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Sample records for coffee cropping system

  1. Productivity of coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.) in conversion to the organic production system

    OpenAIRE

    Malta, Marcelo Ribeiro; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Chagas, Sílvio Júlio de Rezende; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG; Guimarães, Rubens José; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Lavras, MG, to verify the productivity of coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.) in conversion to the organic production system. The experiment was set in a six-year old coffee crop of the cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 86, with spacing of 4,0 x 0,6 m, previously cultivated under the conventional system. In the organic treatments a 4 x 4 balanced lattice design with 5 replications in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme was used, besides 4 additional treatments. The f...

  2. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

  3. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non

  4. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non-agricultural income

  5. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, crop protection measures that are cheap, simple, cost-effective and sustainable are desirable to combat Phytophthora pod rot (black pod) and cocoa swollen shoot virus diseases of cocoa, coffee leaf rust and coffee berry diseases, inflorescence blight disease of cashew in order to make farming profitable and ...

  6. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  7. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  8. Environmental fate of pesticides applied on coffee crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was evaluate the environmental fate of pesticides applied in coffee crops in southeast of Brazil, using the level I fugacity model. Chemical and physical characteristics of the pesticides were considered in different environmental compartments and applied fugacity equations. The preliminary evaluation ...

  9. Boron levels in soils cropped to coffee and their relationships to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countries. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee ...

  10. Caracterização de lavouras cafeeiras cultivadas sob o sistema orgânico no sul de Minas Gerais Characterization of coffee crops cultivated on organic system in the south of Minas Gerais

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    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As exigências do mercado por cafés de melhor qualidade estão sendo responsáveis pela difusão e adoção de novas tecnologias de produção e preparo de café. Entre os cafés especiais, o café orgânico é um dos que mais vem se destacando neste segmento. Desta forma, objetivou-se nesse trabalho, a avaliação das características agronômicas de lavouras cafeeiras (Coffea arabica L. sob o sistema orgânico de produção, localizadas no Município de Poço Fundo, sul de Minas Gerais. Foram caracterizadas em 21 lavouras cafeeiras orgânicas as cultivares utilizadas, a população cafeeira, o tipo de colheita e secagem adotadas, a produtividade e qualidade do café, a fertilidade do solo e o estado nutricional do cafeeiro. Através dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que os cafeeiros conduzidos sob o sistema orgânico de produção apresentam potencial para produzirem cafés de boa qualidade. Em relação à fertilidade do solo, os baixos valores de pH e o desequilíbrio das relações entre K, Ca e Mg observados na maioria dessas lavouras, sugerem que esses fatores podem afetar o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção dos cafeeiros submetidos ao manejo orgânico do sul de Minas Gerais.The market demands for coffee of better quality are being responsible for diffusion and adoption of new production technologies and coffee preparation. Among the special coffee, the organic coffee is one of the most important in this group. So, this paper had the aim of evaluating the agronomical traits of coffee crops (Coffea arabica L. on organic system production, located in Poço Fundo district, South of Minas Gerais. One obtained information about the management of 21 organic coffee crops, like: cultivars, coffee tree population, harvest and drying adopted systems, yield and coffee quality, soil fertility and coffee nutritional status. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that coffee trees conducted under organic system

  11. Humic substances and its distribution in coffee crop under cover crops and weed control methods

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    Bruno Henrique Martins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Humic substances (HS comprise the passive element in soil organic matter (SOM, and represent one of the soil carbon pools which may be altered by different cover crops and weed control methods. This study aimed to assess HS distribution and characteristics in an experimental coffee crop area subjected to cover crops and cultural, mechanical, and chemical weed control. The study was carried out at Londrina, in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (23°21’30” S; 51°10’17” W. In 2008, seven weed control/cover crops were established in a randomized block design between two coffee rows as the main-plot factor per plot and soil sampling depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm as a split-plot. HS were extracted through alkaline and acid solutions and analyzed by chromic acid wet oxidation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Chemical attributes presented variations in the topsoil between the field conditions analyzed. Cover crop cutting and coffee tree pruning residues left on the soil surface may have interfered in nutrient cycling and the humification process. Data showed that humic substances comprised about 50 % of SOM. Although different cover crops and weed control methods did not alter humic and fulvic acid carbon content, a possible incidence of condensed aromatic structures at depth increments in fulvic acids was observed, leading to an average decrease of 53 % in the E4/E6 ratio. Humin carbon content increased 25 % in the topsoil, particularly under crop weed-control methods, probably due to high incorporation of recalcitrant structures from coffee tree pruning residues and cover crops.

  12. Avaliação de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento, utilizados na cafeicultura Evaluation of trickle irrigation systems used in coffee crop

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    Luís O. C. de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de agosto a outubro de 1999, com o objetivo de avaliar os sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento utilizados na cafeicultura irrigada do norte do Espírito Santo e nas áreas de cerrado de Minas Gerais e caracterizar a porcentagem de área molhada (PAM nesses sistemas de irrigação. Foram realizadas medidas das dimensões do bulbo molhado para determinação da porcentagem de área molhada. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que, dos valores de coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição determinados, apenas um sistema apresentou valor abaixo de 70%, refletindo uma uniformidade ruim. No que se refere aos demais resultados, dez sistemas indicaram valores de uniformidade de distribuição entre 70 e 80%, oito sistemas mostraram valores entre 80 e 90% e doze sistemas apontaram valores acima de 90%, indicando uniformidade razoável, boa e excelente, respectivamente. Dos valores determinados, a maioria dos sistemas que apresentaram uniformidade de boa a excelente estava situada na região de cerrado de Minas Gerais. Com relação à PAM, os valores determinados variaram na faixa de 19 a 100% e apenas um sistema apresentou valor abaixo do limite mínimo recomendado para regiões úmidas, que é de 20%.This study was carried out over the period from August to October 1999, aiming the evaluation of trickle irrigation systems used in coffee crop in the northern part of Espírito Santo State and the savannah areas of Minas Gerais State, as well as to characterize the percentage of wetted area (PWA of these irrigation systems. The wetted bulb dimensions measurements were accomplished for determining the percent wetted area. According to the results, just one system presented a value lower than 70% for the distribution uniformity coefficient, reflecting a bad uniformity. Concerning to the other results, ten systems showed the distribution uniformity values ranging from 70 to 80%, whereas for eight systems, it

  13. Toward systems epidemiology of coffee and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.

  14. Microbial inputs in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) production systems, southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Muleta, Diriba

    2007-01-01

    Arabica coffee is the key cash crop and top mainstay of the Ethiopian economy and requires sustainable production methods. Southwestern natural forests, the site of this study, are believed to be the centre of origin and diversity for Coffea arabica and still harbour wild Arabica coffee that may serve as an important gene pool for future breeding. Cost reductions, sustainability and quality improvement are now the major priorities in coffee production systems and require organic growing of co...

  15. The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo,Marcelo Bento Paes de

    2010-01-01

    The climatic variability is the main factor responsible for the oscillations and frustrations of the coffee grain yield in Brazil. The relationships between the climatic parameters and the agricultural production are quite complex, because environmental factors affect the growth and the development of the plants under different forms during the growth stages of the coffee crop. Agrometeorological models related to the growth, development and productivity can supply information for the soil wa...

  16. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

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    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the present work was to verify the viability of briquette production using the biomass waste obtained by zero harvest system. The treatments were composed of briquetting process: 1 coffee rind; 2 mixture of branches and leaves; 3 25% of coffee rind + 75% of branches and leaves; 4 75% of coffee rind + 25% of branches and leaves; 5 50% of coffee rind + 50% of branches and leaves; 6 40% of coffee rind + 60% of branches and leaves. The mixtures were realized in v/v base, milled to produce 5-10 mm particles and were briqueted with 12% of humidity. The C-teor of briquettes produced ranged from 41.85 to 43. 84% and sulphur teor was below 0.1%. The calorific value of briquettes produced ranged from 3,359 to 4, 028 Kcal/ kg and the ashes were below 6%. The isolated use of coffee rind or branches and leaves, as well the mixtures of coffee rind with 50% or more of branches and leaves allow the production of briquettes with calorific value around 4,000 Kcal/ kg which is within the quality parameters. The briquetting of coffee crop wastes is viable and sustainable energetically.

  17. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  18. Topography and crop management are key factors for the development of american leaf spot epidemics on coffee in costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Jacques; Cabut, Sandrine; Barboza, Bernardo; Barquero, Miguel; Alfaro, Ronny; Esquivel, César; Durand, Jean-François; Cilas, Christian

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT We monitored the development of American leaf spot of coffee, a disease caused by the gemmiferous fungus Mycena citricolor, in 57 plots in Costa Rica for 1 or 2 years in order to gain a clearer understanding of conditions conducive to the disease and improve its control. During the investigation, characteristics of the coffee trees, crop management, and the environment were recorded. For the analyses, we used partial least-squares regression via the spline functions (PLSS), which is a nonlinear extension to partial least-squares regression (PLS). The fungus developed well in areas located between approximately 1,100 and 1,550 m above sea level. Slopes were conducive to its development, but eastern-facing slopes were less affected than the others, probably because they were more exposed to sunlight, especially in the rainy season. The distance between planting rows, the shade percentage, coffee tree height, the type of shade, and the pruning system explained disease intensity due to their effects on coffee tree shading and, possibly, on the humidity conditions in the plot. Forest trees and fruit trees intercropped with coffee provided particularly propitious conditions. Apparently, fertilization was unfavorable for the disease, probably due to dilution phenomena associated with faster coffee tree growth. Finally, series of wet spells interspersed with dry spells, which were frequent in the middle of the rainy season, were critical for the disease, probably because they affected the production and release of gemmae and their viability. These results could be used to draw up a map of epidemic risks taking topographical factors into account. To reduce those risks and improve chemical control, our results suggested that farmers should space planting rows further apart, maintain light shading in the plantation, and prune their coffee trees.

  19. Microbial activity in soil cultivated with different summer legumes in coffee crop

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    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted for ten years in a sandy soil in the north part of the Paraná State, Brazil. The soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space between the coffee plants, in the following treatments: Control, Leucaena leucocephala, Crotalaria spectabilis, Crotalaria breviflora, Mucuna pruriens, Mucuna deeringiana, Arachis hypogaea and Vigna unguiculata. The legume crops influenced the microbial activity, both under the coffee canopy and in the inter row space. The cultivation of Leucaena leucocephala increased the microbial biomass C, N and P. Although L. leucocephala and Arachis hypogaea provided higher microbial biomass, the qCO2 decreased by up to 50% under the coffee canopy and by about 25% in the inter row space. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P due to green manure residue addition.

  20. Fracciones de fósforo en suelos del Valle del Cauca con diferentes sistemas de cultivo de café Phosphorus fractions in soils of the Valle del Cauca under different coffee crop systems

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    Diana Milena Mejía Umaña

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia de los sistemas de cultivo de café: orgánico, convencional y orgánico-mineral, sobre las fracciones de fósforo (P en suelos del departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Las mediciones por fraccionamiento secuencial reducido se hicieron en el Laboratorio de Suelos del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT. El análisis estadístico se ajustó a un modelo de diseño completamente aleatorio en un arreglo en parcelas divididas con tres tratamientos y tres repeticiones. Los resultados mostraron que los contenidos de las fracciones orgánicas de P disponible y P moderadamente disponible variaron (P This study was conducted in the department of Valle del Cauca (Colombia coffee growing zone to evaluate the response of planting coffee under different cropping systems: organic, conventional and organicmineral, on soil phosphorus fractions with volcanic influence. Sequential fractionation methodology adapted by the International Center of Tropical Agriculture was used. The statistical analysis consisted of a Complete Randomized Block Design under a split plot arrangement with three treatments and three replications. The results showed that contents of the organic fraction of available P and the moderately available P showed significant differences among the systems in which organic and conventional management was included, the conventional system had the lowest values. The organic-mineral system showed the highest contents of organic and inorganic phosphorus and the conventional system showed the lowest for these fractions of P. For the non available P fraction, it was found that organic systems had higher P content than the conventional system and, the organic-mineral system showed significant differences with respect to the rest. The total P showed a similar pattern to the fractions described. The low content in the conventional system can be explained by specific aspects of

  1. COEFICIENTE DE CULTURA E RELAÇÕES HÍDRICAS DO CAFEEIRO, CULTIVAR CATUCAÍ, SOB DOIS SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DA IRRIGAÇÃO CROP COEFFICIENT AND WATER RELATIONSHIPS OF COFFEE CATUCAÍ CULTIVAR UNDER TWO SYSTEMS OF IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

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    Tiago Roberto Wehr

    2007-10-01

    study was to determine the crop coefficient (kc, diffusion resistance and leaf water potential coffee, Catucaí cultivar, in blooming and grain formation phases, submitted to two irrigation system management. The coffee evapotranspiration was determined by soil water balance, and crop evapotranspiration was assessed by Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 method. The irrigation application times were determined in two management systems: based on the percentage wetted area (P, and based on the location coefficient (Kl. The results allowed to conclude that the irrigation management using the location coefficient provided an increase of the irrigation application time, and, consequently, increasing the irrigation depth and the crop coefficient values, which reached the mean of 1.12. For the management system based on the percentage wetted area, the mean value of the crop coefficient, in the appraised period, was 1.06. The mean diffusion resistance and leaf water potential were lower when the management system was adopted with base in Kl, which provided an increase of the transpiration and, consequently, of kc.

    KEY-WORDS: Evapotranspiration; diffusion resistance; leaf water potential.

  2. Potential Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineral of Soil in Coffee Agroforestry System with Various Shading Trees

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    Purwanto .

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of shading trees in coffee farms has been well understood to establish suitable condition for the growth of coffee trees, on the other hand their role in nitrogen cycle in coffee farming is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of various legume shading trees on the concentration of soil mineral N (N-NH4 + and N-NO3-, potential nitrification and to study the controlling factors of nitrification under field conditions. This field explorative research was carried out in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Twelve observation plots covered four land use systems (LUS, i.e. 1 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiasepium as shade trees; 2 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaas shade trees and Arachis pintoias cover crops; 3Coffee agroforestry with Paraserianthes falcataria as shade trees; and 4 Mixed/multistrata coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaand other fruit crops as shade trees. Measurements of soil mineral-N concentration were carried out every three weeks for three months. Results showed that shade tree species in coffee agroforestry significantly affected concentrations of soil NH4 +, NO3- and potential nitrification. Mixed coffee agroforestry had the highest NH4+/N-mineral ratio (7.16% and the lowest potential nitrification (0.13 mg NO2-kg-1 hour -1 compared to other coffee agroforestry systems using single species of leguminous shade trees. Ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral increased 0.8—21% while potential nitrification decreased 55—79% in mixed coffee agroforestry compared to coffee agroforestry with Gliricidia or P. falcatariaas shade trees. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcatariaas shade trees had potential nitrification 53% lower and ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral concentration 20% higher than that with Gliricidia. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcataria as shade trees also had organic C content 17% higher, total N 40% higher, available P 112% higher than that with Gliricidia. The presence of A. pintoiin

  3. Impact of coffee crop renewal program on small producers in department Cundinamarca (Colombia

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    Guarín N. Carlos Andrés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The modernization of crops through renewal is a vital option for the restoration of the productivity and competitiveness of the coffee crop. The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros (National Federation of Coffee is banking on a strategy that promotes renewal by providing resources to stimulate growers. As a result of the implementation of the program, it is hoped that it will reverse the aging process of coffee crops, consolidate a productive and competitive market, provide appropriate ages and densities and promote the use of coffee rust resistant varieties. Similarly, it is expected that small producers, who constitute the majority of farmers and who presumably suffer major limitations to independent renewal, will be the main beneficiaries.

  4. Effects of shade and input management on economic performance of small-scale Peruvian coffee systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezeer, Rosalien E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374336865; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571979; Boot, René G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069412928; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Verweij, Pita A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843

    2018-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry systems provide a number of ecosystem services that might help sustain the production of multiple crops, improve farmers’ livelihoods and conserve biodiversity. A major drawback of agroforestry coffee systems is the perceived lower economic performance compared to high-input

  5. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  6. Physiological and Agronomic Performance of the Coffee Crop in the Context of Climate Change and Global Warming: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaMatta, Fábio M; Avila, Rodrigo T; Cardoso, Amanda A; Martins, Samuel C V; Ramalho, José C

    2018-05-30

    Coffee is one of the most important global crops and provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Coffee species have been described as being highly sensitive to climate change, as largely deduced from modeling studies based on predictions of rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Here, we discuss the physiological responses of the coffee tree in the context of present and ongoing climate changes, including drought, heat, and light stresses, and interactions between these factors. We also summarize recent insights on the physiological and agronomic performance of coffee at elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and highlight the key role of CO 2 in mitigating the harmful effects of heat stress. Evidence is shown suggesting that warming, per se, may be less harmful to coffee suitability than previously estimated, at least under the conditions of an adequate water supply. Finally, we discuss several mitigation strategies to improve crop performance in a changing world.

  7. Qualidade sensorial do café de lavouras em conversão para o sistema de produção orgânico Cup quality of traditional crop coffee converted to organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a qualidade sensorial do café de lavouras em conversão para o sistema de produção orgânico, foi instalado este experimento, no município de Lavras (MG. O experimento foi instalado em 2004, em uma lavoura de café Catuaí Amarelo IAC 86, espaçamento de 4,0 x 0,6 m, com seis anos de idade, anteriormente cultivada no sistema convencional. Nos tratamentos orgânicos, empregou-se o delineamento látice balanceado 4 x 4, com cinco repetições em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, mais quatro tratamentos adicionais. O fatorial constou da utilização de três fontes de matéria orgânica (farelo de mamona, cama de frango e esterco bovino, com ou sem aplicação de casca de café e de adubação verde com feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.. Os quatro tratamentos adicionais consistiram de: 1- esterco bovino + casca de café + moinha de carvão + sulfato duplo de potássio e magnésio; 2 - farelo de mamona + casca de café + farinha de rocha; 3 - casca de café e 4 - adubação verde. Para efeito de comparação, manteve-se no mesmo talhão uma lavoura com manejo convencional. Não foram observadas diferenças de qualidade de bebida entre os cafés submetidos aos diferentes tratamentos orgânicos, nem entre esses e a testemunha no primeiro ano de conversão. No segundo ano, observou-se superioridade das bebidas de cafés de alguns tratamentos orgânicos em relação ao da lavoura desenvolvida no sistema convencional. Verificou-se efeito positivo da utilização do esterco bovino isoladamente ou associado com a casca de café e adubação verde na qualidade sensorial do café.The main purpose of this study was to evaluate sensorial attributes of coffee grown under a transition cultivation system, from conventional to organic, in Lavras (MG. The experiment was established in 2004, in a conventional field with 6 year-old Catuaí Amarelo IAC86 coffee plants, planted using 4,0 X 0,6 m spacing system. The experimental

  8. Nutrient inputs in soil cultivated with coffee crop fertigated with domestic sewage

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    Mario Tauzene Afonso Matangue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertigation with wastewaters is a great option for reuse of effluents in agriculture. Domestic effluent can be reused after primary treatment, reducing treatment costs and pollution, also providing water and nutrients to crops. This work aimed to quantify the nutrients income in coffee crop fertigated with domestic sewage. Five treatments were used. T1 received only clean water, and treatments T2, T3, T4 e T5 received 180, 350, 480 and 638 mm of sewage, respectively, during four months. Monthly soil analyses allowed to quantify nutrient inputs of 67.45 kg ha-1 of N, 81.89 kg ha-1 of P, 33.34 kg ha-1 of K+, 173.24 kg ha-1 of Ca2+, 49.18 kg ha-1 of Mg2+, 161.56 kg ha-1 of Na+ and 116.19 kg ha-1 of S. Even though the treatments promoted reductions in fertilization and liming, it was still necessary to complement fertilization of coffee crop fertigated with domestic sewage.

  9. Fertilizer 15N balance in a coffee cropping system: a case study in Brazil Balanço do 15N do fertilizante em uma cultura de café: um estudo de caso no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiele Anete Bergamo Fenilli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the fate of fertilizer nitrogen in agricultural systems is essential for the improvement of management practices in order to maximize nitrogen (N recovery by the crop and reduce N losses from the system to a minimum. This study involves fertilizer management practices using the 15N isotope label applied in a single rate to determine the fertilizer-N balance in a particular soil-coffee-atmosphere system and to deepen the understanding of N plant dynamics. Five replicates consisting of plots of about 120 plants each were randomly defined within a 0.2 ha coffee plantation planted in 2001, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Nine plants of each plot were separated in sub-plots for the 15N balance studies and treated with N rates of 280 and 350 kg ha-1 during 2003/2004 and 2004/2005, respectively, both of them as ammonium sulfate enriched to a 15N abundance of 2.072 atom %. Plant shoots were considered as separate parts: the orthotropic central branch, productive branches, leaves of productive branches, vegetative branches, leaves of vegetative branches and fruit. Litter, consisting of dead leaves accumulated below the plant canopy, was measured by the difference between leaves at harvest and at the beginning of the following flowering. Roots and soil were sampled down to a depth of 1.0 at intervals of 0.2 m. Samples from the isotopic sub-plots were used to evaluate total N and 15N, and plants outside sub-plots were used to evaluate dry matter. Volatilization losses of NH3 were estimated using special collectors. Leaching of fertilizer-N was estimated from deep drainage water fluxes and 15N concentrations of the soil solution at 1 m soil depth. At the end of the 2-year evaluation, the recovery of 15N applied as ammonium sulfate was 19.1 % in aerial plant parts, 9.4 % in the roots, 23.8 % in the litter, 26.3 % in the fruit and 12.6 % remaining in the 0_1.0 m soil profile. Annual leaching and volatilization losses were very small (2.0 % and 0

  10. Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice A. de Assis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation associated to reduction on planting spaces between rows and between coffee plants has been a featured practice in coffee cultivation. The objective of the present study was to assess, over a period of five consecutive years, influence of different irrigation management regimes and planting densities on growth and bean yield of Coffea arabica L.. The treatments consisted of four irrigation regimes: climatologic water balance, irrigation when the soil water tension reached values close to 20 and 60 kPa; and a control that was not irrigated. The treatments were distributed randomly in five planting densities: 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1. A split-plot in randomized block design was used with four replications. Irrigation promoted better growth of coffee plants and increased yield that varied in function of the plant density per area. For densities from 10,000 to 20,000 plants ha-1, regardless of the used irrigation management, mean yield increases were over 49.6% compared to the non-irrigated crop.

  11. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using combined biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the...

  12. Ricoseius loxocheles (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is not a predator of false spider mite on coffee crops: What does it eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacacela Ajila, Henry E; Ferreira, João A M; Colares, Felipe; Oliveira, Cleber M; Bernardo, Ana Maria G; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is often found in coffee crops and is known to feed on coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). As the occurrence of coffee leaf rust is limited primarily to the rainy season, the mite may use other food sources to survive during the periods of low pathogen prevalence. It is well known that phytoseiid mites can survive on a variety of food sources, such as herbivorous mites, fungi and pollen. We evaluated the ability of R. loxocheles to survive and reproduce on a diet of Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), cattail pollen (Typha spp.), clover rust (Puccinia oxalidis), bee pollen (Santa Bárbara ® dehydrated pollen, Santa Bárbara, MG, Brazil) and coffee leaf rust. Ricoseius loxocheles did not survive or reproduce on any B. phoenicis stages tested (egg, larva, adult). The survival and oviposition of R. loxocheles were directly affected by the presence of coffee rust urediniospores, but not by the presence of the prey. Survival and oviposition of the phytoseiid were similar when fed cattail pollen, clover rust and coffee leaf rust but was lower when fed bee pollen. Our results show that R. loxocheles is not a predator of B. phoenicis but it is able to utilize other resources besides coffee leaf rust.

  13. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  14. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  15. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes (GEC such as climate change (CC and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011, and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  16. Multi-scale measurements show limited soil greenhouse GAS emissions in Kenyan smallholder coffee-dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Gonzalo, Daniel; de Neergaard, Andreas; Vaast, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    the three main cropping systems found in the area: 1) coffee (Coffea arabica L.); 2) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum); and 3) maize intercropped with beans (Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris). Within these fields, chambers were allocated on fertilised and unfertilised locations to capture spatial...

  17. Estimating biophysical properties of coffee (Coffea canephora) plants with above-canopy field measurements, using CropSpec®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Bayu T. Widjaja; Soni, Peeyush; Morimoto, Eiji; Pujiyanto, Pujiyanto

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing technologies have been applied to many crops, but tree crops like Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) under shade conditions require additional attention while making above-canopy measurements. The objective of this study was to determine how well chlorophyll and nitrogen status of Robusta coffee plants can be estimated with the laser-based (CropSpec®) active sensor. This study also identified appropriate vegetation indices for estimating Nitrogen content by above-canopy measurement, using near-infra red and red-edge bands. Varying light intensity and different background of the plants were considered in developing the indices. Field experiments were conducted involving different non-destructive tools (CropSpec® and SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter). Subsequently, Kjeldahl laboratory analyses were performed to determine the actual Nitrogen content of the plants with different ages and field conditions used in the non-destructive previous stage. Measurements were undertaken for assessing the biophysical properties of tree plant. The usefulness of near-infrared and red-edge bands from these sensors in measuring critical nitrogen levels of coffee plants by above-canopy measurement are investigated in this study.

  18. Addressing crop interactions within cropping systems in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2018-01-01

    objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...

  19. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  1. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  2. Coffee Production in Kavre and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Kumar Karki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea spp is an important and emerging cash crop having potential to provide farmers employment and income generation opportunities. This crop is well adapted to the climatic conditions of mid-hills of Nepal. Thus, majority of the farmers are attracted towards cultivation of coffee because of demands in national and international market. Coffee is now becoming integral part of farming system in rural areas. However, information on performance of coffee and farmers response has not been well documented. Therefore, we undertook the present work to analyze demography, ethnicity, household occupation, literacy status, average land holding, coffee cultivation area, livelihood and sources of income of coffee growers, production and productivity, pricing, cropping pattern of the coffee and problesm faced by them in mid hill district of Kavrepalanchowk (hereafter ‘Kavre’ and Lalitpur Districts. All the samples were taken randomly and selected from coffee producing cooperative of Kavre and Lalitpur. Our analysis showed that the male farmer dominant over female on adopting coffee cultivation in both districts with higher value in Kavre. Brahmin and Chetri ethnic communities were in majority over others in adopting the coffee cultivation. Literate farmers were more dominant over illiterates on adopting the coffee cultivation, The mean land holding was less, ranging from 0.15 to 2.30 ha for coffee cultivation, the history of coffee cultivation in Kavre showed that highest number of farmers were engaged in coffee farming from last 16 years. The mean yield of fresh cherry was 1027.20 kg/ha in Kavre, while it was 1849.36 kg/ha in Lalitpur. The study revealed that majority of the coffee plantations were between 6-10 years old. The major problems facing by coffee farmers were diseases spread, lack of irrigation facility and drying of plants. Despite of that the coffee farming was one of the rapidly emerging occupations among the farmers in both

  3. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  4. Evaluation of a treatment system type septic tank - filter anaerobic of upward flow for the residual waters of the ecological benefit of the coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez C, Jose Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    Colombia is the first country in the production of soft coffee in the world. The benefit for humid way it makes that this quality of coffee is obtained; however, the high consumption of water in the process and the later discharge to the superficial or underground sources, they have generated an environmental problem of great magnitude. Also, the sources of water that they have been contaminated with the discharges of the liquid waste that come from benefit of coffee they present, among other, serious inconveniences to be used as supplying sources of drinkable water. In time of crop, the coffee areas and their superficial sources of water usually register high indexes of contamination like consequence of the discharges of residual waters that come from the benefit of the coffee. In the Departments of Quindio, Valle, Caldas, Antioquia, etc., they have been come executing investigations of the residuals treatment that are derived of the pulp removal of the coffee (via humid), for anaerobic methods with satisfactory results. This project had the collaboration of the Departmental Committee of Coffee of Antioquia and the Environmental Engineering of the Antioquia University and it is formulated toward the evaluation of a Anaerobic filter of Ascendant flow, FAFA, preceded of a septic tank (biological sedimentation), as a treatment system of the coffee residual waters, with a waste native of a ecological benefit area. The obtained results were satisfactory although the generated waste is very intermittent and in times that are not of coffee crop it doesn't take place; what hinders more the application of biological systems for its treatment

  5. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  6. Análise comparativa das características da serrapilheira e do solo em cafezais (Coffea arabica L. cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultura, na Zona da Mata MG Comparative analysis of litter and soil characteristics under coffee (Coffea arabica L. crop in agroforestry and monoculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Matoso Campanha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O aporte de serrapilheira em sistemas agroflorestais pode melhorar as características químicas e físicas do solo, diminuir a erosão e permitir a manutenção da umidade no solo por mais tempo. Isso faz dele um sistema alternativo de produção de café em regiões com solos propensos à degradação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise comparativa da quantidade e teor de nutrientes da serrapilheira e das características de fertilidade e do teor de umidade dos solos, em cafeeiros cultivados sob sistemas agroflorestal e solteiro. A pesquisa foi realizada na Zona da Mata mineira, durante o período compreendido entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2000. O sistema agroflorestal contribuiu com 6,1 Mg ha-1 ano-1 de matéria seca de serrapilheira, no entanto o solteiro aportou 4,5 Mg ha-1 ano-1, ressaltando-se que esta última apresentou teor mais elevado de macronutrientes. O solo do sistema agroflorestal exibiu maior teor de umidade de 20-40 cm, maior capacidade de troca de cátions e soma de bases trocáveis, maior teor de K, Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn em ambos os horizontes do solo e menor índice de saturação de alumínio e alumínio trocável na camada mais profunda do que o solo sob a monocultura. No cultivo solteiro, o solo apresentou maior teor de P e de matéria orgânica, tanto na camada superficial quanto na profunda.Coffee plants in agroforestry systems is an alternative to full sunlight cultivation, presenting the potential benefits of enhancing soil chemical and physical characteristics, reducing soil erosion, besides maintaining soil moisture for longer periods. This research aimed at comparing the quantity and nutrient concentration in the litter, soil fertility and soil moisture in coffee crops under full sunlight monocrop and in agroforestry systems, at the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research was carried out between January 1999 and May 2000. The agroforestry system, contributed with 6.1 Mg ha-1 year-1 of

  7. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...... the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability....

  8. Zoneamento climático associado ao potencial produtivo da cultura do café no Estado de Minas Gerais Climatic zoning associated to the productive potential of coffee crop in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão W. P. Evangelista

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de informações geográficas podem ser considerados instrumentos para mapear e indicar respostas às várias questões sobre o planejamento urbano e regional, o meio rural e levantamento dos recursos renováveis. A execução do zoneamento climático para a cultura do café, utilizando-se sistemas de informações geográficas, proporciona resultados mais satisfatórios, visto que os dados inicialmente coletados são armazenados, facilitando sua manipulação e análise e exibindo um resultado final de melhor qualidade, quando comparado com outros métodos mais tradicionais. As características agroclimáticas das diversas regiões influenciam, diferentemente, a produtividade final da cultura do café. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o grau de correspondência entre o zoneamento climático para a cultura do café e o potencial produtivo da cultura no Estado de Minas Gerais. O zoneamento climático mostrou-se eficiente na delimitação das regiões climaticamente homogêneas quanto à capacidade produtiva da cultura do café no Estado; Minas Gerais apresenta 37% de seu território com condições adequadas ao cultivo do café, 45% com alguma restrição e 18% são considerados inaptos; as áreas aptas ao cultivo do café se concentram no Centro-Sul do Estado.The geographical information system (GIS is a data management computational program, which is used to capture, store, recover, analyze and exhibit the geographically referenced space data. So, it is an important tool in elaboration of the climatic zonings, besides making the work faster and exhibiting a better-quality final result as compared to other traditional methods. The climatic characteristics of the areas may influence the final productivity of the coffee crop in different ways. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the degree of correspondence between climatic zoning and the productive potential for coffee crop in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

  9. The coffee agroforestry system. Its importance for the agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Abelardo Ponce Vaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of coffee growing, Ecuador is characterized by planting two main commercial species of Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee, and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner (Robusta coffee, where small production units and agroforestry systems predominate. To overcome the low national production, which constitutes the central problem of coffee growing in the country, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador, promoted the project «Reactivation of the Ecuadorian coffee industry», which contributes to food security and nutrition with integral approach. In these circumstances, the objective of this paper is to analyze the importance of coffee agroforestry systems for agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador. The proposal is born from the agro-economic diagnosis «case study», from the situation of the Coffee Production Units, from the Association of Peasants «Juntos Lucharemos» from the La Unión parish of the Jipijapa county, province of Manabí, in which they settled Main contributions to the agro-alimentary and nutritional security coming from the coffee agroforestry systems, this allowed to analyze characteristics related to the object of study. Based on the research results, gaps in national consumption needs were detected. This proposal contributed to articulate and promote the reactivation of coffee growing on agroecological bases, in harmony with the dimensions of sustainability in order to protect and conserve biodiversity and the coffee forest.

  10. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  11. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  12. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  13. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil aggregation and organic carbon of Oxisols under coffee in agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive land use can lead to a loss of soil physical quality with negative impacts on soil aggregates, resistance to root penetration, porosity, and bulk density. Organic and agroforestry management systems can represent sustainable, well-balanced alternatives in the agroecosystem for promoting a greater input of organic matter than the conventional system. Based on the hypothesis that an increased input of organic matter improves soil physical quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of coffee production systems on soil physical properties in two Red-Yellow Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos in the region of Caparaó, Espirito Santo, Brazil. On Farm 1, we evaluated the following systems: primary forest (Pf1, organic coffee (Org1 and conventional coffee (Con1. On Farm 2, we evaluated: secondary forest (Sf2, organic coffee intercropped with inga (Org/In2, organic coffee intercropped with leucaena and inga (Org/In/Le2, organic coffee intercropped with cedar (Org/Ced2 and unshaded conventional coffee (Con2. Soil samples were collected under the tree canopy from the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers. Under organic and agroforestry coffee management, soil aggregation was higher than under conventional coffee. In the agroforestry system, the degree of soil flocculation was 24 % higher, soil moisture was 80 % higher, and soil resistance to penetration was lower than in soil under conventional coffee management. The macroaggregates in the organic systems, Org/In2, Org/In/Le2, and Org/Ced2 contained, on average, 29.1, 40.1 and 34.7 g kg-1 organic carbon, respectively. These levels are higher than those found in the unshaded conventional system (Con2, with 20.2 g kg-1.

  15. Activity of some isoenzymatic systems in stored coffee grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Saath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.

  16. Interaction between household and field characteristics in generation of ecosystem services from coffee agro-ecosystem of Llano Bonito, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Allinne, Clementine; Avelino, Jacques; Gary, Christian; Rossing, Walter; Tittonell, Pablo; Rapidel, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Agro-ecosystems are major sources of ecosystem services (ESs). Coffee, originally a shade crop, is an important export cash crop for Costa Rica and other Latin America countries. Coffee grown under shades of diverse natural shade tree species ("rustic" systems) has potential to provide numerous ESs. However, coffee systems in Costa Rica have gone through transformation that involved sparse or absence of shade and intensive production systems with higher external input, favouring short term fi...

  17. Chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion effects on the cognitive function and antioxidant system of rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Renata Viana; Silva-Oliveira, Eliane Moretto; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Moraes-Santos, Tasso

    2011-10-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage consumed worldwide and its effect on health protection has been well studied throughout literature. This study investigates the effect of chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion on cognitive behavior and the antioxidant system of rat brains. The paradigms of open field and object recognition were used to assess locomotor and exploratory activities, as well as learning and memory. The antioxidant system was evaluated by determining the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content. Five groups of male rats were fed for approximately 80 days with different diets: control diet (CD), fed a control diet; 3% coffee diet (3%Co) and 6% coffee diet (6%Co), both fed a diet containing brewed coffee; 0.04% caffeine diet (0.04%Ca) and 0.08% caffeine diet (0.08%Ca), both fed a control diet supplemented with caffeine. The estimated caffeine intake was approximately 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, for the 3%Co-0.04%Ca and 6%Co-0.08%Ca treatments, respectively. At 90 days of life, the animals were subjected to the behavioral tasks and then sacrificed. The results indicated that the intake of coffee, similar to caffeine, improved long-term memory when tested with object recognition; however, this was not accompanied by an increase in locomotor and exploratory activities. In addition, chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion reduced the lipid peroxidation of brain membranes and increased the concentration of reduced-glutathione. The activities of the GR and SOD were similarly increased, but no change in GPx activity could be observed. Thus, besides improving cognitive function, our data show that chronic coffee consumption modulates the endogenous antioxidant system in the brain. Therefore, chronic coffee ingestion, through the protection of the antioxidant system, may play an important role in preventing age-associated decline in the cognitive

  18. Climate-based statistical regression models for crop yield forecasting of coffee in humid tropical Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Rajavel, M.; Surendran, U.

    2016-12-01

    A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha-1) was recorded in 2003-2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha-1) was recorded in 1988-1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997-1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good.

  19. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  20. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values connected to integrated crop protection. The role of integrated crop protection in prototyping new systems is discussed. The results of twenty years working with this prototyping methodology are pre...

  1. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  2. Diversidad de lagartijas en cafetales y bosque primario en el Soconusco chiapaneco Lizard diversity in coffee crops and primary forest in the Soconusco Chiapaneco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Macip-Ríos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación y el cambio de uso del suelo hacia actividades primarias intensivas son los factores que tienen más peso en la pérdida de la biodiversidad; no obstante, existen tipos de manejo que pueden tener un equilibrio entre la productividad y la conservación del ambiente; entre ellos se encuentran agrosistemas, como los cafetales, que han sido considerados refugios de la diversidad biológica. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto de estos agrosistemas en la diversidad de lagartijas, encontrándose que es mayor en los cafetales con sombra diversificada de baja altitud que en los sitios de vegetación primaria como la selva mediana y el bosque mesófilo; dicha diversidad se explica porque en los cafetales hay una mayor riqueza de microhábitats disponibles para las lagartijas, los cuales se generan por el tipo de manejo del agrosistema. Este trabajo apoya los cafetales como una opción para la conservación de la biodiversidad; además, se registran observaciones sobre aspectos ecológicos importantes relacionados con las lagartijas, como la apertura y la sobreposición del nicho espacial (microhábitat.Fragmentation and the transformation of natural habitat are the primary factors that promote the loss of biodiversity. However, there are some kinds of land management that may be less aggressive with the environment. Some of these are agrosystems such as coffee crops, which have been considered biodiversity refuges. In this work, we examine lizard diversity in these agrosystems, finding a higher diversity in the low altitude coffee crops than in the primary vegetation such as rain forest, and montane cloud forest. Lizard diversity is explained by the high microhabitat richness in the coffee crops, a pattern also found in birds. This paper supports the idea that the coffee crops work like a refuge for biodiversity and could be useful for conservation biology. Also we report observations of beta diversity and spatial (microhabitat

  3. Modelling nutrient management in tropical cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Delve, R. (ed.); Probert, M. (ed.)

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record In tropical regions, organic materials are often more important than fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility, yet fertilizer recommendations and most crop models are unable to take account of the level and quality of organic inputs that farmers use. Computer simulation models, such as the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) developed by CSIRO and the Queensland Department of Primary Industries, have proven their value in many cropping environments. Thes...

  4. Modelling the crop: from system dynamics to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    There is strong interplant competition in a crop stand for various limiting resources, resulting in complex compensation and regulation mechanisms along the developmental cascade of the whole crop. Despite decades-long use of principles in system dynamics (e.g. feedback control), current crop models

  5. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Simulation of the dynamic behavior of the coffee fruit-stem system using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lúcio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical harvesting can be considered an important factor to reduce the costs in coffee production and to improve the quality of the final product. Coffee harvesting machinery uses mechanical vibrations to accomplish the harvesting. Therefore, the determination of the natural frequencies of the fruit-stem systems is an essential dynamic parameter for the development of mechanized harvesting system by mechanical vibrations. The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the coffee fruit-stem systems, considering different fruit ripeness. Moreover, it was carried out a theoretical study, using the finite element three-dimensional model, based on the linear theory of elasticity, for determining the generated stress in a coffee fruit-stem system, during the harvesting process by mechanical vibration. The results showed that natural frequencies decrease as the ripeness condition of the fruit increases. Counter-phase mode shape can provide better detachment efficiency considering the stress generation on coffee fruit-stem system during the harvesting by mechanical vibrations and presented a difference greater than 40 Hz between the natural frequencies of the green and ripe fruit.

  7. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  8. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  9. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  10. Long-Term Coffee Monoculture Alters Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingyun; Xiong, Wu; Xing, Yizhang; Sun, Yan; Lin, Xingjun; Dong, Yunping

    2018-04-17

    Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping. Principal coordinate analysis suggested monoculture time was a major determinant of bacterial and fungal community structures. Relative abundances of bacterial Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospira and fungal Ascomycota phyla decreased over time. At genus level, potentially beneficial microbes such as Nitrospira and Trichoderma, significantly declined over time and showed positive relationships with coffee plant growth in pots. In conclusion, continuous coffee cropping decreased soil pH, organic matter content, potentially beneficial microbes and increased soil EC, which might lead to the poor growth of coffee plants in pots and decline of coffee yields in fields. Thus, developing sustainable agriculture to improve soil pH, organic matter content, microbial activity and reduce the salt stress under continuous cropping system is important for coffee production in China.

  11. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems ( e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  12. Individual plant care in cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nørremark, Michael; Nielsen, Henning; Blackmore, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Individual plant care cropping systems, embodied in precision farming, may lead to new opportunities in agricultural crop management. The objective of the project was to provide high accuracy seed position mapping of a field of sugar beet. An RTK GPS was retrofitted on to a precision seeder to map the seeds as they were planted. The average error between the seed map and the actual plant map was about 32 mm to 59 mm. The results showed that the overall accuracy of the estimated plant position...

  13. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  14. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  15. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  16. Economic Evaluation of Pollination Services Comparing Coffee Landscapes in Ecuador and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Olschewski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation through land-use systems on private land is becoming a pressing environmental policy issue. Agroforestry, such as shade-coffee production, contributes to biodiversity conservation. However, falling coffee prices force many coffee growers to convert their sites into economically more attractive land uses. We performed an economic evaluation of coffee pollination by bees in two distinct tropical regions: an area of low human impact with forests neighboring agroforestry in Indonesia and an area of high human impact with little remaining forest in Ecuador. We evaluated bee pollination for different forest-destruction scenarios, where coffee yields depend on forests to provide nesting sites for bees. We used two novel approaches. First, we examined how coffee net revenues depend on the pollination services of adjacent forests by considering berry weight in addition to fruit set, thereby providing a comprehensive evaluation. Second, we determined the net welfare effects of land-use changes, including the fact that former forestland is normally used for alternative crops. In both regions, crop revenues exceeded coffee pollination values, generating incentives to convert forests, even if owners would be compensated for pollination services. The promotion of certified "biodiversity-friendly" coffee is a feasible option to maintain shade-coffee systems. This is of special importance in high-impact areas where only small forest fragments remain. We conclude that a comprehensive economic analysis is necessary to adequately evaluate rainforest preservation for the enhancement of ecosystem services, such as pollination.

  17. Automated high resolution mapping of coffee in Rwanda using an expert Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukashema, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Vrieling, A.

    2014-12-01

    African highland agro-ecosystems are dominated by small-scale agricultural fields that often contain a mix of annual and perennial crops. This makes such systems difficult to map by remote sensing. We developed an expert Bayesian network model to extract the small-scale coffee fields of Rwanda from very high resolution data. The model was subsequently applied to aerial orthophotos covering more than 99% of Rwanda and on one QuickBird image for the remaining part. The method consists of a stepwise adjustment of pixel probabilities, which incorporates expert knowledge on size of coffee trees and fields, and on their location. The initial naive Bayesian network, which is a spectral-based classification, yielded a coffee map with an overall accuracy of around 50%. This confirms that standard spectral variables alone cannot accurately identify coffee fields from high resolution images. The combination of spectral and ancillary data (DEM and a forest map) allowed mapping of coffee fields and associated uncertainties with an overall accuracy of 87%. Aggregated to district units, the mapped coffee areas demonstrated a high correlation with the coffee areas reported in the detailed national coffee census of 2009 (R2 = 0.92). Unlike the census data our map provides high spatial resolution of coffee area patterns of Rwanda. The proposed method has potential for mapping other perennial small scale cropping systems in the East African Highlands and elsewhere.

  18. Will breeding for nitrogen use efficient crops lead to nitrogen use efficient cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crops are typically studied through the performance of the individual crop. However, in order to increase yields in a sustainable way, improving NUE of the cropping systems must be the aim. We did a model simulation study to investigate h...

  19. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a

  20. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on poten...

  1. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  2. An operational fluorescence system for crop assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Charles; Belanger, Marie-Christine; Viau, Alain A.; Chamberland, Martin; Roy, Simon

    2004-03-01

    The development of precision farming requires new tools for plant nutritional stress monitoring. An operational fluorescence system has been designed for vegetation status mapping and stress detection at plant and field scale. The instrument gives relative values of fluorescence at different wavelengths induced by the two-excitation sources. Lightinduced fluorescence has demonstrated successful crop health monitoring and plant nutritional stress detection capabilities. The spectral response of the plants has first been measured with an hyperspectral imager using laser-induced fluorescence. A tabletop imaging fluorometer based on flash lamp technology has also been designed to study the spatial distribution of fluorescence on plant leaves. For field based non-imaging system, LED technology is used as light source to induce fluorescence of the plant. The operational fluorescence system is based on ultraviolet and blue LED to induce fluorescence. Four narrow fluorescence bands centered on 440, 520, 690 and 740nm are detected. The instrument design includes a modular approach for light source and detector. It can accommodate as many as four different light sources and six bands of fluorescence detection. As part of the design for field application, the instrument is compatible with a mobile platform equipped with a GPS and data acquisition system. The current system developed by Telops/GAAP is configured for potato crops fluorescence measurement but can easily be adapted for other crops. This new instrument offers an effective and affordable solution for precision farming.

  3. Root biomass, turnover and net primary productivity of a coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica: effects of soil depth, shade trees, distance to row and coffee age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrenet, Elsa; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; Charbonnier, Fabien; Pastor Pérez-Molina, Junior; Khac, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Iván; Stokes, Alexia; Roumet, Catherine; Rapidel, Bruno; de Melo Virginio Filho, Elias; Vargas, Victor J; Robelo, Diego; Barquero, Alejandra; Jourdan, Christophe

    2016-08-21

    In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr -1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha -1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha -1 yr -1 Fine root biomass (0-30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha -1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha -1 yr -1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr -1 and lifespan was 0·8 years. Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  4. The role of coffee based agroforestry system in tree diversity conservation in Eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negawo, Worku Janka; Beyene, Dejene Nigatu

    2017-01-01

    Agroforestry farming system comprises considerable cultivated land area in the tropics. Despite the economic and social benefits of the system for farmers, it is also known to have an important role in the conservation of tree species. This study aims to evaluate the composition and distribution...... of indigenous tree species in coffee farms was lower than that of forest reserve. Similarly, tree species richness per plot, Shannon and Simpson diversity indexes of forest reserve were significantly (p

  5. Pruning cycles and nitrogen fertilization of coffee fields conducted in the “safra zero” system

    OpenAIRE

    Japiassú, Leonardo Bíscaro; Fundação Procafé; Garcia, André Luiz Alvarenga; Fundação Procafé; Guimarães, Rubens José; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Padilha, Lílian; Embrapa Café; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Siqueira; Embrapa Café

    2010-01-01

    Modern, competitive and cost effective coffee production requires plants with high productivity that are more adapted to mechanical and manual harvesting. “Safra Zero” is a cultivation system designed to limit plant height and eliminate the need for expensive harvesting during years of low productivity, which usually follow years of high productivity. This system is based on pruning cycles, nitrogen fertilization and different management methods. To evaluate the “Safra Zero&...

  6. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  7. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Vindas, Allan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m 2 . The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney

  8. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  9. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  10. Bird communities in sun and shade coffee farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.

  11. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  12. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row-crop

  13. Designing a neurofeedback device to quantify attention levels using coffee as a reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kok Suen; Lee, Jun Xiang; Lee, Poh Foong

    2018-05-09

    Work performance is closely related to one's attention level. In this study, a brain-computer interface (BCI) device suitable for office usage was chosen to quantify the individual's attention levels. A BCI system was adopted to interface brainwave signals to a coffee maker via three ascending levels of laser detectors. The preliminary test with this prototype was to characterize the attention level through the collected coffee amount. Here, the preliminary testing was comparing the correlation between the attention level and the participants' cumulative grade point average (CGPA) and scores from the 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) and the attentional control scale (ACS) using ordinal regression. It was assumed that a greater CGPA would generate a greater attention level. The generated coffee amount from the BCI system had a significant positive correlation with the CGPA (p = 0.004), mild depression (p = 0.019) and mild and extremely severe anxiety (p = 0.044 and p = 0.019, respectively) and a negative correlation with the ACS score (p = 0.042). This simple and cost-effective prototype has the potential to enable everyone to know their immediate attention level and predict the possible correlation to their mental state.

  14. Tea Polyphenols as Inhibitors of Furan Formed in the Maillard Model System and Canned Coffee Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, K H; Zhang, L; Qiao, X G; Xu, Z X

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the effects of sugars and amino acids on furan formation via the Maillard reaction in low-moisture model systems were investigated. Glucose and alanine are important furan precursors, and the effects of the heating temperature, heating time, and molar ratio of glucose to alanine on furan formation were studied in glucose/alanine model system by response surface methodology. The heating temperature greatly affected furan formation. The maximum furan concentration was obtained with a glucose-to-alanine molar ratio of 0.83:1.00, by heating at 151 °C for 41 min. Tea polyphenols effectively inhibited furan formation in the glucose/alanine model and a canned coffee model. A high inhibition rate of 42.4% ± 1.5% was obtained in the canned coffee model during sterilization procedure with addition of 84 mg (the mass fraction is 12.1%) of tea polyphenols (99%). However, the content of aromatic components in the canned coffee model was significantly reduced at the same time. This study provides evidence for a good furan inhibitor that can be used in food processing. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  16. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  17. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coffee product Coffee Slender (Med-Eq Ltd., Tonsberg, Norway), lose an average of 2.5 to 3. ... might increase the risk of experiencing serious or life-threatening side effects such as high blood pressure, ...

  18. Enhancing productivity of salt affected soils through crops and cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)

  19. Developmental contradictions in Ethiopian coffee trade system: The case of Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX)

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Elias Nahusenay

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is Africa’s biggest coffee exporter nation with deep history. Coffee discovered in Ethiopia and it continues to be pivotal for the country in many fronts till to date. The coffee linkage with Ethiopia is deep-rooted many historians believe back in 9th century coffee discovered by Kaldi, a goat herder. He discovered it after noticing coffee’s energizing effect on his goats. The word coffee itself also derived from place called ‘Kaffa’ where the trees blossomed. Coffee gradually became...

  20. Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 ...

  1. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.A.; Munir, M.; Haqqani, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  2. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  3. FeedbackBetweenHumanActivitiesAndTerrestrialCarbonCyclesInSystemsOfShadeCoffeePro ductionInMexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Del Valle, A. E.; Perez-Samayoa, I. A.

    2007-12-01

    Coffee production in Mexico is carried out within a strong natural context. Coffee is grown under a canopy of several native and introduced tree species. This fact ensures a greater diversity of natural resources and environmental services available for local inhabitants to sustain their livelihoods. However, the lack of opportunities for coffee farmers is increasing the demand over the remaining forest areas by exacerbating non- sustainable timber extraction practices and promoting conversion of forests to pasture lands. This situation hampers the landscapes equilibrium and threatens the wellbeing of rural livelihoods. To understand the interactions between human activities and ecological functions associated with shaded coffee systems, this research has explored the extent to which socio-economic and cultural factors have influenced the use and management of natural resources sustaining coffee livelihoods. At the same time, it examines how customary patterns of resource use have induced changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle at the local level. The empirical study was carried out in a coffee-growing region in Mexico. It involved substantial fieldwork, use of satellite imagery, and participatory research methods in order to gauge a variety of biophysical and socio- economic factors, including forest cover, land use, and carbon balances, as well as, farming practices and off- farming strategies. In addition, a livelihood perspective was applied to approach the linkages between the management of natural resources, the environmental goods and services, and the socio-economic conditions in the coffee-growing region. The empirical evidence from the research marks out shade coffee systems as important supporters for broader natural systems as suppliers of environmental services. However, it also suggests that non-climatic factors might have significant impacts on the local environment and therefore on the terrestrial carbon cycle. According to the research estimations

  4. Environmental Sustainability of Some Cropping Systems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from most findings reviewed in this paper had shown that there was no one size fits cropping system that can be use for sustainability of the humid environment but the best approach was the diversification of both traditional and modern cropping systems. The transition to systems which are both sustainable and ...

  5. Shade tree diversity enhances coffee production and quality in agroforestry systems in the Western Ghats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesper, Maike; Kueffer, Christoph; Krishnan, Smitha; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of multispecies coffee agroforests reduces shade tree diversity with implications for tropical biodiversity. We investigated how tree biodiversity and its effects on coffee production and quality changes along a gradient of intensification (from diverse multispecies to Grevillea

  6. Effects of cropping systems on soil biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for fertilizer use to enhance soil nutrient pools to achieve good crop yield is essential to modern agriculture. Specific management practices, including cover cropping, that increase the activities of soil microorganisms to fix N and mobilize P and micronutrients may reduce annual inputs ...

  7. Seletividade de inseticidas utilizados em cultura cafeeira para larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant Selectivity of insecticides used in the coffee crop to larvae of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assim como a maioria dos cultivos, em cafeeiro, a associação de inimigos naturais com produtos fitossanitários seletivos é uma importante estratégia no manejo integrado de pragas (MIP. Dessa forma, este estudo objetivou avaliar a seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura cafeeira sobre larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1853 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, em laboratório. Os bioensaios foram realizados em condições controladas (25±2°C, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Cada bioensaio consistiu em seis tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por duas larvas. Para as comparações das médias dos tratamentos, empregou-se um esquema fatorial inteiramente ao acaso de produtos x número de instares para os diferentes instares subsequentes à aplicação. Os inseticidas utilizados e suas respectivas dosagens de aplicação, em g de i.a. L-1 foram: tiametoxam (0,5, imidacloprido (0,7, óleo mineral (13,3, endossulfam (2,63 e dimetoato (0,48. A testemunha foi composta apenas por água destilada. A aplicação dos produtos foi realizada por meio de torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a sobrevivência dos espécimes após serem contaminados com os produtos e os efeitos dos compostos sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos do predador. Tiametoxam (0,5, imidacloprido (0,7 e endossulfam (2,63 foram os mais prejudiciais, tendo sido observados, para os dois primeiros, 100% de mortalidade de larvas de primeiro e de segundo instares um dia após a aplicação e significativa redução na sobrevivência das larvas de terceiro e quarto instares. Dimetoato (0,48 foi nocivo para larvas de primeiro instar e levemente nocivo para larvas de quarto instar. Em função da seletividade apresentada pelo óleo mineral (13,3, este pode ser recomendado em compatibilização com o predador C. montrouzieri em programas de MIP na cultura cafeeira, sem prejuízo ao desempenho do inimigo natural.As well as most of the crops, in coffee crop, the

  8. Cropping system impact on soil quality determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VESTBERG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in soil quality evaluation has increased rapidly throughout the past decade, prompting us to evaluate the long-term impact of four cropping systems on several biological, chemical and physical determinants of soil quality. We hypothesized that after 17 years several of the determinants would show significant differences between conventional cereal and low input/organic rotations. Four crop rotations were imposed on a silt soil from 1982 through 1999. Rotation A was a conventionally managed cereal rotation that received 100% of the recommended mineral fertilizer each year. Rotation B was also managed conventionally from 1982 until 1993, although it received only 50% of the recommended mineral fertilizer. From 1994 through 1999, rotation B was managed as an organic rotation. Rotations C and D were low-input rotations with plant residues returned either untreated (Cor composted (Dfrom 1982 until 1994.From 1994 through 1999,they were also anaged organically. Significant decreases in extractable phosphorus (Pand potassium were observed in rotations C and D compared with rotation A, presumably because their yearly nutrient inputs were somewhat lower. The amount of soil organic carbon (Corg, soil water holding capacity, the numbers and biomass of earthworms and the microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were or tended to be higher in low input/organic than in conventionally managed plots. These effects may be in connection with the slightly increased levels of Corg in soil of the organic rotations. Activities of twelve enzymes were strongly affected by sampling time (early-versus late-summer, but much less by long-term management. Litter decomposition, numbers of soil nematodes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMfungal diversity,AM spore density and AM functioning were little affected by rotation. However,AM spore density correlated positively with the high amounts of extractable calcium and P which were a result from excessive liming applied

  9. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultura do cafeeiro irrigado por pivô central Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of irrigated coffee with a pivot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estimar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultivo (Kc do cafeeiro "Rubi"� irrigado por pivô central, através do método do balanço hídrico. O experimento foi desenvolvido na área experimental da Universidade Federal de Lavras e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à lâmina de água aplicada em função de percentagens de valores de Kc, ou seja, 60, 80, 100, 120 e 140% do valor de Kc, além de um tratamento sem irrigação (testemunha, totalizando 18 parcelas; em cada parcela se consideraram 8 plantas úteis. Os valores de evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc do café encontrados foram de 3,46, 7,14 e 5,41 mm, para os períodos de 01/04 a 31/07 (B, 01/08 a 31/10 (C e 01/11 a 31/12 (D do ano de 2007, respectivamente. Nos períodos de 01/01 a 31/03 (A e de 01/04 a 18/05 (B do ano de 2008, os valores de ETc foram de 5,57 e 3,07 mm d-1, respectivamente, e um valor médio de 4,93 mm d-1. Os valores de Kc do café encontrados para os períodos A, B, C e D, foram de 1,32, 1,06, 1,61, 1,25, respectivamente.Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient (Kc were estimated through water balance for coffee crop (cultivar Rubi, irrigated by center pivot. The experiment was carried out at the experimental area of Federal University of Lavras. Randomized block was used as statistical design, with 6 treatment and 3 replicates. The treatment levels were set by water depth applied as percentage of Kc values predefined and used by farmers in the region, established as 60, 80, 100, 120 e 140% of the predefined Kc value for a given period. The experiment included a control (non-irrigated, totalizing 18 plots, being considered in each one 8 effective plants for measurements. According to results obtained for soil water potential, the best treatment levels indicate coffee evapotranspiration of 3.46, 7.14 and 5.41 mm, for periods, B

  10. A multi-adaptive framework for the crop choice in paludicultural cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Silvestri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional cultivation of drained peatland causes peat oxidation, soil subsidence, nutrient loss, increasing greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity reduction. Paludiculture has been identified as an alternative management strategy consisting in the cultivation of biomass on wet and rewetted peatlands. This strategy can save these habitats and restore the ecosystem services provided by the peatlands both on the local and global scale. This paper illustrates the most important features to optimise the crop choice phase which is the crucial point for the success of paludiculture systems. A multi-adaptive framework was proposed. It was based on four points that should be checked to identify suitable crops for paludicultural cropping system: biological traits, biomass production, attitude to cultivation and biomass quality. The main agronomic implications were explored with the help of some results from a plurennial open-field experimentation carried out in a paludicultural system set up in the Massaciuccoli Lake Basin (Tuscany, Italy and a complete example of the method application was provided. The tested crops were Arundo donax L., Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deuter, Phragmites australis L., Populus×canadensis Moench. and Salix alba L. The results showed a different level of suitability ascribable to the different plant species proving that the proposed framework can discriminate the behaviour of tested crops. Phragmites australis L. was the most suitable crop whereas Populus×canadensis Moench and Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deuter (in the case of biogas conversion occupied the last positions in the ranking.

  11. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

    2011-01-26

    Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  12. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Williams-Guillén

    Full Text Available Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae. In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  13. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  14. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  15. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Coffee Commodity Chain in the World-Economy: Arrighi's Systemic Cycles and Braudel's Layers of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of coffee in the modern world-economy, w;ing an analyticalframework synthesized from Arrighi's concept of systemic cycles of accumulation and Braudel'snotion of three levels of economic analysis: material life, the market economy, and capitalism. Ittakes the commodity chain as the unit of analysis, and argues that this choice helps to illuminatethe caw;al connections between Braudel 's three layers. The method of incorporated comparisonis w;ed to compare restructurings of the coffee commodity chain with the restructurings of thelarger world-economy during each of Arrighi 's systemic cycles.

  17. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  18. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  19. Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundnut is an important cash crop and a good source of vegetable oil to resource-poor farmers. The study examined the Profitability of Groundnut–based Cropping Systems among farmers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers were ...

  20. THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Danilo; Epperson, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The U.S. organic coffee market has experienced extraordinary growth in the past five years because of an increase in c...

  1. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  2. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales

  3. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  4. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  5. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as droughts, heat stress, rain storms and floods can have devastating effects on cropping systems. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by projected increases of extreme events with climate change. More limits to aid received for agricultural damage and an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers further impacts farmers' resilience. Based on insurance claims, potatoes and rapeseed are the most vulnerable crops, followed by cereals and sugar beets. Damages due to adverse meteorological events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage and soil type. Current knowledge gaps exist in the response of arable crops to the occurrence of extreme events. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather events and the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop and its environment. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency and magnitude of drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. Since crop development is driven by thermal time, crops matured earlier during the warmer 1988-2008 period than during the 1947-1987 period. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the cropping season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947-1987 and 1988-2008. Soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that earlier maturing winter crops may avoid drought stress that occurs in late spring and summer. This is reflected in a decrease both in magnitude and frequency of soil moisture deficit around the sensitive stages during the 1988-2008 period when atmospheric drought may be compensated for with soil moisture. The risk of drought spells during

  6. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  7. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-04

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  8. Spatial-temporal analysis of water requirements of coffee crop in Minas Gerais State, Brazil Análise espaço-temporal da demanda hídrica do cafeeiro, no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. de A. Lemos Filho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific investigations about crop water requirements are of fundamental importance to the irrigation process. The main objective of this paper is to analyze and to map water requirements of coffee crop in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Potential evapotranspiration values (ET0 were estimated by the Penman-Monteith-FAO method, using daily data sets available for 42 National Meteorology Institute (INMET stations for a period of 17 years. The crop coefficient values (kc considered were extracted from literature. The results were analyzed by means of geostatistical tools. The theoretical semi-variograms were fitted by the Maximum Likelihood method, considering spherical, exponential and Gaussian models. The maps were created using the ordinary kriging method. In a general way, the results have showed that the coffee crop evapotranspiration (ETc presents high variability in Minas Gerais State. The largest variations, both spatial and temporal, have been observed in the northern part of the State. January and June, respectively, presented the highest and the smallest water requirements of coffee crop. Based on this, we can conclude that due to the coffee crop evapotranspiration (ETc data distinction in different regions of Minas Gerais, a good estimate of the ETc values for each locality will bring many benefits to the coffee growers regarding irrigation scheduling.O conhecimento de informações que expressam a demanda hídrica das plantas, é fundamental para a irrigação. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa foi analisar a demanda hídrica para o cafeeiro em Minas Gerais. Os valores de ET0, estimados pelo método de Penman-Monteith-FAO a partir de dados diários originados de registros de 42 estações climatológicas do INMET, se referem a um período de 17 anos. Os valores de coeficiente de cultura (kc adotado no estudo, são os citados por Allen et al. (1998 e Doorenbos & Pruitt (1997. As análises dos resultados são feitas através da geoestat

  9. TYPOLOGY OF FAMILY PRODUCTION UNITS OF TRADICIONAL AGROFORESTY SYSTEM OF COFFEE-BANANA-CITRUS IN THE COUNTRY TLAPACOYAN, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cruz A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee production is one of the most important activities in the town of Tlapacoyan, Veracruz unfortunately, prices and technologies focused on the monoculture production system have reduced the activity. The study of family production units (FPU, with the construction of a typology and an agronomic characterization of producers, carried out in the traditional agroforestry system of coffee-banana-citrus contributes to further analysis in public policies. This study was conducted in six communities through field work, coffee producers records and open interviews with authorities. A census of 33 individuals was built and questionnaires were applied as a part of the survey, which used multivariate analysis to establish categories of UPF. Each category was described in agronomic terms based on incomes and costs. Three categories were determined according to surface size, labor work and technological level, including diversification of costs of incomes. As a conclusion, this study has contributed to rethink about new supporting strategies for coffee producers, and government policies and supporting programs which will mean a better family income that will take into account differences such as the size varying from 5 to 27 ha. Labor work available varies among categories and technification defines the type and number of vehicles, because it refers to an activity that generates beneficial incomes to producers. We conclude that this heads of the UPF have traditional management of the 3 components, integrating productive practical and the system is dependent on labor.

  10. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ WILLINGNESS TO INCORPORATE BIOFUEL CROPS INTO CROPPING SYSTEMS IN MALAWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beston Bille Maonga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data, this study analysed the critical and significant socioeconomic factors with high likelihood to determine smallholder farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha into cropping systems in Malawi. Employing desk study and multi-stage random sampling technique a sample of 592 households was drawn from across the country for analysis. A probit model was used for the analysis of determinants of jatropha adoption by smallholder farmers. Empirical findings show that education, access to loan, bicycle ownership and farmers’ expectation of raising socioeconomic status are major significant factors that would positively determine probability of smallholder farmers’ willingness to adopt jatropha as a biofuel crop on the farm. Furthermore, keeping of ruminant herds of livestock, long distance to market and fears of market unavailability have been revealed to have significant negative influence on farmers’ decision and willingness to adopt jatropha. Policy implications for sustainable crop diversification drive are drawn and discussed.

  11. Soil microbiome characteristics and soilborne disease development associated with long-term potato cropping system practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cropping system practices substantially affect soil microbial communities and the development of soilborne diseases. Cropping systems incorporating soil health management practices, such as longer rotations, disease-suppressive crops, reduced tillage, and/or organic amendments can potentially...

  12. Spatial distribution of the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella) in an organic coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field in formation

    OpenAIRE

    Scalon, João Domingos; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Freitas, Gabriela Alves; DEX/UFLA; Avelar, Maria Betania Lopes; DEX/UFLA; Zacarias, Mauricio Sérgio; EPAMIG/EcoCentro

    2011-01-01

    Coffee production has been one of the economy pillars of many tropical countries. Unfortunately, this crop is susceptible to infestation by the coffee-leaf-miner (Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842)) which causes severe damage to coffee plantations with losses that may reach 80% of the total production. In recent years, researchers have been trying to develop practices for minimizing the use of pesticides in the coffee-leaf-miner control. It is well known that the un...

  13. Soil organism in organic and conventional cropping systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettiol, Wagner; Ghini, Raquel; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Ligo, Marcos Antônio Vieira; Mineiro, Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and corn (Zea mays) crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. C...

  14. The value of crop germplasm and value accounting system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; CHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The value evaluation and accounting of crop germplasm not only provides the theory and method for the price of germplasm, thus makes further lawful and fair transactions, but also ensures the benefits of crop germplasm owners and is also instructive in keeping the foodstuff safety. This paper founded a multidimensional value accounting system, which included physical accounting, value accounting and quality index accounting; individual accounting and total accounting; quantity accounting and quality accounting.

  15. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo de cafeeiros em fase de formação Evapotranspiration and crop coeficients of coffee trees during crop formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilton Luiz Flumignan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação do consumo hídrico das culturas é fundamental para diversas aplicações na agricultura. Neste estudo, lisímetros de pesagem instalados em Londrina (PR, foram usados para determinar a evapotranspiração (ET de cafeeiros da cultivar IAPAR 59, não irrigado e irrigado por aspersão e gotejamento, durante dois anos após a implantação da lavoura. O coeficiente de cultivo (Kc foi obtido nos tratamentos irrigados a partir da razão entre ET e a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo estimada pelo método Penman-Monteith. Os valores de ET e Kc dos tratamentos analisados variaram em função do método de irrigação, frequência de chuvas, demanda da atmosfera e evolução da área foliar. O tratamento irrigado por aspersão foi aquele com os maiores valores médios anuais de ET (3,1 e 3,4 mm dia-1 para o primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente, seguido do gotejamento (2,9 mm dia-1 para o segundo ano e do não-irrigado (2,2 e 2,5 mm dia-1 para o primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente. O valor médio anual de Kc foi maior para o tratamento irrigado por aspersão (0,99 e 1,03 para o primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente e menor para o irrigado por gotejamento (0,92 para o segundo ano.Quantifying crop water consumption is essential for many applications in agriculture. Evapotranspiration (ET of coffee trees, cultivar IAPAR 59, under sprinkler and drip irrigation and no irrigation, were determined by weighing lysimeters in an experiment conducted in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, during two years after crop installation. The crop coefficient (Kc values were determined for the irrigated treatments by the ratio between ET and reference evapotranspiration (ETo estimated with the Penman-Monteith method. The values of ET and Kc were influenced by irrigation method, rainfall frequency, atmospheric demand and leaf area evolution. The sprinkler irrigated treatment presented the higher mean annual ET values (3.1 and 3.4 mm day-1 for

  16. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  17. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  18. Effect of coffee processing on ecological integrity of river systems in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legesse, W.

    2005-01-01

    Jimma Zone in Southwestern Ethiopia is known for its coffee production and the landscape is dotted by a number of coffee processing industries. In order to assess the effect of coffee wastewater on the ecological integrity of the receiving water bodies, a longitudinal study has been initiated in January 2003 and is still in progress. The preliminary results of physicochemical parameters such as BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) indicated that the coffee effluent is characterized by a remarkable polluting potential during the wet coffee-processing season. In general, a corresponding decline of bottom dwelling river fauna has been noted in many sampling locations. If business-as-usual scenario is followed, the economic gains accrued, as a result of coffee export, will be undone due to the ensuing water quality degradation and aquatic ecosystem disturbance. Although further study is required to fix the problem, provision of intervention strategies appear to be mandatory in order to avert quality deterioration of the rivers and streams flowing through the coffee producing region. (author)

  19. The Hawaii protocol for scientific monitoring of coffee berry borer: a model for coffee agroecosystems worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...

  20. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, is probably due to the presence of deep roots under pastures in ICLS. Delta carbon-13 values for 0-5 cm were -22.9, -21.2 and -19.9 per mil for REF, ICLS and CCS, respectively (Pis explained by the presence of tree species with high lignin content in natural vegetation. Lignin has lower delta carbon-13 compared to cellulose (dominating in crops and pastures), which is present in greater proportion in plant residues of

  1. Profitability of Cedrela odorata L. in Agroforestry Systems with Coffee in Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela González-Rojas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the production of cedar wood in agroforestry systems (AF with coffee, using a prediction model of the commercial volume obtained in the study area, as well as the profitability generated by the sale of coffee, wood and payment for environmental services (PPSA. The study was carried out in the canton of Pérez Zeledón, province of San José, Costa Rica. There were established 30 temporary sampling plots of 1000 m2 in AF with cedar between five and 17 years of age. The diameter growth (DBH and the commercial height (CH of the species were evaluated, as well as the management of the SAF (activities, inputs and yields and coffee production through the producer interview. The obtained models allowed to predict the commercial volume (m3 tree-1 according to age (R2 = 88.7%, DBH (R2 = 90.3% and CH (R2 = 97.2%. The average coffee production of the sampled sites was 26 fanegas ha-1 year-1. At the age of 17 years of the cedar, a production of 1.04 m3 tree-1 (92.13 m3 ha-1 of standing timber was obtained, which represented a financial contribution of 81% of the net present value (NPV of the AF in the analysis period. The estimated financial indicators allow concluding that the coffee-cedar AF is profitable since it generated a positive NPV of ₡ 8 198 601,5, an internal rate of return (IRR of 16% which was higher than the cost of money (discount rate of 6.1% and a B/C ratio of 1.34.

  2. Cropping Systems and Climate Change in Humid Subtropical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel M. Hernandez-Ochoa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the future, climate change will challenge food security by threatening crop production. Humid subtropical regions play an important role in global food security, with crop rotations often including wheat (winter crop and soybean and maize (summer crops. Over the last 30 years, the humid subtropics in the Northern Hemisphere have experienced a stronger warming trend than in the Southern Hemisphere, and the trend is projected to continue throughout the mid- and end of century. Past rainfall trends range, from increases up to 4% per decade in Southeast China to −3% decadal decline in East Australia; a similar trend is projected in the future. Climate change impact studies suggest that by the middle and end of the century, wheat yields may not change, or they will increase up to 17%. Soybean yields will increase between 3% and 41%, while maize yields will increase by 30% or decline by −40%. These wide-ranging climate change impacts are partly due to the region-specific projections, but also due to different global climate models, climate change scenarios, single-model uncertainties, and cropping system assumptions, making it difficult to make conclusions from these impact studies and develop adaptation strategies. Additionally, most of the crop models used in these studies do not include major common stresses in this environment, such as heat, frost, excess water, pests, and diseases. Standard protocols and impact assessments across the humid subtropical regions are needed to understand climate change impacts and prepare for adaptation strategies.

  3. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  4. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    This Handbook is intended to be a practical guide to help companies in the crop production industry develop and implement an environmental and social management system, which should help to improve overall operations. If a company has existing management systems for quality or health and safety, this Handbook will help to expand them to include environmental and social performance. Sectio...

  5. Ecosystem services in smallholder coffee farming systems: a case study in Uganda using chemical soil indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Walther; Mentler, Axel; Okalany, Emmanuel; Probst, Lorenz; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in coffee producing countries may not be aware of the economic, social and ecological benefits available through organic agriculture. At a local, regional and global scale, smallholder coffee farmers can discover that organic production methods are linked to provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services. It is assumed that organic agriculture has a significant influence on soil parameters, and by association, on ecosystem services. Differences between farming sy...

  6. DNA pyrosequencing evidence for large diversity differences between natural and managed coffee mycorrhizal fungal communities

    OpenAIRE

    De Beenhouwer , Matthias; Muleta , Diriba; Peeters , Bram; Van Geel , Maarten; Lievens , Bart; Honnay , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Arabica coffee is a major agricultural commodity worldwide, representing 60 % of the world’s coffee production. Arabica coffee is cultivated in more than 36 countries and is a key cash crop for many developing countries. Despite the coffee’s huge economic importance, there is very limited knowledge on the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with coffee roots. Therefore, we assessed the mycorrhizal diversity and community composition in Arabica coffee (Coffea ar...

  7. Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Aklimawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem identification at farmer’s level. This research was carried out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data, as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physical quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholders consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one duty officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection were based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical quality of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4—6 (fair to poor quality, while broken beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted to be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of land ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900—1,000 kg green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limited accessibility to financing and technology. Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  10. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  11. Relationship Between Soil Characteristics and Rate of Soil Loss on Coffee Base-Farming System at Sumberjaya, West Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    DARIAH, AI; AGUS, F; ARSYAD, S; SUDARSONO,; MASWAR,

    2003-01-01

    The current public perception concerning land use change is, whenever forest is converted to agricultural land, the forest functions would drasticaly decrease. Studies have shown that soil loss in coffee based systems varied widely and it could be much lower than the tolerable soil loss level, depending on soil properties. This research was conducted to determine the dominant factors of soil properties in influencing soil loss. This analysis was based on data collected from a 3-site (Laksana,...

  12. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  13. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. James

    2006-01-01

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

  14. Soilless cultivation system for functional food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad Sahali Mardi; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Hazlina Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    This soilless cultivation system is based on the fertigation system and cultivation technologies using Functional Plant Cultivation System (FPCS). EBARA Japan has been studying on the cultivation conditions in order to enhance the function of decease risk reduction in plants. Through the research and development activities, EBARA found the possibilities on the enhancement of functions. Quality and quantity of the products in term of bioactive compounds present in the plants may be affected by unforeseen environmental conditions, such as temperature, strong light and UV radiation. The main objective to develop this system is, to support? Functional Food Industry? as newly emerging field in agriculture business. To success the system, needs comprehensive applying agriculture biotechnologies, health biotechnologies and also information technologies, in agriculture. By this system, production of valuable bioactive compounds is an advantage, because the market size of functional food is increasing more and more in the future. (Author)

  15. Integrated crop protection as a system approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de J.J.; Wijnands, F.G.; Sukkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    New farming systems in vegetable production are required as demands for high quality products that do not pollute the environment are rising, and production risks are large and incomes low. The methodology of prototyping new systems is described, especially the themes, parameters and target values

  16. The FSE system for crop simulation, version 2.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.

    1995-01-01

    A FORTRAN 77 programming environment for continuous simulation of agro-ecological processes, such as crop growth and calculation of water balances is presented. This system, called FSE (FORTRAN Simulation Environment), consists of a main program, weather data and utilities for performing specific

  17. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  18. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Bouwman, Lex; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for

  19. Factors affecting the choice of cropping systems in Kebbi State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the factors that influence choice of cropping systems in Kebbi State Nigeria. The technique applied in the study was Logit regression. Data to conduct the research was obtained mainly from primary sources through a questionnaire survey of 256 farmers, comprising 98 monocroppers and 158 ...

  20. Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability of groundnut-based cropping systems among farmers in Hong local government area of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information ...

  1. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  2. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  3. Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.C.; Keoleian, G.A.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting for 37% of the non-renewable fossil energy input into the system. Net energy ratio varies from 58 to below 40 as a function of fertilizer application rate, but application rate also has implications on the system nutrient balance. Substituting inorganic N fertilizer with sewage sludge biosolids increases the net energy ratio of the willow biomass crop production system by more than 40%. While CO 2 emitted in combusting dedicated biomass is balanced by CO 2 adsorbed in the growing biomass, production processes contribute to the system's net global warming potential. Taking into account direct and indirect fuel use, N 2 O emissions from applied fertilizer and leaf litter, and carbon sequestration in below ground biomass and soil carbon, the net greenhouse gas emissions total 0.68 g CO 2 eq. MJ biomassproduced -1 . Site specific parameters such as soil carbon sequestration could easily offset these emissions resulting in a net reduction of greenhouse gases. Assuming reasonable biomass transportation distance and energy conversion efficiencies, this study implies that generating electricity from willow biomass crops could produce 11 units of electricity per unit of fossil energy consumed. Results form the LCA support the assertion that willow biomass crops are sustainable from an energy balance perspective and contribute additional environmental benefits

  4. Eco-sustainable systems based on poly(lactic acid), diatomite and coffee grounds extract for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Mori, Stefano; Cherubini, Valeria; Nanni, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    In the food packaging sector many efforts have been (and are) devoted to the development of new materials in order to reply to an urgent market demand for green and eco-sustainable products. Particularly a lot of attention is currently devoted both to the use of compostable and biobased polymers as innovative and promising alternative to the currently used petrochemical derived polymers, and to the re-use of waste materials coming from agriculture and food industry. In this work, multifunctional eco-sustainable systems, based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as biopolymeric matrix, diatomaceous earth as reinforcing filler and spent coffee grounds extract as oxygen scavenger, were produced for the first time, in order to provide a simultaneous improvement of mechanical and gas barrier properties. The influence of the diatomite and the spent coffee grounds extract on the microstructural, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of the produced films was deeply investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniaxial tensile tests, O 2 permeabilimetry measurements. An improvement of both mechanical and oxygen barrier properties was recorded for systems characterised by the co-presence of diatomite and coffee grounds extract, suggesting a possible synergic effect of the two additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  6. Economic profitability in conventional and irrigated coffee production systems in three municipalities in the Marilia region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Nogueira Turco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of coffee cultivation, with a focus on the distinction between conventional and irrigated coffee production systems. For the development of the study, the various productive systems were delineated from the data provided by a sample of producers to generate a matrix of average technical coefficients. The methodology used to estimate the operating cost of production is the one used by the Instituto de Economia Agrícola (IEA. Profitability indicators were also evaluated. Results indicated that the effective operational cost (EOC incurred in the irrigated production system is higher than that in the conventional system. As regards the cost composition, in the conventional coffee production system, the largest cost incurred is on fertilizers among all inputs, whereas in the irrigated production system, the largest cost incurred is on machinery and equipment that are mainly used in harvesting, for the period 2013-2015. Profitability index of the conventional coffee production system in 2015 was 44.8%, and that of the drip irrigated production system was 49.7%. In 2014, profitability rates were negative for both the conventional (-13.9% and irrigated coffee production systems (-8.6%. The most preferable choice was found to be the irrigated production system, as it allows reducing the risk of loss in production during prolonged periods of water shortage as well as greater yields due to a larger production of grains.

  7. Energizing marginal soils: A perennial cropping system for Sida hermaphrodita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Moritz; Poorter, Hendrik; Temperton, Vicky; Schrey, Silvia D.; Koller, Robert; Schurr, Ulrich; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    As a way to avoid land use conflicts, the use of marginal soils for the production of plant biomass can be a sustainable alternative to conventional biomass production (e.g. maize). However, new cropping strategies have to be found that meet the challenge of crop production under marginal soil conditions. We aim for increased soil fertility by the use of the perennial crop Sida hermaphrodita in combination with organic fertilization and legume intercropping to produce substantial biomass yield. We present results of a three-year outdoor mesocosm experiment testing the perennial energy crop Sida hermaphrodita grown on a marginal model substrate (sand) with four kinds of fertilization (Digestate broadcast, Digestate Depot, mineral NPK and unfertilized control) in combination with legume intercropping. After three years, organic fertilization (via biogas digestate) compared to mineral fertilization (NPK), reduced the nitrate concentration in leachate and increased the soil carbon content. Biomass yields of Sida were 25% higher when fertilized organically, compared to mineral fertilizer. In general, digestate broadcast application reduced root growth and the wettability of the sandy substrate. However, when digestate was applied locally as depot to the rhizosphere, root growth increased and the wettability of the sandy substrate was preserved. Depot fertilization increased biomass yield by 10% compared to digestate broadcast fertilization. We intercropped Sida with various legumes (Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense, Melilotus spp. and Medicago sativa) to enable biological nitrogen fixation and make the cropping system independent from synthetically produced fertilizers. We could show that Medicago sativa grown on marginal substrate fixed large amounts of N, especially when fertilized organically, whereas mineral fertilization suppressed biological nitrogen fixation. We conclude that the perennial energy crop Sida in combination with organic fertilization has great

  8. NEW TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE - CROP SYSTEMS WITHOUT SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan GRAD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied new system of agriculture - crop systems without soil. The culture systems without soil can be called also the hydroponic systems and now in Romania are not used only sporadically. In other countries (USA, Japan, the Netherlands, France, UK, Denmark, Israel, Australia, etc.. they represent the modern crop technology, widely applied to vegetables, fruits, fodder, medicinal plants and flowers by the experts in this area. In the world, today there are millions of hectares hydroponics, most of the vegetables, herbs, fruits of hypermarkets are coming from the culture systems without soil. The process consists of growing plants in nutrient solutions (not in the ground, resorting to an complex equipment, depending on the specifics of each crop, so that the system can be applied only in the large farms, in the greenhouses, and not in the individual households. These types of culture systems have a number of advantages and disadvantages also. Even if today's culture systems without soil seem to be the most modern and surprising technology applied in plant growth, the principle is very old. Based on him were built The Suspended Gardens of the Semiramis from Babylon, in the seventh century BC, thanks to him, the population from the Peru”s highlands cultivates vegetables on surfaces covered with water or mud. The peasant households in China, even today use the millenary techniques of the crops on gravel. .This hydroponic agriculture system is a way of followed for Romanian agriculture too, despite its high cost, because it is very productive, ecological, can cover, by products, all market demands and it answer, increasingly, constraints of urban life. The concept of hydroponics agriculture is known and appreciated in Romania also, but more at the theory level.

  9. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B; Gautam, Priyanka; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Singh, Teekam; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Nayak, A K

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June-September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November-May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities. However, in lowland areas, sufficient residual soil moistures are available in rice fallow in the post-rainy season (November-March), which can be utilized for raising second crops in the region. Implementation of suitable crop/varietal diversification is thus very much vital to achieve this objective. To assess the yield performance of rice varieties under timely and late sown conditions and to evaluate the performance of dry season crops following them, three different duration rice cultivars were transplanted in July and August. In dry season several non-rice crops were sown in rice fallow to constitute a cropping system. The results revealed that tiller occurrence, biomass accumulation, dry matter remobilization, crop growth rate, and ultimately yield were significantly decreased under late transplanting. On an average, around 30% yield reduction obtained under late sowing may be due to low temperature stress and high rainfall at reproductive stages of the crop. Dry season crops following short duration rice cultivars performed better in terms of grain yield. In the dry season, toria was profitable when sown earlier and if sowing was delayed greengram was suitable. Highest system productivity and profitability under timely sown rice may be due to higher dry matter remobilization from source to sink. A significant correlation was observed between biomass production and grain yield. We infer that late transplanting decrease the tiller occurrence and assimilate

  10. Influência de diferentes sistemas de colheita na qualidade do café (Coffea arabica L. Influence of different harvest systems on quality of coffee (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio de Carvalho Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da colheita na qualidade do café, foram estudados seis diferentes sistemas. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Rancho Fundo, município de Campos Gerais, MG, no Departamento de Ciência dos Alimentos da UFLA e no Centro Tecnológico do Sul de Minas da EPAMIG. Em uma lavoura da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado, foram sorteadas, ao acaso, dezoito parcelas com trinta metros de comprimento. A colheita foi realizada quando a lavoura apresentava aproximadamente 20% de frutos verdes. Um terço do café derriçado de cada parcela era formado pela mistura de frutos provenientes da lavoura. O restante do café foi lavado e separado em frutos-bóia e verde/cereja. Os diferentes tipos de café foram colocados no terreiro de secagem até atingirem o teor de água de 11% (b.u.. Após a secagem, o café foi beneficiado e submetido às seguintes avaliações: polifenóis, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável total e prova de xícara. Analisando os resultados obtidos, apesar de terem sido observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de polifenóis, açúcares, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável para os diferentes sistemas de colheita, não foi possível estabelecer uma associação definida entre sistema de colheita e composição química. Não foi possível também distinguir, a partir da prova de xícara, diferenças na qualidade do café em função do sistema de colheita, pois, todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram bebida classificada como mole, apenas mole e dura.Aiming to evaluating the influence of the harvest on coffee quality, six harvest systems with different mechanization level were studied. The present work was developed on the Rancho Fundo farm, Campos Gerais town, MG, in the Food Science Department of the UFLA and in the “Centro Tecnológico do Sul de Minas” of EPAMIG. In a crop of the Acaiá Cerrado cultivars were randomized

  11. Approximation to a model of sustainable fertilization in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    In the actuality famous investigators of the agriculture think that the non-equilibrium and inconvenient inherent the chemical fertilizers are the result of the disorder produced by the high entropy of these fertilizers. In spite of that, much investigation's works increment the result without to decrease the chemical fertilizer doses in crops. The present work continues an investigation begun in 1994 in la Union town Department of Narino Colombia, about an organic fertilization alternative system and improvement of soils of coffee, with the purpose to find low doses of chemical fertilizers in combination with organic manures able to compete with the chemical conventional system. In the experiment found that low-middle doses of coffee pulp and production's fertilizers correspondent to 3 kg/coffee pulp/small boxes and 35 g/17-6-18-2/plant, produced 68 % more than the full doses of the module 2 of Cenicafe. The before result indicates that it's possible to decrease costs, to improve the quality and to increase significantly the coffee production, inclusive it can improve the environmental supply or history production, without high doses of chemical fertilizer

  12. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  13. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  14. Climate change impacts on coffee rust disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.

  15. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  16. Soil Erodibility Parameters Under Various Cropping Systems of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, P. M.; van der Zijp, M.; Kwaad, F. J. P. M.

    1996-08-01

    For four years, runoff and soil loss from seven cropping systems of fodder maize have been measured on experimental plots under natural and simulated rainfall. Besides runoff and soil loss, several variables have also been measured, including rainfall kinetic energy, degree of slaking, surface roughness, aggregate stability, soil moisture content, crop cover, shear strength and topsoil porosity. These variables explain a large part of the variance in measured runoff, soil loss and splash erosion under the various cropping systems. The following conclusions were drawn from the erosion measurements on the experimental plots (these conclusions apply to the spatial level at which the measurements were carried out). (1) Soil tillage after maize harvest strongly reduced surface runoff and soil loss during the winter; sowing of winter rye further reduced winter erosion, though the difference with a merely tilled soil is small. (2) During spring and the growing season, soil loss is reduced strongly if the soil surface is partly covered by plant residues; the presence of plant residue on the surface appeared to be essential in achieving erosion reduction in summer. (3) Soil loss reductions were much higher than runoff reductions; significant runoff reduction is only achieved by the straw system having flat-lying, non-fixed plant residue on the soil surface; the other systems, though effective in reducing soil loss, were not effective in reducing runoff.

  17. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    ), and moldboard plowing (MP) with and without a cover crop were evaluated in a long-term experiment on a sandy loam soil in Denmark. Chemical, physical, and biological soil properties were measured in the spring of 2012. The field measurements included mean weight diameter (MWD) after the drop-shatter test......, penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  18. Managed Multi-strata Tree + Crop Systems: An Agroecological Marvel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ramachandran Nair

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, when the emphasis on single-species production systems that is cardinal to agricultural and forestry programs the world over has resulted in serious ecosystem imbalances, the virtues of the time-tested practice of growing different species together as in managed Multi-strata Tree + Crop (MTC systems deserve serious attention. The coconut-palm-based multispecies systems in tropical homegardens and shaded perennial systems are just two such systems. A fundamental ecological principle of these systems is niche complementarity, which implies that systems that are structurally and functionally more complex than crop- or tree monocultures result in greater efficiency of resource (nutrients, light, and water capture and utilization. Others include spatial and temporal heterogeneity, perennialism, and structural and functional diversity. Unexplored or under-exploited areas of benefits of MTC systems include their ecosystem services such as carbon storage, climate regulation, and biodiversity conservation. These multispecies integrated systems indeed represent an agroecological marvel, the principles of which could be utilized in the design of sustainable as well as productive agroecosystems. Environmental and ecological specificity of MTC systems, however, is a unique feature that restricts their comparison with other land-use systems and extrapolation of the management features used in one location to another.

  19. Cover crop root, shoot, and rhizodeposit contributions to soil carbon in a no- till corn bioenergy cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; McDaniel, M. D.; Robertson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may result in reduced soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass and as well as help to mitigate the negative effects of residue removal by adding belowground C to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern portion of the US corn belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace C in a winter rye (secale cereale) cover crop into different soil C pools for two years following rye termination. Corn stover contributed 66 (another 163 was in harvested corn stover), corn roots 57, rye shoot 61, rye roots 59, and rye rhizodeposits 27 g C m-2 to soil C. Five months following cover crop termination, belowground cover crop inputs were three times more likely to remain in soil C pools and much of the root-derived C was in mineral- associated soil fractions. Our results underscore the importance of cover crop roots vs. shoots as a source of soil C. Belowground C inputs from winter cover crops could substantially offset short term stover removal in this system.

  20. nteraction of nutrient resource and crop diversity on resource use efficiency in different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E azizi

    2016-05-01

    of 3 soybean varieties, intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek and ajowan showed the highest NUE. In the two years, intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame and intercropping of millet, sesame, fenugreek and ajowan showed the highest nitrogen and phosphorus absorption efficiency (NAE. Intercropping of millet, soybean and sesame showed the highest potassium uptake efficiency. In this study, nutrient resource did not have a significant effect on water and nutrient use efficiency. The research results have indicated that often nitrogen amount and use efficiency in legume and non legume intercropping were higher than monocultures. This indicates the synergist effect in the intercroppings (Vandermeer, 1989; Szumigalski & Van Acker, 2006. In general, the different benefits of diversity and better use of available inputs are obtained by increasing the diversity of crops and proper selection of plants cultivated in intercropping systems and crop rotations in monoculture systems Acknowledgments This research (044 p was funded by the Vice Chancellor for Research of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, which is hereby acknowledged.

  1. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were typically higher in the AIS than in the conventional irrigation control system (CIS). Under the AIS treatment, the WUE and IWUE values were 1.64 and 1.37 k·gm-3 for wheat, and 7.50 and 6.50 kg·m-3 for tomato crops; ...

  2. Dynamic cropping systems: Holistic approach for dryland agricultural systems in the northern Great Plains of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping systems over the past century have developed greater crop specialization, more effectively conserve our soil and water resources, and are more resilient. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the evolution of cropping systems in the Northern Great Plains and provide an approach to crop...

  3. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  4. Effects of alternative cropping systems on globe artichoke qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Emanuela; Deligios, Paola A; Azara, Emanuela; Delogu, Giovanna; Ledda, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertiliser. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons. NCV2 showed statistical differences in terms of fresh product yield with respect to the monoculture systems. In addition, the dihydroxycinnamic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids of non-conventional samples were one-fold significantly higher than the conventional one. All the samples reported good mineral content, although NCV2 achieved a higher Fe content than conventional throughout the two seasons. After two and three dates of sampling, the CONV samples showed the highest levels of K content. In our study, an acceptable commercial yield and quality of 'Spinoso sardo' were achieved by shifting the common conventional agronomic management to more sustainable ones, by means of an accurate choice of cover crop species and rotations introduced in the systems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  6. Diversified cropping systems support greater microbial cycling and retention of carbon and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Alison E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2017-03-01

    Diversifying biologically simple cropping systems often entails altering other management practices, such as tillage regime or nitrogen (N) source. We hypothesized that the interaction of crop rotation, N source, and tillage in diversified cropping systems would promote microbially-mediated soil C and N cycling while attenuating inorganic N pools. We studied a cropping systems trial in its 10th year in Iowa, USA, which tested a 2-yr cropping system of corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] managed with conventional fertilizer N inputs and conservation tillage, a 3-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and a 4-yr cropping system of corn/soybean/small grain + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/alfalfa. Three year and 4-yr cropping systems were managed with composted manure, reduced N fertilizer inputs, and periodic moldboard ploughing. We assayed soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and N (MBN), soil extractable NH4 and NO3, gross proteolytic activity of native soil, and potential activity of six hydrolytic enzymes eight times during the growing season. At the 0-20cm depth, native protease activity in the 4-yr cropping system was greater than in the 2-yr cropping system by a factor of 7.9, whereas dissolved inorganic N pools did not differ between cropping systems (P = 0.292). At the 0-20cm depth, MBC and MBN the 4-yr cropping system exceeded those in the 2-yr cropping system by factors of 1.51 and 1.57. Our findings suggest that diversified crop cropping systems, even when periodically moldboard ploughed, support higher levels of microbial biomass, greater production of bioavailable N from SOM, and a deeper microbially active layer than less diverse cropping systems.

  7. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Organic matter and soil moisture content and double cropping with organic matter sourceplants

    OpenAIRE

    John Bako Baon; Aris Wibawa

    2005-01-01

    Double cropping of coffee with organic matter source plants is thought to increase organic matter content of soil. This study examined the effect of double cropping of coffee and organic matter source plants on soil organic matter content and yield of coffee plants. Arabica coffee trees in Andungsari Experimental Station (Bondowoso district), 1400 m asl. and climate type C; and Robusta coffee trees in Sumberasin Experimental Station (Malang district), 550 m asl. and climate type C, were used ...

  9. The Climate Change and Rwandan Coffee Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Hakorimana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the

  10. INFESTACIÓN E INCIDENCIA DE BROCA, ROYA Y MANCHA DE HIERRO EN CULTIVO DE CAFÉ DEL DEPARTAMENTO DEL CAUCA ESTUDO DE INFESTAÇÃO E INCIDÊNCIA DA BROCA, A FERRUGEM E A CERCOSPOREOSE O CULTIVO DO CAFÉ NO DEPARTAMENTO DO CAUCA INFESTATION AND INCIDENCE STUDY OF THE COFFEE BORER, COFFEE RUST AND IRON SPOT DISEASE ON THE COFFEE CROP IN CAUCA DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSUELO MONTES R.

    2012-06-01

    Coffee borer and 4,8% on Iron spot disease. The temperature and precipitation variables were the ones which exhibited closer relationship with the plagues epidemiological dynamics. High temperatures are related to high Coffee borer and Rust incidence, mainly between June and September, contrary to the Iron spot disease, which was related to high precipitations, mainly between March and May. The results give en alert concerning plagues presence on the regional crops.

  11. Quality and value chain analyses of Ethiopian coffee | Beshah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the quality and value chain of Ethiopian coffee in a way to identify opportunities that maximize the benefits from the sector. First the Ethiopian coffee sector is overviewed and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively starting from the crop up to the cup based on data collected from ...

  12. A review of coffee wilt disease, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee is vital to the economy of East and Central Africa, providing a major source of foreign exchange earnings and as a cash crop, supporting the livelihood of millions of people who are involved in cultivation, processing, marketing, and export. Coffee is attacked by various disease-causing organisms such as fungi, ...

  13. Recent advances in coffee berry disease (CBD) control in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waller & Bridge) attacks arabic a coffee in most African arabica coffee growing countries. The disease was first recorded in Uganda in 1959 and surveys on the disease indicated that up to 50% crop losses were being incurred. Most of the ...

  14. Cover Crop (Rye) and No-Till System in Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin, describes an organic no-till production technique using rye as cover crop to suppress weeds in the following production season. Using a roller-crimper, the overwintering rye is terminated at the time of cash crop planting, leaving a thick mat of plant residue on the soil surface. Soybeans are sown directly into the cover crop residue, allowing the cash crop to emerge through the terminated cover crop while suppressing weeds throughout the season. W...

  15. No till system of maize and crop-livestock integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the implementation of the Integrated Crop-Livestock (ICL in beef cattle farms where the corn was planted directly on the pasture, under no-till system, in the first year. The Crop-Livestock Integration (CLI models evaluated consisted of Brachiaria decumbens pastures intercropped with corn in the no tillage system. However, the evaluated CLI system differed from the usual system because it did not use the conventional tillage in the first year, while the conventional soil preparation and sowing of grass is used by most of the Brazilian farms. The results show that in the first year the period of time spent planting and side-dressing nitrogen   on corn was longer compared to the following years, mainly due to the lack of uniformity of the ground surface, once no conventional tillage was used to prepare the soil and these operations were performed with own implements for direct planting. Therefore, many seeds were placed either very deep or not buried, thus compromising the crop and becoming necessary to replant the corn with a manual planter. From the second year on, even though the conditions were not ideal, the ground surface became more accessible for the sowing and cultivation of corn, after the tillage of the first year. The time spent in most operations performed was longer than usual, especially planting and side-dressing nitrogen on the corn so that the discs did not chop off plants due to the irregularities of the ground surface. Productivity dropped due to the problems already discussed that contributed to a lower income. It is therefore concluded that, under these experimental conditions, the conventional tillage is imperative when implementing the CLI system, even considering the soil management improvements observed from the first to the second year.

  16. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  17. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  18. Land use effect on soil meso and macro-organisms in Quindio coffee zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghian Siavosh

    2001-01-01

    Meso and macro-organisms communities in different agro-ecosystems were evaluated on the Colombian coffee region (Quindio) during the second semester of 1997. Soil samples were taken at 10 cm of deep and the Berlese funnel apparatus was used for evaluations. The agro-ecosystems were Guadual (Guadua angustifolia), traditional and technical coffee, citrus, and cassava crops, cattle ranching (extensive and intensive systems). A total of twenty taxonomic groups were identified. The most abundant and common specimens were ants, acari, collembola and diplura. The greatest diversity and abundance of organisms were registered on the G. angustifolia and coffee agro-ecosystems. The opposite tendency was observed on the cattle ranching due to physical degradation, associated to soil compacting

  19. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  20. Value-added and Supporting - Inhibiting Factors for the Wet Processing of Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyati, Yuli

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the annual crops which are widely favored by coffee enjoyers. SidomulyoVillage is one of the fourth largest coffee producing villages in District of Silo with a land area of 180 ha in 2009. Coffee experiences a process of harvest and post harvest; one of the activities of post-harvest is coffee processing. Coffee processing is divided into two; wet processing and dry processing. The majority of farmers in SidomulyoVillage do dry processing; about 75% of farmers do dry process...

  1. What every dentist should know about coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging.

  2. Mitigating Groundwater Depletion in North China Plain with Cropping System that Alternate Deep and Shallow Rooted Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle; peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle; ryegrass–cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle; and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year. We found that, compared to WS, the SpCSpWS annual evapotranspiration was 28% lower, PWS was 19% lower and RCPWS was 14% lower. The yield per unit of water evaporated improved for wheat within any alternative rotation compared to WS, increasing up to 19%. Average soil moisture contents at the sowing date of wheat in the SpCSpWS, PWS, and RCPWS rotations were 7, 4, and 10% higher than WS, respectively. The advantage of alternative rotations was that a deep rooted crop of winter wheat reaching down to 180 cm followed shallow rooted crops (sweet potato and peanut drawing soil moisture from 0 to 120 cm. They benefited from the sequencing and vertical complementarity of soil moisture extraction. Thus, replacing the traditional crop rotation with cropping system that involves rotating with annual shallow rooted crops is promising for reducing groundwater depletion in the North China Plain.

  3. Mapping Cropping Practices of a Sugarcane-Based Cropping System in Kenya Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mulianga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent past, there has been a growing concern on the need for mapping cropping practices in order to improve decision-making in the agricultural sector. We developed an original method for mapping cropping practices: crop type and harvest mode, in a sugarcane landscape of western Kenya using remote sensing data. At local scale, a temporal series of 15-m resolution Landsat 8 images was obtained for Kibos sugar management zone over 20 dates (April 2013 to March 2014 to characterize cropping practices. To map the crop type and harvest mode we used ground survey and factory data over 1280 fields, digitized field boundaries, and spectral indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI were computed for all Landsat images. The results showed NDVI classified crop type at 83.3% accuracy, while NDWI classified harvest mode at 90% accuracy. The crop map will inform better planning decisions for the sugar industry operations, while the harvest mode map will be used to plan for sensitizations forums on best management and environmental practices.

  4. Combined Use Of Cs-137 And Be-7 To Assess The Effectiveness Of Soil Conservation For Vetiver Grass Strips In Coffee Crop Lands In The Central Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Dao; Tran Van Hoa; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Thi Mui; Trinh Cong Tu

    2007-01-01

    The combined use of 137 Cs and 7 Be for assessment of medium- and short-term soil erosion rates for sloping lands with and without soil conservation technologies in the Central Highlands of Vietnam has been carried out. Studies were performed at five 128 m 2 runoff plots and two 0.5 ha coffee plots with the slope gradient of about 25%. Experiments carried out at runoff plots showed that: (i) In the case of low erosion rates (less than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), soil erosion rates estimated by 7 Be technique using the Profile-Distribution Model were consistent with net soil erosion rates obtained by runoff plots when particle size correction factor P is taken into account; (ii) In the case of high erosion rates (greater than 30 t ha -1 y -1 ), the conversion model overestimated soil erosion rates when P was not allowed for, and underestimated erosion rate when P factor was taken into account. Studies carried out at two 0.5 ha coffee plots showed that: (i) For the plot without soil conservation, soil erosion occurred for all sampling points with medium-term erosion rates ranging between 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 and 35 t ha -1 y -1 (the average erosion rate was 22.7 ± 1.2 t ha -1 y -1 ). The short term soil erosion rate estimated by 7 Be technique was 32.7 ± 6.1 t ha -1 y -1 for this plot; (ii) For the plot with the last seven year presence of Vetiver strips, about 93% of the area suffered from medium term erosion with erosion rates varying from 3 t ha -1 y -1 to 33 t ha -1 y -1 (the mean is 22.2 t ha -1 y -1 ), and medium term deposition occurred for only 7% of the area with the deposition rates ranging between 1.3 and 1.4 t ha -1 y -1 , resulting in the net erosion rate of 20.4 ± 0.6 t ha -1 y -1 . The short term soil erosion rate at this plot estimated by 7 Be technique was 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . By using Vetiver strips as a soil conservation technology, soil erosion was almost controlled and the net erosion rate was reduced from 32.7 t ha -1 y -1 to 2.3 t ha -1 y -1 . (author)

  5. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  6. Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis of Selected NSIC-registered Coffee Varieties in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Daisy May C. Santos; Carla Francesca F. Besa; Angelo Joshua A. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffea sp.) is an important commercial crop worldwide. Three species of coffee are used as beverage, namely Coffea arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica. Coffea arabica L. is the most cultivated among the three coffee species due to its taste quality, rich aroma, and low caffeine content. Despite its inferior taste and aroma, C. canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, which has the highest caffeine content, is the second most widely cultivated because of its resistance to coffee diseases. O...

  7. Desempenho de forrageiras em sistemas alagados de tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento do café Performance of forage crops in wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas gramíneas forrageiras de inverno, azevém (Lolium multiflorum e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, foram cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs utilizados no tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC com o objetivo de se avaliar seu desempenho agronômico. Essas forrageiras foram submetidas a diferentes cargas orgânicas (650 a 1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO, proporcionadas pela aplicação dos efluentes de filtros anaeróbios, utilizados no tratamento da ARC. Como tratamento testemunha, as mesmas espécies vegetais foram cultivadas em solução de Hoagland. A matéria seca produzida pelas forrageiras ao longo dos 53 dias de monitoramento dos SACs variou de 7,4 a 14,0 e 0,5 a 2,7 t ha-1, e os rendimentos acumulados de proteína bruta variaram de 1.017 a 2.187 e 66,6 a 316,8 kg ha-1 para o azevém e a aveia, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que, dentre as forrageiras estudadas, o azevém se mostrou mais adequado para ser cultivado em SACs utilizados no pós-tratamento da ARC efluente de filtros anaeróbios, já que apresentou maior rendimento de matéria seca e proteína bruta e, portanto, melhor adaptação ao sistema.Two winter grasses, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, were grown in constructed wetlands (SACs used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing (ARC with the aim to evaluate their agronomic performance. These forage crops were submitted to different organic loads (650 to 1500 kg ha-1 d-1 of COD, offered by the application of anaerobic effluent filters, used in the treatment of ARC. As a control treatment, the same plant species were grown in a Hoagland solution. The forage dry matter produced by over 53 days of monitoring SACs ranged from 7.4 to 14.0 and from 0.5 to 2.7 t ha-1, and the crude protein yield ranged from 1017 to 2187 and 66.6 to 316.8 kg ha-1 for ryegrass and oats, respectively. The results showed that, among the

  8. The feasibility of crop diversification in rice based cropping systems in haor ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Shopan, J.; Bhuiya, M.S.U.; Kader, M.A.; Hasan, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in five farmers’ field in Dingaputa haor of Purba Tetulia village, Mohangonj Upazila in Netrakona district during the period from 20 July 2010 to 15 May 2011. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of growing short duration vegetable and oil crops in seasonal fallow of Boro rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping patterns in terms of both combined yields and economic performance. Six short duration vegetables such as potato, red amaranth, stem amaranth, sp...

  9. Efficiency of removal of bod5 and ss in sedimentation tanks and filters in wastewater treatment systems for coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available n order to evaluate the current operating conditions of wastewater treatment systems of small scale coffee growers in the south of Huila a lab-scale prototype (S 1:25 was constructed. It was composed of both a sediment tank and a filter fit in series, simulating similar operating conditions used by coffee producers. Removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD5 and suspended solids (SS was performed in wastewater from coffee bean processing. A 23 factorial experimental design for the evaluation of the type of sedimentation tank, type of filter and hydraulic retention time (HRT in the sedimentation tank was employed. The results showed high removal efficiencies of suspended solid concentrations (more than 95%, and low removal efficiencies in BOD5 (about 20%. The combination of tank type 1 (square with a lower area, filter type 1 (upflow anaerobic filter – UAF and HRT of 30 hours had the highest removal efficiency.

  10. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  11. Adaptive capacity and social-environmental change: theoretical and operational modeling of smallholder coffee systems response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A; Monterde Diaz, Rafael; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  12. Adaptive Capacity and Social-Environmental Change: Theoretical and Operational Modeling of Smallholder Coffee Systems Response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Diaz, Rafael Monterde; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  13. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  14. Comparison of the effects of different crop rotation systems on winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... were found the best crop rotation systems under rain-fed conditions of ... Crop rotation is one of the major cultural practices in the .... components such as seed weight in a spike, harvest index, seed ..... due to high prices of product belonging to fodder pea and ... was a cash crop in agricultural marketing.

  15. Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2012-01-01

    systems based on fertility building crops (green manures and catch crops). In short, the main distinctions were not observed between organic and conventional systems (i.e. C vs. O1, O2 and O3), but between systems based mainly on nutrient import vs. systems based mainly on fertility building crops (C...... of the organic rotation, both relying on green manures and catch crops grown during the autumn after the main crop as their main source of soil fertility, and the O3 system further leaving rows of the green manures to grow as intercrops between vegetable rows to improve the conditions for biodiversity...... were found. Root growth of all crops was studied in the C and O2 system, but only few effects of cropping system on root growth was observed. However, the addition of green manures to the systems almost doubled the average soil exploration by active root systems during the rotation from only 21% in C...

  16. Insect pollination: commodity values, trade and policy considerations using coffee as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon George Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Science has shown the importance of animal pollinators to human food security, economy, and biodiversity conservation. Science continues to identify various factors causing pollinator declines and their implications. However, translation of the understanding of pollinators’ roles into current policy and regulation is weak and requires attention, both in developed and developing nations. The national and international trade of commodities generated via insect pollination is large. Trade in those crops could be a means of influencing regulations to promote the local existence of pollinating species, apart from their contributions to biodiversity conservation. This paper, using the example of international coffee production, reviews the value of pollinating species, and relates them to simple economics of commodity production. Recommendations are made that could influence policy and decision-making to promote coffee production, trade, and pollinators’ existence. Assumptions and considerations are raised and addressed. Although the role of insect pollinators in promoting fruit set and quality is accepted, implementing pollination conservation in forest habitats may require assured higher prices for coffee, and direct subsidies for forest conservation to prevent conversion to other crop lands. Exporting and importing governments and trade organizations could establish policy that requires insect pollination in the coffee certification process. The European Parliament and the North American Free Trade Agreement could be instrumental in creating policy and regulation that promotes insect pollination services in coffee production. The reciprocity between the services of insect pollinators in certified coffee production and their services in forest biodiversity production should be implicit in future policy negotiations to enhance both systems.

  17. Physiological measurements of coffee young plants coexisting with sourgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important crop planted in Brazil and commonly infested by sourgrass plants. Crescent densities of sourgrass growing with coffee young plants were maintained up to weed full flowering when physiological measurements were performed in the crop to evaluate photosynthetic coffee plant responses to increasing of weed competition. Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with seven replicates. The concentration of CO2 within the leaf, the leaf transpiration, the stomatal conductance, the CO2 assimilation rate, and the ratio Fv/Fm of coffee plants were not affected by increasing of sourgrass density. On the other hand, relative content of total chlorophyll was reduced by 13.9% in the density of 8 sourgrass plants. Gas exchange and fluorescence of chlorophyll of young coffee plants were not dependent on increasing of the intensity of competition while an opposite response occurred for chlorophyll content.

  18. Interaction of nutrient resource and crop diversity on resource use efficiency in different cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Allahdadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction With the continuous growth of world population, degradation and ecological imbalance throughout the world, there is a need to increase agricultural production and environmental protection measures. In this respect, efforts to supply nutrients to the environment are at the head of the programs. One of the ways to approach this goal is the use of intercropping systems (Najafi & Mohammadi, 2005(. Suitable performance in intercropping systems may be achieved by selecting genotypes possessing traits consistent with and appropriate for establishing minimum and maximum synergy and competition employing proper agronomic practices such as density and planting pattern (Mutungamiri et al., 2001. In this context, selected plants should be less competitive in terms of environmental impact. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different planting patterns on the competition between the two species of Calendula and soybean and to evaluate the yield and quality of an intercropping system compared with a mono-cropping system. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the competition between soybean and calendula, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with 7 treatments and 3 replications in the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Tabriz in 2009. The treatments included pure stands for both species, 1:1, 2:2, 4:2, 4:4 and 6:4 for soybean and calendula number of rows per strip, respectively. Before planting, soybean seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhyzobium japonicum. Before harvesting, the number of pods per plant, seeds per plant, 1000- grain weight, grain yield, percentage of oil and protein of soybean grain were measured in 10 randomly selected plants. The number of flowers per plant, dry inflorescence weight and dry petal weight of Calendula were recorded. The harvest of flowers of calendula began on July 30 and harvesting was done every 15 days in six steps. It

  19. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... and foster learning in participatory co-design workshops. Results and expectations: The expected results of the Climate-CAFE on-going project will produce an overview of potential CC adaptation measures for selected sites across the EU, along with mutual learning experiences for improved understanding......Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...

  20. Symbiotic Performance of Herbaceous Legumes in Tropical Cover Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Ibewiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of herbaceous legumes such as mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis [Wright] Bruck and lablab (Lablab purpureus [L.] Sweet in the derived savannas of West Africa can be attributed to their potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. The effects of management practices on N2 fixation in mucuna and lablab were examined using 15N isotope dilution technique. Dry matter yield of both legumes at 12 weeks was two to five times more in in situ mulch (IM than live mulch (LM systems. Land Equivalent Ratios, however, showed 8 to 30% more efficient utilization of resources required for biomass production under LM than IM systems. Live mulching reduced nodule numbers in the legumes by one third compared to values in the IM systems. Similarly, nodule mass was reduced by 34 to 58% under LM compared to the IM systems. The proportion of fixed N2 in the legumes was 18% higher in LM than IM systems. Except for inoculated mucuna, the amounts of N fixed by both legumes were greater in IM than LM systems. Rhizobia inoculation of the legumes did not significantly increase N2 fixation compared to uninoculated plots. Application of N fertilizer reduced N2 fixed in the legumes by 36 to 51% compared to inoculated or uninoculated systems. The implications of cover cropping, N fertilization, and rhizobia inoculation on N contributions of legumes into tropical low-input systems were discussed.

  1. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  2. Progresso da cercosporiose (Cercospora coffeicola Berkeley & Cooke em cafeeiros sob cultivos orgânico e convencional Progress of brown eye spot (Cercospora coffeicola Berkeley & Cooke in coffee trees in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florisvalda da Silva Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o progresso da cercosporiose em cafeeiros sob sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional no município de Santo Antônio do Amparo, MG, entre novembro/2003 e novembro/2005. As lavouras, que são vizinhas, encontravam-se sob condições similares de clima, solo e relevo e eram formadas por cafeeiros cv. Acaiá MG-474-19, de dez anos. A doença foi mais intensa no sistema de produção convencional, cuja média de dois anos consecutivos de avaliações demonstrou área abaixo da curva de progresso da cercosporiose maior (3,905 do que o orgânico (2,529. Isso ficou demonstrado também pela incidência máxima nas folhas, equivalente a 28% em 2004 e 29% em 2005, enquanto no sistema orgânico foi de 9% e 12%, respectivamente. Nos frutos, a incidência foi de 18,2% em 2004 e 22% em 2005, enquanto no orgânico foi de 11,5% e 15%, respectivamente. A maior suscetibilidade dos cafeeiros à cercosporiose no sistema convencional coincidiu com menores teores de cálcio e magnésio foliares nas fases de granação e maturação dos frutos comparados ao orgânico, conseqüência da maior carga pendente que resultou em uma produtividade superior em 26,8 sc/ha ao orgânico em 2004 (alta carga pendente. Em 2005 a produtividade foi estatisticamente semelhante em ambos os sistemas. Houve menor alternância entre a produtividade das duas safras consecutivas no sistema orgânico (34% menor em 2005 quando comparada à convencional (64% menor sugerindo uma tendência de menor efeito da doença sobre a safra seguinte dos cafeeiros no sistema orgânico de produção, comparado ao convencional.The progress of brown eye spot in coffee trees in both organic and conventional crop systems was evaluated in two neighboring fields, in Santo Antônio do Amparo city, MG, between nov./2003 and nov./2005. The fields are under similar weather, soil and relief conditions and made up of ten-year-old coffee trees cv. Acaiá MG-474-19. The incidence of brown eye spot was

  3. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  4. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  5. Crop response of aerobic rice and winter wheat to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a double cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, X.Q.; Zhang, H.Y.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Yu, J.; Xie, G.H.; Bouman, B.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the aerobic rice system, adapted rice cultivars are grown in non-flooded moist soil. Aerobic rice may be suitable for double cropping with winter wheat in the Huai River Basin, northern China plain. Field experiments in 2005 and 2006 were conducted to study the response of aerobic rice and winter

  6. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  7. Cereal Crop Proteomics: Systemic Analysis of Crop Drought Stress Responses Towards Marker-Assisted Selection Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Ghatak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production is the major challenge in the current global climate change scenario. Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impact crop productivity. In recent years, knowledge about molecular regulation has been generated to understand drought stress responses. For example, information obtained by transcriptome analysis has enhanced our knowledge and facilitated the identification of candidate genes which can be utilized for plant breeding. On the other hand, it becomes more and more evident that the translational and post-translational machinery plays a major role in stress adaptation, especially for immediate molecular processes during stress adaptation. Therefore, it is essential to measure protein levels and post-translational protein modifications to reveal information about stress inducible signal perception and transduction, translational activity and induced protein levels. This information cannot be revealed by genomic or transcriptomic analysis. Eventually, these processes will provide more direct insight into stress perception then genetic markers and might build a complementary basis for future marker-assisted selection of drought resistance. In this review, we survey the role of proteomic studies to illustrate their applications in crop stress adaptation analysis with respect to productivity. Cereal crops such as wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum and pearl millet are discussed in detail. We provide a comprehensive and comparative overview of all detected protein changes involved in drought stress in these crops and have summarized existing knowledge into a proposed scheme of drought response. Based on a recent proteome study of pearl millet under drought stress we compare our findings with wheat proteomes and another recent study which defined genetic marker in pearl millet.

  8. PRACT (Prototyping Rotation and Association with Cover crop and no Till) - a tool for designing conservation agriculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naudin, K.; Husson, M.O.; Scopel, E.; Auzoux, S.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Moving to more agroecological cropping systems implies deep changes in the organization of cropping systems. We propose a method for formalizing the process of innovating cropping system prototype design using a tool called PRACT (Prototyping Rotation and Association with Cover crop and no Till)

  9. Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice–Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    The rice-wheat system is a predominant cropping system in Asia providing food, employment and income, ensuring the livelihoods of about 1 billion of resource poor rural and urban people. However, the productivity of the current rice-wheat systems is seriously threatened by increasing land degradation and scarcity of water and labour, inefficient cropping practices and other emerging socio economic and environmental drivers. Responding to the need to develop alternate crop establishment methods and improved cropping practices, this publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on optimizing productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems. It provides relevant information on how to modify existing water and nutrient management systems and improve soil management in both traditional and emerging crop establishment methods for sustainable intensification of cereal production in Asia

  10. Do Coffee Farmers Benefit in Food Security from Participating in Coffee Cooperatives? Evidence from Southwest Ethiopia Coffee Cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke

    2018-06-01

    Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.

  11. Diversity of segetal weeds in pea (Pisum sativum L. depending on crops chosen for a crop rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K. Kostrzewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, lasting from 1999 to 2006, was conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo, which belongs to the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The experiment was set up on brown rusty soil classified as good rye complex 5 in the Polish soil valuation system. The analysis comprised weeds in fields sown with pea cultivated in two four-field crop rotation systems with a different first crop: A. potato – spring barley – pea – spring barley; B. mixture of spring barley with pea – spring barley – pea – spring barley. Every year, at the 2–3 true leaf stage of pea, the species composition and density of individual weed species were determined; in addition, before harvesting the main crop, the dry matter of weeds was weighed. The results were used to analyze the constancy of weed taxa, species diversity, and the evenness and dominance indices, to determine the relationships between all biological indicators analyzed and weather conditions, and to calculate the indices of similarity, in terms of species composition, density and biomass of weeds, between the crop rotations compared. The species richness, density and biomass of weeds in fields with field pea were not differentiated by the choice of the initial crop in a given rotation system. In the spring, the total number of identified taxa was 28 and it increased to 36 before the harvest of pea plants. Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli were the most numerous. Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus and Viola arvensis were constant in all treatments, regardless of what the first crop in rotation was or when the observations were made. The species diversity and the evenness and species dominance indices varied significantly between years and dates of observations. Species diversity calculated on the basis of the density of weed species was higher in the rotation with a mixture of cereals and legumes, while that calculated on

  12. Species composition and density of weeds in a wheat crop depending on the soil tillage system in crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo on slightly leached chernozem soil type. For the purposes of this investigation, variants from a stationary field experiment initiated in 1987 and based on various soil tillage tools and operations were analyzed. The species composition and density of weeds were followed in a wheat crop grown after grain maize using the following soil tillage systems: plowing at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; cutting at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – cutting at 8 – 10 cm (for wheat; disking at 10 – 12 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; no-tillage (for maize – no-tillage (for wheat.Weed infestation was read at the fourth rotation since the initiation of the trial. The observations were made in spring before treatment of the crop with herbicides. The soil tillage system had a significant effect on the species composition and density of weeds in the field with wheat grown after previous crop maize. The long-term alternation of plowing with disking in parallel with the usage of chemicals for weed control lead to lower weed infestation of the weed crop. The lower weed density after this soil tillage system was not related to changes in the species composition and the relative percent of the individual species in the total weed infestation. The long-term application in crop rotation of systems without turning of the soil layer and of minimal and no-tillage increased the amount of weeds. The reason is the greater variability of weed species which typically occur after shallow soil tillage.

  13. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  14. Cropping Systems Dynamics in the Lower Gangetic Plains of India using Geospatial Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Manjunath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cropping system study is useful to understand the overall sustainability of agricultural system. Capturing the change dynamics of cropping systems, especially spatial and temporal aspects, is of utmost importance in overall planning and management of natural resources. This paper highlights the remote sensing based cropping systems change-dynamics assessment. Current study is aimed at use of multidate-multisensor data for deriving the seasonal cropping pattern maps and deriving the remote sensing based cropping system performance indicators during 1998–99 and 2004–05 in West- Bengal state of India. The temporal assessment of the changes of cropping systems components such as cropping pattern and indices for the study years 1998–99 and 2004–05 have been brought out. The results indicate that during the six years of time the kharif cropping pattern has almost remained the same, being a rice dominant system. A notable point is the decrease in the aus rice due to readjusting the cropping system practice to suit the two crop systems in many places was observed. Marginal variations in mustard and wheat areas during rabi season was observed. The boro (summer rice area has almost remained constant. The rice-fallow-fallow (R-F-F rotation reduced by about 4 percent while the rice-fallow-rice (R-F-R increased by about 7 percent percent. The Area Diversity Index reduced by about 38 percent in 2004 which may be attributed to decrease in kharif pulses and minor crops during kharif and summer. However, diversity during rabi season continued to remain high. The increase in Multiple Cropping Index was observed predominantly in the southern part of the state. Cultivated Land Utilization Index shows an increase by about 0.05.

  15. Yield gap analysis of feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart; Oosting, Simon J.; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Veysset, Patrick; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable intensification is a strategy contributing to global food security. The scope for sustainable intensification in crop sciences can be assessed through yield gap analysis, using crop growth models based on concepts of production ecology. Recently, an analogous cattle production model

  16. Network-assisted crop systems genetics: network inference and integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tak; Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Insuk

    2015-04-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has enabled the decoding of many crop species genomes, most of the underlying genetic components for economically important crop traits remain to be determined. Network approaches have proven useful for the study of the reference plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and the success of network-based crop genetics will also require the availability of a genome-scale functional networks for crop species. In this review, we discuss how to construct functional networks and elucidate the holistic view of a crop system. The crop gene network then can be used for gene prioritization and the analysis of resequencing-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, the amount of which will rapidly grow in the field of crop science in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  18. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-01-01

    cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems...

  19. Analysis of phosphorus by 31PNMR in Oxisols under agroforestry land conventional coffee systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Meer, van der P.; Oenema, O.; Janssen, B.H.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the primary limiting nutrient for crop production in highly weathered tropical soils. The deficiency is mainly caused by strong adsorption of H2PO4¿ to Al- and Fe-(hydr)oxides, which turns large proportions of total P into a form that is unavailable to plants. Soil management

  20. Crônica de uma praga anunciada epidemias agrícolas e história ambiental do café nas Américas Chronicle of a plague foretold crop epidemics and the environmental history of coffee in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Mccook

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As epidemias agrícolas fornecem um ponto de vista privilegiado para a história ambiental global e transnacional de commodities. A epidemia da ferrugem, causada pelo fungo Hemileia nastatrix, é uma das mais sérias doenças que têm atingido a indústria global de café. No século XIX, ela devastou as plantações de café no Velho Mundo. Também reduziu agudamente a produção de café do tipo arábica na África, Ásia e no Pacífico. Esse foi um dos fatores que permitiu aos países da Américas dominarem a produção global no século XX. Essa epidemia foi detectada nas Américas pela primeira vez na década de 1970. A sua história nas Américas, e as tentativas de seu controle lançam luzes sobre dois paradigmas maiores que moldaram a história ambiental do café no final do século XX. São eles: o paradigma tecnicista, dominante entre meados do século XX até o início dos anos 1990; e o paradigma da sustentabilidade, cujo domínio emergiu em meados dos anos 1980 e se mantém até o presente.Crop epidemics provide a portal into the global and transnational environmental history of commodities. The coffee rust epidemic, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, is one of the most serious diseases to have afflicted the global coffee industry. In the nineteenth century, it devastated the coffee plantations in the Old World. It sharply curtailed arabica coffee production in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. This was one of the factors that allowed the Americas do dominate global coffee production in the twentieth century. The coffee rust epidemic was first detected in the Americas in the 1970s. The history of the rust epidemic in the Americas, and attempts to control it, shed light on two major paradigms that shaped the environmental history of coffee in the late twentieth century. The paradigm of technification, which dominated from the mid-20th century to the early 1990s; and the paradigm of sustainability, which dominated emerged in the

  1. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and

  2. Sequential use of the STICS crop model and of the MACRO pesticide fate model to simulate pesticides leaching in cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Moeys, Julien; Barriuso, Enrique; Larsbo, Mats; Marín-Benito, Jesús-María; Justes, Eric; Alletto, Lionel; Ubertosi, Marjorie; Nicolardot, Bernard; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Mamy, Laure

    2017-03-01

    The current challenge in sustainable agriculture is to introduce new cropping systems to reduce pesticides use in order to reduce ground and surface water contamination. However, it is difficult to carry out in situ experiments to assess the environmental impacts of pesticide use for all possible combinations of climate, crop, and soils; therefore, in silico tools are necessary. The objective of this work was to assess pesticides leaching in cropping systems coupling the performances of a crop model (STICS) and of a pesticide fate model (MACRO). STICS-MACRO has the advantage of being able to simulate pesticides fate in complex cropping systems and to consider some agricultural practices such as fertilization, mulch, or crop residues management, which cannot be accounted for with MACRO. The performance of STICS-MACRO was tested, without calibration, from measurements done in two French experimental sites with contrasted soil and climate properties. The prediction of water percolation and pesticides concentrations with STICS-MACRO was satisfactory, but it varied with the pedoclimatic context. The performance of STICS-MACRO was shown to be similar or better than that of MACRO. The improvement of the simulation of crop growth allowed better estimate of crop transpiration therefore of water balance. It also allowed better estimate of pesticide interception by the crop which was found to be crucial for the prediction of pesticides concentrations in water. STICS-MACRO is a new promising tool to improve the assessment of the environmental risks of pesticides used in cropping systems.

  3. Air conditioning total system for a coffee house. Groundwater as a supplier for heat and coldness; Klimatechnisches Gesamtsystem fuer ein Cafe. Grundwasser als Waerme- und Kaelte-Lieferant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, Gerald [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Stutensee (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The new building of a coffee-house of the land baker's shop Ihle on the outskirts of Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was not only a new way of the baker's shop in the catering trade, but also in the conception of the building and its technical equipment. The linkage of heating, climate, ventilation and commercial refrigeration systems to a highly efficient total system succeeded in outstanding way.

  4. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  5. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  6. Sediment and PM10 flux from no-tillage cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States where the emission of fine particulates from winter wheat – summer fallow (WW/SF) dryland cropping systems during high winds degrade air quality. Although no-tillage cropping systems are not yet economically viable, these ...

  7. 60 changes in soil properties under alley cropping system of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala ... of improved farming system is efficient recycling of organic materials. This exploits ... in form of violent shower of short duration. Rainfall is seasonal and defines ...

  8. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year...

  9. Rice in cropping systems - Modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Probert, M.E.; Buresh, R.J.; Meinke, H.B.; Suriadi, A.; Dobermann, A.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Timsina, J.

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages in many rice-growing regions, combined with growing global imperatives to increase food production, are driving research into increased water use efficiency and modified agricultural practices in rice-based cropping systems. Well-tested cropping systems models that capture

  10. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, B.; