WorldWideScience

Sample records for cogeneration gas turbine

  1. Cogeneration with gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Y.S.H.; Akyurt, M.; Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Coll. of Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Cogeneration, simply, is the generation of energy for one process from the excess energy supplied to another process. Cogeneration, then, is nothing more than an economically sound method for the conservation of resources. Thus, the benefits from the use of cogeneration may be cited as energy conservation, environmental improvement and financial attractiveness to investors. In the near future energy efficiency must no longer be a choice, but a commitment - hence the timely importance of this review. (author)

  2. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  3. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  4. Mini gas turbines. Study related to energy efficient cogeneration applications for new cogeneration markets. Appendix; Mini gasturbiner. Udredning vedr. energieffektive kraftvarmeapplikationer til nye kraftvarmemarkeder. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, J.B.; Weel Hansen, M.; Astrupgaard, N.P.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate, design and increase the energy efficiency in new cogeneration/cooling systems, which are based on new developed mini gas turbines. Hereby cogeneration can primarily based on natural gas and bio-fuels be spread to new market segments. The appendix presents further details related to gas turbine as burner; cogeneration with recuperation gas turbine; gas turbine for cogeneration/absorption refrigerator; the economic and operational basis used in the study. (EHS)

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  6. Motor motives. Gas motors and gas turbines in cogeneration stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.

    1987-04-01

    Gas turbines' attractivity is increasing. But despite the impressive efficiency of 50% the gas motor is not yet beaten. A steam process installed downstream of a piston engine boosts its mechanic efficiency, in the lower performance range these engines are peerless anyway.

  7. Mini gas turbines. Study related to energy efficient cogeneration applications for new cogeneration markets; Mini gasturbiner. Udredning vedr. energieffektive kraftvarmeapplikationer til nye kraftvarmemarkeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, J.B.; Weel Hansen, M.; Aastrupgaard, N.P.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate, design and increase the energy efficiency in new cogeneration/cooling systems, which are based on new developed mini gas turbines. Hereby cogeneration can primarily based on natural gas and bio-fuels be distributed to new market segments. The advantages of mini gas turbines (electric power output 20 - 250 kW) are that they have only one rotating part, are simple and small and ought to have a low specific plant price, as they are mass-produced and represent a further development based on turbo-chargers equipped with high speed generators. By means of recuperation even in small plants relatively high electric efficiency of over 30% are obtained. The biggest advantage is, however, very low operating cost, high level of reliability and small environmental impacts. Therefore, it is expected that the technology could have a large impact on new markets for small and medium-sized enterprises, resulting in renewed large-scale conversion to cogeneration. In the present project the varias conditions related to the following are investigated: 1) Use of mini gas turbine as oil-/gas burner. 2) Simple cogeneration plant with recuperation gas turbine. 3) Mini gas turbines in cogeneration/refrigerating plants for supermarkets. 4) Mini gas turbines for drying plants. 5) VOC destruction in mini gas turbines. 6) Direct driven compressors. 7) Conditions related to part load. 8) The economy of the different mini gas turbine applications. 9) Environmental issues by use of mini gas turbines. (EHS)

  8. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration; Turbina de gas reactor modular con helio en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: tesgleon@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  9. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  10. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Cherubini, F. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy); De Pascale, A. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.depascale@mail.ing.unibo.it; Peretto, A. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Elmegaard, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  12. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  13. Benefits of MS 6001B gas turbine in cogeneration: The UEM power plant case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, P.M. [Usine d`Electricite de Metz (France); Boissenin, Y.M.; Moliere, M.M. [European Gas Turbines, Belfort (France)

    1996-04-01

    Long before the neologism ``Cogeneration`` was coined (around 1978), UEM`s Chambiere Power Plant -- which dates back to the turn of the century -- was already supplying the city of Metz with combined heat and power. In 1992, Chambiere experienced a major turning point in its history with the installation of a new unit based on one MS 6001B ``Heavy Duty`` gas turbine. This model, rated 38 MWe-ISO and burning natural gas or fuel oil, has become the core of a new cogeneration unit exhibiting outstanding performance: efficiency higher than 80 percent (LHV) providing a 20 percent energy saving in comparison to a conventional plant; low pollutant emissions (NO{sub x}, CO, HC) and low contribution to the greenhouse effect (CO{sub 2}). The gas turbine has been equipped with two steam injection devices, for DeNO{sub x} and power augmentation, respectively, resulting in a very flexible system. After describing the power plant and giving its main achievements in the fields of energy and emissions, the paper briefly presents several improvements intended to protect both the turbine and the environment.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galica, M.A.

    1994-02-01

    This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

  15. Economic evaluation of externally fired gas turbine cycles for small-scale biomass cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheden, Marie [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    In this conceptual study, externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) cycles in combination with a biomass-fueled, atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace are investigated for small scale heat and power production ({approx} 8 MW fuel input). Three cycle configurations are considered: closed cycle, with nitrogen, helium, and a helium/carbon dioxide mixture as working fluids; open cycle operating in parallel to the CFB system; and open cycle with a series connection to the CFB system. Intercooling, postcooling, and recuperation are employed with the goal of maximizing efficiency. Aside from a thermodynamic performance analysis, the study includes an economic analysis of both the closed and open externally fired gas turbine configurations, and comparisons are made with existing and emerging alternatives for small-scale biomass cogeneration. Simulation results show that thermodynamic performance varies slightly between the different configurations and working fluids, with electrical efficiencies of 31-38% (LHV) and total efficiency of 85-106% (LHV). The economic evaluation shows that the turbomachinery and the CFB furnace dominate the total plant cost, with each contributing about 1/3 of the total installed equipment cost. The specific capital cost for installation in Sweden in 1998 currency is calculated as 26-31 kSEK/kW{sub e} which is equivalent to 3 200-3 900 USD/kW{sub e} or 2 700-3 300 EUR/kW{sub e} .The cost of electricity, COE, is estimated to 590-670 SEK/MWh{sub e} (equivalent to 73-84 USD/MWh{sub e} or 62-71 EUR/MWh{sub e}) for 4 000 full load hours per year in a cogeneration application. Comparing the economic results for the externally fired gas turbine cycles in a slightly larger scale (40-50 MW{sub f}) to the economics of conventional biomass fired steam turbine cycles shows that the cost of electricity for the two plant configurations are roughly the same with a COE of 300-350 SEK/MWh{sub e}. It is believed that the economic performance of the EFGT

  16. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  17. On the exergy disaggregation for thermoeconomic analysis of a gas turbine cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Joaquim Conceicao Soares [Federal University of Espirito Santo - UFES/DEM, Goiabeiras, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva, Julio Augusto Mendes da [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: jams@usp.br; Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar [Federal University of Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Hugo Lima [Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Most analysts agree that exergy, instead of enthalpy only, is the most adequate thermodynamic quantity to associate with cost. Therefore, all thermoeconomic methodologies use the exergy to define productive structure. Sometimes, under a thermoeconomic analysis point of view, it is necessary to consider a mass or an energy flow rate consisting of several exergy components, for example thermal, mechanical and chemical components. Most analysts agree that by considering separate exergy forms the accuracy of the results is improved in thermoeconomics. However, these analysts recognize that the disaggregation of physical exergy might not be always reasonably because of the increase in the computational efforts. Thus, the main questions are: Is this improvement often marginal? Is exergy disaggregation necessary for extracting the main conclusions? This paper aims at answering these questions for the case of external fuel (natural gas) exergy allocation to the two final products (heat and power) of a gas turbine cogeneration system, by applying four different productive structures based on different kind and level of physical exergy disaggregation. The paper also shown that the model that uses enthalpy together with sintropy presents the closest result in relation to the total disaggregated model, showing the rationality of this methodology that intrinsically allocate the residues to the components of the cycle using the entropy variation in each component as a weighting factor. (author)

  18. Cogeneration in shopping centers - alternated motors or gas turbines; Co-geracao em shopping centers - motores alternativos ou turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreyevich, Svetislav Tomas; Pinto, Jose Helio Figueiredo [FIGENER S/A (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work analysis different configurations of cogeneration cycles either of Otto cycle or gas turbines, coupling to absorption chillers producing cold water for the air conditioning system, comparing the respective operational costs and investments. The methodology is presented. Results are presented 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Analysis of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy; Indagine sulla funzionalita` degli impianti di cogenerazione conturbina a gas operanti in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Rino; Vignati, Sigfrido [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve, by random analysis, the current knowledge about functional and running data of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy. The analysis consider simple and combined cycle gas turbines plant with electric power less 30.000 k W per unit and involves a sample of 44 units according to a randomized model consisting of 112 gas turbines. The collected data show different plant selection criteria, energy performances, reliability and availability values as well as maintenance costs. These data support some general suggestions and recommendations for a better selection and utilization of these plants.

  20. Use of gas turbines for cogeneration in paper-mill; Utilizacao de turbinas a gas para cogeracao em fabricas de papel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Volnei R.; Lueska, Carlos A.D.; Gerschkovitch, Yves B.S. [Jaakko Poyry Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    The technical and economical viability for gas turbogenerators use in Brazilian paper-mill, aiming the joint generation of electric power and steam for process is studied. A comparative analysis of conventional alternatives for cogeneration in the sector is described, analyzing a paper-mill with 400 t/d of paper production. The system used in the Brazilian industry that is the self generation of steam for the process and the electric power purchase from the concessionaire, is shown. As alternative for this system, three systems of cogeneration are presented: steam turbine, gas turbine with heat recovery and combined cycle. The mass and energy balances and the dimensioning are executed. After the dimensioning, the investment and operational costs and the incomes from each alternative are also quantified 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part I: Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretto, A.; Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.

    2003-01-01

    . Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine...

  2. New type steam turbine for cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jianren; Yang Qiguo; Xu Damao

    2010-01-01

    A concept of energy saving & efficiency improving from cold source for cogeneration steam turbine was discussed herein.A new type"NCB"cogeneration steam turbine was proposed,which could considerably increase heat supply capacity,thermal efficiency and electric power.Taking 300 MW cogeneration steam turbine as an example,the results show that heat supply capacity reaches the maximum,i.e.increases by 30%,thermal efficiency is improved by12%,and electric power is enhanced by 15 MW during peak heat load.

  3. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  4. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  5. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  7. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  8. Cogeneration with gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system: a computer program for exergy economics analysis; Cogeracao com turbina a gas associada ao sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: um programa computacional para analise exergoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio Santana [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Matematica] E-mail: santana@feg.unesp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer program for exergy and economic analysis of cogeneration systems applying gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system. The computer program selects gas turbine systems viewing the operation under thermal parity through a data base composed by gas turbines commercially available in the market, under the ISO (International Standard Organization). The computer program corrects the system performance parameters selected for the installation local conditions. The exergy and economic analysis are made based on the lowest exergy manufacturing cost where the best system is considered. A case study of the computer program application is presented.

  9. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  10. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  11. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  12. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  13. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  14. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  15. Thermoeconomic and exegetic analysis of a cogeneration proposal by using natural gas in breweries; Analise termoeconomica e exergetica de uma proposta de cogeracao usando gas natural em cervejarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara do Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica e de Producao]. E-mail: agallego@unimep.br; gmartins@unimep.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In this work the thermo economic method is used for analysis of the cost distribution in a cogeneration power plant proposed for a brewery in the Campinas - state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The thermal process energy demands were considered for beer production in 1997. The proposed cogeneration system consists of two gas turbines with recovering boiler and ammonium compression cooling system. The present power generation configuration and the cogeneration proposed performance were simulated in a monthly basis, considering the month steam and refrigeration requests. The gas turbines were simulated considering the nominal load and the energy surplus sold to the concessionaire.

  16. Micro Gas Turbine – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Shukla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbomachines is a class of machines which comprise of turbines and compressors. These machines are widely used for power generation, aircraft propulsion and in a wide range of heavy and medium industries. When we scale down these large turbines, we get micro turbines, which are compact and miniaturized form of these large turbines. The process of scaling down a turbine is not as simple as it looks like, it is a very tedious job and researches are going on in this area. These micro gas turbines are usually found with a power generating capacity of 250kW. They use any gas like natural gas, biogas, etc. as its input. The advantages of a micro gas turbine are that it has high expansion ratio and less moving components. The drawbacks of these turbines are that it requires high angular velocity as well as advanced electronics which can convert electricity of high frequency which gets produced into useful frequency of 50/60 Hz. This turbine is a very viable solution for distributed power generation which can be used for stationary energy applications. Also, micro gas turbine has found great use as cogeneration systems. These micro gas turbines can produce power between less than a kilowatt to hundreds of watts, which can be used for various purposes like electricity generation or head creation. These turbines are cost-effective, eco-friendly and pollution free as they can work by burning any gas like natural gas, land fill gas, etc. The manuscript presented gives an outlook on the past, present and future of these micro gas turbines. This paper will discuss the advantages and its uses. It will also discuss the drawbacks and the limitations of these turbines. This manuscript will prove to be a reference to all the researchers who want work in this field

  17. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  18. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  19. Assessment of steam-injected gas turbine systems and their potential application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results were arrived at by utilizing and expanding on information presented in the literature. The results were analyzed and compared with those for simple gas turbine and combined cycles for both utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. The efficiency and specific power of simple gas turbine cycles can be increased as much as 30 and 50 percent, respectively, by the injection of steam into the combustor. Steam-injected gas turbines appear to be economically competitive with both simple gas turbine and combined cycles for small, clean-fuel-fired utility power generation and industrial cogeneration applications. For large powerplants with integrated coal gasifiers, the economic advantages appear to be marginal.

  20. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  1. Comparison of Integrated Gasifier-Combined Cycle and AFB-steam turbine systems for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Abbott, J. M.; Burns, R. K.

    In the cogeneration technology alternatives study (CTAS) a number of advanced coal fired systems were examined and systems using a integrated coal gasifier IGCC or a fluid bed combustor AFB were found to yield attractive cogeneration results in industrial cogeneration applications. A range of site requirements and cogeneration sizing strategies using ground rules based on CTAS were used in comparing an IGCC and an AFB. The effect of time variations in site requirements and the sensitivity to fuel and electricity price assumptions are examined. The economic alternatives of industrial or utility ownership are also considered. The results indicate that the IGCC system has potentially higher fuel and emission savings and could be an attractive option for utility ownership. The AFB steam turbine system has a potentially higher return on investment and could be attractive assuming industrial ownership.

  2. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  3. Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Technologies Inc. and its subcontractors, during the period April 1, 1993 through October 31, 1994 under Phase II of the DOE Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development program. The objective of the program is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the implementation of selected ceramic components.

  4. Gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  5. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  6. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  7. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  8. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  9. Thermodynamic evaluation of the possibility to increase cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a heat pump operating with steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenin, V. M.; Datsenko, V. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Kosoi, A. S.; Sinkevich, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Cogeneration turbines operate in different operation modes that considerably differ as to the working process conditions. In summer time, when heat demand is minimal, almost all steam flow passes through all turbine stages and enters into the condenser (condensing mode of operation). When heat supply is needed, the steam bleed-offs are used. The several last stages of the turbine (low-pressure part—LPP) have a control diaphragm at the inlet. When the heat supply is large, the diaphragm is maximally closed, and the entire steam flow, with an exception for a minimal ventilation flow is delivered to the steam bleed-offs (cogeneration mode). LPP flow path is designed for the optimal operation in the condensing mode. While running in cogeneration mode, the LPP operating conditions are far from optimal. Depending on the ventilation steam flow rate and outlet pressure, the LPP power can drop to zero or even become negative (ventilation mode). It is proposed to control an outlet steam pressure by using the heat pump that operates with steam. The heat pump energy consumption can be compensated and even exceeded by optimizing the steam expansion process in LPP. In this respect, operating conditions of cogeneration turbine LPPs during the cold season are analyzed. A brief description of a heat pump operating with steam is made. The possibility of increasing cogeneration turbine efficiency by using a steam heat pump is shown.

  10. 浅谈天然气冷热电三联供%Brief Discussion of Gas Co-generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树尧; 施行之; 周宇昊; 丁小川

    2014-01-01

    主要介绍天然气冷热电三联供的种类、技术特点、各项节能性和经济性的评价指标以及主要供能形式。%Distributed energy resource is the utilization of an on-site energy resource to provide electricity and other energy to one or more buildings or facilities. Compared with the traditional central energy supply, distributed energy source can utilize a wide range of power generators including gas cogeneration system, photovoltaic system, wind turbine, etc. It has many benefits, such as compact size, higher efficiency, lower transmission losses and lower emissions. In addition, the sta-bilization of the energy system has been further recognized. The distributed energy resource is concerned increasingly with the advantage of disaster prevention. In this paper, the gas cogeneration system are discussed from many aspects, like char-acters, types, assessment criteria, supply method.

  11. Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horlock, JH

    2003-01-01

    Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d

  12. The new cogeneration can start-up; La nouvelle cogeneration peut demarrer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Thanks to a new inciting tariff of electricity purchase, the cogeneration market is making rapid strides, especially in the 1 to 4.5 MWe power range. The energy efficiency subsidy will lead to more efficient and profitable installations with a better heat recovery quality. The needs of high quality and high reliability current for the E-business will offer new opportunities. Moreover, the existence of a low voltage tariff will favor the development of micro- and rural-cogeneration or cogeneration from biomass fuels. The aim of this seminar is to debate about the place of cogeneration in the French energy policy: 1 - which opportunities for the new cogeneration (new trends of the European Commission in the development of decentralized power production, which perspectives for the French cogeneration); 2 - optimization of cogeneration profitability (new regulatory conditions of electricity purchase, problem of the connection of decentralized power production facilities to the grid, how to cover the gas price risk); 3 - the adaptation of the technique to the offer (situation of combustion turbines in the framework of new contracts, the truth about micro-turbines, the cogeneration engines in the new tariff environment, technologies for biomass-fueled cogeneration units); 4 - the new markets of the decentralized production (the high quality and high availability power supplies market, the cogeneration in district heating networks, the tri-generation, the rural advantages of small cogeneration units (<1 MW)). (J.S.)

  13. A 400-kWe high-efficiency steam turbine for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced state-of-the-art steam turbine-generator developed to serve as the power conversion subsystem for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories' Solar Total-Energy Project (STEP) is described. The turbine-generator, which is designed to provide 400-kW of net electrical power, represents the largest turbine-generator built specifically for commercial solar-powered cogeneration. The controls for the turbine-generator incorporate a multiple, partial-arc entry to provide efficient off-design performance, as well as an extraction control scheme to permit extraction flow regulation while maintaining 110-spsig pressure. Normal turbine operation is achieved while synchronized to a local utility and in a stand-alone mode. In both cases, the turbine-generator features automatic load control as well as remote start-up and shutdown capability. Tests totaling 200 hours were conducted to confirm the integrity of the turbine's mechanical structure and control function. Performance tests resulted in a measured inlet throttle flow of 8,450 pounds per hour, which was near design conditions.

  14. Radial gas turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausche, S.; Ohlsson, Johan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a program dealing with design point calculations of radial turbine machinery, including both compressor and turbine, with as few input data as possible. Some simple stress calculations and turbine metal blade temperatures were also included. This program was then implanted in a German thermodynamics program, Gasturb, a program calculating design and off-design performance of gas turbines. The calculations proceed with a lot of assumptions, necessary to finish the task, concerning pressure losses, velocity distribution, blockage, etc., and have been correlated with empirical data from VAT. Most of these values could have been input data, but to prevent the user of the program from drowning in input values, they are set as default values in the program code. The output data consist of geometry, Mach numbers, predicted component efficiency etc., and a number of graphical plots of geometry and velocity triangles. For the cases examined, the error in predicted efficiency level was within {+-} 1-2% points, and quite satisfactory errors in geometrical and thermodynamic conditions were obtained Examination paper. 18 refs, 36 figs

  15. An investigation into computer simulation of the dynamic response of a gas turbine engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Todd B

    1997-01-01

    Transient performance of gas turbines has a strong bearing on output and component life. For this reason, several articles have been written on the dynamic simulation of gas turbine systems in electrical generation, cogeneration, and marine applications. These models provide a basis for this present work. This paper describes a mathematical and computer model that was developed to investigate the dynamic response of a simple (no reheat, regeneration, or other auxiliary equipment) single-shaft...

  16. Cogeneration, micro turbines and fuel cells: perspectives for distributed generation in Brazil; Cogeracao, microturbinas e celulas a combustivel: perspectivas para geracao distribuida no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Brazil has a large potential to install distributed generation systems, using natural gas or renewable like solar, wind or biomass energy. Regarding urban centers, natural gas fired cogeneration and other distributed energy technologies find economical applications. Cogeneration is defined as the generation of two kinds of useful energy from a single energy source. Usually, electrical energy and thermal energy as steam or hot water are produced. By using the absorption refrigeration cycle, chilled water can also be produced to be used in air conditioned systems, often called tri generation, a good alternative to industries, commercial buildings, shopping centers, hospitals, schools and universities. Micro turbines find utilization whenever natural gas is available, but not electricity, like gas compression installations, unmanned platforms or remote production fields. Fuel cells are used in systems requiring high levels of reliability or wherever the non availability cost is high. This paper describe technical and economical data related to PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) 3,200 kW electric energy and 1,000 RT chilled water cogeneration system, 200 kW fuel cell and 30 kW and 60 kW microturbines. (author)

  17. Simulation of gas turbines operating in off-design condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: walter@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In many countries thermal power plants based on gas turbines have been the main option for new investment into the electric system due to their relatively high efficiency and low capital cost. Cogeneration systems based on gas turbines have also been an important option for the electric industry. Feasibility studies of power plants based on gas turbine should consider the effect of atmospheric conditions and part-load operation on the machine performance. Doing this, an off-design procedure is required. A G T off-design simulation procedure is described in this paper. Ruston R M was used to validate the simulation procedure that, general sense, presents deviations lower than 2.5% in comparison to manufacturer's data. (author)

  18. Gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Steven W. (Inventor); Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Dempsey, Dae K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); Kramer, Stephen K. (Inventor); Ols, John T. (Inventor); Smith, Reid Dyer Curtis (Inventor); Sowa, William A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a combustor module including an annular combustor having a liner assembly that defines an annular combustion chamber having a length, L. The liner assembly includes a radially inner liner, a radially outer liner that circumscribes the inner liner, and a bulkhead, having a height, H1, which extends between the respective forward ends of the inner liner and the outer liner. The combustor has an exit height, H3, at the respective aft ends of the inner liner and the outer liner interior. The annular combustor has a ratio H1/H3 having a value less than or equal to 1.7. The annular combustor may also have a ration L/H3 having a value less than or equal to 6.0.

  19. The HTScroll project - Innovative cogeneration system with a high-temperature turbine; Projet HTScroll. Nouveau systeme de cogeneration a turbine spirale haute temperature - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Cretegny, D.; Maquet, J. [ENEFTECH Innovation SA, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Laboratoire d' Energetique Industrielle LENI, EPFL Science Park PSE, Lausanne (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) proposes an alternative for micro-cogeneration based on a scroll expander to produce electricity from relatively low-temperature heat sources (less than 250 {sup o}C), thus allowing the use of renewable energy resources such as biomass, solar thermal and geothermal energy. The authors note that such a system could produce cost-effective 'green' electricity as well as heat (near 60 {sup o}C) for space heating and domestic hot-water preparation. The design and validation of a new concept for a double-stage scroll expander ('HT-Scroll') operating at high and low pressures and high temperatures is discussed. Design, modelling and construction of a 5 kW unit have been carried out. The organic fluid Rankine Cycle concept is described, the modelling of the turbine, its construction and tests carried out are discussed. Problems encountered and future work are noted.

  20. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  1. Co-generation on steam industrial systems with disks turbines; Co-geracao em sistemas industriais de vapor com turbinas de discos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezsovits, Ferenc [Universidad de Tecnologia y Economia de Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-03-15

    The disk turbine, also called Tesla turbine, being of simple construction and low cost, can be used as steam pressure reduction on industrial systems, generating simultaneously electric power, becoming the co-generation even at lower levels. Can be used for various operational parameters and mass flux ratios.This paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the turbines under various operation conditions.

  2. Termoacu Cogeneration: gas, power and oil; Cogeracao Termoacu: gas, energia e oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Geraldo Jose; Gomes, Cicero Sena Moreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of a project that involves cogeneration of power and steam for continuous injection in oil wells in the fields of Alto do Rodrigues and Estreito, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The project combines a PETROBRAS intention for recovering heavy oil in that area with partners intention of generating power to connect in a critical point of the Brazilian Electric System. PETROBRAS studies began in the nineties, when oil wells in that area became old end showed the necessity of some oil recovery technology. In 1999, PETROBRAS and Guaraniana made a partnership for implementation of Termoacu Combined Cycle, that would begin operation as a cogeneration plant for thirteen years, and as combined cycle from that point. The profile of steam injection has been adapted to a new one to comply with the powe r capacity of the Plant, and will operate eight years as a cogeneration plant , four years as a combined cycle with cogeneration and after twelve years as a complete combined cycle with 500 MW of capacity. The project integrates a gas pipeline, a Thermal Power Plant, a Transmission Line to connect to the grid and a Steam Pipeline for steam injection at Estreito and Alto do Rodrigues fields. (author)

  3. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  4. H gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corman, J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  5. Cogeneration turbine unit with a new T-295/335-23.5 steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Shekhter, M. V.; Bilan, V. N.; Polyaeva, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    The design, schematics, and arrangement of a T-295/335-23.5 turbine and the basic features of a steam-turbine unit (STU) intended for replacement of STUs with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine with the expired service life and installed in large cities, such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, and Kharkov, for heat and power generation are considered. The basic solutions for an automatic electrohydraulic control and protection system using high-pressure (HP) technology are described. As the turbine operates in a power unit together with a supercritical boiler and the design turbine service life of 250000 hours must be attained, turbine component construction materials complying with these requirements are listed.

  6. Heat Recovery Steam Generator by Using Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Vivek, P. Vijaya kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process (cogeneration or used to drive a steam turbine (combined cycle. It has been working with open and closed cycle. Both of cycles are used to increase the performance and also power on the cogeneration plant. If we are using closed cycle technology, we can recycle the waste heat from the turbine. in cogeneration plant, mostly they are using open cycle technology. additional, by using closed cycle technology, we can use the waste heat that converts into useful amount of work. In this paper, the exhaust gas will be sent by using proper outlet from cogen unit, we are using only waste heat that produce from turbine.

  7. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  8. Gaz de France and cogeneration: a story which goes on; Gaz de France et la cogeneration: une histoire qui se poursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    This document presents the principle of natural gas cogeneration (gas turbine and gas engine) and gives a general overview of the cogeneration market in France since 1991 and up to 2001 (development factors, results). The perspectives and opportunities of cogeneration are analyzed with respect to the development of new technologies like fuel cells (principle, advantages and future) and to the future energy markets. Follows a compilation and an analysis of French regulation texts about cogeneration systems, their connection to the power grid, and the tariffs of electricity re-purchase by Electricite de France (EdF). (J.S.)

  9. Modern technologies for rendering information support to cogeneration steam turbine units in their design and operation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Chubarov, A. A.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2013-08-01

    Application of modern information technologies in different stages of the lifecycle of cogeneration turbines is considered as one of possible ways for improving their competitiveness. Specific features relating to rendering information support for steam turbine units during the periods of their design and operation, which are the main stages of their life cycle, are presented. Three-dimension modeling, adaptive, and parametric design technologies are applied in the equipment design stages. Information support technologies developed by the authors are applied during the operation stage. Information is integrated by using a product lifecycle management (PLM) system.

  10. Implementation of gas district cooling and cogeneration systems in Malaysia; Mise en oeuvre de systemes de gas district cooling et de cogeneration en Malaisie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. [Gas District Cooling, M, Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    With its energy demand in the early 1990's growing at a high rate due to the country's strong economic growth, Malaysia studied various options to improve the efficiency of its energy use. Since its natural gas reserves are almost four times that of its crude oil reserves, efforts were therefore centered on seeking ways to boost the use of natural gas to mitigate the growing domestic energy need. PETRONAS, the national oil company, subsequently studied and chose the District Cooling System using natural gas as the primary source of fuel. The Kuala Lumpur City Center development, which houses the PETRONAS Twin Towers, was subsequently chosen as the first project to use the Gas District Cooling (GDC) System. To acquire the technology and implement this project, PETRONAS created a new subsidiary, Gas District Cooling (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad (GDC(M)). In the process of improving the plant's efficiency, GDC(M) discovered that the GDC system's efficiency and project economics would be significantly enhanced if its is coupled to a Cogeneration system. Having proven the success of the GDC/Cogeneration system, GDC(M) embarked on a campaign to aggressively promote and seek new opportunities to implement the system, both in Malaysia-and abroad. Apart from enhancing efficiency of energy use, and providing better project economics, the GDC/Cogeneration system also is environment friendly. Today, the GDC/Cogeneration systems is the system of choice for several important developments in Malaysia, which also includes the country's prestigious projects such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and the New Federal Government Administrative Center in Putrajaya. (author)

  11. Modern low-pollutive industrial gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, A.

    1987-01-01

    As illustrated by aviation gas turbines, industrial gas-turbine engineering saw a rapid development towards light-weight compact units with enhanced efficiency. The Sulzer gas turbine type 10 is a most up-to-date machine which has not been derived simply from the aircraft engine but will also fully meet the requirements for stationary industrial operation.

  12. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  13. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  14. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  15. Energy Conservation and CO2 Emission Reduction Using Cogeneration Based on Gas Microturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Khalili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Daily increasing propagation of environmental pollutants, such as CO2 as the most prevailing greenhouse gas, has resulted in global warming and climate changes in the past decades. Therefore, essentiality of the optimum utilization of limited sources of energy which in turn leads to emission abatement in energy conversion process is being widely under consideration. Cogeneration, regarding energy conservation and efficiency enhancement, is known to be a noticeable and overriding strategy in substantiation of energy consumption management goal. This study deals with performance evaluation of a microturbine-based cogeneration plant and its effects on efficiency and environmental aspects by using a simulator code.

  16. Gas Turbine Engine Behavioral Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Richard T; DeCarlo, Raymond A.; Pekarek, Steve; Doktorcik, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and validates a power flow behavioral model of a gas tur- bine engine with a gas generator and free power turbine. “Simple” mathematical expressions to describe the engine’s power flow are derived from an understand- ing of basic thermodynamic and mechanical interactions taking place within the engine. The engine behavioral model presented is suitable for developing a supervisory level controller of an electrical power system that contains the en- gine connected to a gener...

