects in a number of countries with the aim of identifying a most complete set of boundary conditions which led to successful projects in the past. Stakeholders consulted include in particular utilities and end users. The scope encompassed technical and non-technical information (organizational structure, financial aspects, public relations, etc.) and specifically experience in licensing gained from these projects. The information was collected by a questionnaire and additional face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was formulated to cover 9 categories of in total 56 questions for 36 identified projects: Motivation and initiative, Role of key players, Organizational structure, Technical aspects, Safety and licensing, Financial aspects, Timing, Public relations, General experience feedback. From the 36 identified projects worldwide, 23 from 10 countries have provided feedback on a variety of applications such as district heating, seawater desalination, paper and pulp industry, petrochemical industry, coal gasification or salt processing. This is a surprisingly positive response considering that several of these projects date back to the 1980's and many of them were performed outside Europe. This paper summarizes and analyzes the received information and deduces from there which boundary conditions are favorable for the construction of new nuclear cogeneration projects. (authors)

  12. Prototyping Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Hansen, Svend Aage; Hansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Until now, prototyping has been developing as a technological discipline. In so it has proven to be a strong means to test specific solutions or physical designs before the launch of a product. The results have been reduced development time and improvement of quality in a broad sense. There are......, however, indications that we should review our perception of prototypes to be broader and to view our application of prototypes in a broader organizational view. This paper presents an initial and explorative review of the changing role of prototypes in product development....

  13. Development of a prototype self-configuring building block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Tsui, Chi-Leung; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the concept and construction of a prototype self-configuring building block for potential application in smart dynamic structure. The design contains several modular self-configuring blocks with integrated controllers, gear trains, extending arms and magnetic latches. The structure could be reconfigured via the connection and disconnection of magnetic latch between the modules. Through the coordination of the individual cubes themselves, the entire structure can reassemble via pushing and pulling the individual components into almost any desired shape. Information as to the current location or the next necessary movement could be passed from cube to cube by a physical connection between the cubes or remotely through broadcast signals. To provide the hardware strategy, we present the mechanical design of the self-configure modules and their latch mechanism of Halbach array. In the end, we will discuss our proposed application in dynamic building structure and storage management.

  14. Development and Testing of a Prototype Connected Vehicle Wrong-Way Driving Detection and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The primary objective of Phase II was to develop a prototype connected vehicle wrong-way driving detection and management system at the Texas A&M University Respect, Excellence, Leadership, Loyalty, Integrity, Selfless Service (RELLIS) campus. The pu...

  15. Designing clinically valuable telehealth resources: processes to develop a community-based palliative care prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, Jennifer Joy; Morgan, Deidre Diane; Swetenham, Kate; To, Timothy Hong Man; Currow, David Christopher

    2014-09-04

    Changing population demography and patterns of disease are increasing demands on the health system. Telehealth is seen as providing a mechanism to support community-based care, thus reducing pressure on hospital services and supporting consumer preferences for care in the home. This study examined the processes involved in developing a prototype telehealth intervention to support palliative care patients involved with a palliative care service living in the community. The challenges and considerations in developing the palliative care telehealth prototype were reviewed against the Center for eHealth Research (CeHRes) framework, a telehealth development model. The project activities to develop the prototype were specifically mapped against the model's first four phases: multidisciplinary project management, contextual inquiry, value specification, and design. This project has been developed as part of the Telehealth in the Home: Aged and Palliative Care in South Australia initiative. Significant issues were identified and subsequently addressed during concept and prototype development. The CeHRes approach highlighted the implicit diversity in views and opinions among participants and stakeholders and enabled issues to be considered, resolved, and incorporated during design through continuous engagement. The CeHRes model provided a mechanism that facilitated "better" solutions in the development of the palliative care prototype by addressing the inherent but potentially unrecognized differences in values and beliefs of participants. This collaboration enabled greater interaction and exchange among participants resulting in a more useful and clinically valuable telehealth prototype.

  16. Development and Validation of a Prototype Vacuum Sensing Unit for the DD2011 Chairside Amalgam Separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT SAN ANTONIO DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A PROTOTYPE VACUUM SENSING UNIT FOR THE DD2011 CHAIRSIDE... Silver BSPP British Standard Pipe Parallel BUMED Bureau of Medicine and Surgery CLK Clock CS Chip Select Cu Copper EPA U.S. Environmental...system no longer operates within manufacturer specification. To address this need, we have developed a vacuum sensing prototype that incorporates an

  17. Evaluation of diurnal thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the results of an evaluation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with simple gas turbine cogeneration systems. The TES system captures and stores thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust for immediate or future generation of process heat. Integrating thermal energy storage with conventional cogeneration equipment increases the initial cost of the combined system; but, by decoupling electric power and process heat production, the system offers the following two significant advantages: (1) Electric power can be generated on demand, irrespective of the process heat load profile, thus increasing the value of the power produced; (2) Although supplementary firing could be used to serve independently varying electric and process heat loads, this approach is inefficient. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the two independent loads while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The study evaluated the cost of power produced by cogeneration and cogeneration/TES systems designed to serve a fixed process steam load. The value of the process steam was set at the levelized cost estimated for the steam from a conventional stand-alone boiler. Power costs for combustion turbine and combined-cycle power plants were also calculated for comparison. The results indicated that peak power production costs for the cogeneration/TES systems were between 25% and 40% lower than peak power costs estimated for a combustion turbine and between 15% and 35% lower than peak power costs estimated for a combined-cycle plant. The ranges reflect differences in the daily power production schedule and process steam pressure/temperature assumptions for the cases evaluated. Further cost reductions may result from optimization of current cogeneration/TES system designs and improvement in TES technology through future research and development.

  18. Evaluation of diurnal thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the results of an evaluation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with simple gas turbine cogeneration systems. The TES system captures and stores thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust for immediate or future generation of process heat. Integrating thermal energy storage with conventional cogeneration equipment increases the initial cost of the combined system; but, by decoupling electric power and process heat production, the system offers the following significant advantages: (1) electric power can be generated on demand, irrespective of the process heat load profile, thus increasing the value of the power produced; (2) although supplementary firing could be used to serve independently varying electric and process heat loads, this approach is inefficient. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the two independent loads while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The study evaluated the cost of power produced by cogeneration and cogeneration/TES systems designed to serve a fixed process steam load. The value of the process steam was set at the levelized cost estimated for the steam from a conventional stand-alone boiler. Power costs for combustion turbine and combined-cycle power plants were also calculated for comparison. The results indicated that peak power production costs for the cogeneration/TES systems were between 25 and 40 percent lower than peak power costs estimated for a combustion turbine and between 15 and 35 percent lower than peak power costs estimated for a combined-cycle plant. The ranges reflect differences in the daily power production schedule and process steam pressure/temperature assumptions for the cases evaluated. Further cost reductions may result from optimization of current cogeneration/TES system designs and improvement in TES technology through future research and development.

  19. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  20. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  1. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  2. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    changes, and it detects emerging usability problems through active engagement and experimentation. As such, the collaborative prototype acts as a boundary object to represent, understand, and transform knowledge across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries. Our study also identifies some......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  3. Impact of support schemes and barriers in Europe on the evolution of cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effectiveness of different support measures to promote cogeneration in the European Union. The analysis looks into the average progress of cogeneration between two different periods. The economic effect of the support measures in each country is quantified with the help of a cost–benefit analysis carried out by the Cogeneration Observatory and Dissemination Europe (CODE) project. The scope of this study is necessarily affected by the need to limit the number of projects and support measures. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the economic advantage offered by support measures and the deployment of cogeneration in the Member States. The study considers the effect of different barriers (reported by the Member States) on the promotion of cogeneration. The individual analyses of the barriers differ widely in quality and depth. When some barriers are reported, there is an increase of the variability of the penetration of cogeneration. This counter-intuitive fact leads us to conclude that there is a lack of consistency in the barriers reported, and a clear need for consistent reporting on barriers. The possible effect of competition between measures supporting combined heat and power and renewable energy sources is also analysed. - Highlights: • Support measures to promote cogeneration are analysed. • The growth of cogeneration in European countries is not aligned with the measures in place. • None of the reported barriers for cogeneration can be considered a clear show-stopper. • The variation in the development of cogeneration when some barriers are reported raises questions about the reporting. • Countries with a high share of cogeneration are sensitive to the continuity or discontinuity of support

  4. Environmental licensing issues for cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, G.S.; Bibbo, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The siting and licensing of cogeneration and independent power production (IPP) facilities is a complex process involving a number of interrelated engineering, economic, and environmental impact considerations. Important considerations for the siting and licensing of such facilities include air quality control and air quality impacts, water supply and wastewater disposal, and applicable noise criteria and noise impact considerations. Air quality control and air quality impact considerations for power generation facilities are commonly reviewed in the public forum, and most project developers are generally aware of the key air quality licensing issues. These issues include Best Available Control Technology (BACT) demonstration requirements, and air quality modeling requirements. BACT is a case-by-case determination, which causes uncertainty, in that developers have difficulty in projecting the cost of required control systems. Continuing developments in control technology may cause this problem to continue in the 1990's. Air quality modeling can be a problem in hilly terrain or within or near an urban environment, which could delay or preclude permitting of a new cogeneration or IPP facility in such locations. This paper discusses several environmental issues which are less frequently addressed than air quality issues, namely water/wastewater and noise. The design features of typical cogeneration and IPP facilities that affect water supply requirements, wastewater volumes, and noise emissions are discussed. Then, the site selection and impact review process are examined to identify typical constraints and trade-offs that can develop relative to water, wastewater, and noise issues. Trends in permit review requirements for water, wastewater, and noise are examined. Finally, innovative approaches that can be used to resolve potential development constraints for water, wastewater, and noise issues are discussed

  5. Development of the EtsaTrans translation system prototype and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of multilingualism at the University of the Free State (UFS) gained momentum with the development of the EtsaTrans translation system which is being developed according to the principles of example-based machine translation. In this article the development of the system prototype is described, and an ...

  6. Dynamics of decentralization: The case of micro cogeneration diffusion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praetorius, Barbara; Schneider, Lambert

    2005-01-01

    Micro cogeneration is the simultaneous generation of heat and electricity in small units; it is expected to allow for a higher energy efficiency than separate generation. For Germany, the potential of micro cogeneration has been estimated with about 3 GW. Introduced in a larger scale and as part of a general move towards distributed generation, micro cogeneration may contribute to substantial structural changes on electricity and heat markets. We start with an assessment of existing micro cogeneration technologies, including reciprocating engines, Stirling engines and fuel cells, and describe their characteristics and state of development. Based on a model to calculate costs of micro cogeneration operation, we examine their economic feasibility in Germany in a number of typical applications from an operator's and a societal perspective. On this basis, we explore the actual dynamics of its diffusion in Germany. We analyze the interests, attitudes and strategies of actors concerned with implementing micro cogeneration, such as network operators, appliance industry, gas and electricity suppliers, etc. We explore the impacts of their (diverging) interests and strategies and mirror them with the economic potential and institutional setting for micro cogeneration with respect to competition, grid access and transaction costs. We conclude with assessing barriers for and measures to facilitate the diffusion of micro cogeneration in Germany

  7. Development of Prototype Driver Models for Highway Design: Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    One of the high-priority research areas of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is the development of the Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM). The goal of the IHSDM research program is to develop a systematic approach that will allow...

  8. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  9. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Wen Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  10. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  11. Medication Reconciliation: Work Domain Ontology, prototype development, and a predictive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Eliz; Bernstam, Elmer V; Herskovic, Jorge; Zhang, Jiajie; Shneiderman, Ben; Plaisant, Catherine; Johnson, Todd R

    2011-01-01

    Medication errors can result from administration inaccuracies at any point of care and are a major cause for concern. To develop a successful Medication Reconciliation (MR) tool, we believe it necessary to build a Work Domain Ontology (WDO) for the MR process. A WDO defines the explicit, abstract, implementation-independent description of the task by separating the task from work context, application technology, and cognitive architecture. We developed a prototype based upon the WDO and designed to adhere to standard principles of interface design. The prototype was compared to Legacy Health System's and Pre-Admission Medication List Builder MR tools via a Keystroke-Level Model analysis for three MR tasks. The analysis found the prototype requires the fewest mental operations, completes tasks in the fewest steps, and completes tasks in the least amount of time. Accordingly, we believe that developing a MR tool, based upon the WDO and user interface guidelines, improves user efficiency and reduces cognitive load.

  12. Design and development of a prototype platform for gait analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, T. E.; Marti, M. A.; Jagani, J.; Garcia, V.; Iliff, G. J.; Phoenix, A.; Woolard, A. G.; Malladi, V. V. N. S.; Bales, D. B.; Tarazaga, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    The field of event classification and localization in building environments using accelerometers has grown significantly due to its implications for energy, security, and emergency protocols. Virginia Tech's Goodwin Hall (VT-GH) provides a robust testbed for such work, but a reduced scale testbed could provide significant benefits by allowing algorithm development to occur in a simplified environment. Environments such as VT-GH have high human traffic that contributes external noise disrupting test signals. This paper presents a design solution through the development of an isolated platform for data collection, portable demonstrations, and the development of localization and classification algorithms. The platform's success was quantified by the resulting transmissibility of external excitation sources, demonstrating the capabilities of the platform to isolate external disturbances while preserving gait information. This platform demonstrates the collection of high-quality gait information in otherwise noisy environments for data collection or demonstration purposes.

  13. Management and development of local area network upgrade prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouser, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Given the situation of having management and development users accessing a central computing facility and given the fact that these same users have the need for local computation and storage, the utilization of a commercially available networking system such as CP/NET from Digital Research provides the building blocks for communicating intelligent microsystems to file and print services. The major problems to be overcome in the implementation of such a network are the dearth of intelligent communication front-ends for the microcomputers and the lack of a rich set of management and software development tools.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  15. Applying the design process to apparel prototype development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partnership between a social entrepreneur and an academic department provided the opportunity to expose students to a real-life learning experience. The project enabled students to apply knowledge, gained in the Consumer Science Clothing Management programme, to the product development subject. The aims of ...

  16. Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  17. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  18. Development and prototype application of an oil spill risk analysis in a coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsimopoulou, V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of a methodology for performance of oil spill risk analysis in coastal zones through a prototype application. The main objective of the research effort is to develop the basis for a tool that can assess risks due to the occurrence of an oil spill event aiming at

  19. The M.A.D Experience: Multiperspective Application Development in Evolutionary Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Crabtree, Andy; Damm, Christian Heide

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experience obtained through a joint project between a university research group and a shipping company in developing a prototype for a global customer service system. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping, but succeeded in developing...

  20. Cogeneration system simulation/optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puppa, B.A.; Chandrashekar, M.

    1992-01-01

    Companies are increasingly turning to computer software programs to improve and streamline the analysis o cogeneration systems. This paper introduces a computer program which originated with research at the University of Waterloo. The program can simulate and optimize any type of layout of cogeneration plant. An application of the program to a cogeneration feasibility study for a university campus is described. The Steam and Power Plant Optimization System (SAPPOS) is a PC software package which allows users to model any type of steam/power plant on a component-by-component basis. Individual energy/steam balances can be done quickly to model any scenario. A typical days per month cogeneration simulation can also be carried out to provide a detailed monthly cash flow and energy forecast. This paper reports that SAPPOS can be used for scoping, feasibility, and preliminary design work, along with financial studies, gas contract studies, and optimizing the operation of completed plants. In the feasibility study presented, SAPPOS is used to evaluate both diesel engine and gas turbine combined cycle options

  1. An HTR cogeneration system for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Heek, A.I. van; Kikstra, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Because of its favourable characteristics of safety and simplicity the high-temperature reactor (HTR) could become a competitive heat source for a cogeneration unit. The Netherlands is a world leading country in the field of cogeneration. As nuclear energy remains an option for the medium and long term in this country, systems for nuclear cogeneration should be explored and developed. Hence, ECN Nuclear Research is developing a conceptual design of an HTR for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP) for the industry in and outside the Netherlands. The design of this small CHP-unit for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. The concept that was subject of this study, INCOGEN, used a 40 MW thermal pebble bed HTR and produced a maximum amount of electricity plus low temperature heat. The system has been improved to produce industrial quality heat, and has been renamed ACACIA. The output of this installation is 14 MW electricity and 17 tonnes of steam per hour, with a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 220 deg. C. The economic characteristics of this installation turned out to be much more favourable using modern data. The research work for this installation is embedded in a programme that has links to the major HTR projects in the world. Accordingly ECN participates in several IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Besides this, ECN is involved in the South African PBMR-project. Finally, ECN participates in the European Concerted Action on Innovative HTR. (author)

  2. Development of a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell for Power and Fuels Cogeneration Directly from Plastic Trash Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a simple processing concept based-on an advanced direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) technology enabling...

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Prototype Barricade Lighting System

    OpenAIRE

    John Donovan Bullough; Jeremy David Snyder; Nicholas Paul Skinner; Mark Stanley Rea

    2012-01-01

    Presently in work zones, standard barricade warning lights are used to provide channelizing and warning functions. These yellow flashing lights are presently used for different work zone activities. Concepts for a non-standard barricade lighting system were developed and evaluated: flashing red lights when traffic is stopped or very slow within a work zone, flashing green lights when a work zone is inactive and traffic should proceed normally, expanding yellow lights when drivers should slow ...

  4. Development of the predictive maintenance system prototype for the rod control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Hong, H. P.; Koo, J. M.; Kim, Y. B.; Han, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for safety and reliability of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been constantly increasing and economical operation is also an important issue. Developing and adopting predictive maintenance technology for the major systems or equipment is considered as a way to achieve these goals. This paper describes the development of a predictive maintenance system prototype for the Rod Control System, which adopts an advanced methodology. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) has been adopted for the real time fault diagnosis and prediction of the system. Through a simulation test, it was confirmed that the prototype monitors and secures sound operability of rod drive mechanism and its control system, and also provides the predictive maintenance information

  5. Developing the Systems Engineering Experience Accelerator (SEEA) Prototype and Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    supported in the future is HTML5 . The time to make the transition will be dependent on when the toolkits are available to make it a productive...represent a major client technology base. Once the open competing technology, HTML5 , has development environments which provide the same level of...Apple client devices (e.g., iPad and iPhone). The likely standard to be supported in the future is HTML5 . The time to make the transition will be

  6. Development of the Tri-ATHLETE Lunar Vehicle Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly, Matt; Matthews, Jaret; Frost, Matt; Quin, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Tri-ATHLETE (All Terrain Hex Limed Extra Terrestrial Explorer) vehicle is the second generation of a wheel-on-limb vehicle being developed to support the return of humans to the lunar surface. This paper describes the design, assembly, and test of the Tri-ATHLETE robotic system with a specific emphasis on the limb joint actuators. The design and implementation of the structural components is discussed, and a novel and low cost approach to approximating flight-like cabling is also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the "second system effect" and other lessons learned as well as results from a three week long field trial of the vehicle in the Arizona desert.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-07-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of compressor and engine is presented. The superior performance of these two products arises from the superior performance of rotating supersonic shock-wave compression. Several tasks were performed in compliance with the DOE award objectives. A High Risk Technology review was conducted and evaluated by a team of 20 senior engineers and scientists representing various branches of the federal government. The conceptual design of a compression test rig, test rotors, and test cell adaptor was completed. The work conducted lays the foundation for the completed design and testing of the compression test rig, and the design of a supersonic shock-wave compressor matched to a conventional combustor and turbine.

  8. Development of a HVDC prototype breaker. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsky, B L; Barkan, P; Imam, I; Permerlani, W; Anderson, J M; Carroll, J J; Hudson, J E; Pohl, R V; Solberg, W D; Sharbaugh, A H

    1980-06-01

    The significant design features of a high-voltage dc (HVDC) circuit breaker based on the commutation concept were developed. Tests of components indicate the breaker is capable of interrupting a fault current of 10 kA on a 400 kV system and absorbing up to 10 MJ of system energy without generating more than 1.6 per unit (P.U.) voltage of the system. Interactions of the breaker with a three-terminal network were studied, using a system simulator. An ultrafast hydraulic actuator system was developed for this program which enables the breaker to initiate the current limiting process within 5 ms after receipt of a trip signal. A new hydraulic valve, operated by a repulsion coil, minimizes the delay before motion begins. Interruption will occur in series-connected vacuum interrupters. A 400 kV circuit breaker is estimated to require eight breaks in series. Only a single break was tested as part of this program because of the scale and cost required for multibreak tests. System energy will be absorbed by zinc-oxide-based surge suppressors included as an integral part of the breaker. The overall design is envisioned as a dead tank type using pressurized SF/sub 6/ gas as a dielectric medium. The actuator and all control functions are located at ground potential, with easy access for inspection or adjustment. Operational specifications have been carried over from NEMA standards for ac power circuit breakers where applicable. The cost of one pole of this circuit breaker, when in regular production, has been estimated as two times the cost of a three-phase 500 kV ac circuit breaker.

  9. Prototype development and comparative evaluation of wheelchair pressure mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Cardi, M D

    1993-01-01

    Wheelchair pressure mapping devices used in the prescription of seat cushions and postural supports have been limited in durability, data presentation, and/or clinical efficiency. This project sought to establish the ideal specifications for clinically useful pressure mapping systems, and to use these specifications to influence the design of an innovative wheelchair pressure mapping system (Tekscan "Seat"). Technology, previously developed for measurement of forces of dental occlusion and of the foot during gait, was applied to wheelchair seat mapping. Tests were designed to compare the performance of three pressure mapping systems: the Tekscan system, the FSA system, and the Talley TPM3. Bench tests were done to measure reproducibility, hysteresis, and creep of each of the pressure mapping systems. A contoured loader gauge was developed to test for the influence of hammocking. Tests were also performed using spinal cord-injured subjects to demonstrate the relative performance of the pressure mapping systems in a clinical setting. A focus group session was conducted with seating specialists to review the strengths and weakness of the systems for routine clinical use. The TPM3 was found to be the most accurate, stable, and reproducible but limited in ease of use, speed, and data presentation. FSA was rated well in clinical application and data management but demonstrated a pronounced hysteresis (+/-19%) and creep (4%). The Tekscan system also showed substantial hysteresis (+/-20%) and creep (19%) but was preferred by clinicians for its real-time display capabilities, resolution, and display options. Some trends in system performance on varied support surfaces were identified and can be a valuable guide to interpretation of measurements and prescription decision making in the clinic. Problems identified with the accuracy and stability of the Tekscan and FSA systems may be amenable to resolution with software correction and changes in fabrication. With these

  10. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2018-04-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  11. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Balodis, M.; Sarma, U.; Cers, A.; Linkevics, O.

    2015-12-01

    Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand. In this paper, the authors attempt to assess the potential conflicts between policy political objectives to increase the share of high-efficiency co-generation and renewable energy sources (RES), based on the example of Riga district heating system (DHS). If a new heat source using biomass is built on the right bank of Riga DHS to increase the share of RES, the society could overpay for additional heat production capacities, such as a decrease in the loading of existing generating units, thereby contributing to an inefficient use of existing capacity. As a result, the following negative consequences may arise: 1) a decrease in primary energy savings (PES) from high-efficiency cogeneration in Riga DHS, 2) an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Baltic region, 3) the worsening security situation of electricity supply in the Latvian power system, 4) an increase in the electricity market price in the Lithuanian and Latvian price areas of Nord Pool power exchange. Within the framework of the research, calculations of PES and GHG emission volumes have been performed for the existing situation and for the situation with heat source, using biomass. The effect of construction of biomass heat source on power capacity balances and Nord Pool electricity prices has been evaluated.

  12. Development of prototype virtual testing system for ultrasonic examination engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohji, Hajime; Hide, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of inspection results is affected by the skill of examination personnel, particularly with regard to manual ultrasonic testing (UT). The number and design of test specimens are among the most important points to be considered during training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. For training, a simulated UT training system using a computer mouse or touch sensor was proposed. However, this system proved to be inadequate as a replacement with for actual UT work. In this study, we have developed a novel virtual UT system that simulates actual UT work for piping welds. This system (Tool for Realistic UltraSound Testing) consists of a dummy UT probe, dummy piping, a computer system, and a 3D position detection system. It can detect the state of the dummy probe (3D position, skewing angle), and displays recorded A-scan data corresponding to the dummy probe status with random noise. Furthermore, it does not display A-scan data if the dummy probe is not in contact with the pipe. Thus, in this way, the system simulates actual UT work. Using this system, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of test specimens being utilized for training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. Additionally, highly efficient training and certification will be achieved through this system. (author)

  13. Preparation of JEREMI Experiment: Development of the Ground Based Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnou, V.; Mialdun, A.; Shevtsova, V.

    2012-12-01

    This study has been performed in the frame of preparing the space experiment JEREMI (Japanese and European Research Experiment on Marangoni Instabilities). The use of forced coaxial gas flow is proposed as a way to stabilize the Marangoni convection in liquid bridges, which might have important technological applications in the floating zone technique. A new set-up is under development and all sub-systems have passed severe tests. Here we present the design of this set-up and preliminary results of experiments for shear-driven two-phase flows in a confined volume of liquid under conditions of normal gravity. The geometry corresponds to a cylindrical liquid bridge concentrically surrounded by an annular gas channel with external solid walls. Gas enters into the annular duct, flows between solid walls and upon reaching the liquid zone entrains initially quiescent liquid. The test liquids are ethanol, n-decane and 5 cSt silicone oil, which have different degrees of viscosity and of volatility. The gas flow along the interface strongly enhances the evaporation and, correspondingly, affects the interface shape. Silhouette measurements are used for optical determination of the interface shape. From the digital images the variation of the liquid volume as a function of flow rate is calculated.

  14. Development and Testing of Prototype Commercial Gasifier Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelepouga, Serguei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Moery, Nathan [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wu, Mengbai [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Saveliev, Alexei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing at the Wabash River gasifier. The project work was initiated with modification of the sensor software (Task 2) to enable real time temperature data acquisition, and to process and provide the obtained gasifier temperature information to the gasifier operators. The software modifications were conducted by the North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers. The modified software was tested at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) combustion laboratory to assess the temperature recognition algorithm accuracy and repeatability. Task 3 was focused on the sensor hardware modifications needed to improve reliability of the sensor system. NCSU conducted numerical modeling of the sensor probe’s purging flow. Based on the modeling results the probe purging system was redesigned to prevent carbon particulates deposition on the probe’s sapphire window. The modified design was evaluated and approved by the Wabash representative. The modified gasifier sensor was built and installed at the Wabash River gasifier on May 1 2014. (Task 4) The sensor was tested from the startup of the gasifier on May 5, 2015 until the planned autumn gasifier outage starting in the beginning of October, 2015. (Task 5) The project team successfully demonstrated the Gasifier Sensor system’s ability to monitor gasifier temperature while maintaining unobstructed optical access for six months without any maintenance. The sensor examination upon completion of the trial revealed that the system did not sustain any damage.

  15. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  16. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  17. Compact OXC architecture, design and prototype development for flexible waveband routing optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Subramaniam, Suresh; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Moriwaki, Osamu

    2017-07-10

    A novel compact OXC node architecture that combines WSSs and arrays of small scale optical delivery-coupling type switches ("DCSWs") is proposed. Unlike conventional OXC nodes, the WSSs are only responsible for dynamic path bundling ("flexible waveband") while the small scale optical switches route bundled path groups. A network design algorithm that is aware of the routing scheme is also proposed, and numerical experiments elucidate that the necessary number of WSSs and amplifiers can be significantly reduced. A prototype of the proposed OXC is also developed using monolithic arrayed DCSWs. Transmission experiments on the prototype verify the proposal's technical feasibility.

  18. Prototype development and field measurements of high etendue spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Xiangli, Bin; Huang, Min; Han, Wei; Pei, Linlin; Bu, Meixia

    2018-03-01

    High etendue spatial heterodyne imaging spectrometer (HESHIS) is a new pushbroom Fourier transform hyperspectral imager with no moving parts. It is based on a Sagnac interferometer combined with a pair of parallel gratings. In this paper, the basic principle of HESHIS is reviewed and the first prototype of HESHIS is designed and developed. The spectral band of this prototype is designed at O2-A band (757 nm to 777 nm) and the average spectral resolution is 0.04 nm. Using the prototype, the pushbroom imaging experiments are carried out and the original interference images are obtained. The spectral data cube is generated using spectrum reconstruction method and high-resolution spectra are achieved.

  19. Development of Pattern Classification: Auditory-Visual Equivalence in the Use of Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; Aiken, Leona S.

    1977-01-01

    Development of the relation between skills of visual and auditory pattern classification was studied at the second grade, sixth grade, and adult age levels using visual and auditory representations of the same abstract information. Results showed evidence of common processing of pattern class structure for the modalities, patterns, prototypes, and…

  20. Prototype Development of an ICT System to Support Construction Management Based on Virtual Models and RFID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    early example) of an ICT system was carried out to identify and formalise user needs in relation to construction management based on virtual models and radio frequency identification (RFID). The prototype was developed to support working processes in real-time project progress management, quality...

  1. Development of a 3D CZT detector prototype for Laue Lens telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Ezio; Auricchio, Natalia; Del Sordo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a 3D position sensitive prototype suitable as focal plane detector for Laue lens telescope. The basic sensitive unit is a drift strip detector based on a CZT crystal, (~19×8 mm2 area, 2.4 mm thick), irradiated transversally to the electric field direction. The anode...

  2. Developing a realistic-prototyping road user cost evaluation tool for FDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a realistic-prototyping RUC (Road User Cost) calculation tool that is userfriendly : and utilizing limited number of data inputs that are easy to use. The tool can help engineers to estimate RUC on : specif...

  3. Development of an Adolescent Alcohol Misuse Intervention Based on the Prototype Willingness Model: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma; Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the use of the Delphi method to gain expert feedback on the identification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and development of a novel intervention to reduce adolescent alcohol misuse, based on the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) of health risk behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Four…

  4. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  5. The use of virtual prototyping and simulation in ITER maintenance device development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Siuko, M.; Saarinen, H.; Maekinen, H.; Verho, S.; Vilenius, M.; Palmer, J.; Irving, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ITER divertor maintenance takes place approximately every second year. The maintenance occurs in very harsh and mechanically complicated environment. Due to the critical nature of the maintenance operations, the maintenance equipment design and the operation cycle will be verified in DTP2 test platform, in Tampere, Finland. TUT/IHA is working on the ITER divertor maintenance devices. Due to the complexity of the operation environment and tasks to be performed, 3d models and kinematic simulation have been valuable tool when developing the devices. Further, IHA has integrated to the models also dynamic properties of the device, so that it can be discussed as a virtual prototype. The virtual prototype can be used to verify the operation of the device, the operation cycle and also as a platform for developing the control software for the device. For device development, the virtual prototype is used to analyze the dynamic behavior, loading and flexibility of the device. The virtual prototype was also connected to real hardware to verify the operation of one joint. Then, the virtual model in computer was run and the output of the joints was given to a hydraulic cylinder representing disturbance load for an other hydraulic cylinder, which was operating under control software and aiming to move smoothly regardless of the disturbance load. By that way we were able to verify that the real system operates close enough with the simulation model. The virtual model is also used to shorten the time to get the DTP2 platform working. The CMM control software is done with virtual models as ready as possible. The CMM virtual model is connected to one-joint control hardware which allows developing the controller software one joint at time. In this paper, also other possibilities to use virtual prototypes in ITER divertor maintenance development are discussed. (author)

  6. Developing e-banking services for rural India: making use of socio-technical prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Vaidyanathan, Lakshmi; Gonsalves, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the key enablers for including underserved communities in economic and societal development across the world. Our research analyzes several banking service projects developing technical solutions for rural India. This poster presents...... an experience report based on systematic debriefing of involved project leaders and initiators, triangulated with additional documentation. The concept of Socio-Technical Prototype is developed and used to show how to mitigate the challenges of ICT based banking service provision for socially constrained...

  7. Micro cogeneration - rich-methane gasifier and micro gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a concept of integration a gasifier system with distributed generation of electricity and heat cogeneration system based on a gas microturbine. The gas generator is supplied by the RDF fuel from waste and biomass fuel Bio-CONOx. In the scale considered, the cogeneration system is designed to produce 30kWe of electricity and approx. 50kW of heat. Important perspective directions of technology development are: (i the possibility of gas microturbine to cooperate with the gasifier (up to date, in such systems were used, and continue to apply only piston engines, (ii the production of syngas in the gasifier (for efficient cogeneration in the composition of which there is a high content of methane (CH4 = 18%-22%. In the first step of possible commercialization a mathematical model to simulate single shaft gas turbine cogeneration plant has been developed. In conceptual design is application of microturbine as the prime mover of Combined Heat and Power (CHP system but with especial emphasis on possible use of a low calorific gas attainable from presented in details a gasifier unit. To support the calculations for preliminary design analysis, a computer program is developed in EES software environment.