  17. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  18. Experience of operation of the gas turbine units in Russky Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibikov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the heat and power supply system based on the distributed cogeneration and created as part of the APEC Summit and development of the southern Far East is considered. A brief review of the experience of operating the gas turbine units of the Co-generation plant in the Russky Island is given. The output of the heat energy over 2015 reached 142.228 thousands Gcal which is larger than that in 2014 by 18.8 %. The specific reference fuel consumption for electric supply was 272.4 g/(kW*h while for heat supply – 195.8 kg/Gcal. In spite of partial load of the stations with regard to electric and heat energy (volumes of consumptions by the connected consumers is less than designed loads, the indices of reference fuel consumption suggest the efficiency of the generation equipment of co-generation plant.

  19. Heat Transfer in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    2001-01-01

    The turbine gas path is a very complex flow field. This is due to a variety of flow and heat transfer phenomena encountered in turbine passages. This manuscript provides an overview of the current work in this field at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Also, based on the author's preference, more emphasis is on the computational work. There is much more experimental work in progress at GRC than that reported here. While much has been achieved, more needs to be done in terms of validating the predictions against experimental data. More experimental data, especially on film cooled and rough turbine blades, are required for code validation. Also, the combined film cooling and internal cooling flow computation for a real blade is yet to be performed. While most computational work to date has assumed steady state conditions, the flow is clearly unsteady due to the presence of wakes. All this points to a long road ahead. However, we are well on course.

  20. Gaz Türbinlerinin Optimal Performans Analizi = Optimal Performance Analysis of Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin ÇETİN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of gas turbines increases rapidly in the electricity production and cogeneration systems in recent years. Decreasing performance of gas turbines causes not only reducing their capacity of electricity production but also increasing production cost. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of the open cycle gas turbine model is examined. The power output and the thermal efficiency of system are chosen as the performance criteria and the effects of compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, isentropic efficiencies and pressure losses on the performance are analyzed. Developed model has been solved by using the computer program written in Visual Basic language and the design parameters giving maximum power and efficiency are determined.

  1. Gas turbine gas path diagnostics: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fentaye Amare Desalegn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this competitive business world one way to increase profitability of a power production unit is to reduce the operation and maintenance expenses. This is possible if the gas turbine availability and reliability is improved using the appropriate maintenance action at the right time. In that case, fault diagnostics is very critical and effective and advanced methods are essential. Gas turbine diagnostics has been studied for the past six decades and several methods are introduced. This paper aims to review and summarise the published literature on gas path diagnostics, giving more emphasis to the recent developments, and identify advantages and limitations of the methods so that beginners in diagnostics can easily be introduced. Towards this end, this paper, identifies various diagnostic methods and point out their pros and cons. Finally, the paper concludes the review along with some recommended future works.

  2. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  3. FY 1998 annual report. Research and development on ceramic gas turbine (300kW class)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Research and development have been made on a small ceramic gas turbine which is high in efficiency, low in pollutant emission, capable of corresponding to different fuels, and can be utilized in cogeneration and/or movable electric power generation systems. Fundamental researches in developing and researching heat resistant ceramic parts have been carried out on a method for fabricating turbine nozzles using heat resistant silicon nitride, improvement in accuracy in fabricating combustors using the heat resistant silicon nitride, and casting of turbine blades made from sialon. In developing the devices, researches were made on reliability of bond between a ceramic blade and a metallic disk, air-fuel ratio in a combustor, distribution of fuel concentrations, fuel injection methods, reduction of loss in a diffuser in a compressor, and matching of the diffuser with an impeller. In addition, research and development were performed on a single shaft ceramic gas turbine for cogeneration and a double shaft ceramic gas turbine. Researches were executed on reliability of ceramic materials. (NEDO)

  4. Micro Gas Turbine – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Turbomachines is a class of machines which comprise of turbines and compressors. These machines are widely used for power generation, aircraft propulsion and in a wide range of heavy and medium industries. When we scale down these large turbines, we get micro turbines, which are compact and miniaturized form of these large turbines. The process of scaling down a turbine is not as simple as it looks like, it is a very tedious job and researches are going on in this area. These micro gas turbin...

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations of an added firing system in cogeneration processes with gas turbines optimizing flame stability and burnout behaviour; Theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen einer Zusatzfeuerung in gasturbinengestuetzten KWK-Prozessen fuer eine Optimierung hinsichtlich Flammenstabilitaet und Ausbrandverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, M.; Kliemt, C.

    2004-07-01

    The effects of the key flow, mixing and ignition parameters on the ignition process was investigated in near-practical conditions. It was found that the ignition energy can be minimized by careful selection of the electrode configuration and positioning near the burner. Further, a criterion was developed for developing characteristic fields and design specifications for gas burners. The FLUENT code can calculate the mixing, flow and turbulence situation of a burner. This, and plus the newly established ignition criterion, can support the development of characteristic fields and help to minimize the experimental expenditure. [German] Der Einfluss der wichtigsten Stroemungs-, Mischungs- und Zuendparameter auf die Zuendung wurde mit Hilfe gezielter experimenteller und theoretischer Untersuchungen unter industrienahen Bedingungen getestet. Hierbei konnte eine gute Uebereinstimmung zwischen den Messungen und Rechnungen erzielt werden. Die Ergebnisse haben gezeigt, dass durch eine geeignete Wahl der Elektrodenkonfiguration und der Elektrodenpositionierung im Brennernahbereich eine Zuendenergieminimierung erreicht werden kann. Gleichzeitig wurde ein Kriterium entwickelt, das zur Erarbeitung von Kennfeldern und Auslegungsvorschriften fuer Gasbrenner genutzt werden kann. Mit Hilfe des kommerziellen CFD-Programms FLUENT kann die Mischungs-, Stroemungs- und Turbulenzsituation eines Brenners numerisch berechnet werden. Mittels dieser Ergebnisse und unter Anwendung des ermittelten Zuendkriteriums kann die Erstellung von Arbeits- und Zuendkennfeldern fuer die Neuentwicklung bzw. Verbesserung von Industriegasbrennern unterstuetzt und somit der experimentelle Aufwand minimiert werden. (orig.)

  6. Feasibility of a small central cogenerated energy facility: Energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. N.

    1982-10-01

    The thermal economic feasibility of a small cogenerated energy facility designed to serve several industries in the Stockyards area was investigated. Cogeneration options included two dual fuel diesels and two gas turbines, all with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired boiler cases, also low sulphur coal and municipal refuse. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The fired boiler cogeneration systems employed back pressure steam turbines. The refuse fired cases utilized electrical capacities, 8500 to 52,400 lbm/hr and 0 to 9.9 MW (e), respectively. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which was displaced was sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act). The facility was operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users.

  7. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  8. Gas flow path for a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Snyder, Gary D.; Pankey, William W.; Mayer, Clinton A.; Hettinger, Benjamin G.

    2017-03-14

    A duct arrangement in a can annular gas turbine engine. The gas turbine engine has a gas delivery structure for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors to an annular chamber that extends circumferentially and is oriented concentric to a gas turbine engine longitudinal axis for delivering the gas flow to a first row of blades A gas flow path is formed by the duct arrangement between a respective combustor and the annular chamber for conveying gases from each combustor to the first row of turbine blades The duct arrangement includes at least one straight section having a centerline that is misaligned with a centerline of the combustor.

  9. Cogeneration system for semiconductor production works; Handotai seizo kojo muke cogeneration setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Semiconductor works, now facing declined semiconductor prices, must pursue more effective utilization of energy for cost reduction. Cogeneration systems have been attracting attention for the above purposes, and also for abatement of greenhouse effect gases, as the abatement targets have been agreed in the third session of the conference of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change parties, held in Kyoto (COP3), and for satisfying the ISO14001. Fuji Electric has proposed total cogeneration systems, covering power supply from commercial lines, existing substation facilities and remote monitoring systems, and has been received an order for a 3,200 kW gas turbine cogeneration system for a new semiconductor production lines in a new building. Power and heat are secured by a commercial power line and boiler system for the existing building. For the new building, the cogeneration system supplies power and heat (steam), improving energy efficiency and, at the same time, reduces CO2 emissions. (translated by NEDO)

  10. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  11. Survey of cogeneration: Advanced cogeneration research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  12. Development of the ceramic natural gas engine co-generation system; Developpement d'un systeme de cogeneration a moteur a gaz naturel en ceramique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Sakamoto, H.; Iwamoto, H. [Japan Gas Association (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The Japan Gas Association is developing ceramic gas engines (CGE) for use in co-generation systems driven by natural gas. Ceramic gas engines are lightweight, compact power units with high power generation efficiency, enabling a high level of waste heat utilization from the hot exhaust. Although the Japanese office building market has the potential of becoming a major market for co-generation systems, the heat-electricity ratio of such facilities (with a significantly large electricity demand in comparison to the heat demand) renders conventional co-generation systems unsuitable for application to office buildings. The newly-developed engine system should allow this previously unexplored market to be exploited. Development of the engine system was initiated in 1993, and has now entered its seventh year. This report describes the current development status of the CGE technology. Development of the engine was funded as an auxiliary project by the Ministry of International Trade. and Industry (MITI) from 1993 through 1999, after which activities will continue within the private sector. (authors)

  13. Mini/micro cogeneration, basis for installation. Dimensioning, accounting and potential. Project report 1; Mini/mikrokraftvarme, forudsaetninger for installation. Dimensionering, afregningsforhold og potentiale. Projektrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, J. de; Iskov, H.

    2005-11-15

    Cogeneration is quite spread in Denmark. Approx. 50 % of the power supply and 80 % of the district heating supply come from cogeneration. Combined heat and power is produced on both centralized (large) plants and decentralized plants. Decentralized combined heat and power plants (typically based on natural gas) use gas motors or gas turbines for power and heat production. Cogeneration of heat and power saves primary fuels and a directly derived effect from cogeneration is CO{sub 2} emission reduction. If fuels with higher specific CO{sub 2} emission than natural gas (e.g. coal, oil) are substituted, additional CO{sub 2} reduction can be reached. (BA)

  14. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  15. High-efficiency Gas Cogeneration – an Assessment of the Support Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sołtysik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a single European energy market implies the need to harmonise national laws and the directions of the sector’s growth to EU determinants. One of these elements was the introduction of a system to support the development of high-efficiency cogeneration, including gas cogeneration. Several years of the mechanisms’ performance allows for analysis of the advisability and correctness of the support model format, and assessment of its impact on the sub-sector’s development and the cost of its operation. Against the background of the support system introduction origins, the paper presents results of volumetric and price analyses, trends, and assessment of the balance of property rights and of the mechanism’s effectiveness.

  16. Modelling the dynamics of the cogeneration power plant gas-air duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аnatoliy N. Bundyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing into wide practice the cogeneration power plants (or CHP is one of promising directions of the Ukrainian small-scale power engineering development. Thermal and electric energy generation using the same fuel kind can increase the overall plant efficiency. That makes it appropriate to use CHPs at compact residential areas, isolated industrial enterprises constituting one complex with staff housing area, at sports complexes, etc. The gas-air duct of the cogeneration power plant has been considered as an object of the diesel-generator shaft velocity control. The developed GAD mathematical model, served to analyze the CHP dynamic characteristics as acceleration curves obtained under different external disturbances in the MathWorks MATLAB environment. According to the electric power generation technology requirements a convenient transition process type has been selected, with subsequent identification of the diesel-generator shaft rotation speed control law.

  17. Review on Recent Development Micro Gas Turbine -Trigeneration System and Photovoltaic Based Hybrid Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand MRR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on distributed power generation as an alternative method to the conventional power generation system continue to be developed to improve its commercialization capabilities. The cogeneration system and trigeneration system are technological improved alternatives in distributed generation where they offer enhancement and reliability in term of efficiency, emission performances and economic benefits. However, it is more feasible to implement the trigeneration system for most commercial and domestic distributed generations as the cooling demand is deliberately high compared to heating demand especially in hot and humid climate locations. Moreover, micro gas turbine is observed to be a beneficial prime mover in cogeneration and trigeneration system based on several criteria such as ability on acquiring high heat to power ratio characteristic as well as lower greenhouse gas emission. On the other hand, the role photovoltaic in building integrated system provides opportunities for renewable energy system engagement in trigeneration based distributed generation systems. This paper emphasize on summarizing the research work perform on cogeneration system or trigeneration system in hybrid mode with photovoltaic. There are also preceding sections on overviewing the state of art of cogeneration system and the trigeneration system as well as photovoltaic technologies in power generation.

  18. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...

  19. Cogeneration- and Total Energy potentials at an alternative natural gas price policy and environmental policy in the Dutch National Energy Outlook scenarios. WKK- en TE-potentielen bij een alternatief gasprijs- en milieubeleid in de NEV-scenario's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Verhagen, L.

    1989-09-01

    By request of the Dutch Ministry of VROM (public health, planning and environment) the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation carried out new calculations with regard to the title subject. New developments in the Dutch energy and environmental policies made that necessary. For eight cases the results for large-scale industrial cogeneration capacity are presented, i.e. the future industrial steam demand with gas turbine-, combined steam and power generation-, total energy gas- and total energy coal-installations or with coal- or gas boilers. The same calculations are made for small-scale Total Energy capacities. Finally some conclusions are given with regard to the total cogeneration potential. 8 tabs.

  20. AGT 100 automotive gas turbine system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, H. E. G.

    1982-01-01

    General Motors is developing an automotive gas turbine system that can be an alternate powerplant for future automobiles. Work sponsored by DOE and administered by NASA Lewis Research Center is emphasizing small component aerodynamics and high-temperature structural ceramics. Reliability requirements of the AGT 100 turbine system include chemical and structural ceramic component stability in the gas turbine environment. The power train system, its configuration and schedule are presented, and its performance tested. The aerodynamic component development is reviewed with discussions on the compressor, turbine, regenerator, interturbine duct and scroll, and combustor. Ceramic component development is also reviewed, and production cost and required capital investment are taken into consideration.

  1. Exergy analysis and simulation of a 30MW cogeneration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Nikhil; Samsher; Kachhwaha, S. S.; Attri, Rajesh

    2013-06-01

    Cogeneration cycle is an efficient mean to recover the waste heat from the flue gases coming out of gas turbine. With the help of computer simulation, design parameters may be selected for the best performance of cogeneration cycle. In the present work a program is executed in software EES on the basis of mathematical modelling described in paper to study cogeneration cycle performance for different parameters. Results obtained are compared with the results available in literature and are found in good agreement with them. Real gas and water properties are inbuilt in the software. Results show that enthalpy of air entering the combustion chamber is higher than that of the flue gases at combustion chamber outlet. For different operative conditions, energy and exergy efficiencies follow similar trends; although, exergy efficiency values are always lower than the corresponding energy efficiency ones. From the results it is found that turbine outlet temperature (TIT) of 524°C is uniquely suited to efficient cogeneration cycle because it enables the transfer of heat from exhaust gas to the steam cycle to take place over a minimal temperature difference. This temperature range results in the maximum thermodynamic availability while operating with highest temperature and highest efficiency cogeneration cycle. Effect of cycle pressure ratio (CR), inlet air temperature (IAT) and water pressure at heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) inlet on the 30MW cogeneration cycle is also studied.

  2. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  3. Flameless Combustion for Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Li, Guoqiang; Overman, Nick; Cornwell, Michael; Stankovic, Dragan; Fuchs, Laszlo; Milosavljevic, Vladimir

    2006-11-01

    An experimental study of a novel flameless combustor for gas turbine engines is presented. Flameless combustion is characterized by distributed flame and even temperature distribution for high preheat air temperature and large amount of recirculating low oxygen exhaust gases. Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and UHC are reported. Measurements of the flame chemiluminescence, CO and NOx emissions, acoustic pressure, temperature and velocity fields as a function of the preheat temperature, inlet air mass flow rate, exhaust nozzle contraction ratio, and combustor chamber diameter are described. The data indicate that larger pressure drop promotes flameless combustion and low NOx emissions at the same flame temperature. High preheated temperature and flow rates also help in forming stable combustion and therefore are favorable for flameless combustion.

  4. Micro cogeneration in residential scale; Bancada de sistema de cogeracao de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Primo, Ana Rosa Mendes; Magnani, Fabio Santana; Henriquez, Jorge R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Moura, Newton Reis de; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio Ricardo T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas (COPERGAS), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cogeneration is very important to spread the use of natural gas in Brazil. Most of the existing cogeneration plants are of considerable size, as used in industries or commercial centers. Places with low demand on electrical or thermal energy (e.g. small industries, blocs of houses, etc.) could also benefit of cogeneration, but there is no available data about micro-cogeneration in Brazil. In order to verify the technical and economical viability of small size systems of cogeneration, FINEP/PETROBRAS/COPERGAS financed a project of micro-cogeneration at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), involving experiments on a micro turbine and a generator group, both with 30 kW power. The laboratory is also composed by two heat exchangers to regenerate the heat from the micro-turbine and generator group, a single effect absorption chiller, with 10 TR capacity, two thermal storage tanks (for hot and cold water) and a compression split of 5 TR. Data to build performance curves of the equipment will be stored and analyzed, in order to build their performance curves, allowing the overall cogeneration efficiency to be found. Most probable situations of thermal and electric power demands will be simulated. The aim of the simulations is to achieve the optimal situation for micro-cogeneration, which will offer the best efficiency, the lowest cost for buying the equipment and the lowest operational cost. A software was also developed, which optimizes micro-cogeneration systems. (author)

  5. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  6. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  7. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  8. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  9. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  10. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  11. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  12. Thermoeconomic Evaluation of a Basic Optimized Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Azucena Nebra

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In a thermoeconomic analysis, the productive structure determines the cost distribution. A chemically recuperated gas turbine cycle, optimized in order to reduce the production of irreversibilities, is analyzed using to thermoeconomic techniques. The exergy flows are disaggregated into chemical and physical exergies. The internal cost distribution is compared in three types of analyses: the Basic approach, the Functional Analysis approach and the Functional Analysis with Cost Negentropy Redistribution approach. The negentropy cost redistribution reduces the cogeneration cost, changing the exergetic costs through the cycle by about 1%.

  13. Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluc Canals Casals

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads.

  14. Performance of an innovative 120 kWe natural gas cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badami, M.; Casetti, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy); Campanile, P.; Anzioso, F. [Centro Ricerche FIAT, Strada Torino 50, Orbassano, Torino (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The paper deals with an innovative (120 kWe, 195 kWt) natural gas (NG) combined heat and power (CHP) system, at present under development, which has been set up at the FIAT Centre of Research (CRF), Turin, Italy. The main characteristics of the CHP system are: the use of an automotive derived internal combustion engine, a high part load electrical efficiency due to a variable speed operation strategy and an advanced exhaust gas after-treatment to meet the most stringent pollutant emission regulations. In the paper, the electrical efficiency and pollutant emissions of the new CHP unit are compared with those of some traditional small-scale cogeneration systems. Some comparison criteria and performance indices which are, in the authors' opinion, the most representative of the real operative conditions, have been proposed to evaluate the performance of the different technologies. (author)

  15. Increased use of gas turbines as commercial marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, C. O.; Luck, D. L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the last three decades, aeroderivative gas turbines have become established naval ship propulsion engines, but use in the commercial marine field has been more limited. Today, aeroderivative gas turbines are being increasingly utilized as commercial marine engines. The primary reason for the increased use of gas turbines is discussed and several recent GE aeroderivative gas turbine commercial marine applications are described with particular aspects of the gas turbine engine installations detailed. Finally, the potential for future commercial marine aeroderivative gas turbine applications is presented.

  16. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  17. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  18. Cogeneration: the example of the city of Chambery; Cogeneration: l`exemple de la Ville de Chambery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, C. [Reseau de chaleur, Ville de Chambery, 73 (France); Remy, F. [Societe Chamberienne de Distribution de Chaleur, SCDC, 73 (France)

    1996-07-01

    In the framework of the modernization of the district heating system in Chambery, France, which, after fuel oil, was using also natural gas, a cogeneration system with two gas turbines has been implemented in 1994, using natural gas; electric power is sold back to the national grid, EDF. The technical drawings of the system are presented. Results after a year of operation are discussed, with emphasis on the risk assessment and financial risk protection aspects

  19. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  20. Performance of nickel base superalloy components in gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine......The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine...

  1. Gas turbine Type 10 - a modern, environmentally-compatible industrial turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, A.

    1987-01-01

    A rapid development to lighter, more compact units of higher efficiency has taken place in industrial gas turbine design, following the example set by aviation gas turbines. The Sulzer Type 10 gas turbine is an up-to-date machine, the design of which is not merely derived from that of jet engines, but also fully complies with the requirements of industrial service. The performance of this gas turbine is discussed.

  2. Lean-Burn Cogeneration Biogas Engine with Unscavenged Combustion Prechamber: Comparison with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Röthlisberger

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous fuels produced, for example, by waste or agricultural by-products fermentation (biogas can be burned in-situ by cogeneration systems like spark-ignition internal combustion engines. However, the more and more stringent legislation for exhaust gas emissions requires improvement of the combustion process particularly when catalytic after treatment is not reliable as in the case of sewage or landfill biogas. The system proposed in this paper is the use of an unscavenged combustion prechamber instead of direct ignition on a turbocharged 6 cylinder 150 kW gas engine. This prechamber is used for operation with a simulated biogas (40% CO2 in natural gas. The results show that, compared to natural gas operation for the same rated power output of 150 kW and the same NOx emissions, the CO emissions are reduced by 15% and the HC emissions at least by 8%. Efficiencies higher than 36% are achieved which is very promising and the lower CO emissions give a margin to consider an increase of compression ratio.

  3. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  4. Sulzer's industrial gas turbine type 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, A.C.

    1987-06-01

    A rapid development to lighter, compacter units of higher efficiency has taken place in industrial gas turbine design, following the example set by aviation gas turbines. The Sulzer Type 10 gas turbine is an up-to-date machine, the design of which is not merely derived from that of jet engines, but also fully complies with the requirements of industrial service.

  5. 46 CFR 58.10-15 - Gas turbine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... harmful foreign material, including water, into the system. (2) A gas turbine air inlet must not be in a... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas turbine installations. 58.10-15 Section 58.10-15... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-15 Gas turbine...

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  7. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  8. Combined cycles with gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Y.S.H.; Akyurt, M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-03-01

    Simple cycle gas turbine engines suffer from limited efficiencies and consequential dominance of fuel prices on generation costs. Combined cycles, however. exploit the waste heat from exhaust gases to boost power output, resulting in overall efficiencies around 50%, which are significantly above those of steam power plants. This paper reviews various types of combined cycles, including repowering, integrated gasification and other advanced systems. (author)

  9. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  10. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  11. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Over the past forty years, a wealth of information on the behavior of ceramic materials in heat engine environments has been obtained. In the first part of the talk we summarize the behavior of monolithic SiC and Si3N4. These materials show excellent baseline behavior in clean, oxygen environments. However the aggressive components in a heat engine environment such as water vapor and salt deposits can be quite degrading. In the second part of the talk we discuss SiC-based composites. The critical issue with these materials is oxidation of the fiber coating. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions in ceramic corrosion research.

  12. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Over the past forty years, a wealth of information on the behavior of ceramic materials in heat engine environments has been obtained. In the first part of the talk we summarize the behavior of monolithic SiC and Si3N4. These materials show excellent baseline behavior in clean, oxygen environments. However the aggressive components in a heat engine environment such as water vapor and salt deposits can be quite degrading. In the second part of the talk we discuss SiC-based composites. The critical issue with these materials is oxidation of the fiber coating. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions in ceramic corrosion research.

  13. The methodology of the gas turbine efficiency calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a calculation methodology of isentropic efficiency of a compressor and turbine in a gas turbine installation on the basis of polytropic efficiency characteristics is presented. A gas turbine model is developed into software for power plant simulation. There are shown the calculation algorithms based on iterative model for isentropic efficiency of the compressor and for isentropic efficiency of the turbine based on the turbine inlet temperature. The isentropic efficiency characteristics of the compressor and the turbine are developed by means of the above mentioned algorithms. The gas turbine development for the high compressor ratios was the main driving force for this analysis. The obtained gas turbine electric efficiency characteristics show that an increase of pressure ratio above 50 is not justified due to the slight increase in the efficiency with a significant increase of turbine inlet combustor outlet and temperature.

  14. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  15. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Scott M.

    2010-11-30

    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  16. AGT101 Advanced Gas Turbine Technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.L.; Kidwell, J.R.; Kreiner, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Garrett/Ford Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Development Program, designated AGT101, has made significant progress during 1985 encompassing ceramic engine and ceramic component testing. Engine testing has included full speed operation to 100,000 rpm and 1149C (2100F) turbine inlet temperature, initial baseline performance mapping and ceramic combustor start and steady state operation. Over 380 hours of test time have been accumulated on four development engines. High temperature foil bearing coatings have passed rig test and a thick precious metal foil coating selected for engine evaluation. Ceramic structures have been successfully rig tested at 1371C (2500F) for over 27 hours.

  17. AGT 101 - Advanced Gas Turbine technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, J.R.; Kreiner, D.M.

    1985-03-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) 101 program has made significant progress during 1984 in ceramic component and engine test bed development, including initial ceramic engine testing. All ceramic components for the AGT 101 (1644 K) engine are now undergoing development. Ceramic structures have been undergoing extensive analysis, design modification, and rig testing. AGT 101 (1644 K) start capability has been demonstrated in rig tests. Also, 1644 K steady-state testing has been initiated in the test rigs to obtain a better understanding of ceramics in that environment. The ceramic turbine rotor has progressed through cold spin test 12,040 rad/sec and hot turbine rig test, and is currently in initial phases of engine test. Over 400 hours of engine testing is expected by March 1985, including approximately 150 hours of operation and 50 starts on the 1422 K engine. All activities are progressing toward 1644 K engine testing in mid-1985.

  18. Casing for a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.; Little, David A.; Charron, Richard C.

    2016-07-12

    A casing for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a compressed air section (40) spanning between a last row of compressor blades (26) and a first row of turbine blades (28), the compressed air section (40) having a plurality of openings (50) there through, wherein a single combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) extends through each opening (50); and one top hat (68) associated with each opening (50) configured to enclose the associated combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) and seal the opening (50). A volume enclosed by the compressed air section (40) is not greater than a volume of a frustum (54) defined at an upstream end (56) by an inner diameter of the casing at the last row of compressor blades (26) and at a downstream end (60) by an inner diameter of the casing at the first row of turbine blades (28).

  19. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  20. Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Kevin

    2009-07-28

    The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle.

  1. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40

  2. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40

  3. SAFE gas turbine cycle primary heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Robert S.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center are jointly developing two modular heat pipe heat exchangers, collectively named FIGMENT (Fission Inert Gas Metal Exchanger for Non-nuclear Testing). The FIGMENT heat exchangers are designed to transfer power from the SAFE nuclear reactor cores to gas turbine energy converters. A stainless steel prototype heat exchanger will be built during 2002 in preparation for the construction of a larger refractory metal version. Two promising FIGMENT stainless steel heat exchanger concepts are reviewed here. .

  4. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  5. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  6. Integration of a Gas Fired Steam Power Plant with a Total Site Utility Using a New Cogeneration Targeting Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajad Khamis Abadi; Mohammad Hasan Khoshgoftar Manesh; Marc A.Rosen; Majid Amidpour; Mohammad Hosein Hamedi

    2014-01-01

    A steam power plant can work as a dual purpose plant for simultaneous production of steam and elec-trical power. In this paper we seek the optimum integration of a steam power plant as a source and a site utility sys-tem as a sink of steam and power. Estimation for the cogeneration potential prior to the design of a central utility system for site utility systems is vital to the targets for site fuel demand as well as heat and power production. In this regard, a new cogeneration targeting procedure is proposed for integration of a steam power plant and a site utility consisting of a process plant. The new methodology seeks the optimal integration based on a new cogenera-tion targeting scheme. In addition, a modified site utility grand composite curve (SUGCC) diagram is proposed and compared to the original SUGCC. A gas fired steam power plant and a process site utility is considered in a case study. The applicability of the developed procedure is tested against other design methods (STAR® and Thermoflex software) through a case study. The proposed method gives comparable results, and the targeting method is used for optimal integration of steam levels. Identifying optimal conditions of steam levels for integration is important in the design of utility systems, as the selection of steam levels in a steam power plant and site utility for integration greatly influences the potential for cogeneration and energy recovery. The integration of steam levels of the steam power plant and the site utility system in the case study demonstrates the usefulness of the method for reducing the overall energy consumption for the site.

  7. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2015-10-20

    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  8. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) technology development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report is the final in a series of Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project, authorizrd under NASA Contract DEN3-167 and sponsored by the DOE. The project was administered by NASA-Lewis Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio. Plans and progress are summarized for the period October 1979 through June 1987. This program aims to provide the US automotive industry the high risk, long range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles that will reduce fuel consumption and reduce environmental impact. The intent is that this technology will reach the marketplace by the 1990s. The Garrett/Ford automotive AGT was designated AGT101. The AGT101 is a 74.5 kW (100 shp) engine, capable of speeds to 100,000 rpm, and operates at turbine inlet temperatures to 1370 C (2500 F) with a specific fuel consumption level of 0.18 kg/kW-hr (0.3 lbs/hp-hr) over most of the operating range. This final report summarizes the powertrain design, power section development and component/ceramic technology development.

  9. High temperature heat exchanger studies for applications to gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, June Kee; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ha, Man Yeong; Kim, Kui Soon

    2009-12-01

    Growing demand for environmentally friendly aero gas-turbine engines with lower emissions and improved specific fuel consumption can be met by incorporating heat exchangers into gas turbines. Relevant researches in such areas as the design of a heat exchanger matrix, materials selection, manufacturing technology, and optimization by a variety of researchers have been reviewed in this paper. Based on results reported in previous studies, potential heat exchanger designs for an aero gas turbine recuperator, intercooler, and cooling-air cooler are suggested.

  10. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating envir...

  11. Gas turbine structural mounting arrangement between combustion gas duct annular chamber and turbine vane carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.; Charron, Richard C.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2016-10-18

    A gas turbine engine ducting arrangement (10), including: an annular chamber (14) configured to receive a plurality of discrete flows of combustion gases originating in respective can combustors and to deliver the discrete flows to a turbine inlet annulus, wherein the annular chamber includes an inner diameter (52) and an outer diameter (60); an outer diameter mounting arrangement (34) configured to permit relative radial movement and to prevent relative axial and circumferential movement between the outer diameter and a turbine vane carrier (20); and an inner diameter mounting arrangement (36) including a bracket (64) secured to the turbine vane carrier, wherein the bracket is configured to permit the inner diameter to move radially with the outer diameter and prevent axial deflection of the inner diameter with respect to the outer diameter.

  12. New model of work of the gas-turbine engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Дихановський

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  Problem questions of the gas-turbine engines exploitation are analysed. It is shown, that the gas-mechanics regulation of aerodynamic profile attack corner theorem allowed to design the regulation of the axial compressor system. This system is ability to provide reliable functioning of the gas-turbine engine at any service conditions.

  13. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  14. Typical off-design analytical performances of internal combustion engine cogeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong HE; Ruixian CAI

    2009-01-01

    Based on experimental data, typical off-design characteristic curves with corresponding formulas of internal combustion engine (ICE) are summarized and investigated. In combination with analytical solution of single-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and influence of ambient pressure on combined heat and power (CHP) system, off-design operation regularities of ICE cogeneration are analyzed. The approach temperature difference Ata , relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease with the decrease in engine load. The total energy efficiency, equivalent exergy efficiency and economic exergy efficiency first increase and then decrease. Therefore, there exists an optimum value, corresponding to ICE best efficiency operating condition. It is worth emphasizing that Ata is likely to be negative in low load condition with high design steam parameter and low ICE design exhaust gas temperature. Compared with single shaft gas turbine cogeneration, Ata in ICE cogeneration is more likely to be negative. The main reason for this is that the gas turbine has an increased exhaust gas flow with the decrease in load; while ICE is on the contrary. Moreover, ICE power output and efficiency decrease with the decrease in ambient pressure. Hence, approach temperature difference, relative steam production and superheated steam temperature decrease rapidly while the cogeneration efficiencies decrease slightly. It is necessary to consider the influence of ambient conditions, especially the optimization of ICE performances at different places, on cogeneration performances.

  15. Thermoeconomic Evaluation of Cogeneration Systems for a Chemical Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper presents the comparative exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of three cogeneration systems designed for a chemical plant. These systems must produce steam and electricity for the processes of the plant. These comparisons are developed for two scenarios: in the first one the systems generate steam and electricity for the plant and in the second one the systems generate steam and electricity for the plant and export electricity. The cogeneration systems are: a steam cycle with condensation-extraction steam turbine, a gas turbine based system and a combined cycle based system.

    The exergy analysis developed for the cogeneration systems evaluates the exergy efficiency and the exergy destroyed in each set of equipment, as well as the overall cogeneration plant performance. The overall exergy efficiency of the plants and the exergy efficiency of each set of equipment are defined as the ratio of the useful exergetic effect of the equipment/system to the consumed exergy. The importance of each set of equipment in the overall exergy efficiency is quantified by the use of the factor f, defined as the ratio of the supplied exergy in a particular set of equipment to the consumed exergy in the plant. Equality and extraction cost partition methods are utilised (in the steam and gas turbines in order to determine the production costs of steam (at 6 and 18 bar and electricity, for each one of the considered operating scenarios of the plants. This comparison indicates the feasibility of the cogeneration systems for each production scenario.

  16. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    -load performance. Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load performance for combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis......The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part...

  17. Fatigue Reliability of Gas Turbine Engine Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Tryon, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an investigation are described for fatigue reliability in engine structures. The description consists of two parts. Part 1 is for method development. Part 2 is a specific case study. In Part 1, the essential concepts and practical approaches to damage tolerance design in the gas turbine industry are summarized. These have evolved over the years in response to flight safety certification requirements. The effect of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods on these methods is also reviewed. Assessment methods based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, with regard to both crack initiation and crack growth, are outlined. Limit state modeling techniques from structural reliability theory are shown to be appropriate for application to this problem, for both individual failure mode and system-level assessment. In Part 2, the results of a case study for the high pressure turbine of a turboprop engine are described. The response surface approach is used to construct a fatigue performance function. This performance function is used with the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to determine the probability of failure and the sensitivity of the fatigue life to the engine parameters for the first stage disk rim of the two stage turbine. A hybrid combination of regression and Monte Carlo simulation is to use incorporate time dependent random variables. System reliability is used to determine the system probability of failure, and the sensitivity of the system fatigue life to the engine parameters of the high pressure turbine. 'ne variation in the primary hot gas and secondary cooling air, the uncertainty of the complex mission loading, and the scatter in the material data are considered.

  18. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglind, F. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Mechanical Engineering, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-02-15

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part-load performance. Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load performance for combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part-load performance. (author)

  19. Analysis of Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Wet Biomass Fuels Based on commercial micro gas turbine data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    The results of a study of a novel gas turbine configuration is being presented. In this power plant, an Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (IFGT), is being fueled with very wet biomass. The exhaust gas is being used to dry the biomass, but instead of striving to recover as much as possible of the therm...

  20. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  1. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  2. Feasibility of pulse combustion in micro gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkatukia, Juha; Saari, Esa; Knuuttila, Timo; Larjola, Jaakko; Backman, Jari

    2012-10-01

    In gas turbines, a fast decrease of efficiency appears when the output decreases; the efficiency of a large gas turbine (20...30 MW) is in the order of 40 %, the efficiency of a 30 kW gas turbine with a recuperator is in the order of 25 %, but the efficiency of a very small gas turbine (2...6 kW) in the order of 4...6 % (or 8...12 % with an optimal recuperator). This is mainly a result of the efficiency decrease in kinetic compressors, due to the Reynolds number effect. Losses in decelerating flow in a flow passage are sensitive to the Reynolds number effects. In contrary to the compression, the efficiency of expansion in turbines is not so sensitive to the Reynolds number; very small turbines are made with rather good efficiency because the flow acceleration stabilizes the boundary layer. This study presents a system where the kinetic compressor of a gas turbine is replaced with a pulse combustor. The combustor is filled with a combustible gas mixture, ignited, and the generated high pressure gas is expanded in the turbine. The process is repeated frequently, thus producing a pulsating flow to the turbine; or almost a uniform flow, if several parallel combustors are used and triggered alternately in a proper way. Almost all the compression work is made by the temperature increase from the combustion. This gas turbine type is investigated theoretically and its combustor also experimentally with the conclusion that in a 2 kW power size, the pulse flow gas turbine is not as attractive as expected due to the big size and weight of parallel combustors and due to the efficiency being in the order of 8 % to 10 %. However, in special applications having a very low power demand, below 1000 W, this solution has better properties when compared to the conventional gas turbine and it could be worth of a more detailed investigation.

  3. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  4. Estimation method of margin gasdynamic stability of the gas turbine engine while in service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Ф. Кінащук

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Considered is the method of an estimation gasdynamic stability margin of the compressor gas turbine engine under operating conditions. The given way can be used at diagnosing gas turbine engine and gas turbine engine installations.

  5. Gas turbine powerhouse the development of the power generation gas turbine at BBC - ABB - Alstom

    CERN Document Server

    Eckardt, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the power generation gas turbine from the perspective of one of the leading companies in the field over a period of nearly 100 years, written by an engineer. Especially in times of imminent global economic crises it appears to be worthwhile to reflect on real economic values based on engineering ingenuity and enduring management of technological leadership.

  6. Functionally graded mullite coatings for gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tushar

    The next generation of heat exchangers and gas turbines require high performance materials as they need to operate at higher temperatures for higher efficiency. SiC and Si3N4 are promising candidates as they have excellent high temperature properties. However, when used in complex combustion environments found in gas-turbine applications, these materials have two major concerns; namely hot-corrosion and recession. It is well established that environmental barrier coatings (EBC) can be utilized to overcome these limitations. Although chemical vapor deposited (CVD) mullite (3Al2O 3.2SiO2) coatings developed before this study have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres containing Na/V salts and water vapor. There is thus strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica component from the surfaces of mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. In this study, CVD has been used to deposit mullite coatings with potential promise to protect Si-based ceramics for high temperature applications. The composition of these functionally graded mullite coatings was varied from silica-rich close to the coating/substrate (SiC) interface for coefficient of thermal expansion match to alumina-rich towards the outer surface of the coating. In the process, the highest alumina-rich mullite ever reported has been deposited. The phase transformation and hot-corrosion behavior of the coatings was also investigated in this work. The coatings show immense potential to protect Si-based ceramics. It is expected that these coatings will have very broad impact by enabling gas turbines to operate at higher temperatures leading to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions.

  7. GAS TURBINE REHEAT USING IN SITU COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Bachovchin; T.E. Lippert; R.A. Newby P.G.A. Cizmas

    2004-05-17

    In situ reheat is an alternative to traditional gas turbine reheat design in which fuel is fed through airfoils rather than in a bulky discrete combustor separating HP and LP turbines. The goals are to achieve increased power output and/or efficiency without higher emissions. In this program the scientific basis for achieving burnout with low emissions has been explored. In Task 1, Blade Path Aerodynamics, design options were evaluated using CFD in terms of burnout, increase of power output, and possible hot streaking. It was concluded that Vane 1 injection in a conventional 4-stage turbine was preferred. Vane 2 injection after vane 1 injection was possible, but of marginal benefit. In Task 2, Combustion and Emissions, detailed chemical kinetics modeling, validated by Task 3, Sub-Scale Testing, experiments, resulted in the same conclusions, with the added conclusion that some increase in emissions was expected. In Task 4, Conceptual Design and Development Plan, Siemens Westinghouse power cycle analysis software was used to evaluate alternative in situ reheat design options. Only single stage reheat, via vane 1, was found to have merit, consistent with prior Tasks. Unifying the results of all the tasks, a conceptual design for single stage reheat utilizing 24 holes, 1.8 mm diameter, at the trailing edge of vane 1 is presented. A development plan is presented.

  8. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Shende

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity and multiplicity of variables. These are reviewed in this article to throw light on the considerations involved in the design of rotor-bearing-casing systems incorporating squeeze film dampers.

  9. Cooling arrangement for a gas turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Heneveld, Benjamin E

    2015-02-10

    A cooling arrangement (82) for a gas turbine engine component, the cooling arrangement (82) having a plurality of rows (92, 94, 96) of airfoils (98), wherein adjacent airfoils (98) within a row (92, 94, 96) define segments (110, 130, 140) of cooling channels (90), and wherein outlets (114, 134) of the segments (110, 130) in one row (92, 94) align aerodynamically with inlets (132, 142) of segments (130, 140) in an adjacent row (94, 96) to define continuous cooling channels (90) with non continuous walls (116, 120), each cooling channel (90) comprising a serpentine shape.

  10. Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Wall Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Razvan Virgil (Inventor); Matalanis, Claude G. (Inventor); Stucky, Mark B. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an inlet duct formed to have a shape with a first ellipse in one half and a second ellipse in a second half. The second half has an upstream most end which is smaller than the first ellipse. The inlet duct has a surface defining the second ellipse which curves away from the first ellipse, such that the second ellipse is larger at an intermediate location. The second ellipse is even larger at a downstream end of the inlet duct leading into a fan.

  11. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  12. Possibilities for the filtration of inlet air for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievert, J.; Reinhardt, H.

    1988-05-01

    Gas turbines require large quantities of air, which are sucked in from the atmosphere. Depending on the weather conditions and the location of the gas turbine the ambient air contains impurities which may lead to damage to or contamination of the blading of the compressors and turbines. In consequence this causes a reduction in output or efficiency. In principle there are several possibilities for the filtration of air sucked in for gas turbines of which the technically relevant ones at the present time are described.

  13. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  14. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  15. Gas and electric power opening of the markets. Reality, limits and paradoxes the position of the cogeneration; Gaz electricite ouverture des marches. Realite, limites et paradoxes place de la cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    During these two days of the colloquium on gas and electric power market opening, industrial and french administration discussed about the new market deregulation impacts and the cogeneration position in this context. The position of EDF and Gaz De France, the european competition and the government policy are presented. These nineteen papers proposed an economic analysis and the state of the art of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  16. Development of Compressor for Ultra Micro Gas Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shimpei MIZUKI

    2007-01-01

    The major problems for the development of an ultra micro gas turbine system were discussed briefly from the stand point of the internal flow and the performance characteristics. Following to these, the development of ultra micro centrifugal compression systems for the ultra micro gas turbine is explained with the design and the manufacturing processes. The measured results of ultra micro centrifugal compressors are shown.

  17. Gas turbine vane cooling air insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.E.; Hultgren, K.G.; Dishman, C.D.; Van Heusden, G.S.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a gas turbine. It comprises turbine vanes, each of the vanes supplied with cooling air and having: an airfoil portion forming a first cavity having an insert disposed therein for directing the flow of the cooling air, the insert having first and second insert ends; a shroud portion from which the airfoil portion extends, the insert attached to the shroud portion at the first insert end; an insert extension extending through a portion of the insert and extending beyond the first insert end, the insert extension and the insert forming an annular gap therebetween separating the insert from the insert extension; a plate covering at least a portion of the shroud, the plate having a first hole formed therein through which the insert extension extends; and at least a first seal extending between the insert extension and the insert, and sealing the annular gap therebetween. This patent also describes a method of making a gas turbine. It comprises welding a first tubular insert adjacent its first end to a vane outer shroud; partially inserting a second tubular insert into the first tubular member and attaching the second tubular insert thereto; placing a plate having a hole formed therein on the outer shroud so that the hole surrounds the second tubular insert; and attaching the second tubular insert to the plate by placing a first seal between the first and second tubular inserts and attaching the first seal to each of the first and second tubular inserts, and placing a second seal between the second tubular insert and the plate and welding the second seal to the second tubular insert and the plate.

  18. Flame Imaging of Gas-Turbine Relight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Robert; Rogerson, J.W.; Hochgreb, S.

    2010-01-01

    High-altitude relight inside a lean-direct-injection gas-turbine combustor is investigated experimentally by highspeed imaging. Realistic operating conditions are simulated in a ground-based test facility, with two conditions being studied: one inside and one outside the combustor ignition loop....... The motion of hot gases during the early stages of relight is recorded using a high-speed camera. An algorithm is developed to track the flame movement and breakup, revealing important characteristics of the flame development process, including stabilization timescales, spatial trajectories, and typical...... velocities of hot gas motion. Although the observed patterns of ignition failure are in broad agreement with results from laboratory-scale studies, other aspects of relight behavior are not reproduced in laboratory experiments employing simplified flow geometries and operating conditions. For example, when...

  19. Economics and Performance Forecast of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaotao; SUGISHITA Hideaki; NI Weidou; LI Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Forecasts of the economics and performance of gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC) with various types of gas turbines will help power plant designers to select the best type of gas turbine for future Chinese powerplants. The cost and performance of various designs were estimated using the commercial software GT PRO. Improved GTCC output will increase the system efficiency which may induce total investment and will certainly increase the cumulative cash which then will induce the cost and the payback period. The relative annual fuel output increases almost in proportion to the relative GTCC output. China should select the gas turbine that provides the most economical output according to its specific conditions. The analysis shows that a GTCC power plant with a medium-sized 100 to 200 MW output gas turbine is the most suitable for Chinese investors.

  20. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  1. Update on DOE Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Cooling Flow Reduction: a) Focus on improving turbine hot gas path part cooling efficiency. b) Applicable to current metallic turbine components and synergistic with advanced materials. c) Address challenges of IGCC/hydrogen fuel environment (for example, possible cooling hole plugging). Leakage Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing turbine parasitic leakages, i.e. between static-to-static, static-to-rotating turbine parts. b) Develop improved seal designs in a variety of important areas. Purge Flow Reduction: a) Focus on decreasing required flows to keep rotor disk cavities within temperature limits. b) Develop improved sealing at the cavity rims and modified flow geometries to minimize hot gas ingestion and aerodynamic impact.

  2. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  3. An insight on reheat gas turbine for combined cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marco A.C.; Carneiro, Helder F.F.M.; Barbosa, Joao R. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: marco@asap.iae.cta.br; helder@asap.iae.cta.br; barbosa@mec.ita.cta.br; Travieso, Luis E. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail: travisan@adinet.com.uy; Pilidis, Pericles [Cranfield University, Beds (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.pilidis@cranfield.ac.uk

    2000-07-01

    The design point performance of reheat gas turbines for combined cycle is investigated in this work. A comparison of reheat and simple cycle results is used to draw the main conclusions. Some conclusions available in the literature were confirmed; such as the fact that reheat increases the specific power and reduces the efficiency of the gas turbines. The latter is mainly a consequence of the increase of the amount of energy (heat) lost in the exhaust, represented by an increase in turbine exhaust temperature. Thus, the reheat cycle gas turbine can be considered well suitable to combined cycle. In this case the reheat combined cycle efficiency increases, compared to simple cycle, in spite of the reduction in efficiency of the gas turbine reheat cycle, with the advantage of a significant increase in specific power. (author)

  4. International gas turbine congress 1999 Kobe. Technical program; 1999 nen kokusai gas turbine kaigi hokoku. Ronbun kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaru, T. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-20

    Presented at the above-named congress were 6 keynote speeches, 31 lectures on special fields in an organized session, and 112 lectures on general technologies. The keynotes speeches were Industrial Gas Turbines in a Globally Competitive Market and Environmental Regulations, by Ichiro Fukue of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.; Gas Turbine Combustion and Emission Abatement Technology - Current and Projected Status, by D. W. Bahr; State of the Art and Future of Turbine Technology, by John D. Denton; Gas Turbine Compressor Technology: Status and Opportunities, by E. M. Greitzer and David C. Wisler; Commercial Aircraft Gas Turbines in 21st Century, by Genji Ito of Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; and Gas Turbine Hot Parts Maintenance and Repair Technology, by Tomohiro Honma of Toshiba Corporation. The lectures on special fields were 5 on ceramic gas turbines; 5 on gas turbines for ships and industries; 4 on advanced combined cycle; 5 on advanced materials and coatings; 7 on HYPR-HST/SST (Super/Hypersonic Transport Propulsion System); and 6 on nonstationary aerodynamics and vibration. There were 112 lectures on general technologies involving development and performance, aerodynamics, heat transfer, combustion, and element parts and materials. Also, there was panel discussion. (NEDO)

  5. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  6. The RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies to distributed generation, cogeneration and thermoelectric in developing the natural gas in Brazil; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a geracao distribuida, cogeracao e termeletrica, no desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    From the PETROBRAS Strategic Plan, where 2015 mission and vision are defined, one search to reach the corporative strategy: 'to lead the natural gas market (NG) and to act in a integrated way in the energy market'. Amongst the corporative politics to guide the business strategies, we will be focusing the new businesses development, having as guide line the annual average growth in the domestic demand of NG, 14.2%. The Investment Plan foresees for the energy and gas area investments around US$ 1.8 billion for the 2003/2007 period, being approximately US$ 500 million destined to the conclusion of the already initiated projects of thermoelectric plants. The Strategic Technological Committee of Energy and Gas (COMEG 2003) defined as technologies of interest for PETROBRAS: renewed energies; sustainable development; NG chemical transformation; NG transport, distribution and storage; distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric; production, distribution and use of hydrogen as energy vector; industrial, commercial and residential applications of NG; energy efficiency; automotive systems applications; high power electrical systems and environment. The technology explained in this work, for development of the Brazilian Natural Gas Industry, highly compliant with the NG mass use plan, is the distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric and its associated technologies (combustion, IGCC, thermoelectric cycles optimization, gas turbines, boiler/heat recovers, microturbines, fuel cells, combustion engines, renewed energies and cold generation among others). There are several business strategies related to this technology: to play in the electric energy business to assure the NG and derivatives market commercialized by PETROBRAS; to play in the development of alternative sources of energy and; to invest in conservation of energy and renewable energy to add value to the company business. The RedeGasEnergia portfolio has 22 projects in this

  7. Computational thermo-fluid dynamics contributions to advanced gas turbine engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. W.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rohlik, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design practices for the gas turbine are traced throughout history with particular emphasis on the calculational or analytical methods. Three principal components of the gas turbine engine will be considered: namely, the compressor, the combustor and the turbine.

  8. Blade Deterioration in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tabakoff

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to predict blade erosion of gas turbine engines. The blade material erosion model is based on three dimensional particle trajectory simulation in the three-dimensional turbine flow field. The trajectories provide the special distribution of the particle impact parameters over the blade surface. A semi-empirical erosion model, derived from erosion tests of material samples at different particulate flow conditions, is used in the prediction of blade surface erosion based on the trajectory impact data. To improve the blade erosion resistance and to decrease the blade deterioration, the blades must be coated. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of rhodium platinum aluminide coating exposed to erosion by fly ash particles. New protective coatings are developed for erosion and thermal barrier. Chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD was used to apply the ceramic TiC coatings on INCO 718 and stainless steel 410. The erosive wear of the coated samples was investigated experimentally by exposing them to particle laden flow at velocities from 180 to 305m/s and temperatures from ambient to 538°C in a specially designed erosion wind tunnel. Both materials (INCO 718 and stainless steel 410 coated with CVD TiC showed one order of magnitude less erosion rate compared to some commercial coatings on the same substrates.

  9. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  10. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected...

  12. Cogeneration at Heineken Zoeterwoude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albronda, T.K.

    1988-02-01

    In 1982 Shell and Heineken entered into a basic agreement on investing and exploiting a cogeneration installation for the Heineken production department in Zoeterwoude, Netherlands. For this purpose the Energy Conversion Company Zoeterwoude (ECMZ) was founded. The ECMZ purpose is to converse gas and water into electric power and steam. Before realizing the construction of a cogeneration plant a feasibility study was done, of which the results are given. Details of the cogeneration installation are explained with the help of illustrations. The installation is in operation for more than two years and in technical respect not disappointing. Financial-economical the project did not come up to expectations as a consequence of decrease in energy prices in 1985.

  13. The natural gas for electric energy production and other industrial inputs by using cogeneration; O gas natural na producao de energia eletrica e outros insumos industriais atraves da cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of using natural gas in the cogeneration plants for electric power generation, and others inputs used in the different industrial sectors. Afterwards the end of the state monopoly on electrical energy generation, the cogeneration systems have been stimulated. The construction of the Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline gives the real possibility of utilization of natural gas as an effective energy alternative what can help to minimize the industrial energy blackout, mainly in the pipeline neighbourhood. This work also presents both the economic and technical advantages of using natural gas at existing industrial plants in the region of Jundiai city at the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  14. The UTZ Special Design Office for Construction of Gas Turbines turns fifty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyryanov, Yu. P.

    2008-08-01

    The main lines of activities conducted at the ZAO Ural Turbine Works Special Design Office for Construction of Gas Turbines on developing stationary gas turbine units for power engineering, driving gasturbine units for gas pumping stations, and gas turbines for utilizing secondary resources are presented.

  15. A Mathematical Model of Gas-Turbine Pump Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilevoy, V. A.; Chekardovsky, S. M.; Zakirazkov, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    The articles analyzes the state of an extensive network of main oil pipelines of Tyumen region on the basis of statistical data, and also suggest ways of improving the efficiency of energy-saving policy on the main transport oil. Various types of main oil pipelines pump drives were examined. It was determined that now there is no strict analytical dependence between main operating properties of the power turbine of gas turbine engine. At the same time it is necessary to determine the operating parameters using a turbine at GTPU, interconnection between power and speed frequency, as well as the feasibility of using a particular mode. Analysis of foreign experience, the state of domestic enterprises supplying the country with gas turbines, features of the further development of transport of hydrocarbon resources allows us to conclude the feasibility of supplying the oil transportation industry of our country with pumping units based on gas turbine drive.

  16. Advanced Ni base superalloys for small gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, J.B.; Harris, K.

    2011-07-15

    Nickel base superalloy materials have extensive applications in the hot turbine section of aero and industrial gas turbine engines. They provide a unique combination of characteristics suitable for higher temperature strength and durability requirements and are also applicable to small turbine and missile engines. Specific considerations pertinent to selection of superalloys for small gas turbine engines include not only overall mechanical properties, but also the changes in properties over time due to operation, reduction in properties for thin wall applications compared to thick section database values, alloy density and the effect on disc and shaft alloy selection, and always, material/component costs. Nickel base superalloys were first introduced into military gas turbine engines during the Second World War and the technology has advanced dramatically since that time, including conventionally cast equiax (EQ) alloys, directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) cast components. This paper discusses the characteristics and applications of each casting technology.

  17. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocko Marián

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  18. Topology optimization of a gas-turbine engine part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faskhutdinov, R. N.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauzer, K. A.; Maksimov, P. V.; Trufanov, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    One of the key goals of aerospace industry is a reduction of the gas turbine engine weight. The solution of this task consists in the design of gas turbine engine components with reduced weight retaining their functional capabilities. Topology optimization of the part geometry leads to an efficient weight reduction. A complex geometry can be achieved in a single operation with the Selective Laser Melting technology. It should be noted that the complexity of structural features design does not affect the product cost in this case. Let us consider a step-by-step procedure of topology optimization by an example of a gas turbine engine part.

  19. Trends in increasing gas-turbine units efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kostennikov, S. V.

    2008-06-01

    A review of the latest models of gas-turbine units (GTUs) manufactured by leading firms of the world is given. With the example of units made by General Electric, Siemens, and Alstom, modern approaches to the problem of increasing the efficiency of gas-turbine units are dealt with. Basic principles of designing of moderate-size capacity gas turbine units are discussed, and comparison between characteristics of foreign-made GTUs belonging to this class and the advanced domestic GTE-65 unit is made.

  20. Diagnostics of gas turbines based on changes in thermodynamics parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocko, Marián; Klimko, Marek

    2016-03-01

    This article is focused on solving the problems of determining the true state of gas turbine based on measured changes in thermodynamic parameters. Dependence between the real individual parts for gas turbines and changing the thermodynamic parameters were experimentally verified and confirmed on a small jet engine MPM-20 in the laboratory of the Department of Aviation Engineering at Technical University in Košice. The results of experiments confirm that the wear and tear of basic parts for gas turbines (turbo-compressor engines) to effect the change of thermodynamic parameters of the engine.

  1. Influence of Cycle Air Parameters and Flue Gas Path Aerodynamics on Efficiency of Gas Turbine and Steam Gas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Grinchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an influence of gas-air path aerodynamic resistance for a gas-turbine plant, barometric pressure, air moisture and outside air temperature on parameters, efficiency and characteristics of electric power plants with gas-turbine and combined-cycle sets. Calculations and analysis have been executed for Alstom GT13E2 gas-turbine which is included in composition of Steam Gas Plant-230 at the Minsk Thermal Power Plant No.3.

  2. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oakey

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  3. Advanced cogeneration research study. Survey of cogeneration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-five facilities that consumed substantial amounts of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil were surveyed by telephone in 1983. The primary objective of the survey was to estimate the potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology. An estimated 3667 MW sub e could potentially be generated using cogenerated technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2569 MW sub p and advanced technology could provide 1098 MW sub e. Approximately 1611 MW sub t was considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  4. Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycles with synthetic fuels from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Corman, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Open-Cycle Gas Turbine/Steam Turbine Combined Cycle can be an effective energy conversion system for converting coal to electricity. The intermediate step in this energy conversion process is to convert the coal into a fuel acceptable to a gas turbine. This can be accomplished by producing a synthetic gas or liquid, and by removing, in the fuel conversion step, the elements in the fuel that would be harmful to the environment if combusted. In this paper, two open-cycle gas turbine combined systems are evaluated: one employing an integrated low-Btu gasifier, and one utilizing a semi-clean liquid fuel. A consistent technical/economic information base is developed for these two systems, and is compared with a reference steam plant burning coal directly in a conventional furnace.

  5. A simulation model for Carson Ice Co-Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.K.W.; Elmasri, M. [Thermoflow, Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States); Brownell, G. [SMUD, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a software system to simulate the performance of the Carson Ice Co-gen Facility operated by the Carson Energy Group. This 100 MW plant consists of a cogeneration combined cycle and a simple cycle unit powered by LM6000 gas turbine generators. Features of the system include inlet heating/absorption chilling for the gas turbines, supplementary firing capability, and a broad range of steam turbine extractions and admissions. The software enables the operator to model complex operating scenarios. It predicts technical and economic performance under a wide range of conditions, taking into account various equipment constraints and operation preferences. For any set of user-specified operating inputs, the corresponding heat and mass balance diagrams as well as economic figures may be viewed virtually instantaneously. Interactive plots of plant heat rate, incremental heat rate, operating income, and other parameters reveal issues and trade-offs involved in performance and economic optimization.

  6. Application of LES in the study of inlet flow field in marine gas turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-long; SUN Hai-ou; SUN Tao; HU Yan-yong

    2005-01-01

    The structure and aerodynamics performance of gas turbine inlet system is an important part of technology of gas turbine installed on naval vessels. The design and numerical simulations of gas turbine inlet system are conducted and reliable foundation for design and manufacture of marine gas turbine inlet system of high performance is provided. Numerical simulations and experiments of two inlet system models of gas turbine are conducted with satisfactory results and are of significance to the actual application of the inlet system.

  7. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT), a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG), and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG). The results show that (1) a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2) at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle...

  8. CDM incidence in the economical feasibility of cogeneration in Argentine; Incidencia del MDL en la factibilidad economica de sistemas de cogeneracion industrial en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, Maria Isabel; Fushimi, Alberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria. Area Departamental Mecanica], e-mail: misosa@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar, e-mail: afushimi@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the contribution to the financial and economic feasibility of cogeneration systems with gas turbine and exhaust gas heat recovery boiler is discussed in function of the financial credit for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions (GH Gs) by using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It has to be kept in mind the restrictions of these systems to be capital intensive projects subject to the effects of the economy of scale. Other factors to take into account are the constancy of the heat demand, the rates of sale of electricity and steam surpluses, the regulatory laws, the ignorance of the cogeneration technologies on the part of the investor, among others. The profitability of the investment for implementation of a cogeneration system can be elevated in large facilities with gas turbines and heat recovery boiler (T G + HRSG). Results discussed in previous papers are pointed out and new conclusions are enunciated. (author)

  9. Analysis of regenerative thermal storage geometries for solar gas turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic heat regenerators are suited to providing thermal storage for concentrating solar power stations based on a recuperated gas turbine cycle. Randomly packed beds of spheres and saddles; honeycombs and checker bricks were identified...

  10. Reflection error correction of gas turbine blade temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel; Feng, Chi; Gao, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurement of gas turbine blades' temperature is one of the greatest challenges encountered in gas turbine temperature measurements. Within an enclosed gas turbine environment with surfaces of varying temperature and low emissivities, a new challenge is introduced into the use of radiation thermometers due to the problem of reflection error. A method for correcting this error has been proposed and demonstrated in this work through computer simulation and experiment. The method assumed that emissivities of all surfaces exchanging thermal radiation are known. Simulations were carried out considering targets with low and high emissivities of 0.3 and 0.8 respectively while experimental measurements were carried out on blades with emissivity of 0.76. Simulated results showed possibility of achieving error less than 1% while experimental result corrected the error to 1.1%. It was thus concluded that the method is appropriate for correcting reflection error commonly encountered in temperature measurement of gas turbine blades.

  11. Humid Air Turbine as a Primary Link PRIVATE of a Conventional Gas Turbine Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T. Szargut

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the primary link of a conventional gas turbine set has been expressed by means of the incremental energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the attained increase of power to the increase of chemical energy consumption. The calculations performed for the humid air turbine (HAT applied as a primary link indicate a high effectiveness of the utilization of the additionally consumed fuel. The compression ratio in both parts of the considered gas turbine set has been optimized in order to attain maximum energy efficiency.

  12. Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poživil Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of expansion turbines in natural gas pressure reduction stations it is possible to produce clean, “green” electricity.Such energy recovery unit utilize the potential energy of natural gas being delivered under high pressure. Expansion turbines are not onlyefficient and profitable but meet the environmental criteria – no emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide.

  13. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  14. A Microprocessor-Based System for Monitoring Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K.S. Shrivastava

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available The development and testing of hardware and software for a microprocessor-based monitoring system for gas turbines is described in this paper. The operators of gas turbines can be trained to monitor running hours, slip between high and low pressure compressor spools and torque on the reduction gear-box under various conditions ofoperation. The system will replace the traditional method of monitoring these parameters which are more time consuming and error prone.

  15. Unmanned aerial vehicles: a study of gas turbine application

    OpenAIRE

    Lobik, David P.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of commercially-available gas turbine, spark and compression ignition engines was conducted to evaluate their current and future relative suitability for the DoD's unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) short and close range program. The effects on performance associated with reducing gas turbine engine size from full scale to UAV dimensions were examined. A small turbo-jet engine (produced in France for remotely piloted vehicles) was procured in order to evaluate what levels of performance, ...

  16. Non-contacting shaft seals for gas and steam turbines

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Improvements upon current gas turbine sealing technology performance are essential for decreasing specific fuel consumption to meet stringent future efficiency targets. The clearances between rotating and static components of a gas turbine, which need to be sealed, vary over a flight cycle. Hence, a seal which can passively maintain an optimum clearance, whilst preventing contact between itself and the rotor, is extremely desirable. Various configurations of a Rolls Royce (RR) seal concep...

  17. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.

  18. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A

    2013-08-01

    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples.

  19. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating environment and the performance goals for the gas turbine. Selection of these systems can be a challenging task. This paper provides a review of the considerations for selecting an inlet filtration system by covering (1 the characteristics of filters and filter systems, (2 a review of the many types of filters, (3 a detailed look at the different environments where the gas turbine can operate, (4 a process for evaluating the site where the gas turbine will be or is installed, and (5 a method to compare various filter system options with life cycle cost analysis.

  20. Flashback mechanisms in lean premixed gas turbine combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Benim, Ali Cemal

    2014-01-01

    Blending fuels with hydrogen offers the potential to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions in gas turbines, but doing so introduces potential new problems such as flashback.  Flashback can lead to thermal overload and destruction of hardware in the turbine engine, with potentially expensive consequences. The little research on flashback that is available is fragmented. Flashback Mechanisms in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustion by Ali Cemal Benim will address not only the overall issue of the flashback phenomenon, but also the issue of fragmented and incomplete research.Presents a coherent review of f

  1. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... demonstration of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants.} A preliminary analysis of the ideal recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...... for the indirectly fired gas turbine (IFGT) and for the supplementary-fired IFGT. Both results show that the combination of external firing and internal firing have the potential of reducing or solving some problems with the use of biomass both in the recuperated and the indirectly fired gas turbine: The former...

  3. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.; Smialek, James L.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; More, Karren L.; Nickel, Klaus G.; Hirata, Takehiko; Yoshida, Makoto; Yuri, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Figure 26.1 illustrates the requirements for components of an aircraft engine and critical issues [1]. Currently, heat engines are constructed of metal alloys, which meet these requirements within strict temperature limits. In order to extend these temperature limits, ceramic materials have been considered as potential engine materials, due to their high melting points and stability at high temperatures. These materials include oxides, carbides, borides, and nitrides. Interest in using these materials in engines appears to have begun in the 1940s with BeO-based porcelains [2]. During the 1950s, the efforts shifted to cermets. These were carbide-based materials intended to exploit the best properties of metals and ceramics. During the 1960s and 1970s, the silicon-based ceramics silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were extensively developed. Although the desirable high-temperature properties of SiC and Si3N4 had long been known, consolidation of powders into component-sized bodies required the development of a series of specialized processing routes [3]. For SiC, the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding, hot-pressing, and sintering. The use of boron and carbon as additives which enable sintering was a particularly noteworthy advance [4]. For Si3N4 the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding and hot pressing [5]. Reaction-bonding involves nitridation of silicon powder. Hot pressing involves addition of various refractory oxides, such as magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al2O3), and yttria (y2O3). Variations on these processes include a number of routes including Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), gas-pressure sintering

  4. Generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of natural gas in a gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, R.; Tober, E.; Kok, J.B.W.; Meer, van der T.H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of partial oxidation in a gas turbine (PO-GT) in the production of synthesis gas for methanol production is explored. In PO-GT, methane is compressed, preheated, partial oxidized and expanded. For the methanol synthesis a 12% gain in thermal efficiency has been calculated for the PO-

  5. Generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of natural gas in a gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, R.; Tober, E.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of partial oxidation in a gas turbine (PO-GT) in the production of synthesis gas for methanol production is explored. In PO-GT, methane is compressed, preheated, partial oxidized and expanded. For the methanol synthesis a 12% gain in thermal efficiency has been calculated for the

  6. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U

  7. Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper descirbes a relatively simple axial flow gas expansion turbine mass model, which we developed for use in our space power system studies. The model uses basic engineering principles and realistic physical properties, including gas conditions, power level, and material stresses, to provide reasonable and consistent estimates of turbine mass and size. Turbine design modifications caused by boundary layer interactions, stress concentrations, stage leakage, or bending and thermal stresses are not accounted for. The program runs on an IBM PC, uses little computer time and has been incorporated into our system-level space power platform analysis computer codes. Parametric design studies of hydrogen turbines using this model are presented for both nickel superalloy and carbon/carbon composite turbines. The effects of speed, pressure ratio, and power level on hydrogen turbine mass are shown and compared to a baseline case 100-MWe, 10,000-rpm hydrogen turbine. Comparison with more detailed hydrogen turbine designs indicates that our simplified model provides mass estimates that are within 25% of the ones provided by more complex calculations. 8 figs.

  8. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  9. Ceramic regenerator systems development program. [for automobile gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. A.; Fucinari, C. A.; Lingscheit, J. N.; Rahnke, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Ceramic regenerator cores are considered that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines. The results of 19,600 hours of turbine engine durability testing are described. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate, continue to show promise toward achieving the durability objectives of this program. A regenerator core made from aluminum silicate showed minimal evidence of chemical attack damage after 6935 hours of engine test at 800 C and another showed little distress after 3510 hours at 982 C. Results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are also included.

  10. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  11. GTHTR300 cost reduction through design upgrade and cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xing L., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Hiroyuki; Kamiji, Yu; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency began design and development of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor of 300MWe nominal output (GTHTR300) in 2001. The reactor baseline design completed three years later was based on 850 °C core outlet temperature and a direct cycle gas turbine balance of plant. It attained 45.6% net power generation efficiency and 3.5 US¢/kW h cost of electricity. The cost was estimated 20% lower than LWR. The latest design upgrade has incorporated several major technological advances made in the past ten years to both reactor and balance of plant. As described in this paper, these advances have enabled raising the design basis reactor core outlet temperature to 950 °C and increasing power generating efficiency by nearly 5% point. Further implementation of seawater desalination cogeneration is made through employing a newly-proposed multi-stage flash process. Through efficient waste heat recovery of the reactor gas turbine power conversion cycle, a large cost credit is obtained against the conventionally produced water prices. Together, the design upgrade and the cogeneration are shown to reduce the GTHTR300 cost of electricity to under 2.7 US¢/kW h.

  12. Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, O.

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better blade cooling technology in topping cycle and enhanced heat recovery in bottoming cycle. The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperatures (TITs) of both gas turbine and steam turbine. Literature review shows that a combined cycle with transpiration cooled gas turbine has not been analyzed with varying gas/steam TITs. In view of above the present study has been undertaken for thermodynamic study of gas/steam combined cycle with respect to variation in TIT in both topping and bottoming cycles, for air transpiration cooled gas turbine. The performance of combined cycle with dual pressure heat recovery steam generator has been evaluated for different cycle pressure ratios (CPRs) varying from 11 to 23 and the selection diagrams presented for TIT varying from 1,600 to 1,900 K. Both the cycle efficiency and specific work increase with TIT for each pressure ratio. For each TIT there exists an optimum pressure ratio for cycle efficiency and specific work. For the CPR of 23 the best cycle performance is seen at a TIT of 1,900 K for maximum steam temperature of 570 °C, which gives the cycle efficiency of 60.9 % with net specific work of 909 kJ/kg.

  13. Proceedings of the flexible, midsize gas turbine program planning workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission (CEC) held a program planning workshop on March 4--5, 1997 in Sacramento, California on the subject of a flexible, midsize gas turbine (FMGT). The workshop was also co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Gas Turbine Association (GTA), and the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program (CAGT). The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a broad cross section of knowledgeable people to discuss the potential benefits, markets, technical attributes, development costs, and development funding approaches associated with making this new technology available in the commercial marketplace. The participants in the workshop included representatives from the sponsoring organizations, electric utilities, gas utilities, independent power producers, gas turbine manufacturers, gas turbine packagers, and consultants knowledgeable in the power generation field. Thirteen presentations were given on the technical and commercial aspects of the subject, followed by informal breakout sessions that dealt with sets of questions on markets, technology requirements, funding sources and cost sharing, and links to other programs.

  14. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  15. Cogeneration based on gasified biomass - a comparison of concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Fredrik

    1999-01-01

    In this report, integration of drying and gasification of biomass into cogeneration power plants, comprising gas turbines, is investigated. The thermodynamic cycles considered are the combined cycle and the humid air turbine cycle. These are combined with either pressurised or near atmospheric gasification, and steam or exhaust gas dryer, in a number of combinations. An effort is made to facilitate a comparison of the different concepts by using, and presenting, similar assumptions and input data for all studied systems. The resulting systems are modelled using the software package ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}, and for each system both the electrical efficiency and the fuel utilisation are calculated. The investigation of integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC), reveals that systems with pressurised gasification have a potential for electrical efficiencies approaching 45% (LHV). That is 4 - 5 percentage points higher than the corresponding systems with near atmospheric gasification. The type of dryer in the system mainly influences the fuel utilisation, with an advantage of approximately 8 percentage points (LHV) for the steam dryer. The resulting values of fuel utilisation for the IGCC systems are in the range of 78 - 94% (LHV). The results for the integrated gasification humid air turbine systems (IGHAT) indicate that electrical efficiencies close to the IGCC are achievable, provided combustion of the fuel gas in highly humidified air is feasible. Reaching a high fuel utilisation is more difficult for this concept, unless the temperature levels in the district heating network are low. For comparison a conventional cogeneration plant, based on a CFB boiler and a steam turbine (Rankine cycle), is also modelled in ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}. The IGCC and IGHAT show electrical efficiencies in the range of 37 - 45% (LHV), compared with a calculated value of 31% (LHV) for the Rankine cycle cogeneration plant. Apart from the electrical efficiency, also a high value of fuel

  16. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  17. Development of gas turbines simplified mathematical models; Desenvolvimento de modelos matematicos simplificados das turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Leonardo Vinicius; Mendes, Pedro Paulo C. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletrotecnica; Ferreira, Claudio [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the development and analysis of various mathematical models for gas turbine which can be incorporated to dynamic stability or to electric power systems. The work provides answers for questions such as: the dynamic behaviour of gas turbine driven generator unities, the influence of those equipment in the other elements and the best operational conditions for the equipment.

  18. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  19. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  20. Design for the 145MW blast furnance gas firing gas turbine combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, H. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technical Research Lab.); Kitauchi, Y.; Hiura, H. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago, Hyogo (Japan). Takasago Works)

    1988-01-01

    A 145 MW blast furnance gas firing gas turbine combined cycle plant was designed and installed in a steel works of Japan as a repowering unit. A 124 MW large scale gas turbine with turbine inlet temperature 1150{sup {degrees}}C (1423 K) was adopted as a core engine for the combined cycle plant. The fuel of this gas turbine is blast furnace gas mixed with coke oven gas which are byproducts in steel works, and the calorific value of the mixed gas to be controlled is about 1000 kcal/Nm{sup 3} (4187 kJ/Nm{sup 3}). A specially designed multi-cannular type combustor was developed to burn such a low BTV fuel. The gas turbine, generator, steam turbine and fuel gas compressor are connected to make a single shaft configuration. As a result of this introducing the gas turbine combined cycle plant, the plant thermal efficiency was achieved above 45% (at NET) and the total electricity generation in the works is increased from 243 MW to 317 MW. This paper describes the design features of this combined cycle plant.

  1. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-05

    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  2. High temperature erosion of coated superalloys for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restall, J.E.; Stephenson, D.J.

    1987-04-01

    Particulate materials ingested with the intake air, together with other solids generated within the gas turbine, are known to have the potential of degrading the hot oxidized or corroded surfaces of static and rotating aerofoil components. The nature of the degradation may be primarily by oxidation, corrosion or erosion or through some form of interaction between these processes. These regimes are illustrated by reference to the metallurgical assessment of components withdrawn from a marine gas turbine and a turbine used for pressurized fluidized-bed combustion trials. The conditions under which surface coatings may be expected to enhance the erosion-corrosion resistance of hot-end turbine components are discussed. From laboratory erosion experiments, particular attention is directed towards the importance of oxide scale plasticity and the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the coating under various particle-loading conditions.

  3. Banshan Gas-Fired Turbine Generator Set Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ No.1 generator set of Banshan gas-fired power generation project, which is the first 9 FA heavy-duty gas turbine generator set in China that has drawn much attention, was successfully put into operation and merged into power grid at 21:30 in June 2, three months ahead of schedule.

  4. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Otto J.; Matin Amani; Ian M. Tougas

    2013-01-01

    Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stabil...

  5. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  6. Alternate Fuels Use in a Vehicular Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    rendement de combustion. DESIGN OF A COMBUSTION CHAMBERS WITH REVERSE FLOW FOR SMALL GAS TURBINES SUMMARY Test bench experimentation of reverse flow...accrolssement <P : diametre <l : rendement enthalplque de combustion y : repere angulalre de sonde INDICES a : air k : combustible 1...de disac- coupler la turbine du compresseur lors des revisions, c’est-i-dtre une realisation modulalre du moteur . L’ftude d’un foyer nouveau au

  7. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  8. Study on the thermal efficiency of gas-turbine FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Dong Sub; Kim, Sung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The thermal efficiency of the gas-turbine LMFBR system using the liquid sodium as a primary coolant and a gas turbine as a power conversion system is evaluated. And then the sodium/helium heat exchangers are analyzed. The evaluation models of the configuration of the sodium/helium heat exchanger having a single pass tube bank or a cross flow tube bank and their effects of the expansion of the heat exchange areas are developed to analyze the size and the performance of a heat exchanger. The design charts corresponding to the evaluation model of the heat technology in field of FBRs without intermediate loops, the concepts of the super critical steam coolant fast breeder reactors(SCFBRs) and of small gas turbine FBRs are reviewed. The thermal efficiency of a gas turbine LMFBR system is expected to reach about 35 % as the technology is developed. Sodium/helium heat exchanger using Phenix reactor as a primary side and a GA-modular gas turbine system as a secondary side, for an example, has the shell diameter of 2 to 3 meters and the tube height of 12 to 17 meters. 44 figs, 14 tabs, 32 refs. (Author).

  9. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  10. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie

    2016-09-06

    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  11. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Objective is to investigate performance of gas turbine materials in steam environment and evaluate remedial measures for alleviating the severity of the problem. Three superalloys commonly used in gas turbines were exposed to 3 steam environments containing different impurity levels for 2 to 6 months. Results: Cr2O3-forming alloys containing 1-4% Al such as IN 738 are susceptible to heavy internal oxidation of Al. High Al (>5%) alloys in which continuous Al2O3 scale can be formed, may not be susceptible to such attack. Deposition of salts from steam will accentuate hot corrosion problems. Alloys with higher Cr content such as X-45 are generally less prone to hot corrosion. The greater damage observed in IN 617 make this alloy less attractive for gas turbines with steam cooling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a good nondestructive method to evaluate microstructural damage.

  12. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  13. Performance analysis and optimization of power plants with gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharati-Givi, Maryam

    The gas turbine is one of the most important applications for power generation. The purpose of this research is performance analysis and optimization of power plants by using different design systems at different operation conditions. In this research, accurate efficiency calculation and finding optimum values of efficiency for design of chiller inlet cooling and blade cooled gas turbine are investigated. This research shows how it is possible to find the optimum design for different operation conditions, like ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio. The simulated designs include the chiller, with varied COP and fogging cooling for a compressor. In addition, the overall thermal efficiency is improved by adding some design systems like reheat and regenerative heating. The other goal of this research focuses on the blade-cooled gas turbine for higher turbine inlet temperature, and consequently, higher efficiency. New film cooling equations, along with changing film cooling effectiveness for optimum cooling air requirement at the first-stage blades, and an internal and trailing edge cooling for the second stage, are innovated for optimal efficiency calculation. This research sets the groundwork for using the optimum value of efficiency calculation, while using inlet cooling and blade cooling designs. In the final step, the designed systems in the gas cycles are combined with a steam cycle for performance improvement.

  14. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  15. Research and Development for Gas Turbine System in GTHTR300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Yan, Xing; Kosugiyama, Shinichi

    The GTHTR300 aiming at electric generation with its thermal efficiency of 46% is a safe and economically competitive HTGR in 2010s. A helium gas turbine system connected with the reactor is designed based on existing technologies developed for fossil gas turbine systems. However, there are some uncertainties in performance of a helium gas compressor, electric magnetic bearings and control system. In order to confirm these technical uncertainties, a 1/3 scale model of the compressor and 1/3 scale magnetic bearings will be manufactured and tested in the simulated condition of the GTHTR300. Also, a 5MW helium gas loop composed of the gas turbine system and electric heaters will be constructed, and control performance during startup and shutdown, and off- normal transients such as loss of off site loads will be tested to streamline the gas turbine system. This paper describes R&D plans focusing on the 1/3 scale compressor model test as well as unique design features of the GTHTR300.

  16. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  17. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to test and substantiate erosion-resistant (ER) nanocoatings for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbine engines in both industrial gas turbines and commercial aviation.

  18. Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

  19. Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

  20. Improvements in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines for the 90s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prasad

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The gas turbine propulsion system has been playing the most significant role in the evolution and development of present-day aircraft, and has become the limiting technology for developing most new aircraft. However, the jet engine still remains the preferred propulsion choice. Aircraft gas turbines in one form or the other, viz. turbojet, turbofan, turboprop or turboshaft, have been used in commercial passenger aircraft, high performance military aircraft and in rotary wing aircraft (helicopters. The emphasis in engine development programmes world over seems to be in reducing fuel consumption, increasing thrust and in reducing weight.

  1. Economic viability study of micro-cogeneration plants at residential scale; Estudo de viabilidade economica de plantas de micro-cogeracao em escala residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Ramalho e Soares, Ravi [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Michalewicz, Jacek Stanislaw [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Recife, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a technical and economical feasibility study for the use of micro cogeneration systems in residential scale, using natural gas as an energy source. It was considered two micro-cogeneration systems to meet demand of some types of fictitious establishment of commercial and residential plants, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The first system has as a main driving machine a micro turbine with a nominal capacity of 30 kw, the second one uses a gas motor-generator, with nominal capacity of 35 kw. (author)

  2. Modelling of the change in national exchange rate model depending on the economic parameters of a natural gas cogeneration system: Turkey case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inan, Aslan; Izgi, Ercan; Ay, Selim [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electric-Electronics, Technical University of Yildiz, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, to what extent a cogeneration system's fixed and variable costs and profits are affected from the exchange rate model implemented in the country is examined. An autoproductor system, as known, uses a part of its electrical energy production for its own requirements while selling the remaining energy to the regional energy corporation. As a function of the load factor and the fuel cost, the production cost and energy sale income of the system are influenced much by the exchange rate model of the country. A cost analysis of a natural gas cogeneration (autoproductor) system has been performed for the numerical application, based on the monetary program supported by the IMF commenced in January 2000. In order to investigate the effect of the change in exchange rate model (introducing the floating exchange rate model) on the fuel cost, both the characteristics of the IMF program and some various forecasting methods have been utilized. (author)

  3. Heat transfer and flow characteristics on a gas turbine shroud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, M; Kumada, M; Ijichi, N

    2001-05-01

    The work described in this paper is an experimental investigation of the heat transfer from the main flow to a turbine shroud surface, which may be applicable to ceramic gas turbines. Three kinds of turbine shrouds are considered with a flat surface, a taper surface and a spiral groove surface opposite to the blades in an axial flow turbine of actual turbo-charger. Heat transfer measurements were performed for the experimental conditions of a uniform heat flux or a uniform wall temperature. The effects of the inlet flow angle, rotational speed, and tip clearance on the heat transfer coefficient were clarified under on- and off-design flow conditions. The mean heat transfer coefficient was correlated to the blade Reynolds number and tip clearance, and compared with an experimental correlation and measurements of a flat surface. A comparison was also made for the measurement of static pressure distributions.

  4. Preliminary design of 600 MWt HTGR-gas turbine plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Shiozawa, Shusaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    In JAERI a feasibility study of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor - Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) system has been carried out since January, 1997 as an assigned work by the Science and Technology Agency. This paper describes a result of a preliminary design for a direct cycle plant of 600 MWt carried out in 1997 fiscal year within the framework of this feasibility study. A reactor inlet gas temperature of 460degC, a reactor outlet gas temperature of 850degC and a helium gas pressure of 6 MPa were selected. A power density of 6 MW/m{sup 3} and the maximum burnup of 10{sup 5} MWD/ton were achieved. A single-shaft horizontal turbomachine of 3600 rpm was selected and placed in a turbine vessel. A net thermal efficiency of 45.7% is expected to be achieved. (author)

  5. Technical and financial analysis of combined cycle gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Arshad Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents technical and financial models which were developed in this study to predict the overall performance of combined cycle gas turbine plant in line with the needs of independent power producers in the liberalized market of power sector. Three similar sizes of combined cycle gas turbine power projects up to 200 Megawatt of independent power producers in Pakistan were selected in-order to develop and drive the basic assumptions for the inputs of the models in view of prevailing Government of Pakistan’s two components of electricity purchasing tariff that is energy purchase price and capacity purchase price at higher voltage grid station terminal from independent power producers. The levelized electricity purchasing tariff over life of plant on gaseous fuel at 60 percent plant load factor was 6.47 cent per kilowatt hour with energy purchase price and capacity purchase prices of 3.54 and 2.93 cents per kilowatt hour respectively. The outcome of technical models of gas turbine, steam turbine and combined cycle gas turbine power were found in close agreement with the projects under consideration and provides opportunity of evaluation of technical and financial aspects of combined cycle power plant in a more simplified manner with relatively accurate results. At 105 Celsius exit temperature of heat recovery steam generator flue gases the net efficiency of combined cycle gas turbine was 48.8 percent whereas at 125 Celsius exit temperature of heat recovery steam generator flue gases it was 48.0 percent. Sensitivity analysis of selected influential components of electricity tariff was also carried out.

  6. Availability Analysis of Gas Turbines Used in Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Francisco Martha de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of a complex system, such as a gas turbine, is strongly associated with its parts reliability and maintenance policy. That policy not only has influence on the parts’ repair time but also on the parts’ reliability affecting the system degradation and availability. This study presents a method for reliability and availability evaluation of gas turbines installed in an electric power station. The method is based on system reliability concepts, such as functional tree development, application of failure mode and effects analysis to identify critical components for improvement of system reliability, and reliability and maintainability evaluation based on a historical failure database. The method also proposes the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance concepts to improve complex system maintenance policies aimed at the reduction of unexpected failure occurrences in critical components. The method is applied to the analysis of two F series gas turbines, each with an output of 150 MW, installed in a 500 MW combined cycle power plant. The reliability and availability of the turbines are simulated based on a five-year failure database. The availability analysis shows different results for each turbine, one presenting 99% and the other 96% availability, indicating differences in their systems installation and operation.

  7. 40 CFR 1042.670 - Special provisions for gas turbine engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 also do not apply for gas turbine engines produced in these earlier model... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for gas turbine... AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.670 Special provisions for gas turbine engines....

  8. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112... Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the operation of the transfer means under § 112.20-5, the diesel engine or gas turbine driving the...

  9. Gas turbine cooling modeling - Thermodynamic analysis and cycle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal, Kristin

    1999-02-01

    Considering that blade and vane cooling are a vital point in the studies of modern gas turbines, there are many ways to include cooling in gas turbine models. Thermodynamic methods for doing this are reviewed in this report, and, based on some of these methods, a number of model requirements are set up and a Cooled Gas Turbine Model (CGTM) for design-point calculations of cooled gas turbines is established. Thereafter, it is shown that it is possible to simulate existing gas turbines with the CGTM. Knowledge of at least one temperature in the hot part of the turbine (TET, TRIT or possibly TIT) is found to be vital for a complete heat balance over the turbine. The losses, which are caused by the mixing of coolant and main flow, are in the CGTM considered through a polytropic efficiency reduction factor S. Through the study of S, it can be demonstrated that there is more to gain from coolant reduction in a small and/or old turbine with poor aerodynamics, than there is to gain in a large, modern turbine, where the losses due to interaction between coolant and main flow are, relatively speaking, small. It is demonstrated, at the design point (TET=1360 deg C, {pi}=20) for the simple-cycle gas turbine, that heat exchanging between coolant and fuel proves to have a large positive impact on cycle efficiency, with an increase of 0.9 percentage points if all of the coolant passes through the heat exchanger. The corresponding improvement for humidified coolant is 0.8 percentage points. A design-point study for the HAT cycle shows that if all of the coolant is extracted after the humidification tower, there is a decrease in coolant requirements of 7.16 percentage points, from 19.58% to 12.52% of the compressed air, and an increase in thermal efficiency of 0.46 percentage points, from 53.46% to 53.92%. Furthermore, it is demonstrated with a TET-parameter variation, that the cooling of a simple-cycle gas turbine with humid air can have a positive effect on thermal efficiency

  10. Creep-Fatigue Interactions of Gas Turbine Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Goswami

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The military aircraft gas turbine engines are often required to undergo a complex set of.operating conditions where the load varies considerably with respect to time. The temperature range for performing such requirements also increases as the thrust increases.The modern design of gas turbine demands very high thrust-to-weight ratio. In order to achieve this, the design is limited in the low cycle regime. The low cycle regime necessarily has the plasticity effect because of fatigue and inelastic time dependent permanent deformation because of creep. Fatigue and creep interaction studies are very important for the safe life design of critical components such as turbine discs and blades.

  11. Energetic and environmental balance of a natural gas fuelled low-capacity cogeneration system; Energetische und umwelttechnische Bilanz eines erdgasbetriebenen Klein-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, D. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur (F.H.), Leipzig (Germany). Lehrgebiet Produktionsplanung und -steuerung; Werner, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Thermodynamik

    2002-03-01

    FH Leipzig University has been operating a natural gas fuelled cogeneration system since 1998. The performance of the system was tested in field experiments. The contribution presents the energy- and environment-related results. [German] Seit 1998 betreibt die Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig (FH) am Fachbereich Maschinen- und Energietechnik zu Lehr- und Forschungszwecken ein erdgasbetriebenes Blockheizkraftwerk (BHKW). Unter Beachtung wesentlicher energetischer und umwelttechnischer Aspekte ist das Betriebsverhalten des Gas-Otto-Motoren-BHKW anhand von Feldversuchen ermittelt worden. Im Folgenden erfolgt eine Verknuepfung der energetischen und umwelttechnischen Anlageneigenschaften. (orig.)

  12. Gas turbine performance enhancement via utilizing different integrated turbine inlet cooling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A. El-Shazly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regions that experience ambient temperatures rising during hot seasons have significant losses and impacts on both output power and efficiency of the gas turbine. When the ambient temperature increases, the air mass flow rate decreases, and hence leads to reduce the gas turbine produced power. Ambient air can be cooled by using either evaporative cooler or absorption chiller. Currently, the performance was simulated thermodynamically for a natural gas operated gas turbine. The performance was tested for the base case without any turbine inlet cooling (TIC systems and compared with the performance for both evaporative cooler and absorption chiller separately in terms of output power, thermal efficiency, heat rate, specific fuel consumption, consumed fuel mass flow rate, and economics. Results showed that at air ambient temperature equals to 37 °C and after deducting all the associated auxiliaries power consumption for both evaporative cooler and absorption chiller, the absorption chiller with regenerator can achieve an augmentation of 25.47% in power and 33.66% in efficiency which provides a saving in average power price about 13%, while the evaporative cooler provides only an increase of 5.56% in power and 1.55% in efficiency, and a saving of 3% in average power price.

  13. Gas turbine combustion performance test of hydrogen and carbon monoxide synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Chul Lee; Seok Bin Seo; Jae Hwa Chung; Si Moon Kim; Yong Jin Joo; Dal Hong Ahn [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Green Growth Laboratory

    2010-07-15

    The development of coal IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) technology has made it possible to exploit electricity generated from coal at a low cost. Furthermore, IGCC is a pre-requisite for the development of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology and hydrogen generated from coal. To achieve the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, Korea's 300 MW IGCC RDD&D (Research Development, Demonstration and Dissemination) project was launched in December 2006 under the leadership of the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), with the support of the Korea Ministry of Knowledge Economy. When a new fuel is adapted to a gas turbine (such as syngas for IGCC), it is necessary to study the gas turbine combustion characteristics of the fuel, because gas turbines are very sensitive to its physical and chemical properties. This experimental study was conducted by investigating the combustion performance of synthetic gas, which is composed chiefly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The results of a test on synthetic gas combustion performance were compared with the results of methane combustion, which is a major component of natural gas. The results of the combustion test of both gases were examined in terms of the turbine's inlet temperature, combustion dynamics, emission characteristics, and flame structure. From the results of this experimental study, we were able to understand the combustion characteristics of synthetic gas and anticipate the problems when synthetic gas rather than natural gas is fuelled to a gas turbine. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Medi-Caps Institute of Technology and Management, Pigdamber, Rau, Indore (M.P.) (India); Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.) (India)

    2010-12-15

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  15. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  16. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    i . 1 i Dow Corning Corporation 1 Mr. G. Kookootsedes, Market Development, Resins and Chemicals, Midland, Michigan 48640 1 Mr. Donald E...Turbine Producto Division, Building 53-311, Schenectady, New York 12345 Dr. Soloman Musikant, Manager, Metallurgy and Ceramics Lab General Electric...02139 Norton Company 1 Mr. M. Blake, One New Bond Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01606 1 Mr. E. W. Hauck, Market Manager, Engine Components, One

  17. Development of new thermal barrier coating materials for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, X.

    2004-04-01

    New thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials for gas turbines were studied in this work. Two of the most important properties of the material for TBCs, thermal expansion coefficient and phase stability, and the powder preparation by spray-drying are investigated.

  18. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Bijl, Anton; Alst, van Niek; Bramer, Eddy; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  19. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been perform

  20. Prediction and control of combustion instabilities in industrial gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [ALSTOM Power Technology Centre, Leicester (United Kingdom); Troger, C. [ALSTOM Power Sweden AB, Finspaang (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    A key enabling technology for highly efficient gas turbines, with low emissions of nitrogen oxides, is the suppression and control of combustion induced thermoacoustic instabilities. This will require an improved understanding of the phenomena governing these instabilities. A multi-partner project, funded in part by the European Commission, has been set up to address this requirement. Known as Preccinsta, the project has the overall aims of: Investigation of the physics, prediction and control of combustor instabilities. This will lead to the development of validated predictive tools and the development of design rules to avoid such instabilities. These advanced techniques will help to design new combustors for gas turbines with improved efficiency, reliability and availability. Investigation of the ability of industrial gas turbines to burn a wider range of fuels such as biomass and waste derived fuels. This paper gives an overview of the development of techniques to understand and control combustion instabilities in industrial gas turbines. It also presents some of the results achieved within the first two years of the project, focusing on passive damping and burner characterisation for an annular combustion system. These topics demonstrate the excellent interaction of analytical modelling and experimental testing within the project. (author)

  1. Evaluation of premature failure of a gas turbine component

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dedekind, MO

    1996-01-03

    Full Text Available A case study of certain gas turbine stator vanes which fail prematurely is presented, with a view to determining whether operational procedure might have caused the failures. The engines had been operated from a ‘hot-and-high’ environment...

  2. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  3. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that ste

  4. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been

  5. Static Structural and Modal Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Kumar, Ravi; Pandey, K. M., Prof.

    2017-08-01

    Gas turbine is one of the most versatile items of turbo machinery nowadays. It is used in different modes such as power generation, oil and gas, process plants, aviation, domestic and related small industries. This paper is based on the problems concerning blade profile selection, material selection and turbine rotor blade vibration that seriously impact the induced stress-deformation and structural functioning of developmental gas turbine engine. In this paper for generating specific power by rotating blade at specific RPM, blade profile and material has been decided by static structural analysis. Gas turbine rotating blade RPM is decided by Modal Analysis so that the natural frequency of blade should not match with the excitation frequency. For the above blade profile has been modeled in SOLIDWORKS and analysis has been done in ANSYS WORKBENCH 14. Existing NACA6409 profile has been selected as base model and then it is modified by bending it through 72.5° and 145°. Hence these three different blade profiles have been analyzed for three different materials viz. Super Alloy X, Nimonic 80A and Inconel 625 at three different speed viz. 20000, 40000 and 60000RPM. It is found that NACA6409 with 72.5° bent gives best result for all material at all speed. Among all the material Inconel 625 gives best result. Hence Blade of Inconel 625 having 72.5° bent profile is the best combination for all RPM.

  6. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  7. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  8. Operational safety and post-maintenance gas leak detection in GE frame 9001FA gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, D.A.; Marley, L.; Lees, J.A. [PowerGen plc, Connah' s Quay Power Station, Deeside (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    The increased use of natural-gas-fuelled combined cycle gas turbine and combined heat and power plants in recent years has been accompanied by the practice of constructing acoustic enclosures around the gas turbines for environmental reasons. This can increase the risk of an explosion if, for any reason, there is a build-up of flammable gas within the enclosure, since there can be a range of possible ignition sources. The UK Health and Safety Executive consider gas leaks within such enclosures to be foreseeable, especially following maintenance. The paper presents a review of operational safety and a leak detection method for the inspection and design of flanged joints within the acoustic enclosures around GE 9001FA gas turbines, providing a practical step towards minimising the risk of explosion due to fuel leakage. (Author)

  9. Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance: The development of the gas turbine simulation program GSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Numerical modelling and simulation have played a critical role in the research and development towards today’s powerful and efficient gas turbine engines for both aviation and power generation. The simultaneous progress in modelling methods, numerical methods, software development tools and methods,

  10. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C by solar power tower (SPT as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simulation of both cycles is conducted using a developed program in MATLAB environment. Exergetic performances of both cycles and their emissions are compared and parametric study is carried out. A new parameter (renewable factor is proposed to evaluate resources quality and measure how green an exergy loss or destruction or a system as a whole is. Nonrenewable exergy destruction and loss are reduced compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 34.89% and 47.41%, respectively. Reductions in CO2, NOx, and CO compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 49.92%, 66.14%, and 39.77%, respectively, are in line with renewable factor value of around 55.7 which proves the ability of the proposed green measure to evaluate and compare the cycles performances.

  11. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, K.

    1947-01-01

    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  12. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  13. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-09-12

    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  14. Heat Transfer and Cooling in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    and the Re, it is not surprising that the lao/ luc ratio (Figure 14) shows a dependency on y and Re as well. The ratio of the friction factors (fro/frc...obtained using a flat-plate correlation, a two-dimensional parabolic boundary layer code (STAN5), and a three-dimensional viscous code ( NANCY I). The...29-1 PYROMETRE OPTIQUE INFRAROUGE POUR LA MLSURE DFS IEMPERATURES DAUBES DE TURBINE par Marc Charpenel and Jean Wilhern ONERA 29 Ave itue de

  15. LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

    2004-08-01

    In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

  16. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.

    2016-04-26

    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  17. Advanced materials for critical components in industrial gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, T.B. (Div. of Materials Metrology, National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom))

    1992-06-01

    Combined-cycle plant for power production has advantages in terms of capital costs and flexibility compared to large power plants either nuclear of fossil-fired, used for base load. In combined-cycle plant the overall efficiency is highly dependent on the performance of the gas turbine and turbine entry temperatures of > 1200deg C will be required to obtain attractive levels of efficiency. Bearing in mind the need for reliability and longterm performance from components such as turbine blades, the challenge to the materials enginer is formidable. In this paper some of the recent developments in Ni - Cr-base alloys are described and the potential for advanced materials such as ceramics and intermetallics is briefly considered. Development in coating technology to provide effective thermal barriers and good resistance to aggressive environments are discussed. (orig./MM).

  18. Experience with metal/ceramic coating in stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osyka, A.S. [State Area Power Station N3 of Mosenergo (GRES-3), Electrogorsk (Russian Federation); Rybnikov, A.I. [Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Leontiev, S.A. [Leningradsky Metallitchesky Zavod, (LMZ), St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nikitin, N.V. [Ivanovo State Area Power Station, Komsomolsk (Russian Federation); Malashenko, I.S. [E.O. Paton Electric Welding Inst., Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-11-01

    The uncooled rotating blades of the high pressure turbine (HPT) and of the low pressure turbine (LPT) of the peak load power gas turbine GT-100 are protected with electron-beam physically vapour deposited CoCrAlY coatings. Owing to low-temperature hot corrosion leakage, corrosion failure is observed. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/CoCrAlY coatings with a ceramic layer thickness of 50-70 {mu}m have been developed. The maximum service life of blades with the YSZ/CoCrAlY coatings has exceeded 939 h with 253 starts. Study of the YSZ/CoCrAlY coated blades after different service periods (from 306 to 939 h) showed different conditions of the ceramic layer: without any kind of damage, with small local damage, and with large-area spalling. (orig.)

  19. Coating service experience with a peak load power gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybnikov, A.I.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Getsov, L.B. [The Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Leontiev, S.A. [Leningradsky Metallitchesky Zavod, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Osyka, A.S. [State Area Power Station N3 of Mosenegro, Elektrogorsk (Russian Federation); Malashenko, I.S. [E.O. Paton Electric Welding Inst., Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with results of industrial service of turbine blades (rotating blades) made of E1893 alloy with CoCrA1Y and CoCrA1Y/YSZ coatings and of nozzle vanes made of ZhS6K with diffusion Cr-Fe coating of the gas turbine system with the peak power GT100 working in the various regions of Russia. The use of CoCrA1Y coatings retarded the formation of considerable corrosion damages, but after 7500 hours of operation pit corrosion was observed to appear in the diffusion and overlay coatings and in the base metal of buckets and nozzle vanes. The outer ceramic layer can increase the service life of turbine buckets, because sulphur compounds some difficulties to reach the surface of the coating metallic layer. (orig.)

  20. Long run of wood powder fired gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Hassan [Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Tests have been carried out on a biomass gasification test facility at Energy Technology Center in Piteaa (ETC). It was planned to run the facility batchwise for 100 hours. The main aim of these tests was to study the effects of the impurities in the product gas on the blades of a gas turbine. The impurities are the ash particles carried by the product gas and the vaporised metals from the fuel especially the alkali metals. Six successful tests could be done before a breakdown of the gas turbine due to a fouling of the blade tips and the turbine passage resulting in seizing of the turbine. However the runs were sufficient to give new experiences in the running of the plant. The atmospheric preheating by gas combustion in the cyclone appeared to be more reliable than the pressurised preheating with an oil burner. It is also observed that the gasification could be started when the cyclone temperature is 550-600 deg C instead of higher than 700 deg C that was used earlier. The reliability of the feeding system was improved and the plugging of the downcomers was eliminated. It was also observed that the flame stability in the modified combustion chamber of the turbine depends not only on the gas composition but also on the temperature of the gas. A gas temperature that is over 650 deg C gave stable combustion. The effects of the impurities in the gas were studied. Steel cylinders were placed at the inlet of the turbine and the deposits on them were analysed. The turbine wheel was disassembled after the last run and blades were cut and the deposits were analysed too. The analysis was done on the deposits by using scanning electron microscopy. The thickness of deposits was 30-60 {mu}m on the pressure side of the turbineblades while they were too thin to be resolved with the optical microscope on the suction side. Deposits were observed also on the blade-tips and on the turbine case. It was observed that the content of K in the deposits was higher than that in the fuel

  1. Chaotic gas turbine subject to augmented Lorenz equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kenichiro; Miyano, Takaya; Toriyama, Toshiyuki

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the chaotic waterwheel invented by Malkus and Howard about 40 years ago, we have developed a gas turbine that randomly switches the sense of rotation between clockwise and counterclockwise. The nondimensionalized expressions for the equations of motion of our turbine are represented as a starlike network of many Lorenz subsystems sharing the angular velocity of the turbine rotor as the central node, referred to as augmented Lorenz equations. We show qualitative similarities between the statistical properties of the angular velocity of the turbine rotor and the velocity field of large-scale wind in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection reported by Sreenivasan et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056306 (2002)]. Our equations of motion achieve the random reversal of the turbine rotor through the stochastic resonance of the angular velocity in a double-well potential and the force applied by rapidly oscillating fields. These results suggest that the augmented Lorenz model is applicable as a dynamical model for the random reversal of turbulent large-scale wind through cessation.

  2. A Geothermal Energy Supported Gas-steam Cogeneration Unit as a Possible Replacement for the Old Part of a Municipal CHP Plant (TEKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more intensive utilization of local renewable energy sources is indisputable. Under the current economic circumstances their competitiveness in comparison with fossil fuels is rather low, if we do not take into account environmental considerations. Integrating geothermal sources into combined heat and power production in a municipal CHP plant would be an excellent solution to this problem. This concept could lead to an innovative type of power plant - a gas-steam cycle based, geothermal energy supported cogeneration unit.

  3. Construction of a Simulator for the Siemens Gas Turbine SGT-600

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis covers the development of a simulator for the Siemens Gas Tur-bine SGT-600. An explanation on how a gas turbine works is also given, as well as the principles behind the control system used by Siemens to control the turbine. For Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery to be able to test its control sys-tem before delivering a gas turbine to the customer, a simulator is needed. The control system needs to be adjusted for every unique gas turbine, since there are several options for the c...

  4. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  6. Numerical Analysis on Air Ingress Behavior in GTHTR300-Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki; Yan, Xing; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    The objective of this study is to clarify safety characteristics of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) for the pipe rupture accident. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the analytical code for the safety characteristics of the HTGR and carrying out design study of the gas turbine high temperature reactor of 300MWe nominal-capacity for hydrogen production, the GTHTR300C (Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300 for Cogeneration). A numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer fluid flow with multi-component gas mixture has been performed to obtain the variation of the density of the gas mixture, and the onset time of natural circulation of air. From the results obtained in this analysis, it was found that the duration time of the air ingress by molecular diffusion would increase due to the existence of the recuperator in the GTHTR300C system.

  7. Railcar mounted gas turbines serve Chinese power needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-03-01

    The Orenda Division of Hawker Siddeley Canada Ltd. has just completed an order by the China National Technical Import Corp., Peking, for 2 railcar-mounted 9000-kW mobile generating sets. The gas-turbine-powered units, spares, etc., made up a package valued at approximately $4 million. The overall design concept called for a 2-car unit with the gas turbine and generator in one car and the switch gear, control panels, and an auxiliary power unit in the other. At the operating site, the cars are separated by distances of 10 ft (3 m), and the power car is leveled using mechanically operated leveling jacks and a system of liquid-level sight glasses located along the walls of the car. Cable connections between the control and power cars are made through drop-down doors at the facing car ends.

  8. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  9. Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padture, Nitin P; Gell, Maurice; Jordan, Eric H

    2002-04-12

    Hundreds of different types of coatings are used to protect a variety of structural engineering materials from corrosion, wear, and erosion, and to provide lubrication and thermal insulation. Of all these, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have the most complex structure and must operate in the most demanding high-temperature environment of aircraft and industrial gas-turbine engines. TBCs, which comprise metal and ceramic multilayers, insulate turbine and combustor engine components from the hot gas stream, and improve the durability and energy efficiency of these engines. Improvements in TBCs will require a better understanding of the complex changes in their structure and properties that occur under operating conditions that lead to their failure. The structure, properties, and failure mechanisms of TBCs are herein reviewed, together with a discussion of current limitations and future opportunities.

  10. Development of an LCV fuel gas combustor for an industrial gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constant, D.R.; Bevan, D.M.; Cannon, M.F.; Kelsall, G.J. [British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom). Coal Technology Development Division

    1997-12-31

    An important component of the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) development is the gas turbine combustion system. It must burn low calorific value (LCV) coal derived fuel gas, at high turbine inlet temperatures with minimum pollutant emissions. A phase development programme has been completed burning LCV fuel gas (3.6-4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel bound nitrogen. Performance tests were carried out on a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor, at Mach numbers generally lower than those typical to engine applications, with encouraging results. Five design variants, operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine each returned an improvement in combustor performance. A further five variants were investigated to establish which design characteristics and operating parameters most affected NO{sub x} emissions. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of department of energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 3: Performance of redesigned turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a redesigned compressor drive turbine of the gas turbine engine is determined in air at nominal inlet conditions of 325 K and 0.8 bar absolute. The turbine is designed with a lower flow factor, higher rotor reaction and a redesigned inlet volute compared to the first turbine. Comparisons between this turbine and the originally designed turbine show about 2.3 percentage points improvement in efficiency at the same rotor tip clearance. Two versions of the same rotor are tested: (1) an as cast rotor, and (2) the same rotor with reduced surface roughness. The effect of reducing surface roughness is about one half percentage point improvement in efficiency. Tests made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance show no effect for the range from 100,000 to 500,000.

  12. Cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket and tip shroud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, Fred Thomas (25 Long Creek Dr., Burnt Hills, NY 12027); Itzel, Gary Michael (12 Cider Mill Dr., Clifton Park, NY 12065); Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (11 Wyngate Rd., Glenmont, NY 12077); Plemmons, Larry Wayne (late of Hamilton, OH); Plemmons, Helen M. (2900 Long Ridge Trails, Hamilton, OH 45014); Lewis, Doyle C. (444 River Way, Greer, SC 29651)

    2002-01-01

    An open cooling circuit for a gas turbine bucket wherein the bucket has an airfoil portion, and a tip shroud, the cooling circuit including a plurality of radial cooling holes extending through the airfoil portion and communicating with an enlarged internal area within the tip shroud before exiting the tip shroud such that a cooling medium used to cool the airfoil portion is subsequently used to cool the tip shroud.

  13. SFC proves versatile, reliable starter for large gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    The advent of large European-designed gas turbines in the North American market has brought with it the static frequency converter (SFC) as a versatile and reliable alternative to the traditional diesel engine and electric motor starting systems. These machines are characterized by outboard combustion chambers and cold-end drive with an axial exhaust duct giving free access to a recovery boiler in a combined cycle plant. 3 figs.

  14. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    OpenAIRE

    G. Giunta; R. Vernazza; Salerno, R.; Ceppi, A.; Ercolani, G.; Mancini, M

    2017-01-01

    An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a per...

  15. System for tuning a combustor of a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Michael John

    2016-12-27

    A system for tuning a combustor of a gas turbine includes a flow sleeve having an annular main body. The main body includes an upstream end, a downstream end, an inner surface and an outer surface. A cooling channel extends along the inner surface of the main body. The cooling channel extends at least partially between the downstream end and the upstream end of the main body.

  16. Survey and Analysis of Marine Gas Turbine Control After 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    the existing experimental data. Beginning in the early seventies, the U.S. Navy initiated The Gas Turbine Ship Propulsion Control Systems Research and...destroyers. Figure 1 shows a block diagram of the ship propulsion control system used. Simulations performed during the program tended to give good...Postgraduate school applied state space techniques to a linearized model of an FFG-7 ship propulsion system (5). Dynamic propulsion system equations were

  17. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  18. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  19. Fundamental heat transfer research for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, D. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven experts from industry and the universities joined 24 NASA Lewis staff members in an exchange of ideas on trends in aeropropulsion research and technology, basic analyses, computational analyses, basic experiments, near-engine environment experiments, fundamental fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and hot technology as related to gas turbine engines. The workshop proceedings described include pre-workshop input from participants, presentations of current activity by the Lewis staff, reports of the four working groups, and a workshop summary.

  20. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  1. Industrial gas turbine combustion system for biogas applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Cannon, M.F.; Witton, J.J. [Alstom Power Technology Centre, Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper concentrates on work carried out within a UK DTI supported project, to assess and choose the most appropriate gas turbine combustor technology for commercial biomass and coal gasification applications. A particular issue was the control of CO and NOx emissions over the full gas turbine operating envelope. The project has involved the design of a combustor to burn low calorific value (LCV) fuel gases based on a dry low emissions combustion system. Tests of this combustor, together with benchmark testing of an existing diffusion-flame LCV combustor used successfully in the field, have been completed. These tests were carried out at full engine pressure using a 4 MJ/kg synthetic fuel gas mixture representative of an air blown gasification fuel gas. Further testing of the diffusion flame combustor was carried out using a 10 MJ/kg synthetic fuel gas mixture, representative of oxygen blown gasification fuel gas. This was introduced specifically to assess the suitability of the combustor for underground coal gasification, as applicable to the proposed UK scenario. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected...... to result in a high marginal efficiency. The paper shows that depending on the application, this is not always the case. The interest in this cycle arises from a recent demonstration of the feasibility of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants. The gas from this process...... could be divided into two streams, one for primary and one for supplementary firing. A preliminary analysis of the ideal, recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...

  3. Analysis on using biomass lean syngas in micro gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărculescu, C.; Cenuşă, V. E.; Alexe, F. N.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis on small systems for converting biomass/wastes into power using Micro Gas Turbines (MGT) fed with gaseous bio-fuels produced by air- gasification. The MGT is designed for burning various fossil liquid and gas fuels, having catalogue data related to natural gas use. Fuel switch changes their performances. The present work is focused on adapting the MGT for burning alternative low quality gas fuel produced by biomass air gasification. The heating values of these gas fuels are 3 to 5 times lower than the methane ones, leading to different air demand for the stoichiometric burning. Validated numerical computation procedures were used to model the MGT thermodynamic process. Our purpose was to analyze the influence of fuel change on thermodynamic cycle performances.

  4. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  5. High integrity adaptive SMA components for gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2006-03-01

    The use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) is growing rapidly. They have been under serious development for aerospace applications for over 15 years, but are still restricted to niche areas and small scale applications. Very few applications have found their way into service. Whilst they have been predominantly aimed at airframe applications, they also offer major advantages for adaptive gas turbine components. The harsh environment within a gas turbine with its high loads, temperatures and vibration excitation provide considerable challenges which must be met whilst still delivering high integrity, light weight, aerodynamic and efficient structures. A novel method has been developed which will deliver high integrity, stiff mechanical components which can provide massive shape change capability without the need for conventional moving parts. The lead application is for a shape changing engine nozzle to provide noise reduction at take off but will withdraw at cruise to remove any performance penalty. The technology also promises to provide significant advantages for applications in a gas turbine such as shape change aerofoils, heat exchanger controls, and intake shapes. The same mechanism should be directly applicable to other areas such as air frames, automotive and civil structures, where similar high integrity requirements exist.

  6. Fuzzy Computing for Control of Aero Gas Turbine Engines .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Balakrishnan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Many methods, techniques and procedures available for designing the control system of plants and processes, are applied only after knowing accurately the plant or process to be controlled. However, in some complex situations where plants/processes cannot be accurately modelled, and especially where their control has human interaction, controller design may not be completely satisfactory. In such cases, it has been found that control decisions can be made on the basis of heuristic/linguistic measures or fuzzy algorithms. Fuzzy set principles have been used in controlling various plants/processes ranging from a laboratory steam engine to an autopilot, including an aero gas turbine engine engine for which the response of the engine speed for a fuzzy input of fuel flow has been studied. In this paper, certain stipulations and logic are suggested for the control of the total gas turbine engine. A case study of a single spool aero gas turbine engine with one of its state variables varied by heuristic logic is presented.

  7. Externally Fired micro-Gas Turbine: Modelling and experimental performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, Alberto; Massardo, Aristide F. [Thermochemical Power Group, Dipartimento di Macchine, Sistemi Energetici e Trasporti, Universita di Genova, Genova (Italy); Scarpellini, Riccardo [Ansaldo Ricerche s.r.l., Genova (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    This work presents the steady-state and transient performance obtained by an Externally Fired micro-Gas Turbine (EFmGT) demonstration plant. The plant was designed by Ansaldo Ricerche (ARI) s.r.l. and the Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) of the Universita di Genova, using the in-house TPG codes TEMP (Thermoeconomic Modular Program) and TRANSEO. The plant was based on a recuperated 80kW micro-gas turbine (Elliott TA-80R), which was integrated with the externally fired cycle at the ARI laboratory. The first goal of the plant construction was the demonstration of the EFmGT control system. The performance obtained in the field can be improved in the near future using high-temperature heat exchangers and apt external combustors, which should allow the system to operate at the actual micro-gas turbine inlet temperature (900-950{sup o}C). This paper presents the plant layout and the control system employed for regulating the microturbine power and rotational speed. The experimental results obtained by the pilot plant in early 2004 are shown: the feasibility of such a plant configuration has been demonstrated, and the control system has successfully regulated the shaft speed in all the tests performed. Finally, the plant model in TRANSEO, which was formerly used to design the control system, is shown to accurately simulate the plant behaviour both at steady-state and transient conditions. (author)

  8. Needs assessment for manufacturing ceramic gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; McSpadden, S.B.; Morris, T.O.; Pasto, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    An assessment of needs for the manufacturing of ceramic gas turbine components was undertaken to provide a technical basis for planning R&D activities to support DOE`s gas turbine programs. The manufacturing processes for ceramic turbine engine components were examined from design through final inspection and testing. The following technology needs were identified: Concurrent engineering early in the design phase to develop ceramic components that are more readily manufacturable. Additional effort in determining the boundaries of acceptable design dimensions and tolerances through experimental and/or analytical means. Provision, by the designer, of a CAD based model of the component early in the design cycle. Standardization in the way turbine components are dimensioned and toleranced, and in the way component datum features are defined. Rapid means of fabricating hard tooling, including intelligent systems for design of tooling and rapid prototyping of tooling. Determination of process capabilities by manufacturing significant numbers of parts. Development of more robust ceramic manufacturing processes which are tolerant of process variations. Development of intelligent processing as a means of controlling yield and quality of components. Development of computer models of key manufacturing steps, such as green forming to reduce the number of iterations required to manufacture intolerance components. Development of creep feed or other low-damage precision grinding for finish machining of components. Improved means of fixturing components for finish machining. Fewer and lower-cost final inspection requirements. Standard procedures, including consistent terminology and analytical software for dimensional inspection of components. Uniform data requirements from the US turbine engine companies. An agreed-upon system of naming ceramic materials and updating the name when changes have been made.

  9. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  10. Turbines. NO{sub x} processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines. Traitement des NO{sub x} sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie-Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the SoLoNOx process developed by the Solar Turbines Incorporated company for the prevention of NO{sub x} production in his gas turbines. The formation of combustion products, by-products and NO{sub x} are recalled first and then the different existing processes for the reduction of pollutants are reviewed: water or steam injection, and purification of exhaust gases. The SoLoNOx process uses a dry, weak and pre-mixed mixture and allows better NO{sub x} and CO reductions than the water injection process. (J.S.)

  11. In-field experimental verification of cultivation of microalgae Chlorella sp. using the flue gas from a cogeneration unit as a source of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastánek, Frantisek; Sabata, Stanislav; Solcová, Olga; Maléterová, Ywette; Kastánek, Petr; Brányiková, Irena; Kuthan, Karel; Zachleder, Vilém

    2010-11-01

    A complex treatment of agricultural waste including the following major steps: anaerobic fermentation of suitable waste, cogeneration of the obtained biogas and growth of microalgae consuming the CO(2) from biogas and flue gas was verified under field conditions in a pilot-scale photobioreactor. The growth kinetics of microalgae Chlorella sp. consuming mixture of air and carbon dioxide (2% (v/v) of CO(2)), or flue gas (8-10% (v/v) of CO(2)) was investigated. The results obtained in the pilot photobioreactor were compared with results previously measured in laboratory photobioreactors. The field tests were performed in a pilot-scale outdoor solar-bubbled photobioreactor located at a biogas station. The pilot-scale photobioreactor was in the shape of a flat and narrow vertical prism with a volume of 300 L. The microalgae growth rates were correlated with empirical formulas. Laboratory analyses of the produced microalgae confirmed that it meets the strict EU criteria for relevant contaminants level in foodstuffs. Utilization of flue gases from cogeneration therefore was not found to be detrimental to the quality of microalgal biomass, and may be used in these types of bioreactors.

  12. Baseline gas turbine development program. Eighteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E [comps.

    1977-04-30

    Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental upgraded gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, compact-size American automobile. Initial running of the upgraded engine took place on July 13, 1976. The engine proved to be mechanically sound, but was also 43% deficient in power. A continuing corrective development effort has to date reduced the power deficiency to 32%. Compressor efficiency was increased 2 points by changing to a 28-channel diffuser and tandem deswirl vanes; improved processing of seals has reduced regenerator leakage from about 5 to 2.5% of engine flow; a new compressor turbine nozzle has increased compressor turbine stage efficiency by about 1 point; and adjustments to burner mixing ports has reduced pressure drop from 2.8 to 2.1% of engine pressure. Key compressor turbine component improvements are scheduled for test during the next quarterly period. During the quarter, progress was also made on development of the Upgraded Vehicle control system; and instrumentation of the fourth program engine was completed by NASA. The engine will be used for development efforts at NASA LeRC.

  13. Research and Development of Advanced Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The program “Advanced Gas Turbine” successfully completed in FY 1987, having been started in FY 1978 as a part of the “Moonlight Project”, the National research and development program for energy conservation promoted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The purpose of this program was to establish the technologies for the combined cycle power generation system, which has an overall thermal efficiency of 55% (LHV), by developing...

  14. Design and off-design thermodynamic model of a gas turbine for performance prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Ulisses A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Ensaios de Modelos de Engenharia (LEME)]. E-mail: ulisses@peno.coppe.ufrj.br; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Maquinas Termicas (LMT)]. E-mail: belchior@peno.coppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    There are some types of faults that do not leave 'signatures' in the vibration spectrum of a gas turbine. These faults can only be detected by other analysis techniques. One of these techniques is the gas turbine performance analysis or gas path analysis which relates the efficiency, mass flow, temperature, pressure, fuel consumption and power to the gas turbine faults. In this paper the methodology used in the development of a thermodynamic model that simulates the design and off-design operation of a gas turbine with a free power turbine will be presented. The results obtained are used to predict the gas turbine performance in both design and off-design operation point, and also to simulate some types of faults. (author)

  15. Viability analysis of electric energy cogeneration in combined cycle with sugar-cane biomass gasification and natural gas; Analise de viabilidade da cogeracao de energia eletrica em ciclo combinado com gaseificacao de biomassa de cana-de-acucar e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Neto, Vicente

    2001-03-15

    The objective of this thesis is evaluate the technical and economic viability of electric energy generation projects using as fuel the biomass produced in the sugar cane Brazilian industry, specifically the cane trash, the straw and the leaves of the plant, as complemental option to the expansion of the Brazilian electric system, hour in phase of deep modification in the institutional scenery, through the sale of electric energy for direct consumers or utilities, characterizing the business possibilities for the ethanol distilleries already integrated into the energy reality of the country. The analyzed technology is thermoelectric generation with combined cycle, operating in cogeneration, integrated to biomass gasification systems for the production of combustible gas, with and without addition of natural gas. The considered technology is known by the acronym BIG/GTCC, originated in Biomass Integrate Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Turbine. The economic analysis is made herself through a modeling and construction of economy project curves based on the prices of the electric energy, of the natural gas and in the costs of the retired biomass in an mechanized way.(author)

  16. Gas Turbine Design & Analysis Tool: Turbomachinery Components.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Soto, David

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto se centra en la creación de un programa el cual ha de ser una herramienta de ayuda en el diseño y simulación de aplicaciones de motores de turbina de gas, permitiendo al usuario realizar los cálculos necesarios para poder implementar posteriormente los resultados en sus diseños. Por ello, dicha herramienta debe ser versátil y permitir trabajar tanto con un solo módulo como con diversos acoplados según las necesidades del usuario. Además el hecho de modularizar permite acotar y r...

  17. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  18. Numerical prediction of combustion induced vibro-acoustical instabilities in a gas turbine combustor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur; Kok, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of lean premixed combustion to gas turbine technology reduced the emission of harmful exhaust gas species, but due to the high sensitivity of lean flames to acoustic perturbations, the average life time of gas turbine engines was decreased significantly. Very dangerous to the integrity

  19. The new 6 MW gas turbine for the power generation; Die neue 6 MW Gasturbine fuer die Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaswich, Michael; Theis, Sascha [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Oberhausen, Federal Republic of Germany) had developed a new gas turbine in the 6 MW class. This device is the founding stone for a family of gas turbines which at first cover the power range from 6 to 8 MW for the propulsion of pumps, compressors and electric devices. The two-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of a gas generator with an axial compressor with eleven levels, six external single combustion chambers, one two-step high-pressure turbine and a two-step power turbine. Beside the two-shaft industrial gas turbine, there exists a single-shaft industrial gas turbine for the power generation. The single-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of three turbine stages, a gas turbine compressor and combustion chamber being identical in construction to the two-shaft industrial gas turbine. The gas turbine package contains the gas turbine module as well as a filter module. The gas turbine was successfully tested. Further tests and the commissioning of the first customer's plant are planned for this year.

  20. Implementation of the two-shaft industrial gas turbine; Einfuehrung der Zweiwellen-Gasturbine SGT-300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbert, C.; Helas, D. [Siemens Energy Oil and Gas, Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Since its market launching, the single shaft-industrial gas turbine SGT-300 with a performance of 7.9 MW{sub e}l. has been proven as a reliable propulsion machinery in the electric power generation. Based upon the experiences with this type of gas turbine, Siemens Energy Oil and Gas (Lincoln, United Kingdom) has developed a two-shaft industrial gas turbine being the subject of the contribution under consideration. The two-shaft industrial gas turbine SGT-300 MD has a mechanical performance of 8.2 MW. This device primarily is used as a propulsion machinery with a mechanical efficiency of 34.6 % in the oil and gas industry. The author of this contribution discusses the advantages of the two-shaft industrial gas turbine, the scope of development as well as the critical characteristics of construction. Furthermore, the testing results of this prototype are presented.

  1. The performance of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system producing steam, cooling and dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant (TCCP), equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP, also called a cogeneration system, produces four types of useful energy-namely, (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification-by utilizing single fuel source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C-30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste-heat-activated devices, namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The performance analysis was conducted under different operation conditions such as different exhaust gas temperatures. It was observed that energy utilization factor could be as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio was found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  2. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  3. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  4. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  5. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  6. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  7. Feasibility analysis of installing a natural gas cogeneration system in a slaughterhouse; Analise da viabilidade da implantacao de um sistema de cogeracao de energia a gas natural em um frigorifico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Alessandro Tomio; Dib, Fernando Henrique; Campitelli, Flavio Moreti; Romao Junior, Ricardo Agudo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], Email: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work the analysis of the viability of implantation of a natural gas cogeneration system in a bovine slaughterhouse is carried out. Among the studied configurations there are the current plant and the modified plant that allow the use of natural gas. For evaluation of the performance, energetic and exegetic analyses for each one of the configurations are carried out. It's also accomplished a thermo economic analysis that makes possible to evaluate the reflexes of the investment and combustible on the composition of the cost of products. (author)

  8. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  9. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a period of thirteen months in 2012 and 2013 for six Italian CCGT power plants of 390 MW each (260 MW from the gas turbine and 130 MW from the steam turbine. These CCGT plants are placed in three different Italian climate areas: the Po Valley, the Adriatic coast, and the North Tyrrhenian coast. The meteorological model applied in this study is the eni-Kassandra Meteo Forecast (e‑kmf™, a multi-model approach system to provide probabilistic forecasts with a Kalman filter used to improve accuracy of local temperature predictions. Performance skill scores, computed by the output data of the meteorological model, are compared with local observations, and used to evaluate forecast reliability. In the study, the approach has shown good overall scores encompassing more than 50,000 hourly temperature values. Some differences from one site to another, due to local meteorological phenomena, can affect the short-term forecast performance, with consequent impacts on gas-to-power production and related negative imbalances. For operational application of the methodology in CCGT power plant, the benefits and limits have been successfully identified.

  10. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program seventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.

    1974-07-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. All of the baseline vehicles are now operational and are performing Program tests. Vehicle tests completed in this quarter include noise reduction, heater, air conditioning, and underhood temperature evaluations. Testing was completed on the original endurance engine. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) has commenced. Vendor A and Vendor B ceramic regenerator cores were rig tested with an improved elastomeric drive. Vendor A cores with the elastomeric drive are being engine tested. Ceramic regenerator seal wear test rig results are showing promise of achieving a low friction, non-nickel-oxide rubbing surface. The first preprototype integrated control system was delivered and placed in operation on a baseline engine in a test cell. Six ribbed compressor turbine wheels made of IN 792/Hf by the AiResearch Airefrac process were received. Rig testing of the variable inlet guide Vanes was completed and engine testing initiated. Vehicle evaluations of the torque converter lock-up were completed . Specifications for the Upgraded Engine aerodymanic components were made. A subcontract is currently being arranged with Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) for design and development of the upgraded engine gas generator bearings and shaft system. An initial feasibility study for gas bearings was completed. Analytical design of the upgraded engine power turbine reduction gears and bearings has commenced. Engine and vehicle accessory drive studies for the upgraded engine are well underway.

  11. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  12. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  13. Multivariable synthesis with transfer functions. [applications to gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczkowski, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A transfer function design theory for multivariable control synthesis is highlighted. The use of unique transfer function matrices and two simple, basic relationships - a synthesis equation and a design equation - are presented and illustrated. This multivariable transfer function approach provides the designer with a capability to specify directly desired dynamic relationships between command variables and controlled or response variables. At the same time, insight and influence over response, simplifications, and internal stability is afforded by the method. A general, comprehensive multivariable synthesis capability is indicated including nonminmum phase and unstable plants. Gas turbine engine examples are used to illustrate the ideas and method.

  14. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Lowell, C. E.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Nainiger, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The technical progress made during the first 15 months of a planned 40-month project to provide a critical-technology data base for utility gas-turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Tasks were included in the following areas: (1) combustion, to study the combustion of coal-derived fuels and conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials, to understand and prevent hot corrosion; and (3) system studies, to integrate and guide the other technologies. Significant progress was made.

  15. Modelling internal air systems in gas turbine engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Michael Owen

    2007-01-01

    Rotating-disc systems can be used to model,experimentally and computationally,the flow and heat transfer that occur inside the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbine engines.These rotating-disc systems have been used successfully to simplify and understand some of the complex flows that occur in internal-air systems,and designers have used this insight to improve the cooling effectiveness,thereby increasing the engine efficiency and reducing the emissions.In this review paper,three important cases are considered:hot-gas ingress;the pre-swirl system;and buoyancy-induced flow.Ingress,or ingestion,occurs when hot gas from the mainstream gas path is ingested into the wheel-space between the turbine disc and its adjacent casing.Rim seals are fitted at the periphery of the system,and sealing flow is used to reduce or prevent ingress.However,too much sealing air reduces the engine efficiency,and too little can cause serious overheating,resulting in damage to the turbine rim and blade roots.Although the flow is three-dimensional and unsteady,there are encouraging signs that simple 'orifice models' could be used to estimate the amount of ingress into the wheel-space.In a pre-swirl system,the cooling air for the gas-turbine blades is swirled by stationary nozzles,and the air is delivered to the blades via receiver holes in the rotating turbine disc.Swirling the air reduces its temperature relative to the rotating blades,and the designer needs to calculate the air temperature and pressure drop in the system.The designer also needs to calculate the effect of this swirling flow on the heat transfer from the turbine disc to the air,as this has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and stresses in the disc.Recent experimental and computational studies have given a better understanding of the flow and heat transfer in these systems.Buoyancy-induced flow occurs in the cavity between two co-rotating compressor discs when the temperature of the discs is higher

  16. Materials Selection in Gas Turbine Engine Design and the Role of Low Thermal Expansion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagow, Benjamin W.

    2016-11-01

    Materials selection criteria in gas turbine engine design are reviewed, and several design challenges are introduced where selection of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials can help improve engine performance and operability. This is followed by a review of the types of low CTE materials that are suitable for gas turbine engine applications, and discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. The primary limitation of low CTE materials is their maximum use temperature; if higher temperature materials could be developed, this could result in novel turbine system designs for gas turbine engines.

  17. Materials Selection in Gas Turbine Engine Design and the Role of Low Thermal Expansion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagow, Benjamin W.

    2016-08-01

    Materials selection criteria in gas turbine engine design are reviewed, and several design challenges are introduced where selection of low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) materials can help improve engine performance and operability. This is followed by a review of the types of low CTE materials that are suitable for gas turbine engine applications, and discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. The primary limitation of low CTE materials is their maximum use temperature; if higher temperature materials could be developed, this could result in novel turbine system designs for gas turbine engines.

  18. Introduction to cogeneration; Introducao a cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Martins, Andre Luiz Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a general view of cogeneration. The paper approaches the development of cogeneration, technological aspects, the cogeneration in Brazil, economical aspects, performance of cogeneration systems, viability, costs, cogeneration potentials and technological trends.

  19. Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

  20. Technology used to operate the 300-MW power unit topped with a GTE-110 gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezinets, P. A.; Doverman, G. I.

    2010-09-01

    Results obtained from mathematical simulation of operations for starting the 300-MW power unit topped with a GTE-110 gas turbine installed at the GRES-24 district power station of OAO OGK-6 wholesale power-generating company are described. It is shown that operations on speeding up the steam turbine from a cold state to its idle running mode can be carried out solely by using the heat of exhaust gases from the gas turbine unit without supplying fuel to the boiler.

  1. Development of repair mechanism of FSX-414 based 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Tawfiqur

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the failure mechanism and repair technology of 1st stage nozzle or vane of industrial gas turbine which is made of cobalt based super alloy FSX-414. 1st stage nozzles or vanes are important stationery components of gas turbine based power plant. Those are the parts of hot gas path components of gas turbine and their manufacturing process is casting. At present, it is widely accepted that gas turbine based combined cycle power plant is the most efficient and cost effective solution to generate electricity. One of the factors of high efficiency of this type of gas turbine is the increase of its turbine inlet temperature. As an effect of this factor and in conjunction with some other factors, the 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine operates under extremely high temperature and thermal stresses. As a result, the design lifetime of these components becomes limited. Furthermore, attention on nozzles or vanes is required in order to achieve their design lifetime. However, due to unfriendly operational condition and environmental effect, anytime failure can occur on these heat resistant alloy based components which may lead to severe damage of gas turbine. To mitigate these adverse effects, schedule maintenance is performed on a predetermined time interval of hot gas path components of gas turbine based power plant. This paper addresses common failures in gas turbine's 1st stage nozzles or vanes. Usually these are repaired by using ADH process but for several reasons ADH process is not used here. Hence the challenging task is performed using gas tungsten arc welding which is presented in this article systematically.

  2. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT, a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG, and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG. The results show that (1 a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2 at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the lowest value of exergy efficiency is calculated for the fog cooler, where the mixing of air and water at greatly different temperatures causes the high exergy destruction; and (3 utilization of the fogging cooler in the steam injection cycle increases the exergy destruction in the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the simple gas turbine cycle is found to be more economic as its relative cost difference, total unit product cost, and exergoeconomic factors are less than those for the two other configurations. However, its efficiency and net power output are notably lower than for the gas turbine with steam injection and/or fog cooling. The total unit product cost is highest for the simple gas turbine with steam injection.

  3. Regenerative Heat Usage of Gas-Turbine Units with Isobar Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Begliak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems concerning optimization of gas turbine operational modes at varying loads due to regeneration application. The possibility pertaining to increase of operational efficiency gas-turbine units at various modes is shown in the paper. The efficiency can be achieved due to an increase of regeneration rate while reducing consumer’s heat load.

  4. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai

    2012-09-30

    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  5. Method for Making Measurements of the Post-Combustion Residence Time in a Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey H (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and method of measuring a residence time in a gas-turbine engine is provided, whereby the method includes placing pressure sensors at a combustor entrance and at a turbine exit of the gas-turbine engine and measuring a combustor pressure at the combustor entrance and a turbine exit pressure at the turbine exit. The method further includes computing cross-spectrum functions between a combustor pressure sensor signal from the measured combustor pressure and a turbine exit pressure sensor signal from the measured turbine exit pressure, applying a linear curve fit to the cross-spectrum functions, and computing a post-combustion residence time from the linear curve fit.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Alternative Marine Fuels for Marine Gas Turbine Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed M El Gohary; Nader R Ammar

    2016-01-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of alternative marine fuels for marine gas turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, Mohamed M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2016-03-01

    The marine shipping industry faces challenges to reduce engine exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases (GHGs) from ships, and in particular, carbon dioxide. International regulatory bodies such as the International Maritime Organization and National Environmental Agencies of many countries have issued rules and regulations to drastically reduce GHG and emissions emanating from marine sources. This study investigates the possibility of using natural gas and hydrogen as alternative fuels to diesel oil for marine gas turbines and uses a mathematical model to assess the effect of these alternative fuels on gas turbine thermodynamic performance. Results show that since natural gas is categorized as a hydrocarbon fuel, the thermodynamic performance of the gas turbine cycle using natural gas was close to that of the diesel case. However, the gas turbine thermal efficiency was found to be slightly lower for natural gas and hydrogen fuels compared to diesel fuel.

  8. LES of an ignition sequence in a gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, M.; Staffelbach, G.; Cuenot, B. [CERFACS, Toulouse (France); Poinsot, T. [IMFT - CNRS, Toulouse (France); Berat, C. [Turbomeca (SAFRAN group), Bordes (France)

    2008-07-15

    Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work is a large eddy simulation (LES) of these phenomena. To simulate a complete ignition sequence in an annular chamber, LES has been applied to the full 360 geometry, including 18 burners. This geometry corresponds to a real gas turbine chamber. Massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform such a large calculation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times. Moreover, the rate of flame progress from burner to burner is much higher than the turbulent flame speed due to a major effect of thermal expansion. This flame speed is also strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics due to the swirled injection. Finally, the variability of the combustor sectors and quadrant ignition times is highlighted. (author)

  9. Sand effects on thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael; Barnett, Blake; Ghoshal, Anindya; Murugan, Muthuvel; Swab, Jeffrey; Pepi, Marc; Hopkins, David; Gazonas, George; Kerner, Kevin

    Accumulation and infiltration of molten/ semi-molten sand and subsequent formation of calcia-magnesia-alumina-silicate (CMAS) deposits in gas turbine engines continues to be a significant problem for aviation assets. This complex problem is compounded by the large variations in the composition, size, and topology of natural sands, gas generator turbine temperatures, thermal barrier coating properties, and the incoming particulate's momentum. In order to simplify the materials testing process, significant time and resources have been spent in the development of synthetic sand mixtures. However, there is debate whether these mixtures accurately mimic the damage observed in field-returned engines. With this study, we provide a direct comparison of CMAS deposits from both natural and synthetic sands. Using spray deposition techniques, 7% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings are deposited onto bond-coated, Ni-superalloy discs. Each sample is coated with a sand slurry, either natural or synthetic, and exposed to a high temperature flame for 1 hour. Test samples are characterized before and after flame exposure. In addition, the test samples will be compared to field-returned equipment. This research was sponsored by the US Army Research Laboratory, and was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement # W911NF-12-2-0019.

  10. Sensor and Actuator Needs for More Intelligent Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schadow, Klaus; Horn, Wolfgang; Pfoertner, Hugo; Stiharu, Ion

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the controls and diagnostics technologies, that are seen as critical for more intelligent gas turbine engines (GTE), with an emphasis on the sensor and actuator technologies that need to be developed for the controls and diagnostics implementation. The objective of the paper is to help the "Customers" of advanced technologies, defense acquisition and aerospace research agencies, understand the state-of-the-art of intelligent GTE technologies, and help the "Researchers" and "Technology Developers" for GTE sensors and actuators identify what technologies need to be developed to enable the "Intelligent GTE" concepts and focus their research efforts on closing the technology gap. To keep the effort manageable, the focus of the paper is on "On-Board Intelligence" to enable safe and efficient operation of the engine over its life time, with an emphasis on gas path performance

  11. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  12. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  13. Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2006-04-01

    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

  14. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials

  15. Non-intrusive measurement of hot gas temperature in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko; Yan, Michelle Xiaohong; Rosca, Justinian; Ulerich, Nancy H.

    2016-09-27

    A method and apparatus for operating a gas turbine engine including determining a temperature of a working gas at a predetermined axial location within the engine. An acoustic signal is encoded with a distinct signature defined by a set of predetermined frequencies transmitted as a non-broadband signal. Acoustic signals are transmitted from an acoustic transmitter located at a predetermined axial location along the flow path of the gas turbine engine. A received signal is compared to one or more transmitted signals to identify a similarity of the received signal to a transmitted signal to identify a transmission time for the received signal. A time-of-flight is determined for the signal and the time-of-flight for the signal is processed to determine a temperature in a region of the predetermined axial location.

  16. Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Smith, M.A. (British Coal Corp., Glos (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment); Cannon, M.F. (European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom). Aero and Technology Products)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F), with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key R and D issue. A phased combustor development program is underway burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6--4.1 MJ/m[sup 3]) with low emissions, particularly NO[sub x] derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first phase of the combustor development program has now been completed using a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor design. Tests were carried out at combustor loading and Mach numbers considerably greater than the initial design values. Combustor performance at these conditions was encouraging. The second phase of the program is currently in progress. This will assess, initially, an improved variant of the prototype combustor operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine. This combustor will also be capable of operating using natural gas as an auxiliary fuel, to suite the start-up procedure for the Topping Cycle. The paper presents the Phase 1 test program results for the prototype combustor. Design of the modified combustor for Phase 2 of the development program is discussed, together with preliminary combustor performance results.

  17. Thermal conjugate analysis of first stage gas turbine blade; Gas turbine shodan doyoku onodo no rensei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Takahashi, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-25

    Three-dimensional numerical analysis of heat transfer was conducted by thermal conjugate fields inside and outside a blade, which consist of convection heat transfer and thermal conduction. The target of the analysis was a 1st-stage blade of gas turbine with multiple cooling holes. In order to make an accurate estimation of the blade temperature, heat exchange in cooling passages, outflow of cooling air and effect of rotation were taken into account by the numerical method. Predicted distribution of surface temperature was in good agreement with the observed surface pattern on an actual blade. Also case studies for blade temperature were carried out using the present numerical method. It was shown that a temperature field inside the blade was severely influenced by the assumed distribution of inlet gas temperature and cooling air flow conditions. As a result, it is clear that the present analytical method is useful for prediction of blade temperature depended on various conditions in operation. (author)

  18. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.

    2013-07-01

    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Technical development give industrial gas turbines a new edge in offshore applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellberg, Anders; Thom, Dorian [Demag Delaval Industrial Turbines, Lincoln, Lincolnshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Gas turbines have been used as compressor and alternator drivers for many years, but over the last decade gas turbines have been subject to considerable technological development spurred on by economic changes and increased environmental concerns. Industrial types of gas turbines have been specifically designed and developed for mechanical drive and general industrial power applications. However, during the last decade, gas turbine manufacturers have concentrated their developments on the lucrative aircraft market, with some subsequent benefit for the aero derivative type gas turbines. Since the pre selection of a particular characteristic (e.g. emissions, fuel consumption, maintenance method, etc) will automatically preclude one or other type of gas turbine, by virtue of the turbine design, this has resulted in a more restrictive choice for end users. We will show in this paper how the new generation of industrial gas turbines (with specific focus on the GT10C) will redress this balance. It will be shown that the new generation of machines maintain all the benefits of the industrial design (maintenance, reliability, operability) but also inherit higher efficiency, lower weight, low emissions, higher power output and speed to address present market requirements. While the weight of an industrial gas turbine core engine is somewhat higher than that of an aero derivative, today's package design is more focused to the offshore needs and as such that the core engine does not have any significant effect on overall package weight or layout. The maintenance methods that have been developed are more suitable to demands of low downtime and faster maintenance activities. The impression of most customers has been that 'industrial' type gas turbines are not suitable for the high demands of the offshore market. However, recent developments have changed the technology and the aim of the paper is to change the image. (author)

  20. Design and part-load performance of a hybrid system based on a solid oxide fuel cell reactor and a micro gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, P.; Magistri, L.; Massardo, A. F.

    This paper addresses the design and off-design analysis of a hybrid system (HS) based on the coupling of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) with a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The SOFC reactor model is presented and discussed, taking into account the influence of the reactor lay-out, the current density, the air utilisation factor, the cell operating temperature, etc. The SOFC design and off-design performance is presented and discussed; the design and off-design models of a recuperated micro-gas turbine are also presented. The operating line, the influence of the micro gas turbine "variable speed" control, and the efficiency behaviour at part load are analysed in depth. Finally, the model of the hybrid system obtained by coupling the MGT and the SOFC reactor, considering the compatibility (technological constraints) of the two systems, is presented. The model allows the evaluation of the design and off-design behaviour of the hybrid system, particularly when the MGT variable speed control system is considered. The thermal efficiency of the hybrid system, taking into account its size (250/300 kW e), is noteworthy: higher than 60% at design point, and also very high at part load conditions. Such a result is mainly due to the simultaneous positive influence of SOFC off-design behaviour and MGT variable speed control. Moreover, it is possible to recover the waste heat from the gas at the MGT recuperator outlet ( Tgas is about 250°C) for cogeneration purposes.

  1. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  2. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  3. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, James [Florida Turbine Technologies Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States)

    2014-12-29

    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  4. Increasing of Manoeuvrability of Cogeneration Combined Cycle Power Plants Owing to the Usage of Electric Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of efficiency evaluation  of using the electric boilers to improve maneuver capabilities of the cogeneration combined cycle power plants (as an example, 230 MW combined cycle unit of Minsk CHP-3 in comparison with the traditional steam-turbine units of cogeneration power plants.

  5. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  6. Metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples for gas turbine engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J

    2013-11-08

    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples.

  7. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogan, J. W.; Stetson, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    A program was conducted with the objective of developing advanced thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Coating application was by plasma spray. Duplex, triplex and graded coatings were tested. Coating systems incorporated both NiCrAly and CoCrAly bond coats. Four ceramic overlays were tested: ZrO2.82O3; CaO.TiO2; 2CaO.SiO2; and MgO.Al2O3. The best overall results were obtained with a CaO.TiO2 coating applied to a NiCrAly bond coat. This coating was less sensitive than the ZrO2.8Y2O3 coating to process variables and part geometry. Testing with fuels contaminated with compounds containing sulfur, phosphorus and alkali metals showed the zirconia coatings were destabilized. The calcium titanate coatings were not affected by these contaminants. However, when fuels were used containing 50 ppm of vanadium and 150 ppm of magnesium, heavy deposits were formed on the test specimens and combustor components that required frequent cleaning of the test rig. During the program Mars engine first-stage turbine blades were coated and installed for an engine cyclic endurance run with the zirconia, calcium titanate, and calcium silicate coatings. Heavy spalling developed with the calcium silicate system. The zirconia and calcium titanate systems survived the full test duration. It was concluded that these two TBC's showed potential for application in gas turbines.

  8. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto J. Gregory

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today’s engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire thermocouples.

  9. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Tenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-04-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. A fuel control system is being developed to allow program evaluation of a very promising low emissions, single stage, fixed geometry proprietary burner. Ceramic regenerators are under test in the free-rotor vehicle, and some have completed 30 hours of performance evaluation. Three-dimensional ceramic regenerator transient thermal and structural analysis programs are operational. Initial friction and wear test fixture results show that zirconium oxide fully stabilized by yttrium oxide is an effective substitute for nickel oxide in a plasma sprayed seal. A preprototype control system was adapted for variable inlet guide vane control in a vehicle installation. An evaluation of the free-rotor accessory drive concept in a vehicle showed no serious mechanical integrity problems. Simplifications are being made to the water injection system; significant metallurgical analysis of observed erosion/corrosion problems was accomplished. Variable inlet guide vane aerodynamic loss characteristics were determined. Generally satisfactory results with linerless insulation are resulting in extended use and application. Pattern work for the upgraded engine housing and the power turbine wheel castings are in process. A computer design analysis of the regenerator drive gears was made, and an analysis was completed of a three peripheral roller regenerator support and drive proposal for the upgraded engine.

  10. Welding metallurgy of nickel alloys in gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingenfelter, A. C., LLNL

    1997-05-21

    Materials for gas turbine engines are required to meet a wide range of temperature and stress application requirements. These alloys exhibit a combination of creep resistance, creep rupture strength, yield and tensile strength over a wide temperature range, resistance to environmental attack (including oxidation, nitridation, sulphidation and carburization), fatigue and thermal fatigue resistance, metallurgical stability and useful thermal expansion characteristics. These properties are exhibited by a series of solid-solution-strengthened and precipitation-hardened nickel, iron and cobalt alloys. The properties needed to meet the turbine engine requirements have been achieved by specific alloy additions, by heat treatment and by thermal mechanical processing. A thorough understanding of the metallurgy and metallurgical processing of these materials is imperative in order to successfully fusion weld them. This same basic understanding is required for repair of a component with the added dimension of the potential effects of thermal cycling and environmental exposure the component will have endured in service. This article will explore the potential problems in joining and repair welding these materials.

  11. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program ninth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1975-01-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed the first phase of their baseline engine heat balance tests, and an upgraded engine compressor is being scaled for test. EPA completed their report on vehicle tests including emissions and vehicle performance, and a new endurance engine is on test. Significant development progress was made on both fixed and variable geometry combustors. After 45 hours of engine operation with Vendor A ceramic regenerator, no significant deterioration of the matrix, seals, or elastomeric mount was encountered. Ceramic regenerator stress analysis has commenced. Additional developments in non-nickel oxide regenerator rubbing seals are encouraging. The first preprototype integrated control system is in vehicle operation. Control adaptation for variable inlet guide vanes and water injection is progressing. AiRefrac turbine wheels were verified dimensionally and are being processed for engine testing. Water injection tests with a four nozzle system were run, and additional performance documentation of variable inlet guide vanes was obtained. Linerless insulation is on test in the free rotor engine, the new endurance engine, and a performance engine. The free rotor engine completed test cell checkout and was installed in a vehicle. Vehicle checkout, including a preprototype integrated control, is underway. Detailed specifications of the upgraded engine were written.

  12. Saturator analysis for an evaporative gas turbine cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Joao O.S.; Traverso, Alberto; Massardo, Aristide F. [Universita di Genova, Thermo-Chemical Power Group (TPG), Genova (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a thermodynamic assessment and a preliminary cost evaluation are given for an evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) cycle packed humidifier. Both background theory and simulation results are included. Two different approaches were used for the humidifier system modelling: the full integration of the mass-energy balance and mass transfer equations (called SAT model), and an atmospheric cooling tower-based model (called CT model). Both approaches were used to perform component thermodynamic analyses and to determine the humidifier packing design. Within these approaches, two simulation cases are discussed: a test case, with experimental results from the pilot-plant of the University of Lund, and a case study of the saturators for the optimised HAT (humid air turbine) cycles of a plant with a 50 MW power output. The two cases presented consider two different operating conditions for the saturator: the first being a 'non-optimised' saturator, and the second the 'optimal' configuration with reduced exergetic losses. For the case study, the saturator design and cost evaluation are also included. (Author)

  13. Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

  14. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M N; K.P.Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbi...

  15. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Hasegawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm

  16. Design, techno-economic and environmental risk assessment of aero-derivative industrial gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Abaad, Abdelmanam Abaad Abdelsalam

    2012-01-01

    Increased availability of natural gas has boosted research and development efforts to further increase gas turbine performance. Performance has been increased remarkably and unit cost reduced due to achievements gained in improving thermodynamic cycles and cooling technologies. However, increased complexity in power industry regulations and fluctuations in fuel price have indicated that all the aforementioned improvements in gas turbine performance could not cope with the in...

  17. Ceramics in gas turbines - Powder and process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of powder and process characterization in producing high quality silicon nitride and silicon carbide components, for gas turbine applications, is described. Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability have been pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder have been discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. It is inevitable that significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  18. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Baird, Benjamin [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Alavandi, Sandeep [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Pfefferle, William [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States)

    2010-04-01

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar

  19. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  20. Development of impact design methods for ceramic gas turbine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.

    1990-01-01

    Impact damage prediction methods are being developed to aid in the design of ceramic gas turbine engine components with improved impact resistance. Two impact damage modes were characterized: local, near the impact site, and structural, usually fast fracture away from the impact site. Local damage to Si3N4 impacted by Si3N4 spherical projectiles consists of ring and/or radial cracks around the impact point. In a mechanistic model being developed, impact damage is characterized as microcrack nucleation and propagation. The extent of damage is measured as volume fraction of microcracks. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating late impact tests. Structural failure is caused by tensile stress during impact exceeding material strength. The EPIC3 code was successfully used to predict blade structural failures in different size particle impacts on radial and axial blades.

  1. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  2. Ceramics for the AGT101 automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, D. M.; Wimmer, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced gas turbine powertrain for automotive application is being developed. Objectives of the program include a fuel consumption of 42.8 mpg on No. 2 diesel fuel in a 3000 pound car, same overall vehicle performance as obtained with a conventional spark ignition internal combustion engine, low emission, multiple fuel capacity, reliability, and competitive cost. The AGT101 powertrain consists of a power section, gearbox and transmission, and the design and analysis conducted thus far support the initial engine concept, as no significant design changes have been required. The ceramic rotor design approach and component materials are discussed, and it is projected that the AGT powertrain will be competitive with any other alternative powertrain in meeting the design objectives.

  3. Gas turbine coatings eddy current quantitative and qualitative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribichini, Remo; Giolli, Carlo; Scrinzi, Erica

    2017-02-01

    Gas turbine blades (buckets) are among the most critical and expensive components of the engine. Buckets rely on protective coatings in order to withstand the harsh environment in which they operate. The thickness and the microstructure of coatings during the lifespan of a unit are fundamental to evaluate their fitness for service. A frequency scanning Eddy Current instrument can allow the measurement of the thickness and of physical properties of coatings in a Non-Destructive manner. The method employed relies on the acquisition of impedance spectra and on the inversion of the experimental data to derive the coating properties and structure using some assumptions. This article describes the experimental validation performed on several samples and real components in order to assess the performance of the instrument as a coating thickness gage. The application of the technique to support residual life assessment of serviced buckets is also presented.

  4. Recuperated atmospheric SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-05-04

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  5. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-08-24

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  6. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, R. J.; Lau, S. K.; Andersson, C. A.; Lee, S. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The results of studies concerning the high temperature corrosion resistance of ZrO2-Y2O3, ZrO2-MgO, and Ca2SiO4 plasma-sprayed coatings, which may be used as gas turbine engine thermal barriers, are reported. The coatings were evaluated in atmospheric burner rig and pressurized passage tests, using GT No. 2 fuel in pure form and with sodium, sulfur and vanadium corrosive impurities doping. It is found that, while the coatings performed well in both pressurized passage and burner rig tests with pure fuel chemical reactions between the ceramic coatings and combustion gases/condensates resulted in coating degradation with impure fuels. Chemical reactions between the ceramic coatings and vanadium compounds played a critical role in coating degradation.

  7. Degradation of gas turbine coatings and life assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    MCrAlY coatings are widely used on hot section components of gas turbines to provide hot corrosion and/or oxidation protection by formation of an oxide layer on the surface. As the protective oxide scale exfoliates during service, aluminum from the coating diffuses outward for reformation of the protective scale. Aluminum may also diffuse inward due to the differences in composition between the coating and the substrate. Thus, the coatings degrade due to oxidation, oxide scale spallation, and inward and outward diffusion of aluminum. Service life of these coatings is controlled by the aluminum content in the coating, operating temperature and start- shutdown cycles. In-service degradation of CoCrAlY and CoNiCrAlY coatings is presented. A procedure to predict the remaining service life of coatings under oxidizing conditions is discussed. (orig.) 12 refs.

  8. Swirling midframe flow for gas turbine engine having advanced transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Rodriguez, Jose L.; Kusters, Bernhard W.; Morrison, Jay A.; Beeck, Alexander R.

    2016-12-27

    A gas turbine engine can-annular combustion arrangement (10), including: an axial compressor (82) operable to rotate in a rotation direction (60); a diffuser (100, 110) configured to receive compressed air (16) from the axial compressor; a plenum (22) configured to receive the compressed air from the diffuser; a plurality of combustor cans (12) each having a combustor inlet (38) in fluid communication with the plenum, wherein each combustor can is tangentially oriented so that a respective combustor inlet is circumferentially offset from a respective combustor outlet in a direction opposite the rotation direction; and an airflow guiding arrangement (80) configured to impart circumferential motion to the compressed air in the plenum in the direction opposite the rotation direction.

  9. Thermal barrier coating on high temperature industrial gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Stoner, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal barrier coating used was a yttria stabilized zirconia material with a NiCrAlY undercoat, and the base engine used to establish improvements was the P&WA FT50A-4 industrial gas turbine engine. The design benefits of thermal barrier coatings include simplified cooling schemes and the use of conventional alloys in the engine hot section. Cooling flow reductions and improved heating rates achieved with thermal barrier coating result in improved performance. Economic benefits include reduced power production costs and reduced fuel consumption. Over the 30,000 hour life of the thermal barrier coated parts, fuel savings equivalent to $5 million are projected and specific power (megawatts/mass of engine airflow) improvements on the order of 13% are estimated.

  10. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  11. Corrosion-resistant nickel-base alloys for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.W.; Hulsizer, W.R.

    1976-08-01

    Laboratory corrosion screening procedures used during the past ten years in developing nickel-base superalloys for gas turbine applications are described. Hot salt corrosion tests have included crucible and salt shower exposures. Reproducible techniques were established and alloy composition effects defined, leading to development of M313, IN-587, a IN-792. Correlations have been made with corrosion results in burner rigs, and engine experience confirming anticipated behavior is now becoming available. During this work a number of limitations of these accelerated laboratory tests were uncovered; these are discussed. Finally, brief descriptions of the states of development of alloy MA 755E (an oxide dispersion-strengthened superalloy) and IN-939 (a cast 23 percent chromium superalloy) are outlined as examples of advanced corrosion resistant, high strength materials of the future.

  12. Gas Turbine Engine Component Development : An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Jansen

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer - aided engineering methods have made a significant impact in the design technologies of advanced machinery. These methods have been applied in several areas such as aerodynamics and fluid dynamic theory for high efficiency, stress and vibration theory for reliability, and manufacturing strategies to produce machined components at low cost and with short time schedules. The integration of these various design technologies offer the opportunity for even greater productivity in the engineering design and manufacturing process. This paper addresses the application of various engineering disciplines to the demand of producing a reliable, efficient design and the subsequent manufacture of components with short lead times through the interaction of these computer - aided engineering technologies. The concept is further illustrated by simple cases for a centrifugal compressor and a gas turbine.

  13. Promising Direction of Perfection of the Utilization Combine Cycle Gas Turbine Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullina Albina I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues of improving the efficiency of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT recovery type have been presented. Efficiency gas turbine plant reaches values of 45 % due to rise in temperature to a gas turbine to 1700 °C. Modern technologies for improving the cooling gas turbine components and reducing the excess air ratio leads to a further increase of the efficiency by 1-2 %. Based on research conducted at the Tomsk Polytechnic University, it shows that the CCGT efficiency can be increased by 2-3 % in the winter time due to the use of organic Rankine cycle, low-boiling substances, and air-cooled condensers (ACC. It is necessary to apply the waste heat recovery with condensation of water vapor from the flue gas, it will enhance the efficiency of the CCGT by 2-3 % to increase the efficiency of the heat recovery steam boiler (HRSB to 10-12 %. Replacing electric pumps gas turbine engine (GTE helps to reduce electricity consumption for auxiliary needs CCGT by 0.5-1.5 %. At the same time the heat of flue gas turbine engine may be useful used in HRSB, thus will increase the capacity and efficiency of the steam turbine.

  14. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  15. Parametric Analysis of a Two-Shaft Aeroderivate Gas Turbine of 11.86 MW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lugo-Leyte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aeroderivate gas turbines are widely used for power generation in the oil and gas industry. In offshore marine platforms, the aeroderivative gas turbines provide the energy required to drive mechanically compressors, pumps and electric generators. Therefore, the study of the performance of aeroderivate gas turbines based on a parametric analysis is relevant to carry out a diagnostic of the engine, which can lead to operational as well as predictive and/or corrective maintenance actions. This work presents a methodology based on the exergetic analysis to estimate the irrevesibilities and exergetic efficiencies of the main components of a two-shaft aeroderivate gas turbine. The studied engine is the Solar Turbine Mars 100, which is rated to provide 11.86 MW. In this engine, the air is compressed in an axial compressor achieving a pressure ratio of 17.7 relative to ambient conditions and a high pressure turbine inlet temperature of 1220 °C. Even if the thermal efficiency associated to the pressure ratio of 17.7 is 1% lower than the maximum thermal efficiency, the irreversibilities related to this pressure ratio decrease approximately 1 GW with respect to irreversibilities of the optimal pressure ratio for the thermal efficiency. In addition, this paper contributes to develop a mathematical model to estimate the high turbine inlet temperature as well as the pressure ratio of the low and high pressure turbines.

  16. Comparative exergoeconomic analysis of prime movers of cogeneration plants; Avaliacao exergoeconomica comparativa de acionadores primarios de plantas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we apply exergoeconomic principles to perform a comparative analysis of the use of internal combustion engines or gas turbines as prime movers of cogeneration plants. A preliminary comparison of these movers can be obtained by analysing them individually, considering the complete utilization of the generated products rated on a common exergetic basis. However, when these movers are integrated in a cogeneration plant, it is necessary to perform a global system analysis, which will consider the coupling between generation capacity and demand, under the design conditions. The design of a cogeneration plant should, ideally, consider all the aspects that affect its performance. In this paper we take into account several aspects which are not normally collectively considered in similar analyses encountered in the literature. Specifically, the comparative procedure considers the electrical tariff on an hourly basis, the electrical and thermal load profiles, the influence of the environmental conditions on the performance of the prime movers, sizing and operation mode options to meet plant loads, part-load efficiency, different criteria for cost partitioning, and, finally, the effect of size on plant cost. Once the operating conditions of the cogeneration plant are defined, the procedure attributes costs to all the fluxes, allowing for the identification of the ranges of capacity where each mover is economically advantageous. We apply the procedure to the energetic supply analysis of a typical process of Brazilian shopping centers. (author)

  17. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  18. Design analysis and development of a high temperature actuaror for gas turbine blade tip clearance control

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    During a typical startup cycle industrial gas turbine blades experience rapid radial thermal expansion while bulky shroud structure with larger thermal inertia requires much longer period to reach its operating temperature. Turbine designers have to leave a safe radial distance in order to prevent contact of blades to the surrounding annular casing. However, when thermal steady state in the turbine stage is achieved, shroud and casing grow and excessive amount of blade-shroud clearance remain...

  19. Optimization of micro combined heat and power gas turbine by genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdi Behnam Ahrar; Yazdi Behdad Ahrar; Ehyaei Mehdi Ali; Ahmadi Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic modeling and multi-objective optimization of a micro turbine cycle in combined heat and power generation, which provides 100KW of electric power. This CHP System is composed of air compressor, combustion chamber (CC), Air Preheater, Gas Turbine (GT) and a Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger. In this paper, at the first stage, the each part of the micro turbine cycle is modeled using thermodynamic laws. Next, with using ...

  20. Economic efficiency of a gas-turbine topping for steam reheating at heating turbo-installations

    OpenAIRE

    Romashova Olga; Belyaev Leonid; Tubolev Aleksandr; Skrebatun Egor

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the ways to improve the operating efficiency of conventional combined heat power plants using gas-turbine topping scheme allowing heat utilization of flue gases for steam reheating in the waste-heat steam boiler. The calculating analysis was performed for a steam-turbine power generating unit with a turbine of the Т-110/120-130 brand name intended for various modes of operation.

  1. Economic efficiency of a gas-turbine topping for steam reheating at heating turbo-installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the ways to improve the operating efficiency of conventional combined heat power plants using gas-turbine topping scheme allowing heat utilization of flue gases for steam reheating in the waste-heat steam boiler. The calculating analysis was performed for a steam-turbine power generating unit with a turbine of the Т-110/120-130 brand name intended for various modes of operation.

  2. Erosion-resistant coatings for gas turbine compressor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muboyadzhyan, S. A.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of ion-plasma coatings made from high-hardness metal compounds on the erosion and corrosion resistance and the mechanical properties of alloy (substrate) + coating compositions is comprehensively studied. The effects of the thickness, composition, deposition conditions, and design of coatings based on metal nitrides and carbides on the relative gas-abrasive wear of alloy + coating compositions in a gas-abrasive flux are analyzed. The flux contains quartz sand with an average fraction of 300-350 μm; the abrasive feed rate is 200 g/min; and the angles of flux incidence are 20° (tangential flow) and 70° (near-head-on attack flow). Alloy + coating compositions based on VN, VC, Cr3C2, ZrN, and TiN coatings 15-30 μ m thick or more are shown to have high erosion resistance. A detailed examination of the coatings with high erosion resistance demonstrates that a zirconium nitride coating is most appropriate for protecting gas turbine compressor blades made of titanium alloys; this coating does not decrease the fatigue strength of these alloys. A chromium carbide coating is the best coating for protecting compressor steel blades.

  3. Topping gas turbines improve steam power plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). KWU Group)

    An interesting option for improving the efficiency and output of an existing conventional steam power plant is to convert it into a combined steam-and-gas cycle power plant by adding a topping gas turbine. The investment involved is relatively low, the payback period is short, and the low specific fuel consumption makes it possible to save on overall running costs. At the same time, the amount of residue for disposal and also pollutant emissions are drastically reduced. This article describes the configuration of a fully-fired combined-cycle power plant and discusses thermodynamic design and efficiency, operational aspects, emissions and residues and investment and economic viability. Both coal-fired and gas or oil-fired steam power plants can be converted by adding a topping cycle and the investment cost is about 20% of the cost of a new plant with the same output rating as the plant to be converted. Conversion reduces pollutant emission and residues produced (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, dust, ash, gypsum, waste heat). 4 figs.

  4. Analysis of a reheat gas turbine cycle with chemical recuperation using Aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, S.; Kane, N`Diaye [ISITEM - Lab. d`Energetique, Nantes (France)

    1996-11-01

    Present-day high performance gas turbine based cycles use the combined cycle concept in which the heat in the hot turbine exhaust stream is used to raise steam which can be used to generate electricity using a steam turbine. Recent attention has focused in particular on the chemical heat recovery concept.The potential benefits of such cycles include high conversion efficiency, ultra-low NO{sub x} emission levels (less than 1 ppm) and high power density per unit of land. The low thermal NO{sub X} emissions result from the presence of hydrogen in the reformed fuel gas, which enables combustion at lower flame temperatures. Thus, a CRGT (Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine) cycle can meet the strictest NO{sub x} limits in operation today without the need for selective catalytic reduction. Such environmental characteristics are the primary reason fuelling current interest in CRGT cycles. For design reasons, reheat combustors cannot be easily adapted to stationary gas turbines, and until recently the CRGT cycle seemed to be limited to aeroderivative gas turbine applications. However, ABB recently unveiled its new GT26 series stationary gas turbines using staged expansion with reheat combustion, allowing high thermal efficiencies with relatively low turbine inlet temperatures. This type of turbine appears particularly well-suited for chemical heat recovery. In this paper, we present a CRGT cycle based on a reheat gas turbine with key design features similar to those of ABB`s GT26 machine. The cycle analysis is performed using ASPEN+ process simulation software. The report includes a detailed first and second law analysis of the cycle. The results confirm that the energy conversion efficiencies of CRGT cycles cannot rival with the efficiencies achieved by state-of-the-art combined cycles. 12 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Artificial neural networks for monitoring the gas turbine; Artificiella neuronnaet foer gasturbinoevervakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [Inst. foer Energivetenskaper, Lunds Univ. (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    Through available historical operational data from gas turbines, fast, accurate, easy to use and reliable models can be developed. These models can be used for monitoring of gas turbines and assist in the transition from today's time-based maintenance to condition based maintenance. For the end user this means that, because only operational data is needed, they can easily develop their own tools independent of the manufacturer. Traditionally these types of models are constructed with physical relations for e.g., mass, energy and momentum. To develop a model with physical relations is often laborious and requires classified information which the end user does not have access to. Research has shown that by producing models using operational data a very high model precision can be achieved. When implementing these models in a power plant computer system the gas turbine's performance can be monitored in real time. This can facilitate fault detection at an early stage, and if necessary, stop the gas turbine before major damage occurs. For the power plant owner, this means that the gas turbine reliability is increased since the need for maintenance is minimized and the downtime is reduced. It also means that a measure of the gas turbine's overall status is continuously available, with respect to e.g. degradation, which helps in the planning of service intervals. The tool used is called artificial neural networks (ANN), a collective name for a number of algorithms for information processing that attempts to mimic the nerve cell function. Just like real networks of neurons in a brain, these artificial neural networks have the ability to learn. In this case, neural networks are trained to mimic the behavior of gas turbines by introducing them to data from real gas turbines. After a neural network is trained it represents a very accurate model of the gas turbine that it is trained to emulate.

  6. Cold-air performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the Department of Energy baseline automobile gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas-turbine engine was determined over a range of pressure ratios and speeds. In addition, static pressures were measured in the diffusing transition duct located immediately downstream of the turbine. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, specific work, and efficiency for the turbine and in terms of pressure recovery and effectiveness for the transition duct.

  7. Management decisions for cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, R. R.; Tabors, R. D.

    1982-07-01

    Two interdependent studies which explore the underlying factors in the decision by private, private non-profit, and public sector facility owners to invest in cogeneration technology are summarized. The employ factor analysis techniques to explain the decision to invest and discriminant analysis to group the survey respondents into non-cogenerators and potential cogenerators. Data for both studies come from a survey of commercial, industrial, and institutional electric energy consumers who used more than 750 kW demand in any one month of 1981 for a selected electric utility in the Boston area. There were 129 usable responses to the survey of 32.2% of the population. The studies confirm that a number of factors other than purely economic considerations may prevent use of cogeneration technology at the present time. These factors include: uncertainty caused by regulatory action; desire for energy self sufficiency by the organization; financial flexibility; experience with electricity cogeneration or self generation; and capital budget planning methods.

  8. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayo, Felix [Triple ' E' Systems Associates Ltd. (Nigeria); Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C. [Cadbury Nigeria plc. (Nigeria)

    2001-02-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration.

  9. Performance of gas turbines in Russia under the changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Klimenko, A. V.; Kasilova, E. V.; Rekunenko, E. S.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the expected climatic changes on the performance of gas turbine units (GTU) as part of the power industry and gas pipeline network in Russia is considered. Long-term estimates of changes in the average annual air temperature throughout the country are made based on the authors' model. The calculations using the efficiency value of gas turbine units as a function of the ambient air temperature show that climatic changes will significantly deteriorate the operational efficiency of gas-turbine equipment in practically all of Russia's regions. Based on publicly available statistical data, we assessed the installed capacity of gas-turbine power stations (including combined-cycle power plants) and gas-turbine drive of gas pipeline network. Three development scenarios have been considered for gas turbine power in the national electric power industry, differing in the rates of new facilities' commissioning. Integrated estimates have been made of the increase in gas consumption in Russia's gas pipeline network and power industry resulting from climatic changes by 2030 and 2050. It is shown that the total increase in the annual gas consumption associated with a reduction in the efficiency of gas turbine units due to climate warming by 2030 could reach approximately 130000 tce (of which approximately 90000 tce in the gas pipeline network and 40000 tce in the electric power industry) and more than 170000 tce (120000 and 50000 tce, respectively) by 2050. Should more optimistic scenarios be implemented for the development of the electric power industry, this effect will increase 1.5-2.0 times by 2050. Despite high absolute values, the increase in GTU fuel expenditures due to higher ambient temperatures resulting from climate change in Russia will only amount to a fraction of a percent of the total gas consumption and will be two orders of magnitude lower than the savings in space heating.

  10. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments; La turbina a gas: Tecnologie attuali e gli sviluppi futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the {sup G }and {sup H }technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining single digit levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department.

  11. Some Experimental Investigations on Gas Turbine Cooling Performed with Infrared Thermography at Federico II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Astarita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficient distributions which are connected with the cooling of gas turbines, performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II with infrared thermography. Measurements concern impinging jets, cooling of rotating disks, and gas turbine blades, which are either stationary or rotating. The heated thin foil sensor, associated with the detection of surface temperature by means of infrared thermography, is exploited to accurately measure detailed convective heat transfer coefficient maps. The paper also intends to show how to correctly apply the infrared technique in a variety of gas turbines cooling problems.

  12. Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.

  13. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

  14. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  15. Analysis on Service Life of Hot-end Components of Gas Turbine Using Equivalent Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the gas turbine depends on the technical status and the maintenance level of the hot-end components in a large part.The three main factors influencing on the service life of the hot-end components of the gas turbine were analyzed first.On this basis,various common service life assessment methods for gas turbine were discussed in detail.Aiming at the features of the M701F gas-steam combined cycle unit in Huizhou LNG power plant,a gas turbine life assessment method based on equivalent operation time analysis was put forward.The calculation result of an example shows that the equivalent operation time analysis method is a simple and practical assessment method.

  16. Development of superalloys for 1700 C ultra-efficient gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hiroshi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). High Temperature Materials Center

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of global warming is one of the most outstanding issues for the humankind. The Japanese government announced that it will reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 25% from the 1990 level by 2020 as a medium-term goal. One of the promising approaches to achieving this is to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants emitting one-third of total CO{sub 2} gas in Japan. The key to improving the thermal efficiency is high temperature materials with excellent temperature capabilities allowing higher inlet gas temperatures. In this context, new single crystal superalloys for turbine blades and vanes, new coatings and turbine disk superalloys have been successfully developed for various gas turbine applications, typically 1700 C ultra-efficient gas turbines for next generation combine cycle power plants. (orig.)

  17. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.

    2015-06-01

    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  18. Selection of the air heat exchanger operating in a gas turbine air bottoming cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielniak, Tadeusz; Czaja, Daniel; Lepszy, Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    A gas turbine air bottoming cycle consists of a gas turbine unit and the air turbine part. The air part includes a compressor, air expander and air heat exchanger. The air heat exchanger couples the gas turbine to the air cycle. Due to the low specific heat of air and of the gas turbine exhaust gases, the air heat exchanger features a considerable size. The bigger the air heat exchanger, the higher its effectiveness, which results in the improvement of the efficiency of the gas turbine air bottoming cycle. On the other hand, a device with large dimensions weighs more, which may limit its use in specific locations, such as oil platforms. The thermodynamic calculations of the air heat exchanger and a preliminary selection of the device are presented. The installation used in the calculation process is a plate heat exchanger, which is characterized by a smaller size and lower values of the pressure drop compared to the shell and tube heat exchanger. Structurally, this type of the heat exchanger is quite similar to the gas turbine regenerator. The method on which the calculation procedure may be based for real installations is also presented, which have to satisfy the economic criteria of financial profitability and cost-effectiveness apart from the thermodynamic criteria.

  19. Prospective gas turbine and combined-cycle units for power engineering (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2013-02-01

    The modern state of technology for making gas turbines around the world and heat-recovery combined-cycle units constructed on their basis are considered. The progress achieved in this field by Siemens, Mitsubishi, General Electric, and Alstom is analyzed, and the objectives these companies set forth for themselves for the near and more distant future are discussed. The 375-MW gas turbine unit with an efficiency of 40% produced by Siemens, which is presently the largest one, is subjected to a detailed analysis. The main specific features of this turbine are that the gas turbine unit's hot-path components have purely air cooling, due to which the installation has enhanced maneuverability. The single-shaft combined-cycle plant constructed on the basis of this turbine has a capacity of 570 MW and efficiency higher than 60%. Programs adopted by different companies for development of new-generation gas turbine units firing synthesis gas and fitted with low-emission combustion chambers and new cooling systems are considered. Concepts of rotor blades for new gas turbine units with improved thermal barrier coatings and composite blades different parts of which are made of materials selected in accordance with the conditions of their operation are discussed.

  20. Analysis of operation of the gas turbine in a poligeneration combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle IGCC polygeneration system, of which the task is to produce both electricity and synthesis gas, are shown. Assuming the structure of the system and the power rating of a combined cycle, the consumption of the synthesis gas for chemical production makes it necessary to supplement the lack of synthesis gas used for electricity production with the natural gas. As a result a change of the composition of the fuel gas supplied to the gas turbine occurs. In the paper the influence of the change of gas composition on the gas turbine characteristics is shown. In the calculations of the gas turbine the own computational algorithm was used. During the study the influence of the change of composition of gaseous fuel on the characteristic quantities was examined. The calculations were realized for different cases of cooling of the gas turbine expander's blades (constant cooling air mass flow, constant cooling air index, constant temperature of blade material). Subsequently, the influence of the degree of integration of the gas turbine with the air separation unit on the main characteristics was analyzed.

  1. Natural gas mini-power plant constituted by superadiabatic boiler and Tesla turbine; Desenvolvimento de uma micro-termoeletrica a gas natural constituida de caldeira superadiabatica e turbina Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos, William M.; Souza, Luis C.E.O de; Couras, Daut de J.P.; Carvalho, Bruno O. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Environmental impacts from combustion processes, in addition to fuel supply problems, have restricted the use intensification of natural gas thermoelectric, under rigorous action of the control and inspection institutions about emissions. The demand for decentralized energy generation systems has motivated the innovator technology development and, therefore, a diminished natural gas thermoelectric prototype has been developed by the Federal University of Ceara. This prototype utilizes non-conventional technologies: 'Superadiabatic Boiler' and 'Tesla Turbine', in which theoretical and experimental studies are performed. That novel boiler model presents lesser specific consumption and CO and NOx emission levels. A not well known concept at industry is implemented into that project, 'Porous Media Combustion', which modifies the combustion process phenomena. The turbine presents operational robustness and versatility because it allows wide rotation range and simple adaptation to commercial generators. Project parameters are investigated, such as: torque and power-weigh and geometry ratios. That micro-thermoelectric shows potential for the self-sustainable development of geographically distant communities and for co-generation at industry. It is possible to serve to low power energetic demands without requiring much professional experience for operation and maintenance. (author)

  2. Small wind turbines recognized in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    In response to environmental concerns, many diesel generators are being replaced with wind turbines. There is a growing trend for oil rigs and gasoline service stations around the world to use small wind turbines to power their facilities. Proven Energy Ltd., a supplier and manufacturer of small, reliable wind turbines, has exhibited its products at renewable energy exhibitions in the United Kingdom, Texas and Norway. The company has developed SIRA certified explosive proof turbines that currently produce electricity on one of Shell's offshore oil rigs and at BP's gasoline service stations. The turbines went through 2 years of rigorous offshore testing to ensure their reliability in harsh working conditions. Shell has ordered 16 more turbines given the success of the one currently installed on its platform. The turbines only need servicing once a year and once every two years for offshore. As such, there is little or no disruption to public service or unmanned rigs. 1 fig.

  3. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  4. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel

    2017-02-01

    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  5. Cathlean: catalytic, hybrid, lean-premixed burner for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroni, Richard; Griffin, Timothy [Alstom Power Technology Ltd., Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Kelsall, Greg [Alstom Power Technology Centre, Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Cathlean (an EU FP5 project) addresses the research and development of an advanced, ultra-low NO{sub x}, hybrid burner for gas turbines (present and future), that combines catalytic and lean-premix combustion components. Such a hybrid design enables this new technology to be introduced in a lower-risk manner. The catalytic elements serve to pretreat the fuel in order to enhance performance in terms of emissions <3 ppmv NO{sub x} and <10 ppmv CO at 15% O{sub 2} and 50-100% load, for natural gas fuel), part-load stability (reducing the lean blow-out temperature by over 100 deg C) and thermoacoustic phenomena (pulsations << 0.3% of pressure). The principle scientific objective is to quantify the advantages of the hybrid burner in terms of the above-mentioned criteria, relative to traditional, lean-premixed combustors. The present paper describes the technical and organisational aspects of the project, including an outline of state-of-the-art catalytic combustion technology, technical specification of the advanced burner and a description of the methods used to attain project goals. (Author)

  6. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  7. Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1993-12-01

    What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

  8. Increasing of the gas turbine efficiency by inlet air cooling; Aumento da eficiencia de turbinas a gas por resfriamento do ar de admissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Flavio Barboza [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: fcampos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Landa, Henrique Gerken de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia de Gas e Energia]. E-mail: hlanda@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2002-07-01

    The performance of most of gas turbines are affected by the temperature and pressure environmental conditions. The turbine power and efficiency are reduced by either the increasing in the temperature ou reducing the environmental pressure. This paper analyses the turbine inlet air cooling as an alternative for increasing the turbine efficiency. The various cooling routes of the turbine inlet air, found in the literature examined are presented and discussed.

  9. A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based...

  10. Robust High Fidelity Large Eddy Simulation Tool for Gas Turbine Combustors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to develop and demonstrate the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for computations of gas turbine combustor flow and transport processes, using the...

  11. Development of colorless distributed combustion for gas turbine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arghode, Vaibhav Kumar

    Colorless Distributed Combustion (CDC) is investigated for gas turbine engine application due to its benefit for ultra-low pollutant emission, improved pattern factor, low noise emission, stable combustion and low pressure drop, alleviation of combustion instabilities and increased life of turbine blades with less air cooling requirements. The CDC is characterized by discrete and direct injection of fuel and air at high velocity and the reaction zone is stabilized due to controlled aerodynamics inside the combustor and wider (radially) shear layer mixing. Mixing between the injected air and product gases to form hot and diluted oxidant is required followed by rapid mixing with the fuel. This results in distributed reaction zone instead of a concentrated flame front as observed in conventional diffusion flames and hence, to avoid hot spot regions and provide reduced NOx and CO emissions. The focus of this dissertation is to develop and demonstrate CDC for application to stationary gas turbine combustors which generally operate at thermal intensity of 15MW/m3-atm. However, higher thermal intensity is desirable to reduce hardware costs due to smaller weight and volume of the combustors. Design of high thermal intensity CDC combustor requires careful control of critical parameters, such as, gas recirculation, fuel/oxidizer mixing and residence time characteristics via careful selection of different air and fuel injection configurations to achieve desirable combustion characteristics. This dissertation examines sequential development of low emission colorless distributed combustor operating from thermal intensity of 5MW/m3-atm up to 198MW/m3-atm. Initially, various fuel and air injection configurations were investigated at a low thermal intensity of 5MW/m 3-atm. Further investigations were performed for a simpler combustor having single air and fuel injection ports for medium thermal intensity range of 28-57MW/m3-atm. Among the flow configurations investigated, reverse

  12. Cooling of Gas Turbines. 6; Computed Temperature Distribution Through Cross Section of Water-Cooled Turbine Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingood, John N. B.; Sams, Eldon W.

    1947-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the cross-sectional temperature distribution of a water-cooled turbine blade was made using the relaxation method to solve the differential equation derived from the analysis. The analysis was applied to specific turbine blade and the studies icluded investigations of the accuracy of simple methods to determine the temperature distribution along the mean line of the rear part of the blade, of the possible effect of varying the perimetric distribution of the hot gas-to -metal heat transfer coefficient, and of the effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the blade metal for a constant cross sectional area blade with two quarter inch diameter coolant passages.

  13. Acoustic Transfer Functions Derived from Finite Element Modeling for Thermoacoustic Stability Predictions of Gas Turbine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Paul Randall

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic Transfer Functions Derived from Finite Element Modeling for Thermoacoustic Stability Predictions of Gas Turbine Engines Design and prediction of thermoacoustic instabilities is a major challenge in aerospace propulsion and the operation of power generating gas turbine engines. This is a complex problem in which multiple physical systems couple together. Traditionally, thermoacoustic models can be reduced to dominant physics which depend only on flame dynamics and acoustics. Th...

  14. Investigation on methods to improve heat loadprediction of the SGT-600 gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Farhanieh, Arman

    2016-01-01

    In modern gas turbines, with the increase of inlet gas temperature to raise thework output, the importance of accurate aero-thermal analysis has become of vitalimportance. These analysis are required for temperature prediction throughoutthe turbine and to predict the thermal stresses and to estimate the cooling requiredfor each component.In the past 20 years, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have becomea powerfool tool aero-thermal analysis. Due to reasons including numericallimitat...

  15. Conversion of an Existing Gas Turbine to an Intercooled Exhaust-Heated Coal-Burning Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    possibilities of using biomass is also included. The engine chosen for conversion is the 2.8 MW F olar 5650 industrial gas turbine. The conversion... alkali -laden gas which can result in particulate and chemical action on the turbine as well as pollution. Particulate matter has a powerful erosive effect...rate is then adjusted by altering the pressure difference between the tank and the carrier line at the orifice [45]. Pretreatment of the coal is

  16. Control System Design Language Implementation of a Gas Turbine Starting Controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    THESIS _ CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN LANGUAGE IMPLEMENTATION OF A GAS TURBINE STARTING CONTROLLER by Richard Preston Riley June 1984 *1Thesis Advisor: A. A...CONTRACT OR GRANT NUM11101(s) Richard Preston Riley S. P01111SOMNM @R11ANS ATION NAME AND ADDRESS iG. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKAREA A WORKC UNIT...Design Language Implementation of a Gas Turbine Starting Controller by *J.4 Richard Preston Riley Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S

  17. Gain Scheduling Control of Gas Turbine Engines: Absolute Stability by Finding a Common Lyapunov Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Pakmehr, Mehrdad; Fitzgerald, Nathan; Feron, Eric; Shamma, Jeff; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript aims to develop and describe gain scheduling control concept for a gas turbine engine which drives a variable pitch propeller. An architecture for gain-scheduling control is developed that controls the turboshaft engine for large thrust commands in stable fashion with good performance. Fuel ow and propeller pitch angle are the two control inputs of the system. New stability proof has been developed for gain scheduling control of gas turbine engines using global linearization a...

  18. Combustion LES Software for Improved Emissions Predictions of High Performance Gas Turbine Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    94 vii 8503/8 ABSTRACT Low emissions of CO, NO,, and unburned hydrocarbons ( UHC ) are a difficult...NOR, UHC , and smoke, are becoming a requirement for today’s and future military gas turbine engines. Advanced, high performance gas turbines will...range, and operating pressure. 2 850318 1. INTRODUCTION Low emissions of pollutants, including CO, NO,,, UHC , and smoke, are becoming a requirement

  19. A technology development summary for the AGT101 Advanced Gas Turbine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.L.; Kidwell, J.R.; Kreiner, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Since the program initiation in October 1979, the Garrett/Ford Advanced Gas Turbine Program, designated AGT101, has made significant progress in developing ceramic technology for gas turbine applications. Successful component development has resulted in engine tests with an all ceramic hot section to temperatures up to 2200F (1204C) and full speed operation to 100,000 rpm (turbine rotor tip speed of 2300 ft/sec (701 m/s)). An 85-hour test was performed on an all ceramic engine at 2200F (1204C) turbine inlet temperature. These engine tests represent important first steps in the development of ceramic materials and technology. Engine evaluation was preceded by important component development. Activities included aerodynamic component evaluation and development of a high temperature foil bearing to support the ceramic turbine rotor. Development of low leakage regenerator seals and static ceramic seals in this high temperature environment were critical to engine performance.

  20. Combinations of solid oxide fuel cell and several enhanced gas turbine cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchonthara, Prapan; Bhattacharya, Sankar; Tsutsumi, Atsushi

    Combined power generation systems with combinations of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and various enhanced gas turbine (GT) cycles were evaluated. In the GT part, steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle, GT/steam turbine (ST) combined cycle, and humid air turbine (HAT) cycle were considered. Moreover, additional recuperation was considered by means of air preheating (APH) in the STIG cycle. Effects of operating turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and pressure ratio (PR) on overall system performance were assessed. Although the SOFC-HAT system shows the lowest specific work output compared to other systems, its highest thermal efficiency presents a significant advantage. Furthermore, at high TITs and PRs the SOFC-HAT system gives the best performance in terms of both thermal efficiency and specific work. Results indicate that energy recuperative features in the HAT promote the positive effect of increasing TIT by means of enhancing GT efficiency, leading to the improvement in thermal efficiency of the overall system.

  1. Modern coating concepts in gas turbine construction; Moderne Beschichtungskonzepte im Turbinenbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzur, Birger [TU Ilmenau (Germany). FG Plasma- und Oberflaechentechnik; Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas [Alstom Power, Levallois-Perret (France)

    2013-02-15

    Modern gas turbines play an important role in effective and environmentally responsible energy production. In their manufacture and operation, countless methods of widely varying nature are used to functionalise and protect turbine surfaces. These include, for example, provision of wear-resisting surfaces as well as those to resist corrosion (hot gas corrosion) and thermal loading. Numerous very different technologies and processes are called for to apply such protective coatings. Of extreme importance is a requirement for coatings which are reproducible and with long-term stability. An overview is here provided of modern applications of thermal spray processes in turbine construction. Coating requirements and the way in which these are met as well as modern development trends are described with examples of the thermally-stressed turbine components such as turbine blades and combustion chamber components. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  3. Development of the 501-KC7 gas turbine and the RFA-24 centrifugal pipeline compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, C. [Rolls-Royce, Mount Vernon, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In 1997, Rolls-Royce was faced with the challenge of boosting the Allison 501 KC 5,500 HP gas turbine product for pipeline compression to 7,000 HP. The increase would provide high efficiency, improved reliability and better emissions performance in a cost effective manner. An extension of the 501 KC5 gas turbine was developed using the 501-KB7 boost module and the third and fourth turbine stages. This paper describes the bearing and shaft arrangements and other components of the whole 501 K gas turbine family. The ultimate effect was to provide a gas turbine with increased power of 35 per cent and improved fuel burn by approximately 7 per cent. The 501-KC7 gas generator consists of the following 6 components: (1) compressor, (2) combustion section, (3) gas generator turbine, (4) accessory drive assembly, (5) starter drive gearbox, and (6) an electronic control system. Each of the components is modular. It was concluded that the introduction of the 501-KC7 has established a new standard of excellence. 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  4. Thermodynamic modeling and Exergy Analysis of Gas Turbine Cycle for Different Boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study an exergy analysis of 88.71 MW 13D2 gas turbine (GT topping cycle is carried out. Exergy analysis based on second law was applied to the gas cycle and individual components through a modeling approach. The analysis shows that the highest exergy destruction occurs in the combustion chamber (CC. In addition, the effects of the gas turbine load and performance variations with ambient temperature, compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature (TIT are investigated to analyse the change in system behavior. The analysis shows that the gas turbine is significantly affected by the ambient temperature which leads to a decrease in power output. The results of the load variation of the gas turbine show that a reduction in gas turbine load results in a decrease in the exergy efficiency of the cycle as well as all the components. The compressor has the largest exergy efficiency of 92.84% compared to the other component of the GT and combustion chamber is the highest source of exergy destruction of 109.89 MW at 100 % load condition. With increase in ambient temperature both exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency decreases.

  5. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  6. Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holowczak, J.

    2002-03-01

    With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.

  7. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  8. Mechanical support of a ceramic gas turbine vane ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.; Mosher, Daniel A.; Holowczak, John E.; Reinhardt, Gregory E.

    2010-07-27

    An assembly for mounting a ceramic turbine vane ring onto a turbine support casing comprises a first metal clamping ring and a second metal clamping ring. The first metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a first side of a tab member of the ceramic turbine vane ring. The second metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a second side of the tab member such that the tab member is disposed between the first and second metal clamping rings.

  9. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  10. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-12-01

    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20% cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20% more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5% when compared to larger gas turbines.

  11. 生物质流态化炭气联产初步研究%A Preliminary Study of Biochar-gas Cogeneration from Biomass Fluidized Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红健; 范晓旭; 韩中合; 张会亮

    2015-01-01

    生物质流态化炭气联产技术是在流态化反应过程中获得生物炭和燃气,其目标是在保证燃气能够稳定燃烧情况下,尽量提高生物炭的品质和产率。为此,以木屑为原料在流化床实验台上进行了生物质在流化床中的停留时间对生物炭特性和燃气特性影响的研究;并在此基础上借助 Aspen Plus 过程模拟平台进行了扩展预测模拟计算。结果显示:停留时间对生物炭特性和燃气特性有较大影响。在本实验范围内随着停留时间,增加生物炭产率降低,生物炭中固定碳含量升高,固定碳最高含量为72%时生物炭的产率为14%;燃气中 CO、H2的含量也会随停留时间的增加而升高,燃气热值最高可达到4216 kJ/( Nm3)。%Fluidized biochar-gas cogeneration from biomass is a technology to obtain biochar and gas in the fluidized re-action process .The goal of this technology is to improve the quality and yield of biochar under the premise of stable com -bustion of gas .Sawdust was used as material in this paper to research the effect of residence time on characteristics of bio -char and gas .Simulations were conducted with Aspen plus to make an extended forecasts .The results showed that resi-dence time have a significant influence on characteristics of biochar and gas .With the lengthen of residence time , yield of biochar decreased to 14%while fixed carbon content increased to 72%in this experimental range;content of CO , H2 in gas also increased with the residence time increases , the maximum calorific value of gas could reach 4216kJ/Nm3 .

  12. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  13. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  14. An Overview of Magnetic Bearing Technology for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel J.; Jansen, Mark J.; Montague, Gerald T.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of the magnetic bearing and its use in exotic applications has been conceptualized for many years, over a century, in fact. Patented, passive systems using permanent magnets date back over 150 years. More recently, scientists of the 1930s began investigating active systems using electromagnets for high-speed ultracentrifuges. However, passive magnetic bearings are physically unstable and active systems only provide proper stiffness and damping through sophisticated controllers and algorithms. This is precisely why, until the last decade, magnetic bearings did not become a practical alternative to rolling element bearings. Today, magnetic bearing technology has become viable because of advances in micro-processing controllers that allow for confident and robust active control. Further advances in the following areas: rotor and stator materials and designs which maximize flux, minimize energy losses, and minimize stress limitations; wire materials and coatings for high temperature operation; high-speed micro processing for advanced controller designs and extremely robust capabilities; back-up bearing technology for providing a viable touchdown surface; and precision sensor technology; have put magnetic bearings on the forefront of advanced, lubrication free support systems. This paper will discuss a specific joint program for the advancement of gas turbine engines and how it implies the vitality of magnetic bearings, a brief comparison between magnetic bearings and other bearing technologies in both their advantages and limitations, and an examination of foreseeable solutions to historically perceived limitations to magnetic bearing.

  15. Analysis of Internal Cooling Geometry Variations in Gas Turbine Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Eifel; V. Caspary; H. H(o)nen; P. Jeschke

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation analyzes the effects of major geometrical modifications to the interior of a convection cooled gas turbine rotor blade. The main focus lies on the flow of the leading edge channels and the impact on the heat transfer. An experimental approach is performed with flow visualization via paint injection into water. Also numerical calculations are carried out in two sets, on the one hand water calculations accompanying the experi-ments and on the other hand conjugate heat transfer calculations under realistic engine conditions. The latter cal-culations are still ongoing delivering preliminary results. Five geometry configurations are investigated, three of them with differing turbulator arrangements in the leading edge channels. The operating point of the base configuration is set to Re = 50,000 at the inlet while for the modi-fied geometries the pressure ratio is held constant compared to the base. Among several investigated configurations one could be identified that leads to a heat transfer enhancement in one leading edge channel 7 % larger compared to the base.

  16. High temperature strain gage technology for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Edward J.; McDaniel, Amos D.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a six month study that addressed specific issues to transfer the Pd-13Cr static strain sensor to a gas turbine engine environment. The application issues that were addressed include: (1) evaluation of a miniature, variable potentiometer for use as the ballast resistor, in conjunction with a conventional strain gage signal conditioning unit; (2) evaluation of a metal sheathed, platinum conductor leadwire assembly for use with the three-wire sensor; and (3) subjecting the sensor to dynamic strain cyclic testing to determine fatigue characteristics. Results indicate a useful static strain gage system at all temperature levels up to 1350 F. The fatigue characteristics also appear to be very promising, indicating a potential use in dynamic strain measurement applications. The procedure, set-up, and data for all tests are presented in this report. This report also discusses the specific strain gage installation technique for the Pd-13Cr gage because of its potential impact on the quality of the output data.

  17. Increased Reliability of Gas Turbine Components by Robust Coatings Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Dudykevych, T.; Sansom, D.; Subramanian, R.

    2017-08-01

    The expanding operational windows of the advanced gas turbine components demand increasing performance capability from protective coating systems. This demand has led to the development of novel multi-functional, multi-materials coating system architectures over the last years. In addition, the increasing dependency of components exposed to extreme environment on protective coatings results in more severe penalties, in case of a coating system failure. This emphasizes that reliability and consistency of protective coating systems are equally important to their superior performance. By means of examples, this paper describes the effects of scatter in the material properties resulting from manufacturing variations on coating life predictions. A strong foundation in process-property-performance correlations as well as regular monitoring and control of the coating process is essential for robust and well-controlled coating process. Proprietary and/or commercially available diagnostic tools can help in achieving these goals, but their usage in industrial setting is still limited. Various key contributors to process variability are briefly discussed along with the limitations of existing process and product control methods. Other aspects that are important for product reliability and consistency in serial manufacturing as well as advanced testing methodologies to simplify and enhance product inspection and improve objectivity are briefly described.

  18. Multidisciplinary design optimization of film-cooled gas turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Shashishekara S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Design optimization of a gas turbine blade geometry for effective film cooling toreduce the blade temperature has been done using a multiobjective optimization formulation. Three optimization formulations have been used. In the first, the average blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized. An upper bound constraint has been imposed on the maximum blade temperature. In the second, the maximum blade temperature is chosen as the objective function to be minimized with an upper bound constraint on the average blade temperature. In the third formulation, the blade average and maximum temperatures are chosen as objective functions. Shape optimization is performed using geometric parameters associated with film cooling and blade external shape. A quasi-three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver for turbomachinery flows is used to solve for the flow field external to the blade with appropriate modifications to incorporate the effect of film cooling. The heat transfer analysis for temperature distribution within the blade is performed by solving the heat diffusion equation using the finite element method. The multiobjective Kreisselmeier–Steinhauser function approach has been used in conjunction with an approximate analysis technique for optimization. The results obtained using both formulations are compared with reference geometry. All three formulations yield significant reductions in blade temperature with the multiobjective formulation yielding largest reduction in blade temperature.

  19. Methodology for Structural Integrity Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Oliveira Vale

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sources of stress arising in turbomachinery blades are the centrifugal loads acting at any section of the airfoil. Accounting for this phenomenon stress evaluation of the blade attachment region in the disc has to be performed in order to avoid blade failure. Turbomachinery blades are generally twisted, and the cross section area varies from the root of the blade to the tip. The blade root shape at the attachment region is of great concern. Stress concentrations are predictable at this contact region. In this paper, a finite element model has been created for the purpose of assessing stress at the joint region connecting the blade to the disc slot. Particular attention was paid to the geometric modeling of the "fir-tree" fixing, which is now used in the majority of gas turbine engines. This study has been performed using the commercial software ANSYS 13.0. The disc and blade assembly are forced to move with a certain rotational velocity. Contact connections are predicted on the common faces of the blade and on the disc at the root. Solutions can be obtained to allow the evaluation of stresses. Results can be compared with the mechanical properties of the adopted material.

  20. Counterrotatable booster compressor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, Thomas Ory (Inventor); Orlando, Robert Joseph (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A counterrotatable booster compressor assembly for a gas turbine engine having a counterrotatable fan section with a first fan blade row connected to a first drive shaft and a second fan blade row axially spaced from the first fan blade row and connected to a second drive shaft, the counterrotatable booster compressor assembly including a first compressor blade row connected to the first drive shaft and a second compressor blade row interdigitated with the first compressor blade row and connected to the second drive shaft. A portion of each fan blade of the second fan blade row extends through a flowpath of the counterrotatable booster compressor so as to function as a compressor blade in the second compressor blade row. The counterrotatable booster compressor further includes a first platform member integral with each fan blade of the second fan blade row at a first location so as to form an inner flowpath for the counterrotatable booster compressor and a second platform member integral with each fan blade of the second fan blade row at a second location so as to form an outer flowpath for the counterrotatable booster compressor.

  1. Gas-liquid dispersion with dual Rushton turbine impellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudcova, V; Machon, V; Nienow, A W

    1989-08-20

    Aerated and unaerated power consumption and flow patterns in a 0.56 m diameter agitated vessel containing water with dual Rushton turbines have been studied. Under unaerated conditions with a liquid height-to-diameter ratio of 2, an impeller spacing of 2 to 3 times the impeller is required for each to draw an amount of power equal to a single impeller. For aerated conditions, if a similar spacing is used, equations for the flooding-loading transition and for power consumption for a single Rushton impeller can be extended relatively easily to dual systems. All results for this spacing are explained by reference to bulk flow patterns and gassed-filled cavity structures and the proportion of sparged gas flowing through the upper impeller is also estimated. Such a spacing is generally recommended since it maximizes the power draw and hence the potential for oxygen mass transfer. Data are presented for other spacings but the results do not fit in easily with single agitator studies because strong impeller-impeller flow pattern interactions occur.

  2. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  3. Gas Turbine Characteristics for a Large Civil Tilt-Rotor (LCTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program, Subsonic Rotary Wing Project; an engine system study has been undertaken to help define and understand some of the major gas turbine engine parameters required to meet performance and weight requirements as defined by earlier vehicle system studies. These previous vehicle studies will be reviewed to help define gas turbine performance goals. Assumptions and analysis methods used will be described. Performance and weight estimates for a few conceptual gas turbine engines meeting these requirements will be given and discussed. Estimated performance for these conceptual engines over a wide speed variation (down to 50 percent power turbine rpm at high torque) will be presented. Finally, areas needing further effort will be suggested and discussed.

  4. Optimizing parameters of GTU cycle and design values of air-gas channel in a gas turbine with cooled nozzle and rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.

    2012-09-01

    The authors have formulated the problem of joint optimization of pressure and temperature of combustion products before gas turbine, profiles of nozzle and rotor blades of gas turbine, and cooling air flow rates through nozzle and rotor blades. The article offers an original approach to optimization of profiles of gas turbine blades where the optimized profiles are presented as linear combinations of preliminarily formed basic profiles. The given examples relate to optimization of the gas turbine unit on the criterion of power efficiency at preliminary heat removal from air flows supplied for the air-gas channel cooling and without such removal.

  5. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  6. High-Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are the subject of a new NASA Lewis Research Center and U.S. Army thrust with significant industry participation, and coordination with other Government agencies. The NASA/Army emphasis is on high-temperature applications for future gas turbine engines. Magnetic bearings could increase the reliability and reduce the weight of these engines by eliminating the lubrication system. They could also increase the DN (diameter of the bearing times rpm) limit on engine speed and allow active vibration cancellation systems to be used--resulting in a more efficient, "more electric" engine. Finally, the Integrated High-Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program, a joint Department of Defense/industry program, identified a need for a hightemperature (as high as 1200 F) magnetic bearing that could be demonstrated in a phase III engine. This magnetic bearing is similar to an electric motor. It has a laminated rotor and stator made of cobalt steel. Wound around the stator are a series of electrical wire coils that form a series of electric magnets around the circumference. The magnets exert a force on the rotor. A probe senses the position of the rotor, and a feedback controller keeps it in the center of the cavity. The engine rotor, bearings, and case form a flexible structure that contains a large number of modes. The bearing feedback controller, which could cause some of these modes to become unstable, could be adapted to varying flight conditions to minimize seal clearances and monitor the health of the system. Cobalt steel has a curie point greater than 1700 F, and copper wire has a melting point beyond that. Therefore, practical limitations associated with the maximum magnetic field strength in the cobalt steel and the stress in the rotating components limit the temperature to about 1200 F. The objective of this effort is to determine the limits in temperature and speed of a magnetic bearing operating in an engine. Our approach is to use our in

  7. Deposit remediation in coal-fired gas turbines through the use of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiro, C.L.; Chen, C.C.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Schields, P.W. (GE Corporate Research and Development Lab., Schenectady, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Deposit formation represents a key impediment to the eventual commercialization of a direct coal-fired gas turbine engine. Deposits result from the thermal decomposition of coal-borne mineral matter followed by impact and adhesion along the hot gas pathway. One strategy for deposit abatement is hot gas cleanup to remove particulate before entering the turbine. An alternative strategy, described in this Paper, is to modify the mineral matter/ash chemistry to render it non-adherent through the use of additives. In this way, the complexity and expense of hot gas cleanup is obviated. To date, alumina, boehmite, and a variety of kaolin clay additives have been tested in a coal-water mixture fired gas turbine simulator. A washed kaolin clay has proved to be most effective in reducing airfoil deposition. A mechanism involving in-situ slag decomposition, exsolution, and spontaneous spalling is proposed.

  8. Design and Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade by Potential Flow Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijaya Kumar,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design features of the turbine segment of the gas turbine have been taken from the “preliminary design of a power turbine for maximization of an existing turbojet engine”. It was observed that in the above design, after the rotor blades being designed they were analyzed only for the mechanical stresses. As the temperature has a significant effect on the overall stress in the rotor blades, a detailed study is carried out on the temperature effects to have a clear understanding of the combined mechanical and the thermal stresses. The first stage rotor blade of the gas turbine is analyzed for the mechanical axial and centrifugal forces. Knowing the fluid conditions at exit of the gas turbines, a value of static pressure was assumed at the turbine outlet. From this the corresponding enthalpy drop required in the power turbine is calculated. The peripheral speed of rotor and flows velocities is kept in the reasonable range so to minimize losses. In which the base profiles available and is analyzed later for flow conditions through any of the theoretical flow analysis methods such as “Potential flow Approach”

  9. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  10. Cogeneration and local authorities; Cogeneration et collectivites territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This conference is composed of 15 communications concerning cogeneration systems and applications in local communities. The main themes are: the regulation context and administrative procedures for cogeneration projects in France; legal aspects, risk covering, financing and sellback conditions for cogeneration systems; examples of cogeneration and tri-generation (with refrigeration energy) in different cities, airport, hospitals, campus, combined with the upgrading of district heating systems or municipal waste incineration plants. Impacts on energy savings and air pollution are also discussed

  11. Characterisation of a gas turbine prototype combustor design for an ABGC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Whinfrey, J. [European Gas Turbines Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Advanced coal-based power generation systems, such as the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with low environmental impact. An important component of the ABGC development programme is the design of a gas turbine combustion system to burn the coal-derived low calorific value (LCV) fuel-gas, generated by the air-blown gasifier. The overall objective of this project was to characterise at full-scale the initial prototype combustor hardware designed for an ABGC Prototype Integrated Plant. As part of the project, European Gas Turbine Ltd., provisioned what is believed to be a unique combustion test facility within Europe for the development of LCV gas-fired gas turbine combustion systems. This facility utilises a synthetic fuel-gas system capable of providing a variable fuel-gas mixture at mass flow rates up to 3.0 kg s{sup -1} and temperatures up to 600{degree}C. This allows testing of turbine combustion systems at full engine operating pressure and fuel-gas flows appropriate to medium-sized industrial gas turbines. The facility was used to characterise the first prototype combustor firing a synthetic fuel-gas representing the essential features of a coal-derived LCV fuel-gas. Combustor performance was encouraging. Combustor performance firing distillate oil as supplementary fuel was satisfactory in regard to light-up and change-over to fuel-gas, but was not as good as that for synthetic fuel-gas operation. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cold-air performance of compressor-drive turbine of Department of Energy upgraded automobile gas turbine engine. 2: Stage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE upgraded gas turbine engine was determined in low temperature air. The as-received cast rotor blading had a significantly thicker profile than design and a fairly rough surface finish. Because of these blading imperfections a series of stage tests with modified rotors were made. These included the as-cast rotor, a reduced-roughness rotor, and a rotor with blades thinned to near design. Significant performance changes were measured. Tests were also made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on the turbine performance. Comparisons are made between this turbine and the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas turbine engine.

  13. The Gas turbine Engine-based Power Technology Plant Using Wood Waste Gasification Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Danilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the problems of energy supply and waste utilization of the forest industries. As a solution, it proposes to use gasification to utilize wood leftovers, which is followed by electric power generation from combustion of producer gas. The plant was expected to have a power of 150 kW. The proposed power technology plant comprises a line for pre-treatment of wood chips, a gas generator (gasifier and a gas turbine unit.The paper justifies a need for preliminary preparation of wood waste, particularly chipping and drying. Various drying schemes have been analyzed. A line for pre-treatment of wood chips comprises a drum chipper, a receiving raw material wood container and a drum dryer using fume gases.A co-current gasifier is chosen because of the high content of tar in the original fuel. In the co-current gasifier, most of the tar, passing through the high temperature area, is burned. The paper offers high temperature dry cleaning of producer gas in the cyclone separator. Such a scheme of cleaning provides high efficiency of the plant and simplifies its design, but suspended particles still remain in the producer gas. When analyzing the schemes of power converters this is taken into account.A choice of the gas turbine as a power converter is justified. To reduce the erosion damage of the turbine blades there is a proposal to use an unconventional gas turbine scheme with air turbine and a combustion chamber located downstream of the turbine. In this plant the air rather than the combustion gas passes through the turbine. The air from turbine goes into the combustion chamber, the combustion gas passes through the air heater, where it transfers heat to the air. Such scheme allows reducing power costs for the fuel gas compression before the combustion chamber.Optimization of the gas turbine cycle is performed. The optimum compressor pressure ratio is 3,7. The plant efficiency for this pressure ratio is 25,7%. Calculation results of the

  14. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas rate while decreases with the increase of the gas release rate. The cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency and bigger work output, which means that the coke oven gas is used more effectively. Moreover, there exist two optimal pressure ratios of compressor which lead the maximum thermal efficiency and the maximum specific work, respectively.

  15. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  16. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  17. Design of a gas turbine combustion system for an ABGC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Whinfrey, J.; Armstrong, S.J. [European Gas Turbines Limited (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Advanced coal based power generation systems such as the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC) offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with low environmental impact. An important component of the ABGC development programme is the design of a gas turbine combustion system to burn the coal-derived low calorific value (LCV) fuel-gas. The overall objective of this project was to provide a detailed bill of materials for the gas turbine combustion system forming part of the ABGC. The approach adopted was to minimise the required change to existing turbine components. High-confidence feasibility design concepts were provided for both the air offtake and fuel-gas manifolds to achieve acceptable air and fuel distributions. These distributions were {+-} 0.8% for the air offtake from four existing ports on the turbine casing and + 1.3% to -0.7% for the fuel distribution to the ten combustor fuel injectors. A second prototype (Prototype-2) combustor performed well during experimental testing using a purpose-built facility at European Gas Turbines (EGT`s) Whetstone site. Firing of a simulated fuel-gas achieved high performance levels. Low emission levels of CO and NO{sub x} were achieved. 9 refs., 3 figs. 6 tabs.

  18. Evaluation and application of data sources for assessing operating costs for mechanical drive gas turbines in pipeline service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.J.; Mauney, D.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Ash, D.I. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of regression analysis of public domain data provided by interstate pipeline companies to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), combined with individual company equipment lists to generate information on cost of operations, maintenance, fuel gas used and the cost of fuel and power, is demonstrated. Methods of analysis and limitations are identified, and results of such regression analysis as average and variance of cost and fuel usage for industrial gas turbines and aeroderivative gas turbines are discussed. Comparison between gas turbine prime movers, reciprocating engine prime movers and electric motor drives are made, and annual costs per installed horsepower as a function of turbine size are calculated. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  19. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  20. Lining for high temperature gas turbines. Auskleidung fuer Hochtemperatur-Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, P.; Heckel, J.

    1986-06-26

    A lining is described for high temperature gas turbines, where a thermally insulating layer of a ceramic material is applied on the side of the turbine casing towards the high temperature. In order to insulate the heat which occurs at the very high process temperatures in this gas turbine plant, it is proposed that a first layer of microporous material containing mainly silica should be applied on the inner wall of the casing, that a second layer of ceramic fibres should be applied on this first layer that a binding layer of a fibre mat consisting of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ and possibly with the addition of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ should be provided between the turbine casing and the first layer and between the first and second layer, and that a lining layer of heat-resistant high quality steel is applied on this second layer.