  8. A software prototype development of human system interfaces for human factors engineering validation tests of SMART MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Tae; Han, Kwan Ho; Yang, Seung Won

    2011-02-01

    An integrated system validation test bed used for human factors engineering validation test is being developed. This study has a goal to develop a software prototype for HFE validation of SMART MCR design. To achieve these, first, some prototype specifications of the software was developed. Then software prototypes of alarm reduction logic system, Plant Protection System, ESF-CCS, Elastic Tile Alarm Indication, and EID-based HSIs were implemented as codes. Test procedures for the software prototypes were established to verify the completeness of the codes implemented. The careful software test has been done according to these test procedures, and the result were documented

  9. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  10. Development and performance of prototype serologic and molecular tests for hepatitis delta infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Kelly E; Butler, Emily K; Luk, Ka-Cheung; Rodgers, Mary A; Cassidy, Michael; Gersch, Jeffrey; McNamara, Anne L; Kuhns, Mary C; Dawson, George J; Kaptue, Lazare; Bremer, Birgit; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Cloherty, Gavin A

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 5% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected people are coinfected with hepatitis delta virus (HDV). HDV infection leads to increased mortality over HBV mono-infection, yet HDV diagnostics are not widely available. Prototype molecular (RNA) and serologic (IgG) assays were developed for high-throughput testing on the Abbott m2000 and ARCHITECT systems, respectively. RNA detection was achieved through amplification of a ribozyme region target, with a limit of detection of 5 IU/ml. The prototype serology assay (IgG) was developed using peptides derived from HDV large antigen (HDAg), and linear epitopes were further identified by peptide scan. Specificity of an HBV negative population was 100% for both assays. A panel of 145 HBsAg positive samples from Cameroon with unknown HDV status was tested using both assays: 16 (11.0%) had detectable HDV RNA, and 23 (15.7%) were sero-positive including the 16 HDV RNA positive samples. Additionally, an archival serial bleed panel from an HDV superinfected chimpanzee was tested with both prototypes; data was consistent with historic testing data using a commercial total anti-Delta test. Overall, the two prototype assays provide sensitive and specific methods for HDV detection using high throughput automated platforms, allowing opportunity for improved diagnosis of HDV infected patients.

  11. Cogeneration: A new opportunity for energy production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minghetti, E.

    1997-03-01

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an advantageous technique based on the simultaneous utilisation of electricity and heat produced. For this purpose existing energetic technologies are used. Cogeneration is based on the thermodynamics principle that producing electricity by combustion process means, at the same time, producing waste heat that can be useful utilised. Three main advantages can be lay out in a cogeneration plant: 1. High efficiency (the global efficiency is often around 80-90%). 2. Economic profit (pay back time is usually not longer than 2-4 years). 3. Low pollutant emissions (as a consequence of the high efficiency less fuel is burned for generating the same quantity of electricity). In this report are analysed various aspects of cogeneration (technical and economical) and the conditions influencing is development. Some figures on the european and national situation are also given. Finally are presented the research and development activities carried out by Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department to improve the efficiency and the competitiveness of this technology

  12. Virtual environment and computer-aided technologies used for system prototyping and requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Cory; Maida, James; Goldsby, Michael; Clark, Jim; Wu, Liew; Prenger, Henk

    1993-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS) consists of distributed hardware and software which monitor and control the many onboard systems. Virtual environment and off-the-shelf computer technologies can be used at critical points in project development to aid in objectives and requirements development. Geometric models (images) coupled with off-the-shelf hardware and software technologies were used in The Space Station Mockup and Trainer Facility (SSMTF) Crew Operational Assessment Project. Rapid prototyping is shown to be a valuable tool for operational procedure and system hardware and software requirements development. The project objectives, hardware and software technologies used, data gained, current activities, future development and training objectives shall be discussed. The importance of defining prototyping objectives and staying focused while maintaining schedules are discussed along with project pitfalls.

  13. Duct injection technology prototype development: Scale-up methodology and engineering design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2} emissions control method to existing, pre-NSPS, coal-fired power plants. This report is divided into five major topics: (1) design criteria; (2) engineering drawings; (3) equipment sizing and design; (4) plant and equipment arrangement considerations; and (5) equipment bid specification guidelines.

  14. Development of Fuel Cell Co-generation System with Heat-pump System in Consideration of Transient Response of Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The transient response characteristics of electric power output of the fuel cell system for individual houses were investigated, and relation between system control parameters and transient response characteristics were clarified. Furthermore, the transient response characteristics of coefficient of performance (COP) and electric power output of the system which makes heat pump an auxiliary heat source were investigated. Moreover, the relation between COP of heat pump and the transient response characteristics of the system were considered. Analysis of operation cost of system components and annual operation cost balance was performed supposing introducing a fuel cell co-generation system installs to individual house in Sapporo and Tokyo. Relation between COP of heat pump and operation cost, relation of reformer time-constant and operation cost, operation cost of the system with town gas boiler instead of heat pump, were investigated. The fuel cell cogeneration system introduced into Tokyo does not have the necessity of using heat pump and boiler, and it is thought that energy demand is filled with installing a thermal storage tank of small capacity. Moreover, it is more advantageous for operation cost to introduce a town gas boiler rather than introduces about COP=2. 0 heat pump into Sapporo.

  15. Design and development of a 3D cadastral prototype based on the LADM and 3D topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, S.; Guo, R.; Li, L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a prototype 3D Cadastral system will be presented. The key aspects of this system are that the model is based on Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and that the spatial profile is based on a full 3D topological structure. The prototype development

  16. The performance of residential micro-cogeneration coupled with thermal and electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, John

    Over 80% of residential secondary energy consumption in Canada and Ontario is used for space and water heating. The peak electricity demands resulting from residential energy consumption increase the reliance on fossil-fuel generation stations. Distributed energy resources can help to decrease the reliance on central generation stations. Presently, distributed energy resources such as solar photovoltaic, wind and bio-mass generation are subsidized in Ontario. Micro-cogeneration is an emerging technology that can be implemented as a distributed energy resource within residential or commercial buildings. Micro-cogeneration has the potential to reduce a building's energy consumption by simultaneously generating thermal and electrical power on-site. The coupling of a micro-cogeneration device with electrical storage can improve the system's ability to reduce peak electricity demands. The performance potential of micro-cogeneration devices has yet to be fully realized. This research addresses the performance of a residential micro-cogeneration device and it's ability to meet peak occupant electrical loads when coupled with electrical storage. An integrated building energy model was developed of a residential micro-cogeneration system: the house, the micro-cogeneration device, all balance of plant and space heating components, a thermal storage device, an electrical storage device, as well as the occupant electrical and hot water demands. This model simulated the performance of a micro-cogeneration device coupled to an electrical storage system within a Canadian household. A customized controller was created in ESP-r to examine the impact of various system control strategies. The economic performance of the system was assessed from the perspective of a local energy distribution company and an end-user under hypothetical electricity export purchase price scenarios. It was found that with certain control strategies the micro-cogeneration system was able to improve the

  17. Development of a prototype graphic simulation program for severe accident training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-05-01

    This is a report of the development process and related technologies of severe accident graphic simulators, required in industrial severe accident management and training. Here, we say 'a severe accident graphic simulator' as a graphics add-in system to existing calculation codes, which can show the severe accident phenomena dynamically on computer screens and therefore which can supplement one of main defects of existing calculation codes. With graphic simulators it is fairly easy to see the total behavior of nuclear power plants, where it was very difficult to see only from partial variable numerical information. Moreover, the fast processing and control feature of a graphic simulator can give some opportunities of predicting the severe accident advancement among several possibilities, to one who is not an expert. Utilizing graphic simulators' we expect operators' and TSC members' physical phenomena understanding enhancement from the realistic dynamic behavior of plants. We also expect that severe accident training course can gain better training effects using graphic simulator's control functions and predicting capabilities, and therefore we expect that graphic simulators will be effective decision-aids tools both in sever accident training course and in real severe accident situations. With these in mind, we have developed a prototype graphic simulator having surveyed related technologies, and from this development experiences we have inspected the possibility to build a severe accident graphic simulator. The prototype graphic simulator is developed under IBM PC WinNT environments and is suited to Uljin 3and4 nuclear power plant. When supplied with adequate severe accident scenario as an input, the prototype can provide graphical simulations of plant safety systems' dynamic behaviors. The prototype is composed of several different modules, which are phenomena display module, MELCOR data interface module and graphic database interface module. Main functions of

  18. Development of a prototype graphic simulation program for severe accident training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-05-01

    This is a report of the development process and related technologies of severe accident graphic simulators, required in industrial severe accident management and training. Here, we say 'a severe accident graphic simulator' as a graphics add-in system to existing calculation codes, which can show the severe accident phenomena dynamically on computer screens and therefore which can supplement one of main defects of existing calculation codes. With graphic simulators it is fairly easy to see the total behavior of nuclear power plants, where it was very difficult to see only from partial variable numerical information. Moreover, the fast processing and control feature of a graphic simulator can give some opportunities of predicting the severe accident advancement among several possibilities, to one who is not an expert. Utilizing graphic simulators' we expect operators' and TSC members' physical phenomena understanding enhancement from the realistic dynamic behavior of plants. We also expect that severe accident training course can gain better training effects using graphic simulator's control functions and predicting capabilities, and therefore we expect that graphic simulators will be effective decision-aids tools both in sever accident training course and in real severe accident situations. With these in mind, we have developed a prototype graphic simulator having surveyed related technologies, and from this development experiences we have inspected the possibility to build a severe accident graphic simulator. The prototype graphic simulator is developed under IBM PC WinNT environments and is suited to Uljin 3and4 nuclear power plant. When supplied with adequate severe accident scenario as an input, the prototype can provide graphical simulations of plant safety systems' dynamic behaviors. The prototype is composed of several different modules, which are phenomena display module, MELCOR data interface module and graphic database

  19. Application of 3D printing to prototype and develop novel plant tissue culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mukund R; Singh, Amritpal S; Piunno, Kevin; Saxena, Praveen K; Jones, A Maxwell P

    2017-01-01

    Due to the complex process of designing and manufacturing new plant tissue culture vessels through conventional means there have been limited efforts to innovate improved designs. Further, development and availability of low cost, energy efficient LEDs of various spectra has made it a promising light source for plant growth in controlled environments. However, direct replacement of conventional lighting sources with LEDs does not address problems with uniformity, spectral control, or the challenges in conducting statistically valid experiments to assess the effects of light. Prototyping using 3D printing and LED based light sources could help overcome these limitations and lead to improved culture systems. A modular culture vessel design in which the fluence rate and spectrum of light are independently controlled was designed, prototyped using 3D printing, and evaluated for plant growth. This design is compatible with semi-solid and liquid based culture systems. Observations on morphology, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence based stress parameters from in vitro plants cultured under different light spectra with similar overall fluence rate indicated different responses in Nicotiana tabacum and Artemisia annua plantlets. This experiment validates the utility of 3D printing to design and test functional vessels and demonstrated that optimal light spectra for in vitro plant growth is species-specific. 3D printing was successfully used to prototype novel culture vessels with independently controlled variable fluence rate/spectra LED lighting. This system addresses several limitations associated with current lighting systems, providing more uniform lighting and allowing proper replication/randomization for experimental plant biology while increasing energy efficiency. A complete procedure including the design and prototyping of a culture vessel using 3D printing, commercial scale injection molding of the prototype, and conducting a properly replicated

  20. Development of a framework for the co-production and prototyping of public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemma Hawkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing guidance for developing public health interventions does not provide information for researchers about how to work with intervention providers to co-produce and prototype the content and delivery of new interventions prior to evaluation. The ASSIST + Frank study aimed to adapt an existing effective peer-led smoking prevention intervention (ASSIST, integrating new content from the UK drug education resource Talk to Frank ( www.talktofrank.com to co-produce two new school-based peer-led drug prevention interventions. A three-stage framework was tested to adapt and develop intervention content and delivery methods in collaboration with key stakeholders to facilitate implementation. Methods The three stages of the framework were: 1 Evidence review and stakeholder consultation; 2 Co-production; 3 Prototyping. During stage 1, six focus groups, 12 consultations, five interviews, and nine observations of intervention delivery were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g. Public Health Wales [PHW] ASSIST delivery team, teachers, school students, health professionals. During stage 2, an intervention development group consisting of members of the research team and the PHW ASSIST delivery team was established to adapt existing, and co-produce new, intervention activities. In stage 3, intervention training and content were iteratively prototyped using process data on fidelity and acceptability to key stakeholders. Stages 2 and 3 took the form of an action-research process involving a series of face-to-face meetings, email exchanges, observations, and training sessions. Results Utilising the three-stage framework, we co-produced and tested intervention content and delivery methods for the two interventions over a period of 18 months involving external partners. New and adapted intervention activities, as well as refinements in content, the format of delivery, timing and sequencing of activities, and training manuals resulted from

  1. Development of a framework for the co-production and prototyping of public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jemma; Madden, Kim; Fletcher, Adam; Midgley, Luke; Grant, Aimee; Cox, Gemma; Moore, Laurence; Campbell, Rona; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris; White, James

    2017-09-04

    Existing guidance for developing public health interventions does not provide information for researchers about how to work with intervention providers to co-produce and prototype the content and delivery of new interventions prior to evaluation. The ASSIST + Frank study aimed to adapt an existing effective peer-led smoking prevention intervention (ASSIST), integrating new content from the UK drug education resource Talk to Frank ( www.talktofrank.com ) to co-produce two new school-based peer-led drug prevention interventions. A three-stage framework was tested to adapt and develop intervention content and delivery methods in collaboration with key stakeholders to facilitate implementation. The three stages of the framework were: 1) Evidence review and stakeholder consultation; 2) Co-production; 3) Prototyping. During stage 1, six focus groups, 12 consultations, five interviews, and nine observations of intervention delivery were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g. Public Health Wales [PHW] ASSIST delivery team, teachers, school students, health professionals). During stage 2, an intervention development group consisting of members of the research team and the PHW ASSIST delivery team was established to adapt existing, and co-produce new, intervention activities. In stage 3, intervention training and content were iteratively prototyped using process data on fidelity and acceptability to key stakeholders. Stages 2 and 3 took the form of an action-research process involving a series of face-to-face meetings, email exchanges, observations, and training sessions. Utilising the three-stage framework, we co-produced and tested intervention content and delivery methods for the two interventions over a period of 18 months involving external partners. New and adapted intervention activities, as well as refinements in content, the format of delivery, timing and sequencing of activities, and training manuals resulted from this process. The involvement of intervention

  2. Development of a cogeneration natural gas system associated to the ejector-solar cycle; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de cogeracao a gas natural associado ao ciclo ejector-solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, Gabriel Ivan Medina [Centro Universitario de Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: gmedinat@unerj.br; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Colle, Sergio [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DEM/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: colle@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is dedicated to the optimization of a hybrid cogeneration system, structured from a solar ejection system and a gas turbine. The paper presents an thermal economic analysis for the optimization of complex thermal systems by the carefully determination of the system function facing all the system and each individual unit is presented for the proposed cogeneration system.

  3. Development of CNC prototype for the characterization of the nanoparticle release during physical manipulation of nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Laura; Marchante, Veronica; Abhyankar, Hrushikesh A; Blackburn, Kim; Temple, Clive; Brighton, James L

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on the release of nanoparticles from commercially used nanocomposites during machining operations. A reliable and repeatable method was developed to assess the intentionally exposure to nanoparticles, in particular during drilling. This article presents the description and validation of results obtained from a new prototype used for the measurement and monitoring of nanoparticles in a controlled environment. This methodology was compared with the methodologies applied in other studies. Also, some preliminary experiments on drilling nanocomposites are included. Size, shape and chemical composition of the released nanoparticles were investigated in order to understand their hazard potential. No significant differences were found in the amount of nanoparticles released between samples with and without nanoadditives. Also, no chemical alteration was observed between the dust generated and the bulk material. Finally, further developments of the prototype are proposed.

  4. Golf cart prototype development and navigation simulation using ROS and Gazebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimchik Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our approach to development of an autonomous golf cart, which will navigate in inaccessible by regular vehicles private areas. For this purpose, we have built a virtual golf course terrain and golf cart model in Gazebo, selected and modernized ROS-based packages in order to use them with Ackermann steering vehicle simulation. To verify our simulation and algorithms, we navigated the golf cart model from one golf hole to another within a virtual 3D golf course. For the real world algorithms’ verification, we developed a small-size vehicle prototype based on Traxxas radio-controlled car model, which is equipped with an on-board controller and sensors. The autonomous navigation of Traxxas-based vehicle prototype has been tested in indoor environment, where it utilized sensory data about environment and vehicle states, and performed localization, optimal trajectory computation and dynamic obstacles’ recognition with adjusting the route in real time.

  5. Expert system prototype developments for NASA-KSC business and engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, James M.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.

    1988-01-01

    Prototype expert systems developed for a variety of NASA projects in the business/management and engineering domains are discussed. Business-related problems addressed include an assistant for simulating launch vehicle processing, a plan advisor for the acquisition of automated data processing equipment, and an expert system for the identification of customer requirements. Engineering problems treated include an expert system for detecting potential ignition sources in LOX and gaseous-oxygen transportation systems and an expert system for hazardous-gas detection.

  6. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  7. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam cycle/cogeneration application study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Since publication of a report on the application of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (HTGR-SC/C) plant in December of 1980, progress has continued on application related activities. In particular, a reference plant and an application identification effort has been performed, a variable cogeneration cycle balance-of-plant design was developed and an updated economic analysis was prepared. A reference HTGR-SC/C plant size of 2240 MW(t) was selected, primarily on the basis of 2240 MW(t) being in the mid-range of anticipated application needs and the availability of the design data from the 2240 MW(t) Steam Cycle/Electric generation plant design. A variable cogeneration cycle plant design was developed having the capability of operating at a range of process steam loads between the reference design load (full cogeneration) and the no process steam load condition

  8. Applying Evolutionary Prototyping In Developing LMIS: A Spatial Web-Based System For Land Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustiono, W.

    2018-01-01

    Software development project is a difficult task. Especially for software designed to comply with regulations that are constantly being introduced or changed, it is almost impossible to make just one change during the development process. Even if it is possible, nonetheless, the developers may take bulk of works to fix the design to meet specified needs. This iterative work also means that it takes additional time and potentially leads to failing to meet the original schedule and budget. In such inevitable changes, it is essential for developers to carefully consider and use an appropriate method which will help them carry out software project development. This research aims to examine the implementation of a software development method called evolutionary prototyping for developing software for complying regulation. It investigates the development of Land Management Information System (pseudonym), initiated by the Australian government, for use by farmers to meet regulatory demand requested by Soil and Land Conservation Act. By doing so, it sought to provide understanding the efficacy of evolutionary prototyping in helping developers address frequent changing requirements and iterative works but still within schedule. The findings also offer useful practical insights for other developers who seek to build similar regulatory compliance software.

  9. Development, characterization and beam tests of a small-scale TORCH prototype module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, L. Castillo; Brook, N.; Conneely, T.; Milnes, J.; Cussans, D.; García, A. Ros; Dijk, M. van; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D.; Gao, R.; Harnew, N.

    2016-01-01

    Within the TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) R and D project, a small-scale TORCH prototype module is currently under study. Circular-shaped micro-channel plate photon detectors with finely segmented square anodes (32 × 32 channels) have been produced for TORCH requirements in industrial partnership. A new generation of custom multi-channel electronics based on the 32-channel NINO and HPTDC ASICs has been developed. The performance of the photon detector coupled to these customized electronics has been assessed in the laboratory and is reported on. A time resolution of 80 ps and a spatial resolution of 0.03 mm have been measured. Finally, tests of the TORCH prototype module illuminated with laser light and in a charged particle beam will be highlighted.

  10. Development, characterization and beam tests of a small-scale TORCH prototype module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo García, L.; Brook, N.; Conneely, T.; Cussans, D.; Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Milnes, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2016-05-01

    Within the TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) R&D project, a small-scale TORCH prototype module is currently under study. Circular-shaped micro-channel plate photon detectors with finely segmented square anodes (32 × 32 channels) have been produced for TORCH requirements in industrial partnership. A new generation of custom multi-channel electronics based on the 32-channel NINO and HPTDC ASICs has been developed. The performance of the photon detector coupled to these customized electronics has been assessed in the laboratory and is reported on. A time resolution of 80 ps and a spatial resolution of 0.03 mm have been measured. Finally, tests of the TORCH prototype module illuminated with laser light and in a charged particle beam will be highlighted.

  11. Management decisions for cogeneration: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliffe, R.R.; Tabors, R.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes two interdependent studies which explore the underlying factors in the decision by private, private non-profit, and public sector facility owners to invest in cogeneration technology. They employ factor analysis techniques to explain the decision to invest and discriminant analysis to group the survey respondents into non-cogenerators and potential cogenerators. Data for both studies come from a survey of commercial, industrial, and institutional electric energy consumers who used more than 750 kW demand in any one month of 1981 for a selected electric utility in the Boston area. There were 129 usable responses to the survey of 32.2% of the population. The studies reported here confirm that a number of factors other than purely economic considerations may prevent use of cogeneration technology at the present time. These factors include: uncertainty caused by regulatory action; desire for energy self sufficiency by the organization; financial flexibility; experience with electricity cogeneration or self generation; and capital budget planning methods. These studies provide a ranking of the factors involved in the cogeneration decision explaining most variance to least variance. However, the ranking of factors provides no measure of the importance of these factors in the decision to adopt or not adopt cogeneration technology. The results of these studies can be used to provide a rough estimate of capacity (kW) and energy (kWh) available from potential cogenerators in this electric utility service territory and the probability that a facility can be a cogenerator. These studies project a maximum potential of 106 MW and 559,000 MWH of cogenerated electrical energy in the utility service territory between 1982 and 2002.

  12. Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE SYSTEM FOR REGULATING THERMAL CONDITIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT CABINETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Rashidkhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of the study was to regulate the thermal regime and ensure the reliability of electronic equipmentMethods. In order to conduct experimental studies of the thermoelectric cooling system using heat pipes, a stand was assembled on which the developed and manufactured prototype was studied. The object of the experimental studies was a prototype cooling system, consisting of a thermoelectric battery made of conventional unified thermoelectric materials of ICE-71 type. The solution of the research problems carried out by the method of reduction to ordinary differential equations (Kantorovich method provides acceptable accuracy for such a class of problems.Results. A design of a telecommunication equipment cabinet with a thermal management system based on the use of heat pipes and thermoelectric cooling units is proposed. A mathematical model for the determination of the thermal field in the cabinet volume is considered; an experimental stand for the prototype study is described; the results of experimental studies for various power sources of heat release are presented.Conclusion. Experimental studies confirm the operability of the developed cooling system for cabinets with telecommunication equipment; this cooling method has advantages over conventional forced or natural cooling; the temperature in the block volume and the peak values of the heat sources are significantly reduced; at dissipation powers on one board within 50 W there is no need to use special means to remove heat from hot junctions of the thermoelectric battery.

  14. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam C.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. The CDS provides a similar function to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD) currently employed on the International Space Station, but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be more straightforward and simpler to implement into a more reliable and efficient system. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). A preliminary design fo the CDS 2.0 was presented to the project in September 2014. Following this review, detailed design of the system continued. The existing ground test prototype was used as a platform to demonstrate key 2.0 design and operational concepts to support this effort and mitigate design risk. A volumetric prototype was also developed to evaluate the packaging design for operability and maintainability. The updated system design was reviewed by the AES LSS Project and other key stakeholders in September 2015. This paper details the status of the CDS 2.0 design.

  15. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  16. The marginal costs like reference for the decision of electric energy cogeneration in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Eduardo, J.H.B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electric cogeneration question, in a form of optimal utilization of high quality chemical energy in some industrial processes, or a form of employment of any others feedstocks, can be discussed on economics view, with the marginal costs reference, actually in implantation in Brazilian Electrical Sector. In this article, some ideas are presented about the mentioned discussion, in the Brazilian Electric Sector ambient, including analysis of laws and proposed directions for its modifications, looking for the cogeneration activity development in Brazil. (author)

  17. A Prototype for the Support of Integrated Software Process Development and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrawatpreyakorn, Nalinpat; Quirchmayr, Gerald; Chutimaskul, Wichian

    An efficient software development process is one of key success factors for quality software. Not only can the appropriate establishment but also the continuous improvement of integrated project management and of the software development process result in efficiency. This paper hence proposes a software process maintenance framework which consists of two core components: an integrated PMBOK-Scrum model describing how to establish a comprehensive set of project management and software engineering processes and a software development maturity model advocating software process improvement. Besides, a prototype tool to support the framework is introduced.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW-COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Kelner; T.E. Owen; D.L. George; A. Minachi; M.G. Nored; C.J. Schwartz

    2004-03-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} began a multi-year project co-funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. The project goal is to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype retrofit natural gas energy flow meter in 2000-2001 included: (1) evaluation of the inferential gas energy analysis algorithm using supplemental gas databases and anticipated worst-case gas mixtures; (2) identification and feasibility review of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen diluent content; (3) experimental performance evaluation of infrared absorption sensors for carbon dioxide diluent content; and (4) procurement of a custom ultrasonic transducer and redesign of the ultrasonic pulse reflection correlation sensor for precision speed-of-sound measurements. A prototype energy meter module containing improved carbon dioxide and speed-of-sound sensors was constructed and tested in the GRI Metering Research Facility at SwRI. Performance of this module using transmission-quality natural gas and gas containing supplemental carbon dioxide up to 9 mol% resulted in gas energy determinations well within the inferential algorithm worst-case tolerance of {+-}2.4 Btu/scf (nitrogen diluent gas measured by gas chromatograph). A two-week field test was performed at a gas-fired power plant to evaluate the inferential algorithm and the data acquisition requirements needed to adapt the prototype energy meter module to practical field site conditions.

  19. Development of a universal medical X‐ray imaging phantom prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic X‐ray imaging depends on the maintenance of image quality that allows for proper diagnosis of medical conditions. Maintenance of image quality requires quality assurance programs on the various X‐ray modalities, which consist of projection radiography (including mobile X‐ray units), fluoroscopy, mammography, and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Currently a variety of modality‐specific phantoms are used to perform quality assurance (QA) tests. These phantoms are not only expensive, but suitably trained personnel are needed to successfully use them and interpret the results. The question arose as to whether a single universal phantom could be designed and applied to all of the X‐ray imaging modalities. A universal phantom would reduce initial procurement cost, possibly reduce the time spent on QA procedures and simplify training of staff on the single device. The aim of the study was to design and manufacture a prototype of a universal phantom, suitable for image quality assurance in general X‐rays, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT scanning. The universal phantom should be easy to use and would enable automatic data analysis, pass/fail reporting, and corrective action recommendation. In addition, a universal phantom would especially be of value in low‐income countries where finances and human resources are limited. The design process included a thorough investigation of commercially available phantoms. Image quality parameters necessary for image quality assurance in the different X‐ray imaging modalities were determined. Based on information obtained from the above‐mentioned investigations, a prototype of a universal phantom was developed, keeping ease of use and reduced cost in mind. A variety of possible phantom housing and insert materials were investigated, considering physical properties, machinability, and cost. A three‐dimensional computer model of the first phantom prototype was used to manufacture the prototype housing and

  20. Development of a universal medical X-ray imaging phantom prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Annemari; Groenewald, Willem A

    2016-11-08

    Diagnostic X-ray imaging depends on the maintenance of image quality that allows for proper diagnosis of medical conditions. Maintenance of image quality requires quality assurance programs on the various X-ray modalities, which consist of pro-jection radiography (including mobile X-ray units), fluoroscopy, mammography, and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Currently a variety of modality-specific phantoms are used to perform quality assurance (QA) tests. These phantoms are not only expensive, but suitably trained personnel are needed to successfully use them and interpret the results. The question arose as to whether a single universal phantom could be designed and applied to all of the X-ray imaging modalities. A universal phantom would reduce initial procurement cost, possibly reduce the time spent on QA procedures and simplify training of staff on the single device. The aim of the study was to design and manufacture a prototype of a universal phantom, suitable for image quality assurance in general X-rays, fluoroscopy, mammography, and CT scanning. The universal phantom should be easy to use and would enable automatic data analysis, pass/fail reporting, and corrective action recommendation. In addition, a universal phantom would especially be of value in low-income countries where finances and human resources are limited. The design process included a thorough investigation of commercially available phantoms. Image quality parameters necessary for image quality assurance in the different X-ray imaging modalities were determined. Based on information obtained from the above-mentioned investigations, a prototype of a universal phantom was developed, keeping ease of use and reduced cost in mind. A variety of possible phantom housing and insert materials were investigated, considering physical properties, machinability, and cost. A three-dimensional computer model of the first phantom prototype was used to manufacture the prototype housing and inserts. Some of the

  1. First and second law analysis of diesel engine powered cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusoglu, Aysegul; Kanoglu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine cogeneration system is performed. All necessary data are obtained from the actual diesel engine cogeneration plant located at Gaziantep, Turkey. The exergy analysis is aimed to evaluate the exergy destruction in each component as well as the exergetic efficiencies. The thermodynamic performance of a 25.32 MW electricity and 8.1 tons/h steam capacity diesel engine cogeneration system at full load conditions is analyzed. The thermal efficiency of the overall plant is found to be 44.2% and the exergetic efficiency is 40.7%. The exergy balance equations developed in this paper may also be utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis to estimate the production costs depending on various input costs in a diesel cogeneration system

  2. APPLICATION OF NEOTAME IN CATCHUP: DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPES AND SENSORY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. C. BANNWART

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In the present study, fi ve prototypes of catchup were developed, using the sweetener Neotame (NTM as a total or partial replacer for sucrose. Initially, the ideal sweetness of NTM in this application was determined using just-about-right scale. Then, difference and preference tests were carried out to verify the effects of the substitution of sucrose by NTM, at different levels. Time-intensity studies were also performed for the attributes sweetness and tomato fl avor. The results showed that the ideal sweetness of NTM in catchup as the only sweetener is around 9.33 ppm. The substitution of sucrose for NTM is only signifi cantly perceived for the prototypes sweetened with 25:75 sucrose:NTM and 100% NTM, which were the only ones that were less preferred than the control (100% sucrose. The time-intensity studies confi rmed that the prototypes containing combinations of sucrose and NTM are similar in terms of sweetness perception, independently of the proportions. Based on the results, it was concluded that NTM is a suitable sweetener for catchup, in reducedsugar versions, as it can replace up to 50% of sucrose without negative effects on the product´s sensory properties.

  3. Development and characterization of a coronary polylactic acid stent prototype generated by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Christian; Vogt, Felix; Höges, Simon; Jauer, Lucas; Borinski, Mauricio; Schulte, Vera A; Hoffmann, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Meiners, Wilhelm; Jobmann, Monika; Wissenbach, Konrad; Blindt, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In-stent restenosis is still an important issue and stent thrombosis is an unresolved risk after coronary intervention. Biodegradable stents would provide initial scaffolding of the stenosed segment and disappear subsequently. The additive manufacturing technology Selective Laser Melting (SLM) enables rapid, parallel, and raw material saving generation of complex 3- dimensional structures with extensive geometric freedom and is currently in use in orthopedic or dental applications. Here, SLM process parameters were adapted for poly-L-lactid acid (PLLA) and PLLA-co-poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) powders to generate degradable coronary stent prototypes. Biocompatibility of both polymers was evidenced by assessment of cell morphology and of metabolic and adhesive activity at direct and indirect contact with human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells. γ-sterilization was demonstrated to guarantee safety of SLM-processed parts. From PLLA and PCL, stent prototypes were successfully generated and post-processing by spray- and dip-coating proved to thoroughly smoothen stent surfaces. In conclusion, for the first time, biodegradable polymers and the SLM technique were combined for the manufacturing of customized biodegradable coronary artery stent prototypes. SLM is advocated for the development of biodegradable coronary PLLA and PCL stents, potentially optimized for future bifurcation applications.

  4. Product Development and its Comparative Analysis by SLA, SLS and FDM Rapid Prototyping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, C. M.; Patil, V. D.

    2016-09-01

    To grab market and meeting deadlines has increased the scope of new methods in product design and development. Industries continuously strive to optimize the development cycles with high quality and cost efficient products to maintain market competitiveness. Thus the need of Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) has started to play pivotal role in rapid product development cycle for complex product. Dimensional accuracy and surface finish are the corner stone of Rapid Prototyping (RP) especially if they are used for mould development. The paper deals with the development of part made with the help of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Stereo-lithography (SLA) and Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) processes to benchmark and investigate on various parameters like material shrinkage rate, dimensional accuracy, time, cost and surface finish. This helps to conclude which processes can be proved to be effective and efficient in mould development. In this research work the emphasis was also given to the design stage of a product development to obtain an optimum design solution for an existing product.

  5. Development of a Prototype Robotic System for Radiosurgery with Upper Hemispherical Workspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Young Noh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a specialized robotic system under development for radiosurgery using a small-sized linear accelerator. The robotic system is a 5-DOF manipulator that can be installed above a patient to make an upper hemispherical workspace centered in a target point. In order to determine the optimal lengths of the link, we consider the requirements for the workspace of a linear accelerator for radiosurgery. A more suitable kinematic structure than conventional industrial manipulators is proposed, and the kinematic analysis is also provided. A graphic simulator is implemented and used for dynamic analysis. Based on those results, a prototype manipulator and its control system are under development.

  6. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  7. District heating and co-generation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, Franc; Pecaric, Marko; Perovic, Olgica

    2000-01-01

    Recent development of district heating systems, gasification and co-generation processes in local communities in Slovenia as well as current status, potentials, possibilities and plans for further development in this sphere are presented. The current status presents energy production, distribution and use in district heating systems and in local gas distribution networks. An analysis of the energy and power generated and distributed in district power systems, made with regard to the size of the system, fuel used, type of consumers and the way of production, is given. Growth in different areas of local power systems in the period of last years is included. Potentials in the sphere of electrical energy and heat co-generation were assessed. Some possibilities and experience in heat energy storage are given and trends and plans for further development are introduced. (Authors)

  8. Design and Development of Prototype Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Collector for Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrushikesh Bhujangrao Kulkarni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating collectors absorbs solar energy and convert it into heat for generating hot water, steam at required temperature, which can be further used for solar thermal applications. The developing countries like India where solar energy is abundantly available; there is need to develop technology for harnessing solar energy for power production, but the main problem associated with concentrating solar power technology is the high cost of installation and low output efficiency. To solve this problem, a prototype cylindrical parabolic solar collector having aperture area of 1.89 m2 is designed and developed using low cost highly reflecting and absorbing material to reduce initial cost of project and improve thermal efficiency. ASHRAE Standard 93, 1986 was used to evaluate the thermal performance and it was observed that this system can generate hot water at an average temperature of 500C per day with an average efficiency of 49% which is considerable higher than flat plate solar collectors. Hot water produced by this system can be useful for domestic, agricultural, industrial process heat applications.Article History: Received Sept 19, 2015; Received in revised form Dec 23, 2015; Accepted February 2, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Bhujangrao, K.H. (2016. Design and Development of Prototype Cylindrical Parabolic Solar Collector for Water Heating Application. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1, 49-55 http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.49-55 

  9. Metamorphoses of cogeneration-based district heating in Romania: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacobescu, Flavius; Badescu, Viorel

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. - Research Highlights: →Birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating system in a medium size city. →The industrialization degree is the main factor which controlled the reconfiguration of the district heating system. →Each stage of the evolution of district heating system has been a technological leap. →Cogeneration is a solution for district heating even in case of abrupt social changes.

  10. Tax issues in structuring effective cogeneration vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Canadian income tax laws that apply to cogeneration projects was presented. Certain tax considerations could be taken into account in deciding upon ownership and financing structures for cogeneration projects, particularly those that qualify for class 43.1 capital cost allowance treatment. The tax treatment of project revenues and expenses were described. The paper also reviewed the 1999 federal budget proposals regarding the manufacturing and processing tax credit, the capital cost allowance system applicable to cogeneration assets and the treatment of the Canadian renewable conservation expense

  11. Fort Hood solar cogeneration facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A study is done on the application of a tower-focus solar cogeneration facility at the US Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Solar-heated molten salt is to provide the steam for electricity and for room heating, room cooling, and domestic hot water. The proposed solar cogeneration system is expected to save the equivalent of approximately 10,500 barrels of fuel oil per year and to involve low development risks. The site and existing plant are described, including the climate and plant performance. The selection of the site-specific configuration is discussed, including: candidate system configurations; technology assessments, including risk assessments of system development, receiver fluids, and receiver configurations; system sizing; and the results of trade studies leading to the selection of the preferred system configuration. (LEW)

  12. Full-Scale Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Dillon, Paul; Weaver, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the superior candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. Although a number of design variants were considered, one that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was deemed best for further development. An analysis of test data showed that eight layer stacks of the HoFi sheets that had good exposure on each side of the stack would evaporate water with high efficiency. A design that has 15,000 tubes, with 18 cm of exposed tubes between headers has been built and tested that meets the size, weight, and performance requirements of the SWME. This full-scale prototype consists of 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Testing has been performed to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the sensitivity to surfactants.

  13. Cogeneration and the regulatory framework of energy law; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der energiewirtschaftliche Ordnungsrahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornehl, Angelika Bettina

    2009-06-15

    The present publication shows that the existing regulatory framework poses numerous impediments to cogeneration plants. This holds especially for industrial operators, but also for municipalities. It has prevented cogeneration from developing its full potential both as an element of competition and as a relief for the environment. Unlike industrial cogeneration plants, those serving the public energy supply at least enjoy the privilege of regional monopoly rights. In today's liberalised electricity market, however, this can be a burden for existing municipal plants which were installed under territorial protection and in many cases have incurred high cost levels and become inflexible and lacking in entrepreneurial spirit as a result. On account of its tendency to promote optimal resource input and efficiency, competition promises positive impulses for the use of cogeneration in small-scale heat grids, where high fuel efficiency matters more. A reform of the competition regime in the power economy would eliminate numerous impediments, particularly for industrial cogeneration operators. Good hopes for the future of cogeneration in a liberalised electricity and gas market are also nurtured by cooperative supply concepts and, within the large domain of services, opportunities held out by special contracting offers.

  14. Active Debris Removal (ADR) System Architecture Analysis Tool (SAAT) Prototype for Orbital Debris Stabilization and Removal Architecture Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is critically important that a physics based ADR SAAT prototype be developed that can be refined and used across the community to study and analyze various remote...

  15. The Gravity-Probe-B relativity gyroscope experiment - Development of the prototype flight instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turneaure, J. P.; Everitt, C. W. F.; Parkinson, B. W.; Bardas, D.; Breakwell, J. V.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity-Probe-B relativity gyroscope experiment (GP-B) will measure the geodetic and frame-dragging precession rates of gyroscopes in a 650 km high polar orbit about the earth. The goal is to measure these two effects, which are predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, to 0.01 percent (geodetic) and 1 percent (frame-dragging). This paper presents the development progress for full-size prototype flight hardware including the gyroscopes, gyro readout and magnetic shielding system, and an integrated ground test instrument.

  16. Prototype Development Capabilities of 3D Spatial Interactions and Failures During Scenario Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Tony Koonce

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a prototype for using 3D modeling and simulation engine to improve risk analysis and evaluate reactor structures and components for a given scenario. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  17. Tasks and challenges in prototype development with novel technology - an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thematic analysis of 138 monthly reports from a joint industrial and academic project where multiple prototypes were developed based on the same technology. The analysis was based on tasks and challenges described in the reports by project managers over a period of three years....... 17 task themes and 9 challenge themes were identified. It was found that test, implementation, and project management were prominent tasks. Familiarization with the technology was found to a very little degree, which was in opposition to literature. The main challenge was found to be system...

  18. Metal Fuel Development and Verification for Prototype Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Bock Lee; Jin Sik Cheon; Sung Ho Kim; Jeong-Yong Park; Hyung-Kook Joo

    2016-01-01

    Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) to be built by 2028. U–Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U–transuranics (TRU)–Zr fuel will gradually replace U–Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U–Zr fuel, work on U–Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U–TRU–Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochem...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  20. Developments towards the technical design and prototype evaluation of the anti PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etzelmueller, Erik

    2017-04-15

    The envisaged physics program of the PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at Darmstadt) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) requires excellent particle identification over the full solid angle. The Endcap Disc DIRC (EDD) will cover forward polar angles between 5 and 22 and is one of three dedicated subdetectors for the identification of charged hadrons and the separation of pions and kaons in particular. DIRC stands for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light and implies that the emitted Cherenkov photons are trapped inside the radiator by total internal reflection. The central part of each DIRC detector is its optical system which is responsible for a low-loss and angle-preserving transport of the Cherenkov photons. The work at hand experimentally addresses several objectives in connection with the optical components and the system as a whole. Radiator prototypes were evaluated with high precision and adapted specifications were identified based on the results. The imaging performance of the Focusing Elements (FELs) was verified and different options regarding the coupling of the individual components were evaluated. In addition a radiation hardness study of a new fused silica material provided an insight into the long term behavior of induced defects and confirmed the material to be suitable for high energy physics experiments. A conceptual design for the mechanical integration was developed featuring a rigid optical system which is mounted into a cross-like structure. In this context the spatial constrains for the holding structure and the FELs were identified and an assembly procedure was developed. The existing prototype was revised and newly developed concepts were integrated and tested. Furthermore a data analysis of an earlier prototype test at a mixed hadron beam at CERN was carried out. It was the first evaluation of an EDD prototype which consisted of optical components made of fused silica only and had highly

  1. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-2 upgrade of the LHC is planned. This will result in a severe radiation dose and high particle rates for the multipurpose exeperiments because of a foreseen luminosity of ten times higher the LHC design luminosity. Several detector components will have to be upgraded in the experiments. In the ATLAS experiment the current inner detector will be replaced by an all silicon tracking detector aiming for high performance. The poster will present the development and the latest prototyping of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector. Its layout foresees low mass and modular double-sided structures for the barrel and forward region. Silicon sensors and readout electronics, so-called modules, are planned to be assembled double-sided on larger carbon-core structures. The modularity allows assembly and testing at multiple sites. Many components need to be developed and their prototyping towards full-size components is ongoing. New developments and test results will be presented....

  2. Operating experience with a flexible cogeneration plant in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Much has been written about the interesting gas turbine cogeneration Project in Fort Lupton, Colorado, U.S.A., as created and developed by the Thermo Cogeneration Partnership under the leadership of Paul Steinway, project general manager. The plant is based on five 40 MW-class gas turbine generator modules supplied by Stewart & Stevenson, who is also responsible for operation and maintenance of the plant through its operating arm, Stewart & Stevenson Operations, Inc. The plant, first placed into service in mid-1994 after only 18 months of construction, is of particular interest because it has to function with a wide degree of flexibility in load management, and it also uses one of the latest-design aeroderivative gas turbines, namely the GE LM6000. This article describes the plant design, equipment and operating experience thus far. 6 figs.

  3. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  4. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacone, M.

    2001-01-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant [it

  5. 100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Merrill Skeist; Richard H. (Dick) Baker; Anthony G.P. Marini; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-03-21

    Project Final Report for "100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project" prepared under DOE grant number DE-FG36-03GO13138. This project relates to the further development and prototype construction/evaluation for the Energy Transfer Multiplexer (ETM) power converter topology concept. The ETM uses a series resonant link to transfer energy from any phase of a multiphase input to any phase of a multiphase output, converting any input voltage and frequency to any output voltage and frequency. The basic form of the ETM converter consists of an eight (8)-switch matrix (six phase power switches and two ground power switches) and a series L-C resonant circuit. Electronic control of the switches allows energy to be transferred in the proper amount from any phase to any other phase. Depending upon the final circuit application, the switches may be either SCRs or IGBTs. The inherent characteristics of the ETM converter include the following: Power processing in either direction (bidirectional); Large voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics; High efficiency independent of output load and frequency; Wide bandwidth with fast transient response and; Operation as a current source. The ETM is able to synthesize true sinusoidal waveforms with low harmonic distortions. For a low power PM wind generation system, the ETM has the following characteristics and advantages: It provides voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics (DC inductors) and; It has constant high efficiency independent of the load. The ETM converter can be implemented into a PM wind power system with smaller size, reduced weight and lower cost. As a result of our analyses, the ETM offers wind power generation technology for the reduction of the cost and size as well as the increase in performance of low power, low wind speed power generation. This project is the further theoretical/analytical exploration of the ETM converter concept in relationship to

  6. Brain-muscle-computer interface: mobile-phone prototype development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Scott; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2011-07-01

    We report prototype development and testing of a new mobile-phone-based brain-muscle-computer interface for severely paralyzed persons, based on previous results from our group showing that humans may actively create specified power levels in two separate frequency bands of a single surface electromyography (sEMG) signal. EMG activity on the surface of a single face muscle site (auricularis superior) is recorded with a standard electrode. This analog electrical signal is imported into an Android-based mobile phone and digitized via an internal A/D converter. The digital signal is split, and then simultaneously filtered with two band-pass filters to extract total power within two separate frequency bands. The user-modulated power in each frequency band serves as two separate control channels for machine control. After signal processing, the Android phone sends commands to external devices via a Bluetooth interface. Users are trained to use the device via visually based operant conditioning, with simple cursor-to-target activities on the phone screen. The mobile-phone prototype interface is formally evaluated on a single advanced Spinal Muscle Atrophy subject, who has successfully used the interface in his home in evaluation trials and for remote control of a television. Development of this new device will not only guide future interface design for community use, but will also serve as an information technology bridge for in situ data collection to quantify human sEMG manipulation abilities for a relevant population.

  7. Optimization of cogeneration thermal power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Marinchenko, A. Yu.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2009-09-01

    We present a procedure for comparing the efficiencies of cogeneration thermal power units that takes variable conditions of their operation into account. A combined-cycle plant operating in accordance with the STIG cycle (i.e., with mixing of working fluids), a gas turbine unit equipped with a gas economizer, and a steam turbine unit equipped with a backpressure turbine are compared during their operation as part of a cogeneration station.

  8. A Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); McKeown, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Zimmerman, Gregory P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology (MYRP) presents a strategy for specifying, designing, testing, and demonstrating the efficacy of standard modular hydropower (SMH) as an environmentally compatible and cost-optimized renewable electricity generation technology. The MYRP provides the context, background, and vision for testing the SMH hypothesis: if standardization, modularity, and preservation of stream functionality become essential and fully realized features of hydropower technology, project design, and regulatory processes, they will enable previously unrealized levels of new project development with increased acceptance, reduced costs, increased predictability of outcomes, and increased value to stakeholders. To achieve success in this effort, the MYRP outlines a framework of stakeholder-validated criteria, models, design tools, testing facilities, and assessment protocols that will facilitate the development of next-generation hydropower technologies.

  9. Antiviral Information Management System (AIMS): a prototype for operational innovation in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Pravin R; Neal, Lauren; Florian, Jeff; Chen, Ying; Naeger, Lisa; Robertson, Sarah; Soon, Guoxing; Birnkrant, Debra

    2010-09-01

    This article presents a prototype for an operational innovation in knowledge management (KM). These operational innovations are geared toward managing knowledge efficiently and accessing all available information by embracing advances in bioinformatics and allied fields. The specific components of the proposed KM system are (1) a database to archive hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment data in a structured format and retrieve information in a query-capable manner and (2) an automated analysis tool to inform trial design elements for HCV drug development. The proposed framework is intended to benefit drug development by increasing efficiency of dose selection and improving the consistency of advice from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is also hoped that the framework will encourage collaboration among FDA, industry, and academic scientists to guide the HCV drug development process using model-based quantitative analysis techniques.

  10. Additionality in projects of clean development mechanisms (CDM) and cogeneration in Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector; Adicionalidade em projetos de MDL (mecanismo de desenvolvimento limpo) e a cogeracao no setor sucroalcooleiro brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Rodrigo Marcelo; Cunha, Kamyla Borges da; Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduaccao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), the resulting intensification of the greenhouse effect and its relation with climate change, have been pointed out as serious global problem. For this reason, the Kyoto Protocol was established, within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the objective of setting up directives and goals to the stabilization and reduction of GHG emissions. In its Article 12, the Kyoto Protocol institutes the Clean Development Mechanism, an important flexibility instrument to Annex 1 Parties in achieving their emission reduction targets through project implementation in developing countries (non-Annex 1 Parties), promoting Sustainable Development and incurring and lesser costs of emission reductions. Any project, to be qualified within the Clean Development Mechanism, must fulfill the eligibility criterions fixed by the Kyoto Protocol, which are: promotion of Sustainable Development and assurance of the project additionality. In Brazil, the sugarcane industry is a promising opportunity of developing these kind of projects, specially by means of the cogeneration from sugarcane residues. This paper analyses the Additionality of this sort of projects, in the light of the criterions defined by the UNFCCC, with special attention to the two Brazilian cases registered in the CDM Methodologies Panel. (author)

  11. Development of the STOW processor prototype for long duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S.; Rappole, C.

    NASA's Food Processing System Development Facility (FPSDF) is controlled by Advanced Life Support's food element and was initiated to support the BIO-Plex project. Equipment in this facility is being evaluated and redesigned to accommodate predetermined requirements for long-duration missions. These requirements include restrictions on water and energy use as well as waste production and size/weight limitations. While attempting to meet these requirements, the equipment must provide the capability to process hydroponically grown crops into palatable food products. The Soymilk, Tofu, Okara and Whey (STOW) processor prototype is the first piece of equipment to be evaluated at the FPSDF. This first generation prototype was designed by SpaceHab and built by Johnson Engineering. Control issues have led to a redesign of the control hardware/software. Concurrently, there have been modifications to the mechanical design for the sake of safety, simplification and reduction in size/weight requirements. Future work will focus on optimization of processing parameters and equipment design for tofu production using high protein content soybeans. Also, there will be attempts to use soymilk, okara and whey in other product formulations.

  12. Design and Development of a Wood-Fired Gasifier Prototype for Synthesis Gas Production and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neres Ann S. Manguiat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available -Synthesis gas formation which can be transformed to useful compounds through biomass gasification is perceived as one promising process of biofuel production. A construction, design and development of an efficient and small-scale wood-fired gasifier prototype was made at Batangas State University. This study included the costs and specifications of materials, the design, components and percent conversion of the biomass to syngas by obtaining the amount of the residue. Set of operating conditions were determined so as to achieve a good performance of the gasifier; otherwise it adversely affected the operation of the prototype. The gasifier operates in a condition in which the air flow rate is 560 - 610 cm3 /min wherein the valve is half-open and the blower is turned on after 20 seconds. The gasifier will be closed after a minute of start-up. With these conditions, the gasifier works accordingly to a smooth operation. Syngas was composed of methane (2.32 % volume, carbon dioxide (10 % volume, carbon monoxide and minimal amount of hydrogen. Two (2 kg of woodchips with 90.75% conversion was the best amount of feed suited for the operation of the gasifier. This innovation comprises a method which efficiently converts the feedstock thereby enhancing the energy of the syngas produced with byproducts at minimum acceptable value. The wood-fired gasifier will be a very helpful tool in contributing to the resolution of pressing social and environmental problems such as energy security and local agricultural waste pollution.

  13. Harnessing scientific literature reports for pharmacovigilance. Prototype software analytical tool development and usability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, Alfred; Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-03-22

    We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers' capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. All usability test participants cited the tool's ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool's automated literature search relative to a manual 'all fields' PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction.

  14. Developing a second generation Laue lens prototype: high-reflectivity crystals and accurate assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Lowell, Alexander; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Laue lenses are an emerging technology that will enhance gamma-ray telescope sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude in selected energy bands of the ~100 keV to ~1.5 MeV range. This optic would be particularly well adapted to the observation of faint gamma ray lines, as required for the study of Supernovae and Galactic positron annihilation. It could also prove very useful for the study of hard X-ray tails from a variety of compact objects, especially making a difference by providing sufficient sensitivity for polarization to be measured by the focal plane detector. Our group has been addressing the two key issues relevant to improve performance with respect to the first generation of Laue lens prototypes: obtaining large numbers of efficient crystals and developing a method to fix them with accurate orientation and dense packing factor onto a substrate. We present preliminary results of an on-going study aiming to enable a large number of crystals suitable for diffraction at energies above 500 keV. In addition, we show the first results of the Laue lens prototype assembled using our beamline at SSL/UC Berkeley, which demonstrates our ability to orient and glue crystals with accuracy of a few arcsec, as required for an efficient Laue lens telescope.

  15. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  16. Investigations on an oriented cooling design for thermoelectric cogenerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X F; Yan, Y Y; Liu, C X

    2012-01-01

    In thermoelectric application, it is widely known that the material limitation has still been the chief barrier of lifting its application to a higher level. Continuous efforts are extensively being made in developing novel material structures and constructions for thermoelectric modules with higher conversion efficiency. However, the overall system efficiency, which is one of the major parameters that most of the engineer and users care about, is not only ruled by the properties of applied thermoelectric materials, but also decided by the design of heat exchangers used on both sides of thermoelectric modules. Focusing on the cooling capacity and hydraulic characteristics of heat exchanger, this paper introduces an oriented cooling method for the domestic thermoelectric cogeneration, which delivers system efficiency up to 80%. This purpose-oriented cooling plate is designed for thermoelectric cogeneration for the residential houses installed with boiler or other heating facilities with a considerable amount of unused heat. The design enables Thermoelectric Cogeneration System (TCS) to be flexibly integrated into the existing hydraulic system. The mathematical model for the cooling plate has been established for a well understanding at the theoretical level. The performance of cooling plate has been investigated in a series of experimental studies which have been conducted under different coolant inlet velocity and temperature. The economic operating zone in which a good system performance could be achieved has been discussed and identified for the current configuration.

  17. Prototype Development of a Tradespace Analysis Tool for Spaceflight Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Erik L; Mulcahy, Robert A; Rubin, David; Blue, Rebecca S; Canga, Michael A; Shah, Ronak

    2018-02-01

    The provision of medical care in exploration-class spaceflight is limited by mass, volume, and power constraints, as well as limitations of available skillsets of crewmembers. A quantitative means of exploring the risks and benefits of inclusion or exclusion of onboard medical capabilities may help to inform the development of an appropriate medical system. A pilot project was designed to demonstrate the utility of an early tradespace analysis tool for identifying high-priority resources geared toward properly equipping an exploration mission medical system. Physician subject matter experts identified resources, tools, and skillsets required, as well as associated criticality scores of the same, to meet terrestrial, U.S.-specific ideal medical solutions for conditions concerning for exploration-class spaceflight. A database of diagnostic and treatment actions and resources was created based on this input and weighed against the probabilities of mission-specific medical events to help identify common and critical elements needed in a future exploration medical capability. Analysis of repository data demonstrates the utility of a quantitative method of comparing various medical resources and skillsets for future missions. Directed database queries can provide detailed comparative estimates concerning likelihood of resource utilization within a given mission and the weighted utility of tangible and intangible resources. This prototype tool demonstrates one quantitative approach to the complex needs and limitations of an exploration medical system. While this early version identified areas for refinement in future version development, more robust analysis tools may help to inform the development of a comprehensive medical system for future exploration missions.Antonsen EL, Mulcahy RA, Rubin D, Blue RS, Canga MA, Shah R. Prototype development of a tradespace analysis tool for spaceflight medical resources. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):108-114.

  18. Development and prototype testing of MgCl 2 /graphite foam latent heat thermal energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep; Yu, Wenhua; Zhao, Weihuan; Kim, Taeil; France, David M.; Smith, Roger K.

    2018-01-01

    Composites of graphite foam infiltrated with a magnesium chloride phase-change material have been developed as high-temperature thermal energy storage media for concentrated solar power applications. This storage medium provides a high thermal energy storage density, a narrow operating temperature range, and excellent heat transfer characteristics. In this study, experimental investigations were conducted on laboratory-scale prototypes with magnesium chloride/graphite foam composite as the latent heat thermal energy storage system. Prototypes were designed and built to monitor the melt front movement during the charging/discharging tests. A test loop was built to ensure the charging/discharging of the prototypes at temperatures > 700 degrees C. Repeated thermal cycling experiments were carried out on the fabricated prototypes, and the experimental temperature profiles were compared to the predicted results from numerical simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Experimental results were found to be in good agreement with the simulations to validate the thermal models.

  19. Five-Factor Model personality disorder prototypes: a review of their development, validity, and comparison to alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    In this article, the development of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality disorder (PD) prototypes for the assessment of DSM-IV PDs are reviewed, as well as subsequent procedures for scoring individuals' FFM data with regard to these PD prototypes, including similarity scores and simple additive counts that are based on a quantitative prototype matching methodology. Both techniques, which result in very strongly correlated scores, demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity, and provide clinically useful information with regard to various forms of functioning. The techniques described here for use with FFM data are quite different from the prototype matching methods used elsewhere. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  1. Low-Cost Rescue Robot for Disaster Management in a Developing Country: Development of a Prototype Using Locally Available Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Hossain, S. G. M.; Bin, Jobair

    2010-01-01

    The use of robots in different fields is common and effective in developed countries. In case of incident management or emergency rescue after a disaster, robots are often used to lessen the human effort where it is either impossible or life-threatening for rescuers. Though developed countries can afford robotic-effort for pro-disaster management, the scenario is totally opposite for developing and under-developed countries to engage such a machine-help due to high cost of the machines and high maintenance cost as well. In this research paper, the authors proposed a low-cost "Rescue-Robot" for pro-disaster management which can overcome the budget-constraints as well as fully capable of rescue purposes for incident management. Here, all the research works were performed in Bangladesh - a developing country in South Asia. A disaster struck structure was chosen and a thorough survey was performed to understand the real-life environment for the prototype. The prototype was developed considering the results of this survey and it was manufactured using all locally available components and facilities.

  2. Design, development, and validation of a segment support actuator for the prototype segmented mirror telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Prasanna Gajanan; Mandal, Amaresh; Parihar, Padmakar S.; Nayak, Dayananda; Mishra, Deepta Sundar

    2018-01-01

    Segmented mirror telescopes (SMT) are built using several small hexagonal mirrors positioned and aligned by the three actuators and six edge sensors per segment to maintain the shape of the primary mirror. The actuators are responsible for maintaining and tracking the mirror segments to the desired position, in the presence of external disturbances introduced by wind, vibration, gravity, and temperature. The present paper describes our effort to develop a soft actuator and the actuator controller for prototype SMT at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The actuator designed, developed, and validated is a soft actuator based on the voice coil motor and flexural elements. It is designed for the range of travel of ±1.5 mm and the force range of 25 N along with an offloading mechanism to reduce the power consumption. A precision controller using a programmable system on chip (PSoC 5Lp) and a customized drive board has also been developed for this actuator. The close loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented in the PSoC gets position feedback from a high-resolution linear optical encoder. The optimum PID gains are derived using relay tuning method. In the laboratory, we have conducted several experiments to test the performance of the prototype soft actuator as well as the controller. We could achieve 5.73- and 10.15-nm RMS position errors in the steady state as well as tracking with a constant speed of 350 nm/s, respectively. We also present the outcome of various performance tests carried out when off-loader is in action as well as the actuator is subjected to dynamic wind loading.

  3. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  4. Prototype Development for the GMT FSM Secondary - Off-axis Aspheric Mirror Fabrication -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Soo Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of the GMT FSM has been developed to acquire and to enhance the key technology – mirror fabrication and tiptilt actuation. The ellipsoidal off-axis mirror has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated from light-weighting to grinding, polishing, and figuring of the mirror surface. The mirror was tested by using an interferometer together with CGHs, which revealed the surface error of 13.7 nm rms in the diameter of 1030 mm. The SCOTS test was employed to independently validate the test results. It measured the surface error to be 17.4 nm rms in the diameter of 1010 mm. Both tests show the optical surface of the FSMP mirror within the required value of 20 nm rms surface error.

  5. Development of a prototype hybrid L-edge/L-XRF densitometer for nuclear fuel assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Sungyeop; Park, Seunghoon

    2018-03-01

    The hybrid L-edge/L-XRF densitometer (HLED) was developed for on-site nuclear fuel assays intended for safeguards purpose. The HLED can simultaneously measure both X-ray photon transmissions and characteristic X-ray emissions, which characterizes the elemental composition of samples of interest to determine the concentration of actinide-bearing materials, such as plutonium and uranium, in a nuclear fuel. A prototype of the HLED equipment was fabricated and tested to study the feasibility of nuclear material assays using a surrogate material (lead) to avoid radiation effects from nuclear materials. The uncertainty of the L-edge and L-XRF characteristics of the sample material are discussed in the article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a cutter-chipper prototype for tree stands; Pystypuuston katkaisuhakettimen proto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polus, P. [Tmi P. Polus, Raahe (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Collection of chips and energy wood with conventional methods involves too many operations and hence results in a too high price of chips. The aim of the project was to develop a cutter-chipper suitable for chipping energy and pulp wood from tree stands. This equipment cuts and chips growing trees with branches and tops at site. Many stages involved in chipping would be eliminated and hence the price of chips would be more competitive, for example, with that of peat. In preliminary experiments, the prototype operated as expected. The product chips were homogeneous, did not contain long fractions or branch bits, and the chip size was. The chips were moved into the container by a conveyor. The sale of manufacturing rights for the equipment is under consideration. (orig.)

  7. Practice of knowledge management in Prototype and Plant Development Center (PDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Rapieh Aminuddin; Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2007-01-01

    As reflecting the evolvement and movement of world economy direction, Malaysia move one step a head towards knowledge based economy (K-Economy). The movement indirectly changes the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) environment to contribute to the K-Economy in the field of science and technology. Therefore, the practice of knowledge management is slowly introduced to the Nuclear Malaysia community to support the K-Economy. This paper describes the detail of the practice of knowledge management at macro and micro level in an organization. The Prototype and Plant Development Center(PDC) under the Technical Support Division, Technical Service Program has been chosen to be the case study in implementing the practice of knowledge management in Nuclear Malaysia. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the right practice of Knowledge management in an organization and PDC as among the first case for this purpose. (Author)

  8. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-01

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  9. Recent developments with a prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. G.; Jirasek, A.; Wells, D.

    2013-06-01

    The latest design of a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner is presented. A new beam creation system consists of a 635 nm laser diode module with variable, DC voltage-controlled beam intensity. A change in scanner alignment allows for the elimination of ring artefacts caused by data corruption that is spaced symmetrically across the detector array. These artefacts, as well as a pair of streaking artefacts caused by flask seams, are removed in sinogram space. A flask registration technique has been developed that allows for accurate, reproducible dosimeter placement. Protocol investigations with gel dosimeters have indicated the importance of: i) proper cooling techniques during gel manufacture, and ii) scanning the dosimeter while it is at room temperature. Latest reconstructions of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter are presented as an indicator of current system performance.

  10. Recent developments with a prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W G; Jirasek, A; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The latest design of a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner is presented. A new beam creation system consists of a 635 nm laser diode module with variable, DC voltage-controlled beam intensity. A change in scanner alignment allows for the elimination of ring artefacts caused by data corruption that is spaced symmetrically across the detector array. These artefacts, as well as a pair of streaking artefacts caused by flask seams, are removed in sinogram space. A flask registration technique has been developed that allows for accurate, reproducible dosimeter placement. Protocol investigations with gel dosimeters have indicated the importance of: i) proper cooling techniques during gel manufacture, and ii) scanning the dosimeter while it is at room temperature. Latest reconstructions of a normoxic polymer gel dosimeter are presented as an indicator of current system performance.

  11. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarenko, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  12. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  13. Development of a low-cost, 11 µm spectral domain optical coherence tomography surface profilometry prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliali, Nyasha J.; Baricholo, Peter; Neethling, Pieter H.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2017-06-01

    A spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) surface profilometry prototype has been developed for the purpose of surface metrology of optical elements. The prototype consists of a light source, spectral interferometer, sample fixture and software currently running on Microsoft® Windows platforms. In this system, a broadband light emitting diode beam is focused into a Michelson interferometer with a plane mirror as its sample fixture. At the interferometer output, spectral interferograms of broadband sources were measured using a Czerny-Turner mount monochromator with a 2048-element complementary metal oxide semiconductor linear array as the detector. The software performs importation and interpolation of interferometer spectra to pre-condition the data for image computation. One dimensional axial OCT images were computed by Fourier transformation of the measured spectra. A first reflection surface profilometry (FRSP) algorithm was then formulated to perform imaging of step-function-surfaced samples. The algorithm re-constructs two dimensional colour-scaled slice images by concatenation of 21 and 13 axial scans to form a 10 mm and 3.0 mm slice respectively. Measured spectral interferograms, computed interference fringe signals and depth reflectivity profiles were comparable to simulations and correlated to displacements of a single reflector linearly translated about the arm null-mismatch point. Surface profile images of a double-step-function-surfaced sample, embedded with inclination and crack detail were plotted with an axial resolution of 11 μm. The surface shape, defects and misalignment relative to the incident beam were detected to the order of a micron, confirming high resolution of the developed system as compared to electro-mechanical surface profilometry techniques.

  14. Rapid prototyping systems for the development of new fuel-injection concepts for diesel engines; Einspritz-Prototyping-System zur Entwicklung neuer Einspritzkonzepte bei Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, M. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    The article uses the example of solenoid-based fuel injectors for diesel engines to demonstrate how a combination of reconfigurable logic and microcontrollers may be employed towards the rapid implementation of new control concepts for timely testing either directly on the engine or in the vehicle. Emphasis is given to the development and optimization of electronic engine management components. In contrast to the nonexistent modification options on conventional production ECUs, the new concept allows for the modification and fine-tuning of a number of injection parameters. The rapid prototyping system is a joint development of the Research and Advanced Engineering Department of Robert Bosch GmbH and ETAS GmbH. (orig.)

  15. Development of a prototype for dissolved CO2 rapid measurement and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Guo, Jinjia; Zhang, Zhihao; Luo, Zhao; Qin, Chuan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-01

    The measurements of dissolved CO2 in seawater is of great significance for the study of global carbon cycle. At present, the commercial sensors used for dissolved CO2 measurements are mostly equipped with permeable membranes for the purpose of gas-liquid separation, with the advantages of easy operation, low cost, etc.. However, most of these devices measure CO2 after reaching gas equilibrium, so it takes a few minutes to respond, which limited its applications in rapid measurements. In this paper, a set of prototype was developed for the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2. The system was built basing the direct absorption TDLAS. To detect the CO2 absorption line located at 4991.26 cm-1 , a fiber-coupled DFB laser operating at 2004 nm was selected as the light source. A Herriott type multi-pass cavity with an effective optical path length of 10 m and an inner volume of 90 mL was used for absorption measurements. A detection limit of 26 μatm can be obtained with this compact cavity. To realize the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2, a degasser with high degassing rate was necessary. A hollow fiber membrane with a large permeable area used in this paper can achieve degassing rate up to 2.88 kPa/min. Benefitted from the high degassing rate of the degasser and high sensitivity of the compact TDLAS system, a rapid measurement of dissolved CO2 in water can be achieved within 1s time, and the response time of the prototype when the dissolved CO2 concentration changed abruptly in actual measurement was 15 s. To evaluate the performance of the prototype, comparison measurements were carried out with a commercial mass spectrometer. The dissolved CO2 in both seawater and tap-water was measured, and the experimental results showed good consistent trends with R2 of 0.973 and 0.931. The experimental results proved the feasibility of dissolved CO2 rapid measurement. In the near future, more system evaluation experiments will be carried out and the system will be further

  16. Land resource sustainability for urban development: spatial decision support system prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Reza

    2005-08-01

    Land resource sustainability for urban development characterizes the problem of decision-making with multiplicity and uncertainty. A decision support system prototype aids in the assessment of incremental land development plan proposals put forth within the long-term community priority of a sustainable growth. Facilitating this assessment is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria evaluation and decision support system. The decision support system incorporates multiple sustainability criteria, weighted strategically responsive to local public policy priorities and community-specific situations and values, while gauging and directing desirable future courses of development. Furthermore, the decision support system uses a GIS, which facilitates an assessment of urban form with multiple indicators of sustainability as spatial criteria thematically. The resultant land-use sustainability scores indicate, on the ratio-scale of AHP, whether or not a desirable urban form is likely in the long run, and if so, to what degree. The two alternative modes of synthesis in AHP-ideal and distributive-provide assessments of a land development plan incrementally (short-term) and city-wide pattern comprehensively (long-term), respectively. Thus, the spatial decision support system facilitates proactive and collective public policy determination of land resource for future sustainable urban development.

  17. Development of Wave Dragon from Scale 1:50 to Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, H. C.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Panhauser, W.

    2003-01-01

    . In the period from 1998 to 2001 extensive testing on a scale 1:50 model was carried out. During the last month, testing has started on a prototype of the Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning, Denmark (wave climate in scale 1:4.5 of the North Sea). The prototype has been grid connected in June 2003 as the world...

  18. CANDU co-generation opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Duffey, R.B.; Pendergast, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Modern technology makes use of natural energy 'wealth' (uranium) to produce useful energy 'currency' (electricity) that can be used to society's benefit. This energy currency can be further applied to help solve a difficult problem faced by mankind. Within the next few years we must reduce our use of the same fuels which have made many countries wealthy - fossil fuels. Fortunately, electricity can be called upon to produce another currency, namely hydrogen, which has some distinct advantages. Unlike electricity, hydrogen can be stored and can be recovered for later use as fuel. It also is extremely useful in chemical processes and refining. To achieve the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions hydrogen must, of course, be produced using a method which does not emit such gases. This paper summarizes four larger studies carried out in Canada in the past few years. From these results we conclude that there are several significant opportunities to use nuclear fission for various co-generation technologies that can lead to more appropriate use of energy resources and to reduced emissions. (author)

  19. Development of a Prototype for the Export Control List Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GwanYoung

    2011-01-01

    The international society has concerned the possibility of a diversion with strategic items into the nuclear weapon development. So they have regulated those, and our country also has done it. Following a accomplishment of a UAE nuclear power plant export contraction in December, 2009 and a Jordan research reactor export contraction in March, 2010, thousands upon thousands of the strategic goods include the strategic technology will be supposed to transfer to UAE and Jordan. A lot of manpower in the government and the company concerned in addition to an enormous amount of time are needed so as to manage transferred items to UAE and Jordan efficiently. Accordingly, the Export Control List Management System has developed 1) to decrease the administrative time required about implementations such as the classification, the export license 2) and to plan the practical use of manpower 3) and to enhance a convenience of businesses, the government and a company concerned by the KINAC and the KOSTI. That system is scheduled to complete after June, and now a management of export items has done manually. This inconvenience can be solved by developing a prototype of the Export Control List Management System. Also an understanding of the Export Control List Management will be enhanced by doing it. A procedure of a system development and results will be presented in this paper

  20. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kessler, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullens, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rath, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  1. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  2. Phytochemicals as Prototypes for Pharmaceutical Leads Towards Drug Development Against Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Kurdi, Amani; Sadek, Bassem; Kaleem, M; Cai, Lu; Kamal, M A; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2016-01-01

    Globally diabetes mellitus (DM) is swiftly reaching epidemic proportions and impose major health care and socio-economic challenges that are associated with its complications. DM is considered as the major risk factor for the development of debilitating micro & macro vascular complications. Clinical studies have revealed that development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in subjects with diabetes can occur both- dependent and independent of pre-existing increased risk factors such as poor glycemic control, hyperlipidemia, and or hypertension. Therefore, DCM represents as a major challenge for the clinical community for the prompt diagnosis and devising the treatment paradigm to combat the diabetes induced cardiac dysfunction. In Chinese traditional medical practice, heart ailments have been coped with herbal extracts. Phytochemicals bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties are to yet be established completely in human subjects. However, tremendous progress has been made to isolate, purify the phytochemicals and characterize their effects on mitigating the development of DCM in pre-clinical models. Currently there are no approved drugs available for the treatment of DCM. In this review, we have discussed the progress made in understanding the mechanisms for the phytochemicals cardio-protective actions in the diabetic milieu and their caveats and provide future perspectives for proposing these agents to serve as prototypes in the development of drugs for the management of DCM.

  3. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  4. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  5. Natural gas purchasing for cogeneration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacki, J. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the primary cost component for most gas-fired cogeneration or on-site power projects, cost of natural gas. Often gas comprises 50 to 65% of total project costs over the life of the project. Thus it is very important to focus on natural gas sourcing, pricing, transportation and storage. This important task should not be blindly delegated to a gas supplier. The end user must develop a gas strategy that results in the most cost-effective burnertip price. Long-term natural gas supplies are usually source from the three major producing regions: Mod-Continent, Gulf Coast, and Western Canada. A well-reasoned gas strategy must include: determination of transportation and distribution options from the project site to potential gas sources (including direct interconnection of the project to interstate pipelines); acquisition of competitive gas bids from suppliers in appropriate regions; negotiation of potential discounts from interstate pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs); fine-tuning project economics by, for example, using storage to maximize transportation load factor; and pricing mechanisms that meet economic parameters of the project. This paper uses a hypothetical project in the Midwest to examine the major factors in devising a cost-effective natural gas sourcing

  6. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  7. Prototype of Decision Support System Development in Determining Raskin Recipients Candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Desriyanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making support systems for beneficiaries deserving of the poor are a decision support system that can be used as a tool for assessing the feasibility of providing assistance. The established system only knows the rankings of the population proposals, the population data that has not been stored in the population database, the population data that has not been integrated with the data category, the criteria data, and value data so it requires the process of data input. In the process of data collection methods used are Interviews, Observation, Documentation, Literature Review while the software development methodology used is Prototype. The process of making software by using Macromedia Dreamweaver, language programming used is PHP, Javascript, HTML, and Cascading Style Sheet (CSS. This research aims 1 Make the development of decision support system in giving assistance for the poor in Cekok Ponorogo. 2 Conduct the mapping for proposed poor family and received assistance in graphic form. The conclusions of the development of decision support systems are; 1 Population data stored in the form of database that facilitate the process of searching data. 2 The Recorded of the proposed data and who received assistance for each hamlet in Kelurahan Cekok Ponorogo in the form of a graph. 3 Reduce errors in the submission the proposed data of potential beneficiaries

  8. Metal Fuel Development and Verification for Prototype Generation IV Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Bock Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR to be built by 2028. U–Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U–transuranics (TRU–Zr fuel will gradually replace U–Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U–Zr fuel, work on U–Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U–TRU–Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochemical processing of spent PWR (pressurized water reactor fuels, which contains highly radioactive minor actinides and chemically active lanthanide or rare earth elements as carryover impurities. An advanced fuel slug casting system, which can prevent vaporization of volatile elements through a control of the atmospheric pressure of the casting chamber and also deal with chemically active lanthanide elements using protective coatings in the casting crucible, was developed. Fuel cladding of the ferritic–martensitic steel FC92, which has higher mechanical strength at a high temperature than conventional HT9 cladding, was developed and fabricated, and is being irradiated in the fast reactor.

  9. Metal fuel development and verification for prototype generation- IV Sodium- Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Cheon, Jin Sik; Kim, Sung Ho; Park, Jeong Yong; Joo, Hyung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Metal fuel is being developed for the prototype generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) to be built by 2028. U-Zr fuel is a driver for the initial core of the PGSFR, and U -transuranics (TRU)-Zr fuel will gradually replace U-Zr fuel through its qualification in the PGSFR. Based on the vast worldwide experiences of U-Zr fuel, work on U-Zr fuel is focused on fuel design, fabrication of fuel components, and fuel verification tests. U-TRU-Zr fuel uses TRU recovered through pyroelectrochemical processing of spent PWR (pressurized water reactor) fuels, which contains highly radioactive minor actinides and chemically active lanthanide or rare earth elements as carryover impurities. An advanced fuel slug casting system, which can prevent vaporization of volatile elements through a control of the atmospheric pressure of the casting chamber and also deal with chemically active lanthanide elements using protective coatings in the casting crucible, was developed. Fuel cladding of the ferritic-martensitic steel FC92, which has higher mechanical strength at a high temperature than conventional HT9 cladding, was developed and fabricated, and is being irradiated in the fast reactor.

  10. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  11. Evaluation of Redundancy for Power Generating Unit in a Cogeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshid Meseret Nasir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Redundancy system is very useful to enhance the performance and reliability of the power generation system of a cogeneration plant. However, the associated operating cost of redundancy system is very high. The common redundancies used in a cogeneration power plant are public utility and generator set. In order to select the best redundancy options which incurs minimum operating cost, it is required to evaluate the cost of different redundancy options. In this paper, net present value model (NPV is developed to evaluate the cost of redundancy considering availability and reliability of the cogeneration system. Two steps applied to evaluate the redundancy cost of the cogeneration system. The first step is predicting the number of failures and downtime hours using availability and reliability analysis because redundancy is frequently used when the system failed. The second step is evaluating the cost of redundancy using NPV model. The results indicate that the use of public utility as redundancy option is costly compared to generator set option for long period of time. The major operation cost of public utility is contributed by the maximum demand charge cost which is about 57.9% of the total cost of redundancy. The study will be useful as a guide for the cogeneration operation to evaluate and select the redundancy option.

  12. National Map Data Base On Landslide Prerequisites In Clay and Silt Areas - Development of Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Leif

    Swedish geotechnical institute, SGI, has in co-operation with Swedish geologic survey, Lantmateriet (land surveying) and Swedish Rescue Service developed a theme database on landslide prerequisites in clay and silt areas. The work is carried out on commission of the Swedish government. A report with suggestions for production of the database has been delivered to the government. The database is a prototype, which has been tested in an area in northern Sweden. Recommended presentation map scale is about 1:50 000. Distribution of the database via Internet is discussed. The aim of the database is to use it as a modern planning tool in combination with other databases, e g databases on flooding prognoses. The main use is supposed to be in early planning stages, e g for new building and infrastructure development and for risk analyses. The database can also be used in more acute cases, e g for risk analyses and rescue operations in connection with flooding over large areas. Users are supposed to be municipal and county planners and rescue services, infrastructure planners, consultants and assurance companies. The database is constructed by combination of two existing databases: Elevation data and soil map data. The investigation area is divided into three zones with different stability criteria: 1. Clay and silt in sloping ground or adjoining water. 2. Clay and silt in flat ground. 3. Rock and other soils than clay and silt. The geometrical and soil criteria for the zones are specified in an algoritm, that will do the job to sort out the different zones. The algoritm is thereby using data from the elevation and soil databases. The investigation area is divided into cells (raster format) with 5 x 5 m side length. Different algoritms had to be developed before reasonable calculation time was reached. The theme may be presented on screen or as a map plot. A prototype map has been produced for the test area. A description is accompanying the map. The database is suggested

  13. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. prototype system design document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and demonstration of the : Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) application : bundle, with a focus on the...

  14. Thermal-economic analysis of cogeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, A.C.S.; Bajay, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 80 countries produce sugar, and fortuitously alcohol, from sugar cane. In all these countries the cogeneration technology of steam turbines is utilized, although almost always inefficient. The greater potential of cogeneration in Brazil is in sugar and alcohol sector, because of the use of sugar cane bagasse as combustible. This work applies the techniques of simulation and economic analysis to different configuration of plants, to determine power generation and associated costs of each alternative. The application of the same procedure at operating condition of several configurations in transient system permits the determination of production profile of exceeding during one day. (C.M.)

  15. GE will finance 614-MW cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The General Electric Power Funding Corporation, a unit of GE Capital, will provide up to $870 million in construction and permanent financing, and letters of credit to Cogen Technologies of Houston, Texas. The agreement will fund the construction of a 614-megawatt (MW), combined-cycle cogeneration plant to be built in Linden, New Jersey, and for the purchase of gas properties. The plant will be owned by Cogen Technologies. The financing is one of the largest packages ever for a cogeneration plant, GE said

  16. Cogeneration plants in Italy: Licensing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscaglione, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper focusses on administrative/bureaucratic problems relative to the licensing of cogeneration plants in Italy. The current stumbling block appears to lie in organizational difficulties relative to the coordination of various Government authorized safety committees responsible for the drafting up of suitable legislation governing cogeneration plant fire safety aspects. The author cites the possible environmental benefits in terms of air pollution abatement that could have been had with the timely start-up of a new 7 MW plant (in Lombardia) still awaiting its go-ahead authorization

  17. Potable water cogeneration using nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez, J.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle, E. del [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Mexico is a country with a diversity of conditions; the Peninsula of Baja California is a semi-arid region with a demand of potable water and electricity where small nuclear power can be used. This part of the country has a low density population, a high pressure over the water resources in the region, and their needs of electricity are small. The SMART reactor will be assessed as co-generator for this region; where five different scenarios of cogeneration of electricity and potable water production are considered, the levelized cost of electricity and potable water are obtained to assess their competitiveness. (author)

  18. Process integration methodology for natural gas-fueled heat pumps and cogeneration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Alan P.

    1988-11-01

    A process integration methodology was developed for analyzing industrial processes, identifying those that will benefit from natural gas fueled heat pumps and cogeneration system as well as novel, process-specific opportunities for further equipment improvements, including performance targets. The development included the writing of software to assist in implementing the methodology and application of the procedures in studies using both literature data and plant operating data. These highlighted potential applications for gas fueled heat pumps in ethylene processes and liquor distilling plants, and slightly less attractive opportunities in a number of other plants. Many of the processes studied showed excellent potentials for cogeneration applications.

  19. Development of a prototype movement assistance system for extravehicular activity gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tyler N.

    Spacesuits utilized a rubberized layer of material to contain a pressurized atmosphere to facilitate respiration and maintain the physiologic functions of the astronaut residing within. However, the elasticity of the material makes it resistant to deformation increasing the amount of work required during movement. This becomes particularly fatiguing for the muscle groups controlling the motion of the hands and fingers. To mitigate this a robotic system was proposed and developed. The system built upon previous concepts and prototypes discovered through research efforts. It utilized electric motors to pull the index, ring, and middle fingers of the right hand closed, ideally overcoming the resistive force posed by the pressurized elastic material. The effect of the system was determined by comparing qualitative and quantitative data obtained during activities conducted with and without it within a glove box. It was found that the system was able to offload some of this elastic force though several characteristics of the design limited the full potential this device offered. None the less, the project was met with success and provides a solid platform for continued research and development.

  20. Development of a prototype pipework scanning system based upon energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, D.J.; De Rosa, A.J.; Bradley, D.A.; Jarman, S.E.; Jenneson, P.M.; Vincent, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype pipework scanning system based upon energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) has been produced, for which system development and preliminary results are presented here. This apparatus has been developed from experience with 2D and 3D bench-top EDXRD systems and comprises a conventional industrial X-ray tube coupled to a bespoke design of tungsten collimators and compact CdTe detector. It is designed as a robust system, rather than delicate lab-based system, to investigate sections of stainless steel pipework for structural changes induced through quenching the steel in liquid nitrogen, and damaging effects such as chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Given the properties of tungsten, namely its brittle nature, a complex programme of electro-discharge machining (EDM) has been devised to precisely manufacture the collimators from a series of sintered tungsten blocks. Preliminary measurements have focused on calibrating the system using the extreme ferrite and austenite phases, meeting a pre-requisite benchmark for attempting more challenging measurements such as the austenite to martensite transformation and investigations of SCC in these sections of pipework.

  1. Assessment of Various Low Temperature Electrolytes in Prototype Li-Ion Cells Developed for ESMD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.

    2008-01-01

    Due to their attractive properties and proven success, Li-ion batteries have become identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future NASA missions. A number of these applications would be greatly benefited by improved performance of Li-ion technology over a wider operating temperature range, especially at low temperatures, such as future ESMD missions. In many cases, these technology improvements may be mission enabling, and at the very least mission enhancing. In addition to aerospace applications, the DoE has interest in developing advanced Li-ion batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range to enable terrestrial HEV applications. Thus, our focus at JPL in recent years has been to extend the operating temperature range of Li-ion batteries, especially at low temperatures. To accomplish this, the main focus of the research has been devoted to developing improved lithium-ion conducting electrolytes. In the present paper, we would like to present some of the results we have obtained with six different ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes optimized for low temperature. In addition to investigating the behavior in experimental cells initially, the performance of these promising low temperature electrolytes was demonstrated in large capacity, aerospace quality Li-ion prototype cells, manufactured by Yardney Technical Products and Saft America, Inc. These cells were subjected to a number of performance tests, including discharge rate characterization, charge rate characterization, cycle life performance at various temperatures, and power characterization tests.

  2. Automated sorting of polymer flakes: fluorescence labeling and development of a measurement system prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S; Fomin, P; Kargel, Ch

    2015-04-01

    The extensive demand and use of plastics in modern life is associated with a significant economical impact and a serious ecological footprint. The production of plastics involves a high energy consumption and CO2 emission as well as the large need for (limited) fossil resources. Due to the high durability of plastics, large amounts of plastic garbage is mounting in overflowing landfills (plus 9.6 million tons in Europe in the year 2012) and plastic debris is floating in the world oceans or waste-to-energy combustion releases even more CO2 plus toxic substances (dioxins, heavy metals) to the atmosphere. The recycling of plastic products after their life cycle can obviously contribute a great deal to the reduction of the environmental and economical impacts. In order to produce high-quality recycling products, mono-fractional compositions of waste polymers are required. However, existing measurement technologies such as near infrared spectroscopy show limitations in the sorting of complex mixtures and different grades of polymers, especially when black plastics are involved. More recently invented technologies based on mid-infrared, Raman spectroscopy or laser-aided spectroscopy are still under development and expected to be rather expensive. A promising approach to put high sorting purities into practice is to label plastic resins with unique combinations of fluorescence markers (tracers). These are incorporated into virgin resins during the manufacturing process at the ppm (or sub ppm) concentration level, just large enough that the fluorescence emissions can be detected with sensitive instrumentation but neither affect the visual appearance nor the mechanical properties of the polymers. In this paper we present the prototype of a measurement and classification system that identifies polymer flakes (mill material of a few millimeters size) located on a conveyor belt in real time based on the emitted fluorescence of incorporated markers. Classification performance

  3. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  4. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-Yu.; Lai, Wei-Hsiang [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701 (China); Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, P.O. Box No. 90008-8-3 Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325 (China)

    2008-04-15

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm x 6 cm x 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm x 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm{sup -2} and 0.4 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm{sup -2} at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of

  5. Software development methodology for computer based I&C systems of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manimaran, M.; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Software development methodology adopted for computer based I&C systems of PFBR is detailed. • Constraints imposed as part of software requirements and coding phase are elaborated. • Compliance to safety and security requirements are described. • Usage of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools during software design, analysis and testing phase are explained. - Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled reactor which is in the advanced stage of construction in Kalpakkam, India. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) systems are deployed for Instrumentation & Control of PFBR. RTC systems have to perform safety functions within the stipulated time which calls for highly dependable software. Hence, well defined software development methodology is adopted for RTC systems starting from the requirement capture phase till the final validation of the software product. V-model is used for software development. IEC 60880 standard and AERB SG D-25 guideline are followed at each phase of software development. Requirements documents and design documents are prepared as per IEEE standards. Defensive programming strategies are followed for software development using C language. Verification and validation (V&V) of documents and software are carried out at each phase by independent V&V committee. Computer aided software engineering tools are used for software modelling, checking for MISRA C compliance and to carry out static and dynamic analysis. Various software metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, nesting depth and comment to code are checked. Test cases are generated using equivalence class partitioning, boundary value analysis and cause and effect graphing techniques. System integration testing is carried out wherein functional and performance requirements of the system are monitored

  6. The Development of a Design Database for the Computer Aided Prototyping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    interface and/or prototype designer (end user). 19 Save Quit Prototype: c3i Date: Thu Sep 12 16:00:00 1991 Leader: Iariarne Aiellq Description: is project...and stated requirements. This equates to designing a database schema. Choosing this approach carries several distinct advantages: 0 Saves money...ddb <db> pgl <p> PGC Get Configuration Default Config ddb <db> pgc <p> PGD Get Description Description ddb <db> pgd <p> Update Commands: PUL Update

  7. An Evaluation of Rapid Prototyping “Concept Modelling” Techniques for New Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, Philip; Sarwar, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping systems use layer technology to build physical prototypes directly from 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) data. This provides the opportunity to design more complex parts and assemblies which cannot be made by existing technologies [1]. This paper reviews the emerging technology of low cost 3D printing techniques initially used for “concept modelling”, to prove design intent and visualisation of these complex designs, but now being applied to end usage applications.\\ud \\ud Conc...

  8. Development of a new prototype system for measuring the permittivity of dielectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Jiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple prototype for measuring the properties of dielectric materials is introduced in this Letter. A homogeneous dielectric sample placed in a field produced by a nearby antenna will affect the input impedance of the antenna. The permittivity and the loss of the dielectric sample can then be determined from the change of the input impedance of the antenna. The prototype has been validated by experiments.

  9. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven...

  10. Application of fused deposition modeling rapid prototyping system to the development of microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengzi; Masood, Syed; Iovenitti, Pio; Harvey, Erol C.

    2001-11-01

    Conventional methods of producing micro-scale components for BioMEMS applications such as microfluidic devices are limited to relatively simple geometries and are inefficient for prototype production. Rapid prototyping techniques may be applied to overcome these limitations. Fused Deposition Modelling is one such rapid prototyping process, which can build parts using layer by layer deposition technique with layers as low as 0.178 mm thick and using a select group of thermoplastic building materials. This paper presents the potential of Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) system, available at IRIS, in building prototypes of scaled microchannels for experimental study and verification of fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The scope and application of FDM system as a powerful and flexible rapid prototyping device is described. Microchannels of different geometries are produced in ABS material on the FDM3000 rapid prototyping system and a methodology is presented for experimental study of the mixing of fluids in microchannels in conjunction with the theoretical analysis using FlumeCAD system.

  11. Developing and Evaluating Prototype of Waste Volume Monitoring Using Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathhan Arief, Mohamad; Lumban Gaol, Ford

    2017-06-01

    In Indonesia, especially Jakarta have a lot of garbage strewn that can be an eyesore and also cause pollution that can carry diseases. Garbage strewn can cause many things, one of her dues is bins are overflowing due to the full so it can not accommodate the waste dumped from other people. Thus, the author created a new method for waste disposal more systematic. In creating new method requires a technology to supports, then the author makes a prototype for waste volume monitoring. By using the internet of things prototype of waste volume monitoring may give notification to the sanitary agency that waste in the trash bin needs to be disposal. In this study, conducted the design and manufactured of prototype waste volume monitoring using LinkItONE board based by Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor for appliance senses. Once the prototype is completed, evaluation in order to determine whether the prototype will function properly. The result showed that the expected function of a prototype waste volume monitoring can work well.

  12. Latest developments on the highly granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype for the International Large Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    High precision physics at future colliders requires unprecedented highly granular calorimeters for the application of the Particle Flow (PF) algorithm. The physical proof of concept was given in the previous campaign of beam tests of physic prototypes within the CALICE collaboration. We present here the latest beam and laboratory test results and R&D developments for the Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype with fully embedded very front-end (VFE) electronics for the International Large Detector at the International Linear Collider project.

  13. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  14. Small Nuclear Co-generation Plants Based on Shipbuilding Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V. I.; Veshnyakov, K. B.; Goryunov, E. V.; Zalugin, V. I.; Panov, Yu. K.; Polunichev, V. I.

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear cogeneration plants and power desalination complexes of relatively small power, using proven shipbuilding technology, becomes more and more attractive for solving the power supply problems of remote districts of the Extreme North and the Far East with small and medium power grids and for removing the shortage of fresh water in different world regions. The idea of transportation of the power unit with high degree of readiness to the place of its location with minimum construction and mounting activities at the site is very attractive. Compactness typical of RP based on shipbuilding technology allows to develop floating or ground-based plants at minimum use of water area and territory. Small construction scope at the site under conditions of minimum anthropogenic loads and high ecological indices are important arguments in favor of floating nuclear cogeneration plant based on ship power units against the alternative fossil sources. At present, the activities on floating nuclear cogeneration plant design, which is developed on the basis of floating power unit with two KLT-40S reactor plant, which is a modified option of standard KLT-40-type ship plant for icebreaker fleet in Russia are the most advanced. To date, a detailed design of reactor plant has been developed and approved, design activities on floating power unit are in the stage of completion, the site for its location has been selected and licensing by GAN, Russia, is in progress. Besides OKBM has developed some designs of nuclear cogeneration plants of different power on the basis of integral reactor plants, using the experience of transport and stationary power plants designing. Nuclear cogeneration plant investment analysis showed acceptable social and economical efficiency of the design that creates conditions for commercial construction of floating power units with KLT-40S reactor plan. At the same time the reduction of the design recovering terms, increase of budget income and

  15. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  16. Development of long-life neutron detectors for the prototype heavy water reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohteru, Shigeru; Shirayama, Shimpey.

    1981-01-01

    The development of long-life neutron detectors as the flux monitors for the prototype heavy water reactor has been made. Three kinds of neutron monitors, namely start-up monitor (SUM), power up monitor (PUM) and local power monitor (LPM), are provided. The LPM consists of 4 ion chamber type neutron detectors and a guide tube of power calibration monitor (PCM). This is useful for reactor control and fuel soundness monitor. The improvement of the neutron detectors was made for the operation under high neutron flux and gamma-ray heating. For the long-life operation, U-234 was mixed into U-235 for the conversion in the detectors. The ratio of U-234 to U-235 is 3 to 1. The PCM is also an ion chamber type detector with U-235. The mixing ratio of U-234 to U-235 was determined by a test with the JMTR. The characteristic performance was also investigated by the JMTR. After the completion of Fugen, various tests on the long-life detectors were performed with Fugen. It was hard to test the output linearity of the detectors with a large scale reactor. Therefore, it was tested that the operation range of the detectors is within the linear region of detector output. The voltage-current characteristics and the correlation of output current and saturation current were measured. The variation of the neutron sensitivity of the detectors with the cumulative dose was also studied. (Kato, T.)

  17. An Embedded Sensory System for Worker Safety: Prototype Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chunhee; Park, JeeWoong

    2018-04-14

    At a construction site, workers mainly rely on two senses, which are sight and sound, in order to perceive their physical surroundings. However, they are often hindered by the nature of most construction sites, which are usually dynamic, loud, and complicated. To overcome these challenges, this research explored a method using an embedded sensory system that might offer construction workers an artificial sensing ability to better perceive their surroundings. This study identified three parameters (i.e., intensity, signal length, and delay between consecutive pulses) needed for tactile-based signals for the construction workers to communicate quickly. We developed a prototype system based on these parameters, conducted experimental studies to quantify and validate the sensitivity of the parameters for quick communication, and analyzed test data to reveal what was added by this method in order to perceive information from the tactile signals. The findings disclosed that the parameters of tactile-based signals and their distinguishable ranges could be perceived in a short amount of time (i.e., a fraction of a second). Further experimentation demonstrated the capability of the identified unit signals combined with a signal mapping technique to effectively deliver simple information to individuals and offer an additional sense of awareness to the surroundings. The findings of this study could serve as a basis for future research in exploring advanced tactile-based messages to overcome challenges in environments for which communication is a struggle.

  18. Quality assurance program for prototype stereotactic system developed for neptun 10 Pc linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshbin Khoshnazar, A.R.; Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Hashemiyan, A.R.; Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Salek, R.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype stereotactic radiosurgery set was designed and constructed for a Neptun 10 Pc linac that is currently being used at Imam Reza hospital in Mashad. Materials and Methods: A complete quality assurance program was designed and performed for the constructed system including isocentric accuracy test, localization accuracy test, dose delivery accuracy test and leakage radiation test. Target simulator, control alignment device and plexiglass phantom which were parts of the developed hardware were used to fulfill quality assurance program. Results: The average isocentric shift resulted from the gantry rotation and couch turning were respectively obtained to be 1.4 and 2 mm. The average localization error in the three coordinates was found to be 2.2 mm. The total treatment uncertainty due to all of the probable errors in the system was equal to 4.32 mm. The dose delivery accuracy test was carried out, the result indicated a 3.7% difference between the given and measured dose. Conclusion: The quality assurance tests showed consistent performance of the constructed system within the accepted limits; however, some inconsistency might exist in certain cases. The safety of stereotactic radiosurgery system method is increased when the overall uncertainty is minimized nd the treatment of the lesions adjacent to critical organs is avoided

  19. Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR Magnet Development: Field Analysis and Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, John; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Ling, Jiayin; Kim, Youngjae; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2013-01-01

    We are currently working on a program to complete a 1.5 T/75 mm RT bore magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance magnet. The magic-angle-spinning magnet comprises a z-axis 0.866-T solenoid and an x-axis 1.225-T dipole, each to be wound with NbTi wire and operated at 4.2 K in persistent mode. A combination of the fields creates a 1.5-T field pointed at 54.74 degrees (magic angle) from the rotation (z) axis. In the first year of this 3-year program, we have completed magnetic analysis and design of both coils. Also, using a winding machine of our own design and fabrication, we have wound several prototype dipole coils with NbTi wire. As part of this development, we have repeatedly made successful persistent NbTi-NbTi joints with this multifilamentary NbTi wire. PMID:24058275

  20. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modeling language. (2). Study with prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Uto, Nariaki; Kasahara, Naoto; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    In the fast reactor development, numerical simulation using analytical codes plays an important role for complementing theory and experiment. It is necessary that the engineering models and analysis methods can be flexibly changed, because the phenomena to be investigated become more complicated due to the diversity of the needs for research. And, there are large problems in combining physical properties and engineering models in many different fields. Aiming to the realization of the next generation code system which can solve those problems, the authors adopted three methods, (1) Multi-language (SoftWIRE.NET, Visual Basic.NET and Fortran) (2) Fortran 90 and (3) Python to make a prototype of the next generation code system. As this result, the followings were confirmed. (1) It is possible to reuse a function of the existing codes written in Fortran as an object of the next generation code system by using Visual Basic.NET. (2) The maintainability of the existing code written by Fortran 77 can be improved by using the new features of Fortran 90. (3) The toolbox-type code system can be built by using Python. (author)

  1. Development of a prototype system for prediction of the group error at the maintenance work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Kenji; Hirotsu, Yuuko

    2001-01-01

    This paper described on development and performance evaluation of a prototype system for prediction of the group error at the maintenance work. The results so far are as follows. (1) When a user inputs the existence and the grade of the feature factor of the maintenance work as a prediction object, an organization and an organization factor and a group PSF put into the system. The maintenance group error to target can be predicted through the prediction model which consists of a class of seven stages. (2) This system by utilizing the information on a prediction result database, it can be use not only for prediction of a maintenance group but for various safe Activity, such as KYT(Kiken Yochi Training) and TBM(Tool Box Meeting). (3) This system predicts a cooperation error at highest rate, and subsequently. Predicts the detection error at a high rate. and to the decision-making. Error, the transfer error and the state cognitive error, and state error, it has the characteristics predicted at almost same rate. (4) if it has full knowledge even if the feature, such as the enforcement conditions of maintenance work, and organization, even if the user has neither the knowledge about a human factor, users experience, anyone of this system is slight about the extent, generating of a maintenance group error made difficult from the former logically and systematically, it can predict with business time for about 15 minutes. (author)

  2. Prototype Development: Context-Driven Dynamic XML Ophthalmologic Data Capture Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peissig, Peggy; Schwei, Kelsey M; Kadolph, Christopher; Finamore, Joseph; Cancel, Efrain; McCarty, Catherine A; Okorie, Asha; Thomas, Kate L; Allen Pacheco, Jennifer; Pathak, Jyotishman; Ellis, Stephen B; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen, Luke V; Tromp, Gerard; Williams, Marc S; Vrabec, Tamara R; Brilliant, Murray H

    2017-09-13

    The capture and integration of structured ophthalmologic data into electronic health records (EHRs) has historically been a challenge. However, the importance of this activity for patient care and research is critical. The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype of a context-driven dynamic extensible markup language (XML) ophthalmologic data capture application for research and clinical care that could be easily integrated into an EHR system. Stakeholders in the medical, research, and informatics fields were interviewed and surveyed to determine data and system requirements for ophthalmologic data capture. On the basis of these requirements, an ophthalmology data capture application was developed to collect and store discrete data elements with important graphical information. The context-driven data entry application supports several features, including ink-over drawing capability for documenting eye abnormalities, context-based Web controls that guide data entry based on preestablished dependencies, and an adaptable database or XML schema that stores Web form specifications and allows for immediate changes in form layout or content. The application utilizes Web services to enable data integration with a variety of EHRs for retrieval and storage of patient data. This paper describes the development process used to create a context-driven dynamic XML data capture application for optometry and ophthalmology. The list of ophthalmologic data elements identified as important for care and research can be used as a baseline list for future ophthalmologic data collection activities. ©Peggy Peissig, Kelsey M Schwei, Christopher Kadolph, Joseph Finamore, Efrain Cancel, Catherine A McCarty, Asha Okorie, Kate L Thomas, Jennifer Allen Pacheco, Jyotishman Pathak, Stephen B Ellis, Joshua C Denny, Luke V Rasmussen, Gerard Tromp, Marc S Williams, Tamara R Vrabec, Murray H Brilliant. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 13.09.2017.

  3. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  4. Flexibility and uncertainty in agribusiness projects: investing in a cogeneration plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar Arenaro e Mello Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy generation from biomass has become a source of increasing interest due to growing environmental concerns and the depletion of the world’s fossil fuel reserves. In this paper we analyze a sugar and ethanol producing plant in Brazil which has both the option to expand and to add a cogeneration unit to allow the sale of surplus energy, generated by burning sugar cane bagasse, where the existence of the second option is conditional to the exercise of the first option. We model sugar, ethanol, and electricity prices as geometric mean reverting processes and apply the real options approach to determine the value of these managerial flexibilities, considering that these options have three distinct underlying assets. The option to expand production is a function of the expected future prices of sugar and ethanol, while, on the other hand, the decision to invest in the cogeneration plant will depend on the future prices of energy. Both decisions are modeled as American Compound Options over their respective underlying assets. The model is then solved using the non-censored binomial mean reverting lattice proposed by Bastian-Pinto, Brandão, and Hahn (2010 using the software DPLTM. The results indicate that a significant value can be derived from the flexibility to choose the optimal timing of investment in both options: the investment in the cogeneration unit adds an amount equivalent to the value of the expanding sugar and ethanol production, and represents up to 44% of the project’s static NPV of R$ 195.9 million. We conclude that given that only half of the sugar cane crushing mills currently have cogeneration units installed and given the increasing demand for clean and renewable sources of energy, this may indicate there is a significant potential for investment and further development of bioelectricity cogeneration power plants, and even in the retrofit of older cogeneration units, and that government incentives have been effective in

  5. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, A.; Schieppati, P.

    1992-12-01

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy.

  6. What is the future for gas cogeneration in the French context?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, D.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this work is devoted to the institutional environment which hold the cogeneration success in France. Cogeneration is indeed a future technology but is under-exploited in France. The future communal lines and the conclusions of the study group, suggested to the Cabinet of the European Union in 1995, should meanwhile cope with some difficulties for its development in France. The second part deals more particularly with the customers listening and with their expectations towards the energy suppliers. (O.M.)

  7. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    and digital prototyping as a particular means of validation and verification. Here, a breadth of physical prototypes take on varying roles, in turn informing, testing and proving the research enquiry. The paper addresses how we can differentiate between these modes of prototyping and how.......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...... or demonstrator, has become a shared research tool. This paper asks how this practice has formed by tracing the different roles of the prototype from ideation and design, to analysis and evaluation. Taking point of departure in CITA’s own prototyping practice, we explore the relationships between physical...

  8. 10 CFR 503.37 - Cogeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is to use distillate oil. It will have a capacity of 50 MW, an average annual heat rate of 7600 BTU/KWHR, and be operated at a capacity factor of 90%. The annual fuel consumption is therefore calculated... Cogeneration. The following table may be used to determine eligibility for a permanent exemption based on oil...

  9. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  10. Development of a prototype radiation surveillance equipment for a mid-sized unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolander, P.; Kurvinen, K.; Poellaenen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Kettunen, M. [Forces Research Institute of Technology, Lakiala (Finland); Lyytinen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Lightweight Structures, Otaniemi (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    A prototype radiation surveillance equipment has been developed to be used in a mid-sized Ranger unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) acquired by the Finnish Defence Forces. A multi-detector assembly was designed for the acquisition of dose rate and radionuclide concentration in the release plume. Detector assembly includes a GM-tube based dose rate meter, an inorganic scintillator detector and a semiconductor detector operating at room temperature. A sampling unit was designed for the collection of an aerosol sample of the plume for a detailed analysis in a ground based laboratory. The measurement data from all three detectors and several environmental parameters are collected by the onboard data acquisition computer. Real-time data dissemination is implemented with a TETRA based radio network. Test flights have been carried out with target drones and a small manned airplane. The Northrop KD2R-5 target drones have been used to simulate the high-G launch and vibration environment of the Ranger aerial vehicle. Target drones have been used because their air vehicle classification allows small test packages to be installed without tedious air safety protocols. Stability and survivability of the detectors, GPS navigation and radio frequency communication have been studied with the target drone test flights. Ground station software was developed to visualise the measurement data and to track the position of the air vehicle on a digital map. Test flights with the small manned airplane have been used to study the operational aspects of the detectors with greater detail. The housing for the instruments has been designed and constructed based on the experiences gained with the test flights and the laboratory measurements. The housing satisfies the aviation authority standards. Special attention has been paid to the high modularity, quick installation and ease of use. (orig.)

  11. Multidisciplinary Management of Disorders of Sex Development in Indonesia, A Prototype in Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Disorder of sex development (DSD patients require comprehensive management to improve quality of life. A standardized management protocol for patients in Indonesia is not yet available resulting in patients infrequently received a proper diagnosis. This study reported a multidisciplinary management DSD in Indonesia based on minimal diagnostic facilities and expertise in developing country. Objectives : The purpose of the study is to review the management of DSD patients in Indonesia relates to providing appropriate gender assignment and to improving patients quality of life. Methodology : We analyzed the records of DSD patient admitted to the division of Human Genetics Center for Biomedical Research (CEBIOR Faculty of Medicine Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia from May 2004 - December 2015. Data were collected and analyzed for physical examination, family pedigree karyotyping, hormonal assays and  psychosocial.  Other examination such as ultrasonography, Xray and Cytoscopy were also recorded for selected cases. Bimonthly, Sexual Adjustment Team (SAT meeting was recorded. Results : From the total 617 DSD cases we found 426 cases (69,04 % with 46, XY DSD, 117 cases (18,96% with 46,XX DSD and 74 cases (12% with sex chromosome DSD. Most of the patients in the group of 46, XY DSD are Unknown Male Undervirilization (UMU with 256 cases (60.09%. As the majority cases of 46, XX DSD was Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with 81 cases (69.23%. The remaining cases were Androgen Action Disorder (AAD with 140 cases (32.86%, 46, XY DSD Gonadal Dysgenesis with 30 cases (7.04%, Androgen Excess Disorders with 3 cases (2.56%, Defect of Mullerian Development with 19 cases (16,24%, 3 cases (2.56% of Androgen Excess and 3 cases (2.56% of 46, XX Gonadal Dysgenesis. Conclusion : Comprehensive management for DSD Patients help patient in diagnosis, gender assignment and support patient to improve quality of life. This multidisciplinary of

  12. Reviving manufacturing with a federal cogeneration policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Cox, Matt; Baer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Improving the energy economics of manufacturing is essential to revitalizing the industrial base of advanced economies. This paper evaluates ex-ante a federal policy option aimed at promoting industrial cogeneration—the production of heat and electricity in a single energy-efficient process. Detailed analysis using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and spreadsheet calculations suggest that industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of U.S. electricity requirements by 2035, compared with its current 8.9% market share. Substituting less efficient utility-scale power plants with cogeneration systems would produce numerous economic and environmental benefits, but would also create an assortment of losers and winners. Multiple perspectives to benefit/cost analysis are therefore valuable. Our results indicate that the federal cogeneration policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public sector, cutting energy bills, generating billions of dollars in electricity sales, making producers more competitive, and reducing pollution. Most traditional utilities, on the other hand, would lose revenues unless their rate recovery procedures are adjusted to prevent the loss of profits due to customer owned generation and the erosion of utility sales. From a public policy perspective, deadweight losses would be introduced by market-distorting federal incentives (ranging annually from $30 to $150 million), but these losses are much smaller than the estimated net social benefits of the federal cogeneration policy. - Highlights: ► Industrial cogeneration could meet 18% of US electricity demand by 2035, vs. 8.9% today. ► The policy would be highly favorable to manufacturers and the public. ► Traditional electric utilities would likely lose revenues. ► Deadweight loss would be introduced by tax incentives. ► The policy’s net social benefits would be much larger.

  13. Achieving emissions reduction through oil sands cogeneration in Alberta’s deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.; Rowe, A.; Sopinka, A.; Wild, P.

    2014-01-01

    The province of Alberta faces the challenge of balancing its commitment to reduce CO 2 emissions and the growth of its energy-intensive oil sands industry. Currently, these operations rely on the Alberta electricity system and on-site generation to satisfy their steam and electricity requirements. Most of the on-site generation units produce steam and electricity through the process of cogeneration. It is unclear to what extent new and existing operations will continue to develop cogeneration units or rely on electricity from the Alberta grid to meet their energy requirements in the near future. This study explores the potential for reductions in fuel usage and CO 2 emissions by increasing the penetration of oil sands cogeneration in the provincial generation mixture. EnergyPLAN is used to perform scenario analyses on Alberta’s electricity system in 2030 with a focus on transmission conditions to the oil sands region. The results show that up to 15–24% of CO 2 reductions prescribed by the 2008 Alberta Climate Strategy are possible. Furthermore, the policy implications of these scenarios within a deregulated market are discussed. - Highlights: • High levels of cogeneration in the oil sands significantly reduce the total fuel usage and CO 2 emissions for the province. • Beyond a certain threshold, the emissions reduction intensity per MW of cogeneration installed is reduced. • The cost difference between scenarios is not significant. • Policy which gives an advantage to a particular technology goes against the ideology of a deregulated market. • Alberta will need significant improvements to its transmission system in order for oil sands cogeneration to persist

  14. Prototypes reflect normative perceptions: implications for the development of reasoned action theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan

    2018-03-01

    The reasoned action approach is one of the most successful behavioral theories in the history of social psychology. This study outlines the theoretical principles of reasoned action and considers when it is appropriate to augment it with a new variable. To demonstrate, we use survey data collected from a 4 to 17 year old U.S. adolescents to test how the 'prototype' variables fit into reasoned action approach. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we find that the prototype measures are normative pressure measures and when treated as a separate theoretical construct, prototype identity is not completely mediated by the proximal predictors of behavioral intention. We discuss the assumptions of the two theories and finally consider the distinction between augmenting a specific theory versus combining measures derived from different theoretical perspectives.

  15. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  16. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  17. Developing and Testing of a Software Prototype to Support Diagnostic Reasoning of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Vanessa Emille Carvalho; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Keenan, Gail M; Lopez, Karen Dunn

    2018-04-01

    To design and test educational software to improve nursing students' diagnostic reasoning through NANDA-I-based clinical scenarios. A mixed method approach was used and included content validation by a panel of 13 experts and prototype testing by a sample of 56 students. Experts' suggestions included writing adjustments, new response options, and replacement of clinical information on the scenarios. Percentages of students' correct answers were 65.7%, 62.2%, and 60.5% for related factors, defining characteristics, and nursing diagnoses, respectively. Full development of this software shows strong potential for enhancing students' diagnostic reasoning. New graduates may be able to apply diagnostic reasoning more rapidly by exercising their diagnostic skills within this software. Desenvolver e testar um protótipo de software educativo para melhorar o raciocínio diagnóstico de estudantes de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Uma abordagem mista foi utilizada e incluiu validação de conteúdo por 13 experts e testagem do protótipo por 56 estudantes. Sugestões dos experts incluíram ajustes na escrita, inclusão de novas opções de resposta e substituição de dados clínicos nos cenários. Os percentuais de respostas corretas dos estudantes foram 65,7%, 62,2% e 60,5% para fatores relacionados, características definidoras e diagnósticos de enfermagem respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O desenvolvimento deste software tem um forte potencial para melhorar o raciocínio diagnóstico de estudantes. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA EM ENFERMAGEM: Através deste software, enfermeiros poderão ser capazes de exercitar o raciocínio diagnóstico e aplicá-lo mais rapidamente. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  18. A Novel Tetrasubstituted Imidazole as a Prototype for the Development of Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius P S; Munhoz, Antonio C M; Theindl, Lais C; Mohr, Eduarda Talita B; Saleh, Najla; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Rossa, Thaís A; Zamoner, Ariane; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania B; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola B; Sá, Marcus M; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott

    2018-04-14

    Although inflammation is a biological phenomenon that exists to protect the host against infections and/or related problems, its unceasing activation results in the aggravation of several medical conditions. Imidazoles, whether natural or synthetic, are molecules related to a broad spectrum of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we screened eight novel small molecules of the imidazole class synthesized by our research group for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of the selected molecules was confirmed in an in vivo inflammatory model. We also analyzed whether the effects were caused by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor transmigration. Of the eight imidazoles tested, methyl 1-allyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-imidazole-4-acetate (8) inhibited nitric oxide metabolites and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) secretion in J774 macrophages stimulated with LPS. It also attenuated leukocyte migration and exudate formation in the pleural cavity of mice challenged with carrageenan. Furthermore, imidazole 8 reverted the oxidative stress pattern triggered by carrageenan in the pleural cavity by diminishing myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities and reducing the production of nitric oxide metabolites and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Finally, these effects can be attributed, at least in part, to the ability of this compound to prevent NF-κB transmigration. In this context, our results demonstrate that imidazole 8 has promising potential as a prototype for the development of a new anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammatory conditions in which NF-κB and oxidative stress play a prominent role. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Duct injection technology prototype development: Scale-up methodology and engineering design criteria. Topical report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2} emissions control method to existing, pre-NSPS, coal-fired power plants. This report is divided into five major topics: (1) design criteria; (2) engineering drawings; (3) equipment sizing and design; (4) plant and equipment arrangement considerations; and (5) equipment bid specification guidelines.

  20. Cogeneration : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, Joyce; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This guidebook focuses on cogeneration development. It is one of a series of four guidebooks recently prepared to introduce the energy developer to the federal, state and local agencies that regulate energy facilities in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington (the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory). It was prepared specifically to help cogeneration developers obtain the permits, licenses and approvals necessary to construct and operate a cogeneration facility. The regulations, agencies and policies described herein are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever energy or a project becomes a political issue, a state legislature meets, a preexisting popular or valuable land use is thought threatened, elected and appointed officials change, and new directions are imposed on states and local governments by the federal government. Accordingly, cogeneration developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans. Developers are cautioned that the regulations described herein may only be a starting point on the road to obtaining all the necessary permits.

  1. Development and validation of a thermodynamic model for the performance analysis of a gamma Stirling engine prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, Joseph A.; Cardozo, Evelyn; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the development and validation of a numerical model that represents the performance of a gamma Stirling engine prototype. The model follows a modular approach considering ideal adiabatic working spaces; limited internal and external heat transfer through the heat exchangers; and mechanical and thermal losses during the cycle. In addition, it includes the calculation of the mechanical efficiency taking into account the crank mechanism effectiveness and the forced work during the cycle. Consequently, the model aims to predict the work that can be effectively taken from the shaft. The model was compared with experimental data obtained in an experimental rig built for the engine prototype. The results showed an acceptable degree of accuracy when comparing with the experimental data, with errors ranging from ±1% to ±8% for the temperature in the heater side, less than ±1% error for the cooler temperatures, and ±1 to ±8% for the brake power calculations. Therefore, the model was probed adequate for study of the prototype performance. In addition, the results of the simulation reflected the limited performance obtained during the prototype experiments, and a first analysis of the results attributed this to the forced work during the cycle. The implemented model is the basis for a subsequent parametric analysis that will complement the results presented. - Highlights: • A numerical model for a Stirling engine was developed. • A mechanical efficiency analysis was included in the model. • The model was validated with experimental data of a novel prototype. • The model results permit a deeper insight into the engine operation

  2. Development of a prototype neutral injector for T.F.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnal, J.F.; Druaux, J.; Oberson, R.

    1975-12-01

    This study is directly related to the project of T.F.R., plasma heating by fast neutral injection. The prototype injector is described, emphasis being put on the technological solutions that were retained. Experimental results for predicting the performance of the ten sources on T.F.R. are analyzed [fr

  3. Mechanical properties used for the qualification of transport casks: Prototype development and extension to serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzbrenner, R.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of material in a specific cask is required to properly analyze the structural response of the cask. An appropriate way to establish this understanding is through laboratory testing of cask material. The laboratory testing that was done to support the MOSAIK Drop Test Program is summarized as an example of how mechanical properties can be mapped for a prototype cask. The broad range behavior to be understood. This is necessary for the proper application of fracture mechanics, and focuses on fracture toughness as the inherent materials property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. The understanding established by a mechanics to a particular prototype, behavior of a prototype must be correctly associated with parameters which can be measured on production casks. Since the production casks cannot be destructively tested, measurements are commonly made on sub-size specimens. This may prevent direct measurement of valid design properties. An additional database may then be required to establish the correlation between sub-size specimen measurements and valid design properties. This is illustrated by outlining the additional testing which would be necessary to allow the successful verification of the MOSAIK Drop Test Program to be extended from the prototype to serially produced casks

  4. Automated grading of wood-slabs. The development of a prototype system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Conradsen, Knut

    1992-01-01

    , etc. Based on the relative distribution of these detected defects on the surface of a given slab, the slab is further classified into 5 quality grades: prime, standard, flamy, extra flamy and rejects. As a result of this project, a prototype for the computer vision grading system has been built...

  5. Development of Prototype Outcomes-Based Training Modules for Aesthetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Maricar Joy T.; Borabo, Milagros L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to know the essential components of Aesthetic Dentistry that will be a basis for prototype Outcomes-based training modules. Using a 5-point Likert scale, the researcher-made questionnaire assessed the different elements of Aesthetic Dentistry which are needed in the designing of the training module, the manner of…

  6. Prototype development of a web-based participative decision support platform in risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Zar Chi; Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses the proposed background architecture and prototype development of an internet-based decision support system (DSS) in the field of natural hazards and risk management using open-source geospatial software and web technologies. It is based on a three-tier, client-server architecture with the support of boundless (opengeo) framework and its client side SDK application environment using customized gxp components and data utility classes. The main purpose of the system is to integrate the workflow of risk management systematically with the diverse involvement of stakeholders from different organizations dealing with natural hazards and risk for evaluation of management measures through the active online participation approach. It aims to develop an adaptive user friendly, web-based environment that allows the users to set up risk management strategies based on actual context and data by integrating web-GIS and DSS functionality associated with process flow and other visualization tools. Web-GIS interface has been integrated within the DSS to deliver maps and provide certain geo-processing capabilities on the web, which can be easily accessible and shared by different organizations located in case study sites of the project. This platform could be envisaged not only as a common web-based platform for the centralized sharing of data such as hazard maps, elements at risk maps and additional information but also to ensure an integrated platform of risk management where the users could upload data, analyze risk and identify possible alternative scenarios for risk reduction especially for floods and landslides, either quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the risk information provided by the stakeholders in case study regions. The level of involvement, access to and interaction with the provided functionality of the system varies depending on the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders, for example, only the experts (planners, geological

  7. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available methodology. This study develops the life cycle inventories for bagasse power production in South Africa. The life cycle inventory can help to evaluate the environmental impacts of the cogeneration throughout the life cycle. The data for this inventory stage...

  8. Improvement of the cogeneration facilities, considering the aspects of financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.H.M.; Nogueira, L.A.H.; Costa Bortoni, E. da

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the tools of the Portfolio Theory in the design of the cogeneration facilities. So, the effects of the risk on the return can be take in account. A computer program was developed to simulate the impacts of the thermal and mechanical (or electrical) loads on energy surplus and the potential risk. (C.M.)

  9. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    thermal reversible heat pump /organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) and cogeneration solar Thermoelectric generators (TEG).This paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, discuss the fundamental and technical challenges facing commercial adoption and prospects of these technologies...

  10. Development of a permanently controllable rotating biopsy device. Pt. I. Theoretical considerations and in-vitro results for five different prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Philipp Jost; Jahnke, T.; Andres, H.; Heller, M.; Schaefer, F.K.; Hedderich, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to develop different prototypes of permanently controllable rotating biopsy devices with determination of the most efficient prototype in biopsies in bovine myocardium. Materials and Methods: Five different prototypes of 18-gauge rotating biopsy devices were designed and constructed, four (1-4) with various drill-like cutting edges and one (5) cannula type with a lancet-like helically bent cutting edge. Using bovine myocardium as the biopsy tissue, n = 100 specimens per prototype were obtained, and a quantitative analysis including tissue fragmentation, length in mm and weight in mg was carried out. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test for tissue fragmentation and Kruskal-Wallis test for the parameters length and weight were calculated. Results: prototype 5 showed the highest rate of extraction of one-fragment specimens in n=66 cases and the lowest rate of failure to obtain tissue in n=11 cases. The mean length/weight were 4.15 mm/3.91 mg for prototype 1, 1.80 mm/1.66 mg for prototype 2, 4.61 mm/3.28 mg for prototype 3, 5.20 mm/3.74 mg for prototype 4, and 9.57 mm/6.97 mg for prototype 5. In all three categories, prototype 5 was significantly superior to the prototypes 1-4 with p < 0.001. Conclusion: the cannula type with a lancet-like helically bent cutting edge proved to be the most efficient prototype and may now be tested competitively against established automated biopsy devices in vitro. (orig.)

  11. Development of a prototype Open-close positron emission tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Okumura, Satoshi; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Toshito, Toshiyuki; Komori, Masataka; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2015-08-01

    We developed a prototype positron emission tomography (PET) system based on a new concept called Open-close PET, which has two modes: open and close-modes. In the open-mode, the detector ring is separated into two halved rings and subject is imaged with the open space and projection image is formed. In the close-mode, the detector ring is closed to be a regular circular ring, and the subject can be imaged without an open space, and so reconstructed images can be made without artifacts. The block detector of the Open-close PET system consists of two scintillator blocks that use two types of gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times, angled optical fiber-based image guides, and a flat panel photomultiplier tube. The GSO pixel size was 1.6 × 2.4 × 7 mm and 8 mm for fast (35 ns) and slow (60 ns) GSOs, respectively. These GSOs were arranged into an 11 × 15 matrix and optically coupled in the depth direction to form a depth-of-interaction detector. The angled optical fiber-based image guides were used to arrange the two scintillator blocks at 22.5° so that they can be arranged in a hexadecagonal shape with eight block detectors to simplify the reconstruction algorithm. The detector ring was divided into two halves to realize the open-mode and set on a mechanical stand with which the distance between the two parts can be manually changed. The spatial resolution in the close-mode was 2.4-mm FWHM, and the sensitivity was 1.7% at the center of the field-of-view. In both the close- and open-modes, we made sagittal (y-z plane) projection images between the two halved detector rings. We obtained reconstructed and projection images of 18F-NaF rat studies and proton-irradiated phantom images. These results indicate that our developed Open-close PET is useful for some applications such as proton therapy as well as other applications such as molecular imaging.

  12. Development of a prototype Open-close positron emission tomography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kato, Katsuhiko [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Nagoya (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Kinetics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    We developed a prototype positron emission tomography (PET) system based on a new concept called Open-close PET, which has two modes: open and close-modes. In the open-mode, the detector ring is separated into two halved rings and subject is imaged with the open space and projection image is formed. In the close-mode, the detector ring is closed to be a regular circular ring, and the subject can be imaged without an open space, and so reconstructed images can be made without artifacts. The block detector of the Open-close PET system consists of two scintillator blocks that use two types of gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times, angled optical fiber-based image guides, and a flat panel photomultiplier tube. The GSO pixel size was 1.6 × 2.4 × 7 mm and 8 mm for fast (35 ns) and slow (60 ns) GSOs, respectively. These GSOs were arranged into an 11 × 15 matrix and optically coupled in the depth direction to form a depth-of-interaction detector. The angled optical fiber-based image guides were used to arrange the two scintillator blocks at 22.5° so that they can be arranged in a hexadecagonal shape with eight block detectors to simplify the reconstruction algorithm. The detector ring was divided into two halves to realize the open-mode and set on a mechanical stand with which the distance between the two parts can be manually changed. The spatial resolution in the close-mode was 2.4-mm FWHM, and the sensitivity was 1.7% at the center of the field-of-view. In both the close- and open-modes, we made sagittal (y-z plane) projection images between the two halved detector rings. We obtained reconstructed and projection images of {sup 18}F-NaF rat studies and proton-irradiated phantom images. These results indicate that our developed Open-close PET is useful for some applications such as proton therapy as well as other applications such as molecular imaging.

  13. Impact of cogeneration on integrated resource planning of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atikol, U.; Gueven, H.

    2003-01-01

    In most developing countries, difficulties in finding sector-specific data on heat rate and power demands make energy planning a hard task. In some countries, although this data is available, it may be four or five years old. In the present work, a new low-cost method is proposed for developing countries aiming at obtaining such data for the industrial sector quickly. Fifty-two textile factories were selected for a survey to represent the industrial sector. The data were processed and used to generate two scenarios of cogeneration applications in the industrial sector; one sized according to the electrical load of the factories, and the other one according to the thermal load. The costs and primary energy requirements of these programs were compared with that of the nuclear alternative. It was found that the most energy efficient and economical option for Turkey was the cogeneration program, the equipment sizing of which was based on the process heat demand of the industrial sector. Turkey would not only save US$ 72.6-billion by deferring the nuclear program, but it will also reduce the total primary energy demand by 11% in 2020

  14. Natural gas cogeneration in the residential sector; La cogeneration au gaz naturel en residentiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancelot, C.; Gaudin, S. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The natural gas cogeneration offer is now available and operational in the industrial sector. It is based on technologies of piston engines and gas turbines. Currently, this offer is sufficiently diversified, so much from the point of view of the range of powers available (from 1 MW to more than 40 MW electric) that number of manufacturers. In order to widen the cogeneration market in France to the markets of the commercial and residential sectors, Gaz De France has undertaken a technical economic study to validate the potential of those markets. This study led to work on the assembly of a french die to cogeneration packages of low power (less than 1 MW electric). This step has emerged at the beginning of 1999 with the launching of a commercial offer of cogeneration packages. In margin to this work Gaz De France Research division also initiated a study in order to evaluate the offer of micro cogeneration, products delivering an electric output lower than 10 kW. (authors)

  15. Development of novel drug delivery prototypes devices for targeted delivery drug therapy at the molecular level in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy; Oberhozer, Theunis Gerhardus; Perchyonok, Victoria Tamara

    2011-09-01

    A novel approach in target specific molecular prototype drug delivery system concerns the attempt to employ radical affording substances (RAS) or radical quenching substances (RQS) as prodrugs able to produce irreversible damage on the desired target and therefore to stimulate cellular apoptosis. However, radical species generated can react quickly within the chemical environment prior to reaching its proper site of action. In this short communication, we report our investigations towards developing two alternative novel, simple, flexible and effective drug delivery systems that provide optimal dosage of drugs precisely where and when needed and therefore achieve and sustain a complex delivery profile. We have demonstrated the application of two effective molecular prototype delivery systems able to harness free radical reactivity within the laboratory where biological processes can be studied and controlled, leading to the prevention of disease and the development of new treatments for disease states mediated by free radicals.

  16. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  17. Development and testing of a prototype NPP information system based on the G2 expert system shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegh, J.; Bodnar, M.; Brueger, L.; Tanyi, M.; Sefcsik, F.

    1994-01-01

    The components and functioning of the GPCS information system is described as applied for process monitoring and alarm generation in WWER-440 type nuclear power plant. The prototype system was developed by using the G2 real-time expert system shell, measurements were simulated by a WWER-440 compact simulator and by the archive replay of a core monitoring system. The benefits of the object oriented technology description, expert system approach and information integration are emphasized. (author) 21 refs.; 17 figs

  18. Development of an integrated closed loop control system with virtual reality monitoring for Prototype Robotic Articulated System (PRAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Naveen; Dutta, Pramit; Gotewal, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Prototype Robotic Articulated System (PRAS) is a servo driven 4 degrees of freedom robotic arm capable of handling of upto 5 kg payload. A virtual reality based monitoring application has been developed in blender and was intergrated with the control system to read the joint values of the robotic arm at 10Hz and update the CAD model to visualize the robotic operations remotely. This paper presents the design details and implementation results of the integrated control system for PRAS

  19. Qualifying cogeneration in Texas and Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, S.C.; Cabe, R.; Stauffaeher, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that cogeneration of electricity and useful thermal energy by industrials along the Gulf Coast grew significantly more rapidly than in other parts of the country during and immediately following World War II as a result of the concentration of chemical and plastics processing facilities there. In 1982, Texas passed its version of PURPA, the Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) and designated those non-utility generators from which public utilities must purchase electricity as Qualifying Cogenerators. In 1991, there were nearly 7,500 MW of QF power generated for inside-the-fence use or firm capacity sale to utilities, with the two largest utilities in Texas purchasing over half that amount

  20. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  1. A preliminary report on the development of MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2004-07-01

    We describe three MATLAB classes for manipulating tensors in order to allow fast algorithm prototyping. A tensor is a multidimensional or N-way array. We present a tensor class for manipulating tensors which allows for tensor multiplication and 'matricization.' We have further added two classes for representing tensors in decomposed format: cp{_}tensor and tucker{_}tensor. We demonstrate the use of these classes by implementing several algorithms that have appeared in the literature.

  2. Mechanical properties used for the qualification of transport casks: Prototype development and extension to serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzbrenner, R.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of material in a specific cask is required to properly analyze the structural response of the cask. An appropriate way to establish this understanding is through laboratory testing of cask material. The laboratory testing that was done to support the MOSAIK Drop Test Program is summarized as an example of how mechanical properties can be mapped for a prototype cask. The broad range of measured properties allows the critical aspects of mechanical behavior to be understood. This is necessary for the proper application of fracture mechanics, and focuses on fracture toughness as the inherent materials property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. The general fracture mechanics approach and its application to specific cask designs are described elsewhere (Salzbrenner et al. 1990, Sorenson et al. 1992a, Sorenson et al. 1992b). The understanding established by a thorough mapping of the mechanical properties is necessary to apply fracture mechanics to a particular prototype, but it is not sufficient for qualifying serially produced casks. The mechanical behavior of a prototype must be correctly associated with parameters which can be measured on production casks. Since the production casks cannot be destructively tested, measurements are commonly made on sub-size specimens. This may prevent direct measurement of valid design properties. An additional database may then be required to establish the correlation between sub-size specimen measurements and valid design properties. This is illustrated by outlining the additional testing which would be necessary to allow the successful verification of the MOSAIK Drop Test Program to be extended from the prototype to serially produced casks

  3. Electrochemically active functionalization of graphene for development of prototype biosensing devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    support for chemosensors and biosensors. Functionalization of graphene can further transform this 2D material into various versatile platforms for different applications. In this presentation, we will address some of our recent investigations: (1) electrochemically active functionalization of graphene...... nanosheets, (2) loading of different enzymes on functionalized graphene matrix, and (3) electrochemical performances of the functionalized nanaohybrid materials based prototype sensors. These latest advancements could be crucial for the design and fabrication of low-cost, flexible and disposable biosensors....

  4. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850°C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5US¢/KWh cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950°C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/KWh. (author)

  5. Financial considerations affecting implementation of a large multiparty cogeneration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The report identifies problems inhibiting large scale multiparty cogeneration development and suggests means to reconcile the parties' differing interests. The analytical approach adopted for structuring ownership arrangements for a cogeneration project, once engineering studies confirm that the requisite technical advantages exist, is to attempt to resolve three specific issues: (1) identification of the potential participants (industrial customers, the electric utility serving the area, equipment vendors and erectors, design and engineering firms, fuel suppliers and transporters, passive investors, governmental interests, insurance carriers, and others); (2) selection of one or more of the three principal roles which each participant may play: (a) purchaser of project output, (b) provider of other commitments to support financing of the project, and (c) investor in the project; and (3) as to those participants taking an ownership role in the project, deciding whether one participant will act as sole owner or, if joint ownership is selected, deciding which of two structural formats they prefer: (a) an undivided interest approach in which each participant is responsible for and bears the full burden of providing its proportionate share of funding for the project; or (b) a project-entity approach in which each participant owns an interest in a newly organized entity which in turn owns project assets, thereby making the funding of the project the common responsibility of all of the participants.

  6. HTTR demonstration program for nuclear cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Sumita, Junya; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Yan, Xing L.; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tachibana, Yukio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency initiated a High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) demonstration program in accordance with recommendations of a task force established by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology according to the Strategic Energy Plan as of April 2014. The demonstration program is designed to complete helium gas turbine and hydrogen production system technologies aiming at commercial plant deployment in 2030s. The program begins with coupling a helium gas turbine in the secondary loop of the HTTR and expands by adding the H 2 plant to a tertiary loop to enable hydrogen cogeneration. Safety standards for coupling the helium gas turbine and H 2 plant to the nuclear reactor will be established through safety review in licensing. A system design and its control method are planned to be validated with a series of test operations using the HTTR-GT/H 2 plant. This paper explains the outline of HTTR demonstration program with a plant concept of the heat application system directed at establishing an HTGR cogeneration system with 950°C reactor outlet temperature for production of power and hydrogen as recommended by the task force. Commercial deployment strategy including a development plan for the helium gas turbine is also presented. (author)

  7. Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Malay K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Horenstein, Mark N. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Joglekar, Nitin R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The feasibility of integrating and retrofitting transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) on the front surfaces of solar collectors was established as a means to provide active self-cleaning properties for parabolic trough and heliostat reflectors, solar panels, and Fresnel lenses. Prototype EDS-integrated solar collectors, including second-surface glass mirrors, metallized Acrylic-film mirrors, and dielectric mirrors, were produced and tested in environmental test chambers for removing the dust layer deposited on the front surface of the mirrors. The evaluation of the prototype EDS-integrated mirrors was conducted using dust and environmental conditions that simulate the field conditions of the Mojave Desert. Test results showed that the specular reflectivity of the mirrors could be maintained at over 90% over a wide range of dust loadings ranging from 0 to 10 g/m2, with particle diameter varying from 1 to 50 μm. The measurement of specular reflectivity (SR) was performed using a D&S Reflectometer at wavelength 660 nm. A non-contact reflectometer was designed and constructed for rapid measurement of specular reflectivity at the same wavelength. The use of this new noncontact instrument allowed us to measure SR before and after EDS activation. Several EDS prototypes were constructed and evaluated with different electrode configurations, electrode materials, and encapsulating dielectric materials.

  8. Intraday trade is the answer for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomme, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    It is possible for operators of small cogeneration plants to sell electricity on the day-ahead market of the Amsterdam Power Exchange (APX) or through the unbalance market of the Dutch power transmission operator TenneT. However, it is difficult for them to take part in the market. The solution could be a so-called intraday-market, in which electricity trade can be a continuous process, but the question is who will start such a market [nl

  9. Development of high-strength concrete mix designs in support of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel design for a HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design optimization studies indicate that a significant reduction in the size of the PCRV for a 2240 MW(t) HTGR plant can be effected through utilization of high-strength concrete in conjunction with large capacity prestressing systems. A three-phase test program to develop and evaluate high-strength concretes (>63.4 MPa) is described. Results obtained under Phase I of the investigation related to materials selection-evaluation and mix design development are presented. 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF A COGENERATION POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Manuel Nuñez Bosch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration power plants connected to industrial processes have a direct impact on the overall efficiency of the plant and therefore on the economic results. Any modification to the thermal outline of these plants must first include an exergetic analysis to compare the benefits it can bring the new proposal. This research is performed to a cogeneration plant in operation with an installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW, it shows a study made from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Exergetic evaluation of each component of the plant was applied and similarly modified cogeneration scheme was evaluated. The results illustrate that the exergy losses and irreversibilities are completely different from one subsystem to another. In general, the total exergy destruction represented 70,7% from the primary fuel exergy. Steam generator was the subsystem with the highest irreversibility of the plant with 54%. It was demonstrated that the increase of the steam parameters lead to reduce exergy destruction and exergy efficiency elevation. The suppression of the reduction system and the adding of an extraction-condensing steam turbine produce the same effect and contribute to drop off the electrical consumption from the grid.

  11. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon de los Santos, G.

    2009-10-01

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  12. Development of the first prototypes of Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) at ITC-irst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N. [INFN Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Trento 38050 (Italy)]. E-mail: dinu@itc.it; Battiston, R. [Universita di Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Boscardin, M. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Trento 38050 (Italy); Collazuol, G. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Corsi, F. [DEE-Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari I-70125 (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.F. [INFN Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), Trento 38050 (Italy); Dipartimento di Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita di Trento, Trento 38050 (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Llosa, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Ionica, M. [Universita di Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Levi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Marcatili, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Marzocca, C. [DEE-Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari I-70125 (Italy); Piemonte, C. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Trento 38050 (Italy); Pignatel, G. [Universita di Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Pozza, A. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Trento 38050 (Italy); Quadrani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Sbarra, C. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Compendio Viminale, 00184 Rome (Italy); Zorzi, N. [ITC-irst, Divisione Microsistemi, Trento 38050 (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    In the frame of INFN-ITC-irst collaboration new Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) prototypes have been produced at ITC-irst (Trento, Italy). Each SiPM covers an area of 1 mm{sup 2} and brings together 625 micro-cells of 40x40 {mu}m{sup 2} size connected in parallel as to form a single read-out element. Each micro-cell consists of a Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode (GM-APD) in series with its quenching resistance. This article reports the main characteristics of these prototypes as well as the ongoing activity of our collaboration on the development of SiPM devices for medical and space physics applications.

  13. THE ROLE OF PROTOTYPING AND SIMULATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF AN ELASTIC COUPLING WITH FLEXIBLE MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRE Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of a competitive market, the use of 3D modelling, visualisation and simulation tools enable the entire coupling to be designed and developed in the pre-manufacturing phase. Several advantages of introducing virtual prototyping are offered. The goal for the coupling prototype is to answer questions about performance and reliability in order to identify necessary engineering changes for the final coupling variant. Facilitating the virtual reality communication capability, different variations of the geometry and other characteristics can be studied and discussed in a more efficient mode. Virtual features of the coupling structure are described and analysed for the efficient realization of coupling project. At the end, the paper presents design simulations to prove the behaviour and functionality of the coupling for different operational scenarios: mechanical stress, buckling stability and modal analysis.

  14. Reviews on Fuel Cell Technology for Valuable Chemicals and Energy Co-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisitsree Wiyaratn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of co-generation process in fuel cell type reactor to produce valuable chemical compounds along with electricity. The chemicals and energy co-generation processes have been shown to be a promising alternative to conventional reactors and conventional fuel cells with pure water as a byproduct. This paper reviews researches on chemicals and energy co-generation technologies of three types of promising fuel cell i.e. solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, alkaline fuel cell (AFC, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. In addition, the research studies on applications of SOFCs, AFCs, and PEMFCs with chemical production (i.e. nitric oxide, formaldehyde, sulfur oxide, C2 hydrocarbons, alcohols, syngas and hydrogen peroxide were also given. Although, it appears that chemicals and energy co-generation processes have potential to succeed in commercial applications, the development of cheaper catalyst materials with longer stability ,and understanding in thermodynamic are still challenging to improve the overall system performance and enable to use in commercial market.

  15. Development of automated prototype for studying the effect of solar aging on sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2015-06-01

    The first Brazilian standard for UV protection sunglasses, NBR15111, was drafted and published in 2003, hitherto a faithful copy (mirror) of European, BSEN1836 standard. From 2010 to 2013 the Laboratório de Instrumentação Oftálmica of the School of Engineering of São Carlos (USP) made contribution in the review and drafting of this standard and the main change so far is on the extension of the UV range analysis for protection of sunglasses, i.e. from 280 - 380nm to 280-400nm. In previous studies, there are indications that ultraviolet protection degrades with use and exposure of sunglasses to natural ultraviolet radiation. Thus, this project aims to build a prototype for irradiating sunglasses lenses, where one of the spectacles will be submitted to the solar simulator; and the other to the prototype. This prototype consists of a panel with cover, which houses 100 lenses arranged in the vertical (user's) position and which will be irradiated by the sun from sunrise until sunset. The lid opens automatically and should turn towards the sun, so that the lens will always be irradiated facing the sun. Sensors will be installed to close the cover and protect the lenses of undesirable weather conditions and to determine the ultraviolet index to which the lenses are being subjected to. The exposure time and UV index will be recorded and automatic opening or closing the lid may also be interfered by a PC by online software. Previously to irradiation, spectroscopy will be performed and then repeated after every 30 days of exposure.

  16. Design, Development, and Prototyping of an Intelligent Volumetric Measurement System for Water Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrani, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this thesis is to build an intelligent water volume measurement device that calculates the water volume for any shape of tank precisely by measuring the water level with an ultrasonic sensor and using a look-up-table to calculate the volume. It generates alarm signals at any desired volume. For any shape of tank, the look-up-table is entered to the processors memory using five buttons, and LCD display. The prototype gets power from mains through a USB socket even if it is...

  17. Crab Cavity and Cryomodule Prototype Development for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Ciovati, G; Clemens, W A; Henry, J; Kneisel, P; Kushnick, P; Macha, K; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Slack, G; Turlington, L; Nassiri, R; Waldschmidt, G J; Wu, G

    2011-03-01

    We review the single-cell, superconducting crab cavity designs for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The 'on-cell' waveguide scheme is expected to have a more margin for the impedance budget of the APS storage ring, as well as offering a more compact design compared with the original design consisting of a low order mode damping waveguide on the beam pipe. We will report recent fabrication progress, cavity test performance on original and alternate prototypes, and concept designs and analysis for various cryomodule components.

  18. A Software Prototype Development of Human System Interfaces for Human Factors Engineering Validation Tests of SMART MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Tae; Kang, Young Sun; Park, Byung Yul; Han, Kwan Ho; Yang, Sung Won; Oh, In Su; Kim, Myung Ju; Bae, Mun Jin; Nam, Gi Ho; Lim, Do Yeun

    2009-12-01

    This report's aim is to develop a software prototype that will be used in the partial dynamic mockup of SMART MCR(main control room). The software mainly consist of the plant a dynamic model and various operation displays that will be installed into MCR. They includes the codes such as main data processing logics like alarm reduction logic and display methods like ecological interface display and elastic tile alarm display developed by KAERI. The unit test and integrated test of them are performed according to predefined test procedure

  19. Development and test of the DAQ system for a Micromegas prototype installed into the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zibell, Andre; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianco, Michele; Martoiu, Victor Sorin

    2015-01-01

    A Micromegas (MM) quadruplet prototype with an active area of 0.5 m$^2$ that adopts the general design foreseen for the upgrade of the innermost forward muon tracking systems (Small Wheels) of the ATLAS detector in 2018-2019, has been built at CERN and is going to be tested in the ATLAS cavern environment during the LHC RUN-II period 2015-2017. The integration of this prototype detector into the ATLAS data acquisition system using custom ATCA equipment is presented. An ATLAS compatible ReadOutDriver (ROD) based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS), the Scalable Readout Unit (SRU), will be used in order to transmit the data after generating valid event fragments to the high-level Read Out System (ROS). The SRU will be synchronized with the LHC bunch crossing clock (40.08 MHz) and will receive the Level-1 trigger signals from the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) through the TTCrx receiver ASIC. The configuration of the system will be driven directly from the ATLAS Run Control System. By using the ATLAS TDAQ Soft...

  20. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. prototype system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This document provides the high-level system architecture for the Prototype Development and Demonstration of a : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. system. The requirements addressed in this document are based upon those that can be found in : previous R.E.S.C.U.M.E. re...

  1. Development of prototype components for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton

    2013-06-26

    . A detector module is a basic functional unit that includes a sensor, an analogue microcable and frontend electronics mounted on a support structure. The objective of the thesis is to perform quality assurance tests of the prototype module components in order to validate the concept of the detector module and to demonstrate its operation using radioactive sources and particle beams. Double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been chosen as sensor technology for the STS because of the combination of a good spatial resolution, two-dimensional coordinate measurement achieved within low material budget (0.3%X{sub 0}), high readout speed and sufficient radiation tolerance. Several generations of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors have been manufactured in order to explore the radiation hard design features and the concept of a large-area sensor compatible with ladder-type structure of the detector module. In particular, sensors with double metal layer on both sides and active area of 62 x 62 mm{sup 2} have been produced. Electrical characterization of the sensors has been performed in order to establish the overall operability as well as to extract the device parameters. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage characteristics and interstrip parameters have been measured. Readout of the sensors has been done using self-triggering front-end electronics. A front-end board has been developed based on the n-XYTER readout chip with data driven architecture and capable of operating at 32 MHz readout rate. The front-end board included an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Calibration of the ADC has been performed using both {sup 241}Am X-ray source and external pulse generator. Threshold calibration and investigation of temperature dependence of chip parameters has been carried out. Low-mass support structures have been developed using carbon fibre that has the rigidity to hold the detector modules and introduce minimal Coulomb scattering of the particle tracks

  2. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of Stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 Euro kW h -1 . As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate.

  3. A Belgian margarine manufacturer is testing the green cogeneration; Un margarinier belge experimente la cogeneration verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-01-15

    Aigremont, an independent Belgian margarine manufacturer, is exploiting a 'green cogeneration' unit fueled with vegetal and animal fats. This unit generates 770 kW electrical power which is injected into the power grid and the same quantity of thermal power which is consumed by the fabrication process. Short paper. (J.S.)

  4. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...... constraints. Specifically allowing explicit restructuring phases when the architecture became problematic showed to be crucial.  ...

  5. Making tomorrow's mistakes today: Evolutionary prototyping for risk reduction and shorter development time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Gary; Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Burliegh, Scott; Chow, Sanguan; Parlier, Randy; Lee, Lorrine; Castro, Henry; Gersbach, Jim

    1993-03-01

    In the early days of JPL's solar system exploration, each spacecraft mission required its own dedicated data system with all software applications written in the mainframe's native assembly language. Although these early telemetry processing systems were a triumph of engineering in their day, since that time the computer industry has advanced to the point where it is now advantageous to replace these systems with more modern technology. The Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC) Prototype group was established in 1985 as a workstation and software laboratory. The charter of the lab was to determine if it was possible to construct a multimission telemetry processing system using commercial, off-the-shelf computers that communicated via networks. The staff of the lab mirrored that of a typical skunk works operation -- a small, multi-disciplinary team with a great deal of autonomy that could get complex tasks done quickly. In an effort to determine which approaches would be useful, the prototype group experimented with all types of operating systems, inter-process communication mechanisms, network protocols, packet size parameters. Out of that pioneering work came the confidence that a multi-mission telemetry processing system could be built using high-level languages running in a heterogeneous, networked workstation environment. Experience revealed that the operating systems on all nodes should be similar (i.e., all VMS or all PC-DOS or all UNIX), and that a unique Data Transport Subsystem tool needed to be built to address the incompatibilities of network standards, byte ordering, and socket buffering. The advantages of building a telemetry processing system based on emerging industry standards were numerous: by employing these standards, we would no longer be locked into a single vendor. When new technology came to market which offered ten times the performance at one eighth the cost, it would be possible to attach the new machine to the network, re-compile the

  6. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  7. Industrial Cogeneration Optimization Program: A summary of two studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Two industrial cogeneration optimization programs were performed to examine the economic and energy saving impacts of adding cogeneration to site specific plants in the chemical, food, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, and textile industries. Industrial cogeneration is reviewed. The two parallel ICOP studies are described. The five industrial sectors are also described, followed by highlights of each of the site specific case studies. Steam turbine cogeneration systems fired by coal or alternative fuels are generally the most attractive in terms of economic performance and oil/gas savings potential. Of the 15 cogeneration systems selected as optimum in the ICOP studies, 11 were coal or wood fired steam turbines. By contrast, gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines, which are limited to oil or gas firing, are usually less economical.

  8. Development and Manufacturing Technology of Prototype Monoblock Low Pressure Rotor Shaft by 650ton Large Ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Duk-Yong; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jungyeup; Lee, Jongwook; Ko, Seokhee [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to establish the manufacturing technology for monoblock LP rotor shaft, DHI has produced the prototype monoblock LP rotor shaft with a maximum diameter of φ 2,800 mm using 650 ton ingot and investigated the mechanical properties and the internal quality of the ingot. As a result, the quality and mechanical properties required the large rotor shaft for nuclear power plant met a target. These results indicate that DHI can be contributed to increasing demands with high efficiency and capacity at the nuclear power plant. Additionally, some tests such as high cycle fatigue (HCF), low cycle fatigue (LCF), fracture toughness (K1C/J1C) and dynamic crack propagation velocity (da/dN) are in progress.

  9. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  10. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peeks, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  11. Implementation of gas district cooling and cogeneration systems in Malaysia; Mise en oeuvre de systemes de gas district cooling et de cogeneration en Malaisie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. [Gas District Cooling, M, Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    With its energy demand in the early 1990's growing at a high rate due to the country's strong economic growth, Malaysia studied various options to improve the efficiency of its energy use. Since its natural gas reserves are almost four times that of its crude oil reserves, efforts were therefore centered on seeking ways to boost the use of natural gas to mitigate the growing domestic energy need. PETRONAS, the national oil company, subsequently studied and chose the District Cooling System using natural gas as the primary source of fuel. The Kuala Lumpur City Center development, which houses the PETRONAS Twin Towers, was subsequently chosen as the first project to use the Gas District Cooling (GDC) System. To acquire the technology and implement this project, PETRONAS created a new subsidiary, Gas District Cooling (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad (GDC(M)). In the process of improving the plant's efficiency, GDC(M) discovered that the GDC system's efficiency and project economics would be significantly enhanced if its is coupled to a Cogeneration system. Having proven the success of the GDC/Cogeneration system, GDC(M) embarked on a campaign to aggressively promote and seek new opportunities to implement the system, both in Malaysia-and abroad. Apart from enhancing efficiency of energy use, and providing better project economics, the GDC/Cogeneration system also is environment friendly. Today, the GDC/Cogeneration systems is the system of choice for several important developments in Malaysia, which also includes the country's prestigious projects such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and the New Federal Government Administrative Center in Putrajaya. (author)

  12. Correlation engine prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Pose, V

    2003-01-01

    The CERN monitoring prototype, part of the fabric management work package (WP4) of the DataGrid project, task Monitoring, collects monitoring data from farm nodes in CERN into a central monitoring database. Performing correlations on the data in the monitoring database should help to foresee exceptions on individual nodes or node groups and to analyze performance of the farm. The Correlation Engine Prototype has been developed to provide easy adding of new correlations of monitoring data and actions triggered in case of exceptions. The current prototype is written in Perl. The results of the correlation engine can be accessed through a web-interface.

  13. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  14. Development and demonstration of prototype transportation equipment for emplacing HL vitrified waste canisters into small diameter bored horizontal disposal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidler, Wolf K.; Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel; Londe, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Over a period of 4 and years the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), working with a variety of Contractors mostly specializing in nuclear orientated mechanical applications, successfully designed, fabricated and demonstrated 2 very different prototype high level waste transport systems. The first system, based on air cushion technology, was developed primarily for very heavy loads (17 to 45 tonnes). The results of this work are described in a separate presentation (Paper 21) at this Conference. The second system, developed by Andra within the framework of the ESDRED Project, generally referred to as the 'Pushing Robot System' for vitrified waste canisters, is the subject of this paper. The 'Pushing Robot System' is a part of the French national disposal concept that is described in Andra's 'Dossier 2005'. The latter is a public document that can be viewed on Andra's web site (www.andra.fr). The 'Pushing Robot System' system is designed for the deep geological disposal (in clay formations) of 'C' type vitrified waste canisters. In its entirety the system provides for the transport, emplacement and, if necessary, the retrieval of those canisters. Nothing in the design of the Andra emplacement equipment would preclude its utilization in horizontal openings in other types of geological settings. Over a period of some 8 years Andra has developed the 'Pushing Robot System' in 3 phases. Initially there was only the 'Conceptual Design' (Phase 1) which was incorporated in the Dossier 2005. This was followed by Phase 2 i.e. the design and fabrication of a simplified full scale prototype system henceforth referred to a P1, which includes a Pushing Robot, a Dummy Canister and a Test Bench. P1 details were also incorporated in the Dossier 2005. Finally, during Phase 3, a second more comprehensive full scale prototype system P2 has been designed and is being assembled and tested this month. This system includes a Transport Shuttle, a Transfer Shielding Cask, a

  15. Cogeneration of electricity from biomass in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, H.

    1997-01-01

    India, which is the largest sugarcane producer in the world and which has chronic severe power deficits, has excellent business opportunities in over 400 sugar mills for cogeneration of exportable electrical energy from bagasse. The current potential is between 2,500 and 3,000 MW of capacity. Individual plant size will range from 10 to 80 MW. The opportunities take the form of turnkey projects for promoter sugar mills, as well as for setting up facilities on BOOT (Build, Own, Operate and Transfer), BOO (Build, Own and Operate) or BOLT (Build, Own, Lease and Transfer) concepts. (author)

  16. Cogeneration: Effects of environmental laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The new list of environmental regulations caused by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the expected effects of other environmental and related regulation on American industry is truly staggering. The author's brief overview is limited to the effects on utility customer power generation. In his opinion, the regulations favor the use of clean burning waste materials to generate steam and electricity. The environmental requirements for all industry are expected to tighten significantly. Some of the issues of interest are: timing; clean burning power generation; future projected issues (5 years or more); waste power cogeneration; and Internal Revenue guidelines

  17. Development of a prototype of the tele-localisation system in radiotherapy using personal digital assistant via wireless communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Vincent Wing-cheung; Tang, Fuk-hay; Cheung, Wai-kwan; Chan, Kit-chi

    2013-01-01

    In localisation of radiotherapy treatment field, the oncologist is present at the simulator to approve treatment details produced by the therapist. Problems may arise if the oncologist is not available and the patient requires urgent treatment. The development of a tele-localisation system is a potential solution, where the oncologist uses a personal digital assistant (PDA) to localise the treatment field on the image sent from the simulator through wireless communication and returns the information to the therapist after his or her approval. Our team developed the first tele-localisation prototype, which consisted of a server workstation (simulator) for the administration of digital imaging and communication in medicine localisation images including viewing and communication with the PDA via a Wi-Fi network; a PDA (oncologist's site) installed with the custom-built programme that synchronises with the server workstation and performs treatment field editing. Trial tests on accuracy and speed of the prototype system were conducted on 30 subjects with the treatment regions covering the neck, skull, chest and pelvis. The average time required in performing the localisation using the PDA was less than 1.5 min, with the blocked field longer than the open field. The transmission speed of the four treatment regions was similar. The average physical distortion of the images was within 4.4% and the accuracy of field size indication was within 5.3%. Compared with the manual method, the tele-localisation system presented with an average deviation of 5.5%. The prototype system fulfilled the planned objectives of tele-localisation procedure with reasonable speed and accuracy.

  18. Development of a time-of-flight Compton camera prototype for online control of ion therapy and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Hadron-therapy is one of the modalities available for treating cancer. This modality uses light ions (protons, carbon ions) to destroy cancer cells. Such particles have a ballistic accuracy thanks to their quasi-rectilinear trajectory, their path and the finished profile maximum dose in the end. Compared to conventional radiotherapy, this allows to spare the healthy tissue located adjacent downstream and upstream of the tumor. One of this modality's quality assurance challenges is to control the positioning of the dose deposited by ions in the patient. One possibility to perform this control is to detect the prompt gammas emitted during nuclear reactions induced along the ion path in the patient. A Compton camera prototype, theoretically allowing to maximize the detection efficiency of the prompt gammas, is being developed under a regional collaboration. This camera was the main focus of my thesis, and particularly the following points: i) studying, throughout Monte Carlo simulations, the operation of the prototype in construction, particularly with respect to the expected counting rates on the different types of accelerators in hadron-therapy ii) conducting simulation studies on the use of this camera in clinical imaging, iii) characterising the silicon detectors (scatterer) iv) confronting Geant4 simulations on the camera's response with measurements on the beam with the help of a demonstrator. As a result, the Compton camera prototype developed makes a control of the localization of the dose deposition in proton therapy to the scale of a spot possible, provided that the intensity of the clinical proton beam is reduced by a factor 200 (intensity of 10 8 protons/s). An application of the Compton camera in nuclear medicine seems to be attainable with the use of radioisotopes of an energy greater than 300 keV. These initial results must be confirmed by more realistic simulations (homogeneous and heterogeneous PMMA targets). Tests with the progressive

  19. District heating/cogeneration application studies for the Minneapolis-St Paul area. Executive summary; overall feasibility and economic viability for a district heating/new cogeneration system in Minneapolis-St. Paul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margen, P.; Larsson, K.; Cronholm, L.A.; Marklund, J.E.

    1979-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of introducing a large-scale, hot-water, district-heating system for the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. The analysis was based on modern European hot-water district-heating concepts in which cogeneration power plants supply the base-load thermal energy. Heat would be supplied from converted turbines of existing coal-fired power plants in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Toward the end of the 20-year development period, one or two new cogeneration units would be required. Thus, the district-heating system could use low-grade heat from either coal-fired or nuclear cogeneration power stations to replace the space-heating fuels currently used - natural gas and distillate oil. The following conclusions can be drawn: the concept is technically feasible, it has great value for fuel conservation, and with appropriate financing the system is economically viable.

  20. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection, the Arab World is moving to further improve energy conversion efficiency. The equivalent of over 2.7 MM bbl is being daily burnt to fuel the thermal power plants that represent 92% of the total Arab power generation. This adds up to close to one billion barrels annually. At a conservative 30$ per barrel, this represents a daily cost of over $81 Million. This paper will introduce two strategies with the ultimate objective to cut-off up to half of the current fuel consumption. Firstly, Cogeneration Technology is able to improve thermal efficiency from the current average of less than 25% to up to 80%. Just 1% improvement in power plant thermal efficiency represents 3 million $/day in fuel cost savings. In addition, a well-designed and operated cogeneration plant will: - Reduce unfriendly emissions by burning less fuel as a result of higher thermal efficiency, - Increase the decentralization of electrical generation, - Improve the reliability of electricity supply. As an example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's experience of implementing cogeneration will be presented, in particular within its hydrocarbon facilities and desalination plants. This will include the existing facilities and the planned and on-going projects. Secondly, by interconnecting the power networks of all the adjacent Arab countries, the following benefits could be reached: - Reduce generation reserves and enhance the system reliability, - Improve the economic efficiency of the electricity power systems, - Provide power exchange and strengthen the supply reliability, - Adopt technological development and use the best modern technologies. At least two factors plead for this direction. On one hand, the four-hour time zone difference from Eastern to Western Arab World makes it easy to exchange power. On the other hand, this will help to reduce the reserve capacity and save on corresponding Capital investment, fuel, and O and M

  1. Independent power and cogeneration in Ontario's new competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstable, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The factors influencing the initial market pricing in the early years of Ontario's new electricity market were discussed with particular insight on the potential for near term development of independent power and cogeneration. The major factors influencing prices include: (1) no increase in retail prices, (2) financial restructuring of Ontario Hydro, (3) the Market Power Mitigation Agreement, (4) tighter power plant emissions standards, and (5) an electricity supply and demand balance. Generation competition is not expected to influence market pricing in the early years of the new electricity market. Prices will instead reflect the restructuring decisions of the Ontario government. The decision to have Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPGI) as a single generator for Ontario Hydro's generation assets will ensure that average spot market pricing in the early market years will be close to a 3.8 c/kWh revenue cap

  2. Combined cycles and cogeneration with natural gas and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusso, R.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1985 there has been a sharp increase world-wide in the sales of gas turbines. The main reasons for this are: the improved designs allowing better gas turbine and, thus, combined cycle efficiencies; the good fuel use indices in the the case of cogeneration; the versatility of the gas turbines even with poly-fuel plants; greatly limited exhaust emissions; and lower manufacturing costs and delivery times with respect to conventional plants. This paper after a brief discussion on the evolution in gas turbine applications in the world and in Italy, assesses their use and environmental impacts with fuels other than natural gas. The paper then reviews Italian efforts to develop power plants incorporating combined cycles and the gasification of coal, residual, and other low calorific value fuels

  3. Analysis of Ada as a prototyping language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the suitability of Ada as a language for developing software prototypes. The differences between software prototypes and traditional engineering prototypes are discussed; the approaches to software prototyping are identified. Ada's potential as a language for prototyping is evaluated according to the writability, expressiveness, and flexibility of the language; Ada is found to be inadequate as a prototyping language because it lacks writability and expressiveness. Possible approaches to improving the expressiveness of the language are discussed.

  4. Development of a prototype plan for the effective closure of a waste disposal site in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Barnes, F.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of a semiarid low-level waste disposal site. This prototype plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos based on previous shallow land burial (SLB) field research both at the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility (EETF), and at a waste disposal area at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems at Waste Disposal Area B having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that one of the two models tested represented soil moisture more accurately than the second model. The accuracy of modeling all of the parameters of the water balance equation was then evaluated using field data from the Integrated Systems Demonstration plots at the EETF. Optimized parameters were developed for one model to describe observed values of deep percolation, evapotranspiration, and runoff from the field plots containing an SLB trench cap configuration

  5. Automated Work Packages Prototype: Initial Design, Development, and Evaluation. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Al Rashdan, Ahmad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The goal of the Automated Work Packages (AWP) project is to demonstrate how to enhance work quality, cost management, and nuclear safety through the use of advanced technology. The work described in this report is part of the digital architecture for a highly automated plant project of the technical program plan for advanced instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies. This report addresses the DOE Milestone M2LW-15IN0603112: Describe the outcomes of field evaluations/demonstrations of the AWP prototype system and plant surveillance and communication framework requirements at host utilities. A brief background to the need for AWP research is provided, then two human factors field evaluation studies are described. These studies focus on the user experience of conducting a task (in this case a preventive maintenance and a surveillance test) while using an AWP system. The remaining part of the report describes an II&C effort to provide real time status updates to the technician by wireless transfer of equipment indications and a dynamic user interface.

  6. Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Debasis; Ghose, Sanjit; Medasani, Bharat K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Legg, Benjamin A.; Zhou, Yufan; Zhu, Zihua; Sushko, Maria L.; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Billinge, Simon L.

    2018-03-28

    Given the wide-ranging potential applications of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging imperative is to understand their formation with atomic scale precision. This will aid in designing syntheses for next-generation MOFs with enhanced properties and functionalities. Major challenges are to characterize the early-stage seeds, and the pathways to framework growth, which require synthesis coupled with in situ structural characterization sensitive to nanoscale structures in solution. Here we report measurements of an in situ synthesis of a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8, utilizing synchrotron X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis optimized for sensitivity to dilute species, complemented by mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We observe that despite rapid formation of the crystalline product, a high concentration of Zn(2-MeIm)4 (2-MeIm = 2-methylimidazolate) initially forms and persists as stable clusters over long times. A secondary, amorphous phase also pervades during the synthesis, which has a structural similarity to the final ZIF-8 and may act as an intermediate to the final product.

  7. Development of Large-Area Fast RICH Prototypes with Pad Readout and Solid Photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, H; CERN. Geneva; Coluzza, C; Di Mauro, A; Ljubicic, A; Nappi, E; Margaritondo, G; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Ribeiro, R; Scognetti, T; Williams, T D

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of the RD26 Collaboration at CERN we have built and tested several prototypes of fast RICH detectors suitable for the construction of large systems. The detectors used a solid photocathode consisting of a 500 nm CsI layer evaporated on a conventional pad readout board of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) operated with a methane/isobutane mixture at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that such a detector may be used for long periods of time in stable operating conditions provided the gas mixture is continuously flushed through the detector. Evidence is shown for a significant loss of transmission of Cherenkov photons in the NaF radiator due to internal anisotropy of the crystal. We present the results of the performance of the photocathodes, the quantum efficiency of the CsI we have extracted from the measured Cherenkov photons, and the identification achievable in a high-density environment such as the detector ALICE planned for the heavy-ion Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results...

  8. Development of Prototype Laboratory Setup for Selective Detection of Ethylene Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kathirvelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a prototype laboratory setup for detecting ethylene (C2H4 in ppm level employing a sensor made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes of 40 nm average tube diameter. The proposed reversible chemoresistive ethylene sensor is fabricated using Kapton as the substrate onto which carbon nanotubes are coated using thick film technology. IDT silver electrodes are printed using piezo head based ink-jet printing technology. The increases in electrical resistance of the sensor element are measured on exposure to ethylene for different ethylene concentrations using a potentiostat and data acquisition system. The increase in resistance of the calibrated sensor element on exposure to ethylene (analyte is about 18.4% at room temperature for 50 ppm ethylene concentration. This change is reversible. Our sensor element exhibits a better performance than those reported earlier (1.8% and it has got the rise and fall time of 10 s and 60 s, respectively. It could be used for testing the ripening of fruits.

  9. High-efficiency Gas Cogeneration – an Assessment of the Support Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sołtysik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a single European energy market implies the need to harmonise national laws and the directions of the sector’s growth to EU determinants. One of these elements was the introduction of a system to support the development of high-efficiency cogeneration, including gas cogeneration. Several years of the mechanisms’ performance allows for analysis of the advisability and correctness of the support model format, and assessment of its impact on the sub-sector’s development and the cost of its operation. Against the background of the support system introduction origins, the paper presents results of volumetric and price analyses, trends, and assessment of the balance of property rights and of the mechanism’s effectiveness.

  10. High temperature cogeneration with thermionic burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Britt, E. J.; Dick, R. S.

    The thermionic cogeneration combustor was conceived to meet industrial requirements for high-temperature direct heat, typically in the form of gas at temperatures from 800 to 1900 K, while at the same time supplying electricity. The thermionic combustor is entirely self-contained, with heat from the combustion region absorbed by the emitters of thermionic converters to be converted to electric power and the high-temperature reject heat from the converters used to preheat the air used for combustion. Depending on the temperature of the process gas produced, energy savings of around 10% with respect to that used to produce the same amount of electricity and heat without cogeneration are possible with present technology, and savings of up to 20% may be possible with advanced converters. Possible thermionic combustor designs currently under investigation include a configuration in which heat is collected by heat pipes lining the periphery of the combustion region, and a fire-tube converter in which combustion occurs within the cylindrical emitter of each converter. Preliminary component tests of these designs have been encouraging.

  11. Development of an expert system prototype for determining software functional requirements for command management activities at NASA Goddard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of an expert system prototype for software functional requirement determination for NASA Goddard's Command Management System, as part of its process of transforming general requests into specific near-earth satellite commands, is described. The present knowledge base was formulated through interactions with domain experts, and was then linked to the existing Knowledge Engineering Systems (KES) expert system application generator. Steps in the knowledge-base development include problem-oriented attribute hierarchy development, knowledge management approach determination, and knowledge base encoding. The KES Parser and Inspector, in addition to backcasting and analogical mapping, were used to validate the expert system-derived requirements for one of the major functions of a spacecraft, the solar Maximum Mission. Knowledge refinement, evaluation, and implementation procedures of the expert system were then accomplished.

  12. Between generative prototyping and work of synthesis in design: Interplay and adding value in the early concept development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes a case in which generative prototypes are applied as part of a participatory design methodology to elicit insights from practitioners, and how these insights are translated and represented, to inform the following work of synthesis in design. In literature, arguments are made...... for the value of involving practitioners as active participants in the development process, which holds the potential to develop innovative products. The paper unfolds a discussion on how knowledge from different sources can be qualified and re-qualified through a methodology of generative iterations, creating...... a valuable interplay between participatory sessions and background development work. Through an empirical study, it is analyzed how this can be achieved through intermediate methods informing decisions in design to be made based on practitioner wishes and desires, but necessitating re-qualification through...

  13. Transposition of the EU cogeneration directive: A vision for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Nuno Afonso; Monteiro, Eliseu; Ferreira, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    The potential for new, small-scale and micro-cogeneration installations in Portugal is very considerable due to the number of potential host buildings. In this work, we discuss the legal framework of the Portuguese energy market, and some modifications to accommodate the Directive, 2004/8/EC are stressed. A practical case of cogeneration is also presented, showing the application of the Annex III (b) and (c) of the Cogeneration Directive. The practical case presented shows that micro CHP can be considered highly efficient, with parameters calculated with the Directive rules. Two main improvements in Portugal's energy policy are important: improvement on the permission to access grid system and improvement on support mechanisms indexing it to PES. The Cogeneration Directive transposition is an excellent opportunity to induce a less restrictive framework for the installation of new cogeneration systems, reducing the technological barriers, namely allowing medium-voltage connection with the grid, and improving the revenues provided from these small cogeneration systems. These modifications can improve significantly the number of potential hosts for small-scale cogeneration systems. (author)

  14. Micro-size cogeneration plants and virtual power plants. New energy landscapes; Mikro-KWK und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Neue Energielandschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Combined heat and power generation is an established technology. With micro-size cogeneration units, the technology is now available to private single or multiple dwellings and for decentral power supply of residential blocks. With the right political boundary conditions and integrated into virtual power stations, this is an option for enhanced use of renewable energy sources and for decentral, flexible and climate-friendly heat and power generation in buildings. Economic efficiency analyses by experts, high utilisation rates, innovative developments of the manufacturers and a positive public image are all in favour of a great future for micro-size cogeneration units. (orig.)

  15. Prototypes as Platforms for Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Willem

    The development of interactive products in industry is an activity involving different disciplines – such as different kinds of designers, engineers, marketers and managers – in which prototypes play an important role. On the one hand, prototypes can be powerful boundary objects and an effective...... that invite the participation of different stakeholders based on my involvement in the development process of an interactive product in industry. I demonstrate that involving non-designers in the making and shaping of the prototype enables them to take active part in the reflective learning process...... prototype can be staged as a live prototype in collaborative prototyping workshops to both make and evaluate it with internal and external stakeholders, which effectively turns the prototype into a platform for participation. Overall, this work contributes to the interaction design research literature...

  16. Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the most recent trends and concepts in power engineering, especially with regard to prosumer and civic energy generation. In so doing, it draws widely on his experience gained during the development of steam microturbines for use in small combined heat and power stations based on the organic Rankine cycle (CHP-ORC). Major issues concerning the dynamic properties of mechanical systems, in particular rotating systems, are discussed, and the results obtained when using unconventional bearing systems, presented. Modeling and analysis of radial-flow and axial-flow microturbines a

  17. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  18. Development of the Variable Atmosphere Testing Facility for Blow-Down Analysis of the Mars Hopper Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan D. Jerred; Robert C. O' Brien; Steven D. Howe; James E. O' Brien

    2013-02-01

    Recent developments at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) on a Martian exploration probe have lead to the assembly of a multi-functional variable atmosphere testing facility (VATF). The VATF has been assembled to perform transient blow-down analysis of a radioisotope thermal rocket (RTR) concept that has been proposed for the Mars Hopper; a long-lived, long-ranged mobile platform for the Martian surface. This study discusses the current state of the VATF as well as recent blow-down testing performed on a laboratory-scale prototype of the Mars Hopper. The VATF allows for the simulation of Mars ambient conditions within the pressure vessel as well as to safely perform blow-down tests through the prototype using CO2 gas; the proposed propellant for the Mars Hopper. Empirical data gathered will lead to a better understanding of CO2 behavior and will provide validation of simulation models. Additionally, the potential of the VATF to test varying propulsion system designs has been recognized. In addition to being able to simulate varying atmospheres and blow-down gases for the RTR, it can be fitted to perform high temperature hydrogen testing of fuel elements for nuclear thermal propulsion.

  19. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  20. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  1. Modelling the dynamics of the cogeneration power plant gas-air duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy N. Bundyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing into wide practice the cogeneration power plants (or CHP is one of promising directions of the Ukrainian small-scale power engineering development. Thermal and electric energy generation using the same fuel kind can increase the overall plant efficiency. That makes it appropriate to use CHPs at compact residential areas, isolated industrial enterprises constituting one complex with staff housing area, at sports complexes, etc. The gas-air duct of the cogeneration power plant has been considered as an object of the diesel-generator shaft velocity control. The developed GAD mathematical model, served to analyze the CHP dynamic characteristics as acceleration curves obtained under different external disturbances in the MathWorks MATLAB environment. According to the electric power generation technology requirements a convenient transition process type has been selected, with subsequent identification of the diesel-generator shaft rotation speed control law.

  2. Engineering study, development and prototype fabrication of the supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068725; Karyotakis, Yannis; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Alexopoulos, Theo; MEIS, Costantin; De Conto, Jean Marie; Jeremie, Andrea; Puzot, Patrique

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is based on the international collaboration in the field of high-energy particle physics research. The experiments carried out in its facilities are achieved through the existing particle accelerators. In addition, advanced accelerator research and development is one of the goals of CERN. For this reason, CLIC (the Compact LInear Collider) a new electron-positron linear accelerator is being studied at CERN. CLIC is built by the assembly of the Two-Beam Modules and takes advantage of an innovative acceleration principle, the Two-Beam acceleration. Each Module contains several technical systems that contribute to its successful operation. This thesis presents the development of the prototype supporting system for the CLIC Two-Beam Module. At first, the physics requirements are translated into technical specifications and the fundamental parts of the supporting system are defined. The CLIC operational conditions are identified and the corresponding boundaries...

  3. Gas turbine in cogeneration in a petrochemical industry; Turbina e gas em cogeracao numa industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreyevich, Svetislav Tomas [FINEGER S.A. Engenheiros Associados (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    A feasibility study with technical and economical analyses about a new gas turbine, operating in a cogeneration process at a petrochemical plant, is developed comparative evaluations were made between various kinds of gas turbine, considering two different sceneries. The economic evaluation includes investments, financing, maintenance and operational costs, direct and indirect costs and tariffs. Energy and mass balances for each are also presented. 24 figs.

  4. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  5. The RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies to distributed generation, cogeneration and thermoelectric in developing the natural gas in Brazil; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a geracao distribuida, cogeracao e termeletrica, no desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    From the PETROBRAS Strategic Plan, where 2015 mission and vision are defined, one search to reach the corporative strategy: 'to lead the natural gas market (NG) and to act in a integrated way in the energy market'. Amongst the corporative politics to guide the business strategies, we will be focusing the new businesses development, having as guide line the annual average growth in the domestic demand of NG, 14.2%. The Investment Plan foresees for the energy and gas area investments around US$ 1.8 billion for the 2003/2007 period, being approximately US$ 500 million destined to the conclusion of the already initiated projects of thermoelectric plants. The Strategic Technological Committee of Energy and Gas (COMEG 2003) defined as technologies of interest for PETROBRAS: renewed energies; sustainable development; NG chemical transformation; NG transport, distribution and storage; distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric; production, distribution and use of hydrogen as energy vector; industrial, commercial and residential applications of NG; energy efficiency; automotive systems applications; high power electrical systems and environment. The technology explained in this work, for development of the Brazilian Natural Gas Industry, highly compliant with the NG mass use plan, is the distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric and its associated technologies (combustion, IGCC, thermoelectric cycles optimization, gas turbines, boiler/heat recovers, microturbines, fuel cells, combustion engines, renewed energies and cold generation among others). There are several business strategies related to this technology: to play in the electric energy business to assure the NG and derivatives market commercialized by PETROBRAS; to play in the development of alternative sources of energy and; to invest in conservation of energy and renewable energy to add value to the company business. The RedeGasEnergia portfolio has 22 projects in this

  6. Cost Effective Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  7. Development of a Prototype 2 mm Fiber-Coupled Seed Laser for Integration in Lidar Transmitter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimize the performance of Gallium Antimonide (GaSb)-based 2.05 mm lasers (previously developed under JPL’s Research and Technology Development (R&TD) Program)...

  8. Modeling and simulation of cogeneration nuclear power plant for seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asiedu-Boateng, P., E-mail: pierob79@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); Nyarko, B.J.B.; Yamoah, S. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG80, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Nuclear desalination of seawater remains a very viable option to solving the perennial fresh water shortage problem along the coast of Ghana especially as Ghana prepares to install the first nuclear power plant. There is, therefore, the need for research to be conducted into nuclear seawater desalination technology as part of the nuclear power program of Ghana so as to develop the needed human resources in Ghana. In this research, cycle analysis of the cogeneration nuclear power plant was conducted to determine its efficiency and desalination steam requirements. An analytical model of the thermo vapour compression (TVC) desalination process was also developed to investigate the effect of design and operating parameters on parameters controlling the cost of producing fresh water from TVC process. Steady state mass and energy balances as well as empirical correlations derived from experiments were used to model the TVC, which was coupled to a cogeneration nuclear power plant to supply the needed steam for the desalination. The model was developed on a computer code, using FORTRAN language. The results showed that the thermal performance of the TVC desalination process improves with the efficiency of the cogeneration nuclear power plant but decreases with increasing steam consumption rates.

  9. Cogeneration projects in PEMEX refining; Proyectos de cogeneracion en PEMEX Refinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerra O' Leary, Jose [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    Mexican Petroleum proposes the electric power cogeneration, the energy consumption and rationalization as well as the operative performance improvement. This is the reason Pemex refining considers the cogeneration projects development possibility related with the Refining National System to supply the six refineries with steam and electric power. And also the energy auto-supply to other Pemex refining, using the liquid and solid residuals as fuels for petroleum refining. [Spanish] Petroleos Mexicanos propone la Cogeneracion de energia electrica, el aprovechamiento y la racionalizacion del consumo de energia, asi como el mejoramiento del desempeno operativo, por lo cual Pemex Refinacion plantea la posibilidad del desarrollo de proyectos de Cogeneracion asociados a las refinerias del Sistema Nacional de Refinacion, para abastecer de vapor y energia electrica a cada una de las seis refinerias, asi como el autoabastecimiento de energia a otras instalaciones de Pemex Refinacion, utilizando como combustibles los residuales liquidos y solidos de la refinacion del petroleo.

  10. Cogeneration steam turbine plant for district heating of Berovo (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    A plant for combined heat and electric power production, for central heating of the town Berovo (Macedonia) is proposed. The common reason to use a co-generation unit is the energy efficiency and a significant reduction of environmental pollution. A coal dust fraction from B rik' - Berovo coal mine is the main energy resource for cogeneration steam turbine plant. The heat consumption of town Berovo is analyzed and determined. Based on the energy consumption of a whole power plant, e. i. the plant for combined and simultaneous production of power is proposed. All necessary facilities of cogeneration plant is examined and determined. For proposed cogeneration steam turbine power plant for combined heat and electric production it is determined: heat and electric capacity of the plant, annually heat and electrical quantity production and annually coal consumption, the total investment of the plant, the price of both heat and electric energy as well as the pay back period. (Authors)

  11. Development of a Commercial Prototype of the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System Final Report CRADA No. TC-02077-04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenitis, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haigh, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This was a collaborative effort between The Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and GE Ion Track, Inc. (GEIT) to develop a commercial prototype of the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS), an instrument that monitors the air for all three biological threat agents (bacteria, viruses and toxins). This was originally a one year CRADA project, with the cost of the work at LLNL being funded by the Department of Homeland Security's Office of National Laboratories. The original project consisted of five major tasks and deliverables. The CRADA was then amended, converting the CRADA from a programmatically funded CRADA to a funds-in CRADA, extending the project for an additional 14 months, and adding four new tasks and deliverable to the project.

  12. Klickitat Cogeneration Project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA's contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA's proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact)

  13. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  14. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  15. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Performance Testing of the Generation 1.0 Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions. The National Aeronautics and Space Admininstration and Honeywell co-developed a five-stage vacuum rotary distillation water recovery system referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). Over the past three years, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) has been working toward the development of a flight-forward CDS design. In 2012 the original CDS prototype underwent a series of incremental upgrades and tests intened to both demonstrate the feasibility of a on-orbit demonstration of the system and to collect operational and performance data to be used to inform a second generation design. The latest testing of the CDS Generation 1.0 prototype was conducted May 29 through July 2, 2014. Initial system performance was benchmarked by processing deionized water and sodium chloride. Following, the system was challenged with analogue urine waste stream solutions stabilized with an Oxone-based and the two International Space Station baseline and alternative pretreatment solutions. During testing, the system processed more than 160 kilograms of wastewater with targeted water recoveries between 75 and 85% depending on the specific waste stream tested. For all wastewater streams, contaminant removals from wastewater feed to product water distillate, were estimated at greater than 99%. The average specific energy of the system was less than 120 Watt-hours/kilogram. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the WRP test objectives.

  16. Development of prototypes of bioactive packaging materials based on immobilized bacteriophages for control of growth of bacterial pathogens in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ayesha; Anany, Hany; Hakeem, Mohammed; Aguis, Louise; Avdjian, Anne-Claire; Bouget, Marina; Atashi, Arash; Brovko, Luba; Rochefort, Dominic; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-01-18

    Due to lack of adequate control methods to prevent contamination in fresh produce and growing consumer demand for natural products, the use of bacteriophages has emerged as a promising approach to enhance safety of these foods. This study sought to control Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes and RTE meat and Escherichia coli O104:H4 in alfalfa seeds and sprouts under different storage conditions by using specific lytic bacteriophage cocktails applied either free or immobilized. Bacteriophage cocktails were introduced into prototypes of packaging materials using different techniques: i) immobilizing on positively charged modified cellulose membranes, ii) impregnating paper with bacteriophage suspension, and iii) encapsulating in alginate beads followed by application of beads onto the paper. Phage-treated and non-treated samples were stored for various times and at temperatures of 4°C, 12°C or 25°C. In cantaloupe, when free phage cocktail was added, L. monocytogenes counts dropped below the detection limit of the plating technique (alfalfa seeds and sprouts, regardless of the type of phage application technique (spraying of free phage suspension, bringing in contact with bacteriophage-based materials (paper coated with encapsulated bacteriophage or impregnated with bacteriophage suspension)), the count of E. coli O104:H4 was below the detection limit (cycle reduction in E. coli count was observed on the germinated sprouts by day 5. In ready-to-eat (RTE) meat, LISTEX™ P100, a commercial phage product, was able to significantly reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes at both storage temperatures, 4°C and 10°C, for 25 days regardless of bacteriophage application format (immobilized or non-immobilized (free)). In conclusion, the developed phage-based materials demonstrated significant antimicrobial effect, when applied to the artificially contaminated foods, and can be used as prototypes for developing bioactive antimicrobial packaging materials capable of

  17. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  18. The Use of Spark Ignition Engine in Domestic Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration plants are strongly sustained by EU energy policies, one of the best beneficiary of this technology being residential buildings. This paper focus on spark ignition engine as a cogeneration application in order to supply energy for domestic consumers. Are considered two aspects of this solution: the energetic aspect and the environmental one. The energetic aspect deals with the energetic ratios, while the environmental aspect refers to the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions.

  19. The role of cogeneration systems in sustainability of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakir, Uğur; Çomakli, Kemal; Yüksel, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Energy source on the world is tending to run out day by day while the energy need of humanity is increasing simultaneously. ► There are two ways to overcome this problem; one of them is renewable energy sources like solar or wind energy systems. ► The other way is like cogeneration systems. ► Cogeneration system is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. ► A case study is made for a hospital to present the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Cogeneration system (CHP) is one of the ways to save the energy and use the energy efficiently. When compared to separate fossil-fired generation of heat and electricity, CHP may result in a consistent energy conservation (usually ranging from 10% to 30%) while the avoided CO 2 emissions are, as a first approximation, similar to the amount of energy saving. In terms of sustainability, one of the primary considerations is energy efficiency. Sustainable energy is considered as a kind of energy which is renewable and continuous, meaning that the use of such energy can potentially be kept up well into the future without causing harmful repercussions for future generations. In this study, environmental benefits and sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems and importance of those systems to the use of sustainable energy are underlined. To support this idea, first we have referred some scientific studies previously made on cogeneration systems and then we have used our own case study. The case study made on gas engined cogeneration system was applied for a hospital to show the sustainability aspects of cogeneration systems.

  20. Using in-house expertise in negotiating power sales contracts for industrial cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yott, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy has always been a strategic component of Air Products and Chemicals production costs. In fact, Air Products is among the top consumers of electricity and natural gas in the U.S. Consequently, Air Products has developed a multifaceted Corporate Energy Department. The advent of PURPA in 1978 and the success enjoyed by Air Products in selling industrial gases over the fence to industrial customers as a integral part of their manufacturing system led Air Products into the industrial cogeneration business. This paper briefly summarizes Air Products entry into the industrial cogeneration market and the role that Air Products Energy Department has played in making this new business focus a success. It highlights how Air Products has been able to transfer its in-house expertise in purchasing power to the marketing, bidding, contract negotiation and avoided cost forecasting functions so critical in the successful development of industrial cogeneration opportunities. At Air Products we believe our long association with the utility industry first as a cost-conscious customer and more recently as an electric energy supplier has enhanced our competitive position. The same success story could be repeated at your company if you know what to look for and are not afraid to expand the horizons and responsibilities of your energy department

  1. A prototype of a documentation system that supports the development and maintenance of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Degn, Anders; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    , no software exists which supports all three techniques in an integrated fashion. This means that when developing PCSs based on this procedure there is no automatic integration between the created models. Therefore, for some years, researchers have worked on creating a basis for developing a documentation...

  2. Applying XML-Based Technologies to Developing Online Courses: The Case of a Prototype Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejowicz, Joanna; Neumann, Jakub

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to describe XML technologies and to show how they can be applied for developing web-based courses and supporting authors who do not have much experience with the preparation of web-based courses. Design/methodology/approach: When developing online courses the academic staff has to address the following problem--how to…

  3. Modelling of a chemisorption refrigeration and power cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Huashan; Wang, Yaodong; Roskilly, Anthony Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An adsorption cogeneration was proposed and simulated for cooling and electricity. • A dynamic model was built and studied to demonstrate the variability of the system. • A dynamic model included the complex coupling of thermodynamic and chemical kinetic. • Mutual constrains between main components and optimisation methods were discussed. • The highest theoretical COP and exergy efficiency of cogeneration is 0.57 and 0.62. - Abstract: The present work for the first time explores the possibility of a small-scale cogeneration unit by combining solid–gas chemisorption refrigeration cycle and a scroll expander. The innovation in this work is the capability of producing refrigeration and electricity continuously and simultaneously without aggravating the energy scarcity and environmental impact. Individual modelling for each component, which has been validated by experimental data, was firstly investigated in order to identify the proper operation condition for the cogeneration mode achieving 1000 W power output. Subsequently, with the integrated modelling of two components the cogeneration performance was studied to demonstrate the viability of this concept. However, because of the mutual constraint between the chemisorption and the expansion when they link in series, the power output of the cogeneration mode was only around one third of the original expectation under the same condition identified in the individual modelling. Methods of improving the global performance including the selection of reactive mediums were also discussed and would be of referable value for the future practical investigation

  4. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  5. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  6. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  7. Prototyping the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Advanced Ceramics Research (ACR) of Tucson, Arizona, researches transforming scientific concepts into technological achievement. Through the SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) program, ACR developed a high pressure and temperature fused deposition system, a prototyping system that is known as extrusion freeform fabrication. This system is useful in manufacturing prosthetics. ACR also developed a three-dimensional rapid prototyping process in which physical models are quickly created directly from computer generated models. Marshall Space Flight Center also contracted ACR to fabricate a set of ceramic engines to be appraised for a solar thermal rocket engine test program.

  8. Mobile prototyping with Axure 7

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, Will

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial which includes hands-on examples and downloadable Axure files to get you started with mobile prototyping immediately. You will learn how to develop an application from scratch, and will be guided through each and every step.If you are a mobile-centric developer/designer, or someone who would like to take their Axure prototyping skills to the next level and start designing and testing mobile prototypes, this book is ideal for you. You should be familiar with prototyping and Axure specifically, before you read this book.

  9. The Prototype Development of Creative Thinking Skills Model’s Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustiana I Gusti Ayu Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Model of book is an important part of the research process in developing creative thinking skills. Considering the importance of creative thinking skills, it is necessary to attempt developing such skills in the learning process by applying an appropriate and effective model. This research will develop the components of learning model that includes theoretical rationale, syntax, social systems, reaction principle, support systems, and the impact instructional companion. Learning model of science is developed with syntax orientation, excavation creative ideas, research, elaboration, presenting the results of the work, evaluation, and implementation (OPPEMEI with indicators of creative thinking skills fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and evaluation. To achieve the goals, it should need a couple of steps, namely (1 analyzing and providing a rational basis to support the development of learning model for creative thinking skills. (2 analyzing and constructing the theories that support the development of the model. Some synthesis theories for reviews are a constructivism theory, creative thinking theories, a motivation theory, a theory of Vygotsky (the theory of socio-cultural and cognitive theory, (3 Analyzing the flow of thought decrease hypothetical OPPEMEI Model, (4 providing guidelines for the implementation of learning using OPPEMEI learning model, (5 conducting Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and (6 Revisions. Validity is assessed by expert judges in terms of content validity and construct validity. The construct validity includes the logic of stage model (syntax and the support of relevant theory at each stage. Validation of the content reflects the state of the art or the strength of the device and the content materials are assessed based on the conformity with the applicable curriculum. The learning model is stated valid, if the expert judges and practical say that the model is developed based on strong and latest theoretical

  10. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...

  11. ANTARES application for cogeneration: oil recovery from bitumen and upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, Michel [FRAMATOME ANP SAS (France); Gosset, Jerome [Ecole des Mines de Paris (France); Younsi, Houria [ENSEM, Nancy (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: High Temperature Reactors have raised a lot of interest in the past few years because of their specific passive safety characteristics and their potential for high energy conversion efficiency. While most works emphasize the electricity production, HTRs have unique and broad range capabilities in process heat production. Recent interest for their very high temperature capabilities emphasize their use for hydrogen production through advanced high temperature processes, whether electrolytic or chemical. These are in the development stage for long term availability. Meanwhile, HTRs are quite capable to bring highly efficient cogeneration processes to fruition in a short term for low and medium temperature needs. ANTARES, the AREVA HTR development program, is based on an 850 deg. C nuclear heat source linked to a combined cycle power conversion system which brings high efficiency, over 46 %, in its electricity production version without any major new development except an Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX)[1]. Description of the actual work A particular feature of this design is to be readily adaptable to low and medium process heat delivery, up to 550 deg. C, while still producing a significant amount of electricity. This design is therefore particularly amenable to cogeneration of process heat and electricity. The present paper describes industrial heat delivered at 100 Bar and 310 deg. C together with electricity. Such process heat production is typical of the needs for bitumen recovery from oil sands using the SAGD process. In order to optimize the process, heat must be removed from the cycle at the best location. The computer program THERMOPTIM, developed at the Ecole des Mines de Paris [2], has been designed specifically for that purpose and has been used to calculate the new performance and to help locate the process heat extraction points. Results With such optimization, up to 80% of the nuclear heat is converted into useful

  12. A prototype of a documentation system that supports the development and maintenance of product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Degn, Anders; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Product configuration systems (PCSs) can be defined as product-oriented expert systems that allow users to specify products while restricting how different elements and properties may be combined. For several companies the use of PCSs has led to improvements of product specification processes......, no software exists which supports all three techniques in an integrated fashion. This means that when developing PCSs based on this procedure there is no automatic integration between the created models. Therefore, for some years, researchers have worked on creating a basis for developing a documentation...

  13. Design and development of a prototype 25 kV, 10 A long pulse Marx modulator for high power klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Mahesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-02-01

    Research, design, and development of high average power modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are in progress at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of 25 kV, 10 A, 1 ms Marx modulator at repetition rate of 1 Hz has been designed and developed which serves as a proof of principle and technology assessment stage for further development of high repetition rate high voltage high average power modulators. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) based modules of 2.8 kV switching capability have been used as main modules. The modulator had 8.2% droop in output voltage pulse without any droop compensation circuit. A droop compensation involving 15 corrector modules has been used to reduce the droop up to 1%. We have used IGBT based 250 V switches to realize the corrector module. A microcontroller based control unit was designed and developed for triggering the main and corrector modules. With this control unit, programmable output pulse has been achieved. Electrical isolation between high voltage circuits and control circuit has been achieved by the use of fiber optic based control signal transmission. Output pulses of 1 ms pulse width, 800 ns rise time, and 5 μs fall time have been achieved. The modulator has advantages of modular design, adjustable pulse width, adjustable rise time, and fall time.

  14. Prototype development and testing of ultrafine grain NZP ceramics. Final report, July 28, 1995--April 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.J.

    1997-08-04

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate that a new low-expanding ceramic (Ca{sub 0.6},Mg{sub 0.4})Zr{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}, hereafter referred to as CMZP, could be used as an exhaust manifold liner in off-road diesel engines and provide improved engine efficiency (by permitting higher engine operating temperature). This study has successfully demonstrated this improvement and further engine testing (and possible manufacturing) is presently underway at Caterpillar Inc. Laboratories. Basically this program involved two subcontracts: one to Virginia Tech to develop sintering procedures for CMZP, and one to Caterpillar, Inc. to develop slip casting procedures for CMZP. Nearly 100kg of CMZP were prepared by MATVA, Inc. and Virginia Tech for use by Caterpillar. Virginia Tech developed detailed sintering procedures for CMZP and Caterpillar developed slip casting procedures and manufactured several exhaust manifold elbows. These elbows have been cast into prototype cylinder heads and have been shown to be acceptable replacements for metal manifolds. (Caterpillar advises that a new component may require up to 6 years of testing and qualification before acceptance as standard diesel engine part).

  15. Co-generation and reality Potential in Mexico; Potencial de cogeneracion y realidad en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the Mexican use of co-generation -the efficient use of the energy- through the support offered by the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), since this is the agency in charge of fomenting the efficient use of energy by means of actions coordinated with diverse dependencies and organizations of the Administracion Publica Federal and with the governments of the federal entities as well as municipalities, social and private sectors. Among the subjects to be dealt are quality of the electrical and thermal energy, types of fuels that can be used in the co-generation project, the present situation of the co-generation in Mexico and the conditions for their development. [Spanish] Este documento analiza el uso de la cogeneracion en Mexico es decir, el uso eficiente de la energia a traves del apoyo que brinda la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ya que es el organo encargado de fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de la energia mediante acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal y con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. Se trataran temas como calidad de la energia electrica y termica, los tipos de combustibles que pueden utilizarse en el proyecto de cogeneracion, la situacion actual de la cogeneracion en Mexico y las ccondiciones para su desarrollo.

  16. Analysis of economic feasibility of sale of surplus electricity in cogeneration: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodra, Marcelo; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The production of energy in large quantity and at competitive prices is crucial for economic development, which allied to the environmental question, has incentivated the use of renewable sources of energy. One of the most promising sources of renewable energy is the cogeneration from the residues of cane. Currently, the scenario for this kind of energy production is not consolidated, as production prices are not stable, inducing a risky situation for the environment. This work was aimed to study the economic viability of installing a main site for cogeneration of electricity, in a regional sugarcane factory located in the central region of Sao Paulo state that currently uses residues of sugar cane as fuel. The risk factor that was taken into consideration was the price paid for the MWh sold to the Chamber of Commerce of Electricity. The Monte Carlo Method was used to assess the risk factors for the analysis, by using of New Present Value (NPV), in a scenario that uses 20% of the initial investment made by the energy dealer. After the simulations were finished, considering the conditions used in this work, the project tends to be not feasible, as the behavior of the prices of cogenerated MWh are not sufficient for paying the initial investment and the operational costs. (author)

  17. A mathematical model for the dynamic simulation of low size cogeneration gas turbines within smart microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Delfino, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Microturbines represent a suitable technology to be adopted in smart microgrids since they are characterized by affordable capital and maintenance costs, high reliability and flexibility, and low environmental impact; moreover, they can be fed by fossil fuels or biofuels. They can operate in cogeneration and trigeneration mode, thus permitting to attain high global efficiency values of the energy conversion system from primary energy to electrical and thermal energy; from the electrical point of view, microturbines can operate connected to the distribution grid but also in islanded mode, thus enabling their use in remote areas without electrification. The paper describes the mathematical model that has been developed to simulate in off-design and transient conditions the operation of a 65 kW el cogeneration microturbine installed within a smart microgrid. The dynamic simulation model is characterized by a flexible architecture that permits to simulate other different size single-shaft microturbines. The paper reports the main equations of the model, focusing on the architecture of the simulator and the microturbine control system; furthermore the most significant results derived from the validation phase are reported too, referring to the microturbine installed in the Smart Polygeneration Microgrid of the Savona Campus at the University of Genoa in Italy. - Highlights: • Dynamic simulation model of a cogeneration microturbine. • Off-design and transient performances of the microturbine. • Simulator validated on the Smart Polygeneration Microgrid at the Savona Campus.

  18. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  19. Efficiency Growth of Combined-cycle Cogeneration Plant with the Heat Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency of modern technologies of the combined production of heat and electricity and ways of energy saving on base of recycling secondary energy sources has been estimated. It is shown that the most effective for cogeneration are combined-cycle plants. The rational scheme of interaction of combined-cycle cogeneration plant with heat supply system has been offered. Theoretical bases of interaction of main installation with a contour of heat and hot water supply system has been developed. Numerical modeling of temperature parameters and the analysis of results of numerical modeling has been executed. The technology of increase of energy efficiency of installations on base of recycling heat is offered. Increase of effectiveness of system is achieved due to full use of heat and reduction of losses to environment. It is established, that the rational scheme of interaction of combined-cycle cogeneration plant with heat supply system allows increasing energy efficiency on 2 % that corresponds to economy of fuel 3 %.

  20. Comparative analysis of cogeneration power plants optimization based on stochastic method using superstructure and process simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leonardo Rodrigues de [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: leoaraujo@ifes.edu.br; Donatelli, Joao Luiz Marcon [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: joaoluiz@npd.ufes.br; Silva, Edmar Alino da Cruz [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Joao Luiz F. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (CTA/IAE/ALA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal systems are essential in facilities such as thermoelectric plants, cogeneration plants, refrigeration systems and air conditioning, among others, in which much of the energy consumed by humanity is processed. In a world with finite natural sources of fuels and growing energy demand, issues related with thermal system design, such as cost estimative, design complexity, environmental protection and optimization are becoming increasingly important. Therefore the need to understand the mechanisms that degrade energy, improve energy sources use, reduce environmental impacts and also reduce project, operation and maintenance costs. In recent years, a consistent development of procedures and techniques for computational design of thermal systems has occurred. In this context, the fundamental objective of this study is a performance comparative analysis of structural and parametric optimization of a cogeneration system using stochastic methods: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. This research work uses a superstructure, modelled in a process simulator, IPSEpro of SimTech, in which the appropriate design case studied options are included. Accordingly, the cogeneration system optimal configuration is determined as a consequence of the optimization process, restricted within the configuration options included in the superstructure. The optimization routines are written in MsExcel Visual Basic, in order to work perfectly coupled to the simulator process. At the end of the optimization process, the system optimal configuration, given the characteristics of each specific problem, should be defined. (author)

  1. Evaluation of different hedging strategies for commodity price risks of industrial cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palzer, Andreas; Westner, Günther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we design and evaluate eight different strategies for hedging commodity price risks of industrial cogeneration plants. Price developments are parameterized based on EEX data from 2008 to 2011. The probability distributions derived are used to determine the value-at-risk (VaR) of the individual strategies, which are in a final step combined in a mean-variance portfolio analysis for determining the most efficient hedging strategy. We find that the strategy adopted can have a marked influence on the remaining price risk. Quarter futures are found to be particularly well suited for reducing market price risk. In contrast, spot trading of CO 2 certificates is found to be preferable compared to forward market trading. Finally, portfolio optimization shows that a mix of various hedging strategies can further improve the profitability of a heat-based cogeneration plant. - Highlights: • Evaluation of commodity price risk hedging strategies for industrial cogeneration. • Value-at-risk analysis of eight different hedging strategies. • Mean-variance portfolio analysis for determining the optimal hedging strategy mix. • A mix of hedging strategies further improves profitability of heat-based CHP

  2. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uran, Vedran; Krajcar, Slavko

    2009-01-01

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

  3. Achieving the economic potential for industrial cogeneration in Ontario: A financial perspective on electric utility policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemer, S.G.; Cain, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of private vs public ownership regimes on the magnitude of achievable industrial cogeneration capacity in Ontario is assessed. Estimates of technical and economic potential are presented for several industrial subsectors and heat demand categories, showing that nearly all of the technically feasible 7,600 MW is also economically efficient given a value of power of at least 4 cents/kWh in 1991 dollars. Using financial data and investment criteria specific to the two forms of ownership, the project evaluation model points to a significantly larger quantum of financial (achievable) potential with public rather than private development of industrial cogeneration. At avoided costs and associated buyback rates of 4 and 5 cents/kWh, the achievable cogeneration capacities are ca 2,400 and 7,600 MW under public ownership and 132 and 3,000 MW under private ownership. Ratepayer savings are significant: the full economic potential can be achieved through public ownership at a buyback rate of 5 cents/kWh; under private ownership, a comparable capacity requires a 6 cents buyback rate, reflecting additional ratepayer costs of nearly $600 million annually. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Development of a full-size divertor cassette prototype for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vieider, G.; Pacher, H.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). NET Design Team] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Production of a full-size divertor cassette involves eight major components. All of the components are mounted on the cassette body. Inner divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the Japan Home Team. Outer divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the European and United States Home Teams. Gas box liners are being provided by the Russian Home Team. The full-size components manufactured by the four parties will be shipped to the US Home Team for assembly into a full size divertor cassette. The techniques for assembly and maintenance of the cassette will be demonstrated during this process. The assembled cassette will be tested for proper flow distribution and proof of the filling and draining procedures. The testing will include vacuum leak tightness at full temperature and pressure, cyclic heating to 150 {degrees}C, verification of dimensional accuracy of the assembled components, and application of thermal gradients to measure dimensional stability. The development of the divertor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) depends on successful R&D efforts on materials, joining, and plasma materials interactions. Results of the development program are presented. The scale-up of the processes developed in the basic research and development tasks is accomplished by producing and high-heat-flux testing medium and full-scale mock- ups. The design of the mock-ups is discussed.

  5. Developing a prototype for treatment of biowaste with microorganisms to produce biogas and compost

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tawona, Neville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available solid waste into biogas, and the indigestible component collected for use in the compost facility to produce biofertilizer. This project is based at EThekwini Municipality’s Northdene Research and development centre, which is located within a residential...

  6. A Proposed Engineering Process and Prototype Toolset for Developing C2-to-Simulation Interoperability Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautreau, B.; Khimeche, L.; Reus, N.M. de; Heffner, K.; Mevassvik, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is an open standard being developed for the exchange of digitized military information among command and control (C2), simulation and autonomous systems by the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO). As the first phase of the C-BML

  7. Development of a CZT spectroscopic 3D imager prototype for hard X ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of focusing optics based on wide band Laue lenses operating from ∼60 keV up to several hundreds of keV is particularly challenging. This type of hard X-ray or gamma ray optics requires a high performance focal plane detector in order to exploit to the best its intrinsic capabiliti...

  8. DEVELOPING MUSHROOM GYMNASTIC INSTRUMENT PROTOTYPE FOR MEN’S ARTISTIC GYMNASTIC SPORT IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Soenyoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop mushroom gymnastic instrument for men’s artistic gymnastic athletes of junior and senior levels. The instrument is aimed at improving movement skills on horse saddle. Aside from its use as an exercise instrument for beginner, junior and senior levels of men’s artistic gymnastic athletes, this instrument can also be used for beginners’ level competition. This study used qualitative approach in which the data are collected from the initial step to the trial. The main procedure involved five steps: (1 the analysis of product development; (2 the development of initial product; (3 the expert validation; (4 the trial; and (5 the product revision. This study found that the mushroom gymnastic instrument can be used for men’s artistic gymnastic sport, particularly (1 for improving movement skill development on horse saddle for junior and senior athletes; (2 as an exercise instrument for beginner, junior and senior level of men’s artistic gymnastic athletes; (3 as an instrument used in competition for men’s artistic gymnastic for beginners’ level.

  9. In-silico approach to the development of a prototype clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net was the programming language used for the implementation of the system, while SQL server 2008 was used to provide the database support. It is hoped that the developed system will help in the reduction of infant mortality rates in hospitals were it is implemented. Keywords: Hospitals, in-silico, pediatrics, clinical ...

  10. Development of a full-size divertor cassette prototype for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Vieider, G.; Pacher, H.D.

    1996-01-01

    Production of a full-size divertor cassette involves eight major components. All of the components are mounted on the cassette body. Inner divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the Japan Home Team. Outer divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the European and United States Home Teams. Gas box liners are being provided by the Russian Home Team. The full-size components manufactured by the four parties will be shipped to the US Home Team for assembly into a full size divertor cassette. The techniques for assembly and maintenance of the cassette will be demonstrated during this process. The assembled cassette will be tested for proper flow distribution and proof of the filling and draining procedures. The testing will include vacuum leak tightness at full temperature and pressure, cyclic heating to 150 degrees C, verification of dimensional accuracy of the assembled components, and application of thermal gradients to measure dimensional stability. The development of the divertor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) depends on successful R ampersand D efforts on materials, joining, and plasma materials interactions. Results of the development program are presented. The scale-up of the processes developed in the basic research and development tasks is accomplished by producing and high-heat-flux testing medium and full-scale mock- ups. The design of the mock-ups is discussed

  11. Development of a prototype acquisition and data processing system based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L; Bellino, P

    2012-01-01

    We present the first stage of the expansion and improvement of a signal acquisition system based on FPGA. This system will acquire and process signals from nuclear detectors working in both pulse and current mode. The aim of this development is to unify all the actual systems for physical measurements in nuclear facilities and reactors (author)

  12. Region-wise development of prototypes of integrated arable farming and outdoor horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands integrated arable farming systems (IFS) are being developed at three regional experimental farms, with region-specific crop rotations and cropping systems. Most pesticide and fertilizer inputs appear to be replacable by non-chemical methods and organic manure, with economic

  13. Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak

    2000-09-01

    / Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines.

  14. Prototype development of an electrical impedance based simultaneous respiratory and cardiac monitoring system for gated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Kirpal; Liu, Jeff; Schellenberg, Devin; Karvat, Anand; Parameswaran, Ash; Grewal, Parvind; Thomas, Steven

    2014-10-14

    In radiotherapy, temporary translocations of the internal organs and tumor induced by respiratory and cardiac activities can undesirably lead to significantly lower radiation dose on the targeted tumor but more harmful radiation on surrounding healthy tissues. Respiratory and cardiac gated radiotherapy offers a potential solution for the treatment of tumors located in the upper thorax. The present study focuses on the design and development of simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac signal using electrical impedance technology for use in dual gated radiotherapy. An electronic circuitry was developed for monitoring the bio-impedance change due to respiratory and cardiac motions and extracting the cardiogenic ECG signal. The system was analyzed in terms of reliability of signal acquisition, time delay, and functionality in a high energy radiation environment. The resulting signal of the system developed was also compared with the output of the commercially available Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) system in both time and frequency domains. The results demonstrate that the bioimpedance-based method can potentially provide reliable tracking of respiratory and cardiac motion in humans, alternative to currently available methods. When compared with the RPM system, the impedance-based system developed in the present study shows similar output pattern but different sensitivities in monitoring different respiratory rates. The tracking of cardiac motion was more susceptible to interference from other sources than respiratory motion but also provided synchronous output compared with the ECG signal extracted. The proposed hardware-based implementation was observed to have a worst-case time delay of approximately 33 ms for respiratory monitoring and 45 ms for cardiac monitoring. No significant effect on the functionality of the system was observed when it was tested in a radiation environment with the electrode lead wires directly exposed to high-energy X

  15. Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed

  16. Cogeneration: A new opportunity for energy production market; La cogenerazione: Una nuova opportunita` per il mercato della produzione di energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an advantageous technique based on the simultaneous utilisation of electricity and heat produced. For this purpose existing energetic technologies are used. Cogeneration is based on the thermodynamics principle that producing electricity by combustion process means, at the same time, producing waste heat that can be useful utilised. Three main advantages can be lay out in a cogeneration plant: 1. High efficiency (the global efficiency is often around 80-90%). 2. Economic profit (pay back time is usually not longer than 2-4 years). 3. Low pollutant emissions (as a consequence of the high efficiency less fuel is burned for generating the same quantity of electricity). In this report are analysed various aspects of cogeneration (technical and economical) and the conditions influencing is development. Some figures on the european and national situation are also given. Finally are presented the research and development activities carried out by Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department to improve the efficiency and the competitiveness of this technology.

  17. Developing a Philippine Cancer Grid. Part 1: Building a Prototype for a Data Retrieval System for Breast Cancer Research Using Medical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Andrei D.; Saldana, Rafael P.

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. Developed within the context of a Philippine Cancer Grid, the present study used web development technologies such as PHP, MySQL, and Apache server to build a prototype data retrieval system for breast cancer research that incorporates medical ontologies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

  18. Development of manufacturing technology and fabrication of prototype for main coolant pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Koon Seok; Han, C.K.; Chei, J.M.; Chung, K.S.; Youn, M.H.; Shin, S.A.; Choi, D.J.; Kim, H.C. [HALLA Industrial Co., Ltd., Pusan (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    This study presents the development of the manufacturing technology for the Main Coolant Pump of the SMART. This report contains the followings; (1) Select axial type pump for the MCP (2) MCP is drived by squirrel-cage induction motor that consisted canned motor type. (3) MCP shaft has three horizontal and one vertical support bearings. (4) Design of several part of the MCP (5) Manufacturing of the performance test motor (6) Design and manufacturing of the speed sensor (7) Procedures for three-axial and five-axial M.C.T., Tig welding and Electron Beam Welding were developed. (8) Conceptional design of the MCP test facility for the performance test under operating conditions. (9) Results of standard weld test specimens according to the ASME section IX. (author). 21 refs., 35 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Applications and development of communication models for the touchstone GAMMA and DELTA prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Steven R.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop models of the interconnection networks of the Intel iPSC/860 and DELTA multicomputers to guide the design of efficient algorithms for interprocessor communication in problems that commonly occur in CFD codes and other applications. Interprocessor communication costs of codes for message-passing architectures such as the iPSC/860 and DELTA significantly affect the level of performance that can be obtained from those machines. This project addressed several specific problems in the achievement of efficient communication on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and DELTA mesh. In particular, an efficient global processor synchronization algorithm was developed for the iPSC/860 and numerous broadcast algorithms were designed for the DELTA.

  20. Development of proto-type advanced leaked fuel rod detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyung Chul; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Jae Cheon; Kim, Min

    1996-02-01

    The fuel inspection equipment using ultrasonic signal has been developed its design and configuration in order to get inspection results more accurate and easier than the previous ones. In this task, the system functions are advanced by adopting of state of the art technologies in the field of digital servo control and signal processing. By the above endeavors, the total performance are improved and made to handle easily. 61 tabs., 31 figs., 3 ills., 9 refs. (Author)

  1. Development of a superconductor magnetic suspension and balance prototype facility for studying the feasibility of applying this technique to large scale aerodynamic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, R. N.; Humphris, R. R.; Henderson, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic research and development work towards proving the feasibility of operating an all-superconductor magnetic suspension and balance device for aerodynamic testing is presented. The feasibility of applying a quasi-six-degree-of freedom free support technique to dynamic stability research was studied along with the design concepts and parameters for applying magnetic suspension techniques to large-scale aerodynamic facilities. A prototype aerodynamic test facility was implemented. Relevant aspects of the development of the prototype facility are described in three sections: (1) design characteristics; (2) operational characteristics; and (3) scaling to larger facilities.

  2. Simulink based behavioural modelling of a pulse oximeter for deployment in rapid development, prototyping and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhian, M; Morling, R C S; Kale, I

    2012-01-01

    The pulse oximeter is a well-known device for measuring the level of oxygen in blood. Since their invention, pulse oximeters have been under constant development in both aspects of hardware and software; however there are still unsolved problems that limit their performance [6], [7]. Many fresh algorithms and new design techniques are being suggested every year by industry and academic researchers which claim that they can improve accuracy of measurements [8], [9]. With the lack of an accurate computer-based behavioural model for pulse oximeters, the only way for evaluation of these newly developed systems and algorithms is through hardware implementation which can be both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents an accurate Simulink based behavioural model for a pulse oximeter that can be used by industry and academia alike working in this area, as an exploration as well as productivity enhancement tool during their research and development process. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new computer-based behavioural model which provides a simulation environment from which new ideas can be rapidly evaluated long before the real implementation.

  3. Allocating resources and products in multi-hybrid multi-cogeneration: What fractions of heat and power are renewable in hybrid fossil-solar CHP?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo; Iora, Paolo; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the allocation of resources and products in multi-resource/multi-product facilities is developed with particular reference to the important two-resource/two-product case of hybrid fossil and solar/heat and power cogeneration. For a realistic case study, we show how the method allows to assess what fractions of the power and heat should be considered as produced from the solar resource and hence identified as renewable. In the present scenario where the hybridization of fossil power plants by solar-integration is gaining increasing attention, such assessment is of great importance in the fair and balanced development of local energy policies based on granting incentives to renewables resources. The paper extends to the case of two-resource/two-product hybrid cogeneration, as well as to general multi-resource/multi-generation, three of the allocation methods already available for single-resource/two-product cogeneration and for two-resource/single-product hybrid facilities, namely, the ExRR (Exergy-based Reversible-Reference) method, the SRSPR (Single Resource Separate Production Reference) method, and the STALPR (Self-Tuned-Average-Local-Productions-Reference) method. For the case study considered we show that, unless the SRSPR reference efficiencies are constantly updated, the differences between the STALPR and SRSPR methods become important as hybrid and cogeneration plants take up large shares of the local energy production portfolio. - Highlights: • How much of the heat and power in hybrid solar-fossil cogeneration are renewable? • We define and compare three allocation methods for hybrid cogeneration. • Classical and exergy allocation are based on prescribed reference efficiencies. • Adaptive allocation is based on the actual average efficiencies in the local area. • Differences among methods grow as hybrid CHP (heat and power cogeneration) gains large market fractions

  4. Design and implementation of a prototype graphical environment for (IMS/VS) hierarchical data-base application development (HIDAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.

    1987-01-01

    In order to alleviate the existing software crisis, data-base application developers require a revolutionary approach for developing their applications. A graphical environment is suggested for this purpose. This dissertation describes and demonstrates a design and implementation of a prototype graphical environment for hierarchy data-base application development (HIDAD). The HIDAD graphical environment is composed of a graphic tool box, a graphic language, a graphic editor, a macro generator, and an application organizer. The graphic tool box contains a set of tools for generating the vocabulary of HIDAD graphic language. The graphic language is designed for representing data base applications. The microcomputer-based graphic editor is used to input and maintain the graphical representation of the system. This can generate intermediate code from graphical specifications. The macro generator uses the intermediate code in the mainframe computer and produces macros in COBOL, IMS, JCL and WYLBUR from primitive templates. The application organizer organizes the above macros from the respective libraries into an executable application program.

  5. Micro-cogeneration in the demonstration phase. Primary fuel conservation of 15% at the most; Miniatuur-warmte/kracht moet zich nog bewijzen. Besparing op primaire brandstof is hooguit 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, R. [ed.

    1996-12-01

    The development of cogeneration is unstoppable and in full progress in the direction of installations of a capacity of less than 10kW{sub e}. If promises are kept in the coming years, mini-cogeneration (circa 10 kW{sub e}) and micro-cogeneration (maximum 1 kW{sub e}) in particular have a future in the existing housing sector. As a competitor of electric heat pumps or heat supply in newly-built areas or new, small-sized and medium-sized enterprises, the position of the miniature installations is less prosperous. 1 fig., 3 ills., 2 refs.

  6. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorw, Larry M.

    2000-01-01

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs

  7. From prototype to product. The development of low emission natural gas- and biogas buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, M. [Strateco Development AB, Haninge (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to show the development of natural gas and bio gas buses and trucks since the termination of the `Co-Nordic GasBus Project`, to which KFB was a major contributor and one of the initiators. Sweden have some 325 heavy duty methane vehicles of which almost 100 are bio gas operated. Scania and Volvo have produced, or have orders for, 500 gas buses to 6 different countries since 1990. The Project objectives were obtained and the significantly reduced emission levels aimed for, were shown. The international bus manufacturing industry followed, and have since shown the same low levels of emissions from gas bus engines. Sweden has taken the lead in the use of bio gas, by operating nearly 100 buses and trucks. Bio gas is still an underestimated fuel when it comes to supply, as it can provide fuel for 50% of the domestic use of diesel oil. Future development need to include control systems for more stable emissions, lower weight cylinders, less costly compressors, cleaning equipment and storage cylinders as well as more fuel efficient engines that can reduce mainly the discharge of CO2, NOx and CH4 further. Societal costs, regardless of who pays, for methane operated buses is still somewhat higher compared with best use of diesel + CRT technology. As commercialization develops, it is expected that the price of the vehicle will be reduced and emissions improved. It is therefore expected that the stake holders costs will be lower then that of diesel technology in the future

  8. Time Synchronization Prototype, Server Upgrade Procedure Support and Remote Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shania R.

    2014-01-01

    Networks are roadways of communication that connect devices. Like all roadways, there are rules and regulations that govern whatever (information in this case) travels along them. One type of rule that is commonly used is called a protocol. More specifically, a protocol is a standard that specifies how data should be transmitted over a network. The project outlined in this document seeks to implement one protocol in particular, Precision Time Protocol, within the Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem network at Kennedy Space Center. This document also summarizes work completed for server upgrades, remote software developer training and how all three assignments demonstrated the importance of accountability and security.

  9. Materials processing towards development of rapid prototyping technology for manufacturing biomedical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, Senol

    2000-10-01

    Materials processing towards development of fused deposition of materials (FDM) method for manufacturing biomedical implants has been studied experimentally. Main processing steps consisted of thermoplastic binder development in the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)-microcrystalline wax system, feedstock extrusion, characterization and optimization of binder degradation, and sintering of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the melting index (MI) of the copolymer affects the temperature location of the solidification exotherm, whereas the effect on the temperature location of the melting endotherm was negligible. Nonisothermal measurement of viscosity of different blends as a function of VA content of the EVA component revealed that the microcrystalline wax is compatible with 25--14% VA-containing EVA grades. Further DSC analysis revealed that co-crystallization leads to compatible EVA-microcrystalline wax blends. A typical binder formulation that was developed in the present work has a viscosity of about 700 cP at 140°C, a compressive yield strength of 6 MPa and an elastic modulus of about 600 MPa, and contained 15--20% EVA and 80--85% microcrystalline wax. Various filaments with a nominal diameter of 1.8 mm were extruded by using such a binder, and calcium pyro-phosphate powder that had a distribution modulus of about 0.37. Measurement of physical dimensions of the filament revealed that fluid state can be achieved in the filaments. Simultaneous thermal analysis of degradation characteristics of the typical binder formulations revealed that degradation sequence is oxidation of the hydrocarbons, evaporation of the hydrocarbons, degradation of the vinyl acetate, and degradation of the ethylene chain. A rate controlled binder removal system was developed and used in order to optimize the binder removal schedule. Sintering of gel-cast calcium hydroxyapatite was studied by means of thermal analysis, XRD, mechanical

  10. Development of high quantum efficiency, flat panel, thick detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging: An experimental study of a single-pixel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, X.; Pang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall goal is to develop a new generation of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) with a quantum efficiency (QE) more than an order of magnitude higher and a spatial resolution equivalent to that of EPIDs currently used for portal imaging. A novel design of such a high QE flat-panel based EPID was introduced recently and its feasibility was investigated theoretically [see Pang and Rowlands, Med. Phys. 31, 3004 (2004)]. In this work, we constructed a prototype single-pixel detector based on the novel design. Some fundamental imaging properties including the QE, spatial resolution, and sensitivity of the prototype detector were measured with a 6 MV beam. It has been shown that the experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions and further development based on the novel design including the construction of a prototype area detector is warranted

  11. Development of natural gas prototypes ovens aided for virtual reality; Desenvolvimento de fornos prototipos a gas natural auxiliado pela realidade virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirapalheta, F.; Silva, D.R.; Castro, I.R. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: fpalheta@ccet.ufrn.br; djalma@ccet.ufrn.br; italorc@yahoo.com

    2003-07-01

    The Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte has been developing prototype ovens, which work with natural gas. All the project of the prototypes, which will be applied to ceramic, bread bake industry and incineration of the hospital garbage, needs to be studied, developed and tested carefully until its conclusion. Then VRML language (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) is used as a tool in the study of the engineering projects and simulation of some tests, as for example the simulation of the trajectory and changes of the load in the oven of ceramic sector. The main benefits of the use of this tool are: finding and solving problems in the project of the prototypes faster; optimization in the project since the three-dimensional visualization facilitates the study; simulation of aspects of functioning of the ovens before its construction; and to make possible the remote training for the use of these ovens, because VRML was made for the internet. (author)

  12. Development of a prototype mesoscale computer model incorporating treatment of topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, H.; Kitson, K.; Fawcett, M.; Goddard, A.J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Models are available for simulating dispersal of accidental releases, using mass-consistent wind-fields and accounting for site-specific topography. These techniques were examined critically to see if they might be improved, and to assess their limitations. An improved model, windfield adjusted for topography (WAFT), was developed (with advantages over MATHEW used in the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability - ARAC system). To simulate dispersion in the windfields produced by WAFT and calculate time integrated air concentrations and dry and wet deposition the TOMCATS model was developed. It treats the release as an assembly of pseudo-particles using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate turbulent displacements. It allows for larger eddy effects in the horizontal turbulence spectrum. Wet deposition is calculated using inhomogeneous rainfields evolving in time and space. The models were assessed, applying them to hypothetical releases in complex terrain, using typical data applicable in accident conditions, and undertaking sensitivity studies. One finds considerable uncertainty in results produced by these models. Although useful for post-facto analysis, such limitations cast doubt on their advantages, relative to simpler techniques, during an actual emergency

  13. Atrial Model Development and Prototype Simulations: CRADA Final Report on Tasks 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Villongco, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lightstone, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richards, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this CRADA was to develop essential tools needed to simulate human atrial electrophysiology in 3-dimensions using an anatomical image-based anatomy and physiologically detailed human cellular model. The atria were modeled as anisotropic, representing the preferentially longitudinal electrical coupling between myocytes. Across the entire anatomy, cellular electrophysiology was heterogeneous, with left and right atrial myocytes defined differently. Left and right cell types for the “control” case of sinus rhythm (SR) was compared with remodeled electrophysiology and calcium cycling characteristics of chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF). The effects of Isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-adrenergic agonist that represents the functional consequences of PKA phosphorylation of various ion channels and transporters, was also simulated in SR and cAF to represent atrial activity under physical or emotional stress. Results and findings from Tasks 3 & 4 are described. Tasks 3 and 4 are, respectively: Input parameters prepared for a Cardioid simulation; Report including recommendations for additional scenario development and post-processing analytic strategy.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PRE-PROTOTYPE MACH 2 RAMGEN ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2001-09-01

    The research and development effort of a new kind of combustion engine is presented. The engine is designed to convert the thrust from ramjet modules into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. An aggressive test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the existing engine, as well as incorporation of novel improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with Vortex Generators and bluff body flame holders illuminated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Air film cooling studies demonstrated that acceptable combustor life could be achieved with optimized air film distribution patterns and thermal barrier coatings.

  15. Development of a Prototype Lattice Boltzmann Code for CFD of Fusion Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattison, Martin J; Premnath, Kannan N; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Dwivedi, Vinay

    2007-02-26

    Designs of proposed fusion reactors, such as the ITER project, typically involve the use of liquid metals as coolants in components such as heat exchangers, which are generally subjected to strong magnetic fields. These fields induce electric currents in the fluids, resulting in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces which have important effects on the flow. The objective of this SBIR project was to develop computational techniques based on recently developed lattice Boltzmann techniques for the simulation of these MHD flows and implement them in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for the study of fluid flow systems encountered in fusion engineering. The code developed during this project, solves the lattice Boltzmann equation, which is a kinetic equation whose behaviour represents fluid motion. This is in contrast to most CFD codes which are based on finite difference/finite volume based solvers. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a relatively new approach which has a number of advantages compared with more conventional methods such as the SIMPLE or projection method algorithms that involve direct solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. These are that the LBM is very well suited to parallel processing, with almost linear scaling even for very large numbers of processors. Unlike other methods, the LBM does not require solution of a Poisson pressure equation leading to a relatively fast execution time. A particularly attractive property of the LBM is that it can handle flows in complex geometries very easily. It can use simple rectangular grids throughout the computational domain -- generation of a body-fitted grid is not required. A recent advance in the LBM is the introduction of the multiple relaxation time (MRT) model; the implementation of this model greatly enhanced the numerical stability when used in lieu of the single relaxation time model, with only a small increase in computer time. Parallel processing was implemented using MPI and demonstrated the

  16. Potential benefits of thermal energy storage in the proposed Twin Cities district heating-cogeneration system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.F.

    1979-10-01

    A new, large, cogeneration-district heating system has been proposed for the Twin Cities area, using hot water in a closed-loop system. The proposed system, as described by Studsvik Energiteknik AB of Sweden, does not employ thermal energy storage (TES). Four cases have been developed, describing system configurations which would employ TES, to evaluate the potential benefits of incorporating annual-cycle TES into the Twin Cities system. The potential benefits are found to be substantial, confirming results of earlier, generic studies of aquifer TES. The reference (Studsvik) system employs oil-fired boilers to supplement cogenerated heat, for handling peak loads and providing standby reserve. TES can serve the same function, with net energy savings in spite of heat losses during storage, by making it possible to operate the cogeneration equipment at higher capacity factors. Coal replaces oil as the fuel consumed. Energy savings of the reference system are impressive; energy savings with TES are 2 to 22% better. Capital cost requirements for boilers, cogeneration equipment, and pipelines are reduced by $66 to $258 million. The breakeven capital cost of TES is estimated to range from $43 to $76 per kilowatt peak thermal input to or withdrawal from aquifer TES. A factor in evaluating the breakeven operating cost of TES is the $14 to $31 million per year saving in cost of fuel. Abatement of air pollution and thermal pollution are concomitant benefits.

  17. Applying a non-intrusive energy-management system to economic dispatch for a cogeneration system and power utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hsueh-Hsien [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan (China); Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Jin Wen University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Yang, Hong-Tzer [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Non-intrusive energy-management (NIEM) techniques are based on energy signatures. While such approaches lack transient energy signatures, the reliability and accuracy of recognition results cannot be determined. By using neural networks (NNs) in combination with turn-on transient energy analysis, this study attempts to identify load demands and improve recognition accuracy of NIEM results. Case studies are presented that apply various methods to compare training algorithms and classifiers in terms of artificial neural networks (ANN) due to various factors that determine whether a network is being used for pattern recognition. Additionally, in combination with electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) simulations, calculating the turn-on transient energy facilitate load can lead to identification and a significant improvement in the accuracy of NIEM results. Analysis results indicate that an NIEM system can effectively manage energy demands within economic dispatch for a cogeneration system and power utility. Additionally, a new method based on genetic algorithms (GAs) is used to develop a novel operational strategy of economic dispatch for a cogeneration system in a regulated market and approach the global optimum with typical environmental constraints for a cogeneration plant. Economic dispatch results indicate that the NIEM system based on energy demands can estimate accurately the energy contribution from the cogeneration system and power utility, and further reduce air pollution. Moreover, applying the NIEM system for economic dispatch can markedly reduce computational time and power costs. (author)

  18. Development of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis prototype by modification of a commercially available cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Nicolas S; Hageman, Kristin N; Dai, Chenkai; Della Santina, Charles C; Fridman, Gene Y

    2013-09-01

    No adequate treatment exists for individuals who remain disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear inertial) sensation despite rehabilitation. We have restored vestibular reflexes using lab-built multichannel vestibular prostheses (MVPs) in animals, but translation to clinical practice may be best accomplished by modification of a commercially available cochlear implant (CI). In this interim report, we describe preliminary efforts toward that goal. We developed software and circuitry to sense head rotation and drive a CI's implanted stimulator (IS) to deliver up to 1 K pulses/s via nine electrodes implanted near vestibular nerve branches. Studies in two rhesus monkeys using the modified CI revealed in vivo performance similar to our existing dedicated MVPs. A key focus of our study was the head-worn unit (HWU), which magnetically couples across the scalp to the IS. The HWU must remain securely fixed to the skull to faithfully sense head motion and maintain continuous stimulation. We measured normal and shear force thresholds at which HWU-IS decoupling occurred as a function of scalp thickness and calculated pressure exerted on the scalp. The HWU remained attached for human scalp thicknesses from 3-7.8 mm for forces experienced during routine daily activities, while pressure on the scalp remained below capillary perfusion pressure.

  19. Development of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis Prototype by Modification of a Commercially Available Cochlear Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Nicolas S.; Hageman, Kristin; Dai, Chenkai; Santina, Charles C. Della; Fridman, Gene Y.

    2014-01-01

    No adequate treatment exists for individuals who remain disabled by bilateral loss of vestibular (inner ear inertial) sensation despite rehabilitation. We have restored vestibular reflexes using lab-built multichannel vestibular prostheses (MVPs) in animals, but translation to clinical practice may be best accomplished by modification of a commercially available cochlear implant (CI). We developed software and circuitry to sense head rotation and drive a CI's implanted stimulator (IS) to deliver up to 1Kpulses/s via 9 electrodes implanted near vestibular nerve branches. Studies in two rhesus monkeys using the modified CI (MCI) revealed in vivo performance similar to our existing dedicated MVPs. Like commercially available CIs, our design uses an external head-worn unit (HWU) that is magnetically coupled across the scalp to the IS. The HWU must remain securely fixed to the skull to faithfully sense head motion with gyroscopes and maintain continuous stimulation. We measured normal and shear force thresholds at which HWU-IS decoupling occurred as a function of scalp thickness and calculated pressure exerted on the scalp. The HWU remained attached across the human scalp thicknesses from 3mm to 7.8mm for forces experienced during routine daily activities, with magnets exerting pressure on the scalp that remains below capillary perfusion pressure. PMID:23649285

  20. Development and initial testing of a pulse oximetry prototype for measuring dental pulp vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, M.; Ferreira, M.; Caramelo, F.

    2015-05-01

    The guiding principle of endodontic treatment is to preserve teeth while maintaining its aesthetic and functional roles. To accomplish this goal the assessment of teeth pulp vitality is very important since it will determine the procedures that should be adopted and define the therapy strategy. Currently, the most commonly tests for determining dental pulp state are the thermal and the electrical tests, which are based on nerve response and, because of that, have a relatively high rate of false positives and false negatives cases. In this work we present a simple test to be used in the clinical setting for evaluating noninvasively the existence of blood perfusion in dental pulp. This test is based on pulse oximetry principle that was devised to indirectly measure the amount of oxygen in blood. Although pulse oximetry has already demonstrated its usefulness in clinical environment its usage for the determination of dental pulp vitality has been frustrated by several factors, notably the absence of a suitable sensor to the complex shape of the various coronary teeth. We developed a suitable sensor and present the first trials with promising results, regarding the ability for distinguish teeth with and without blood perfusion.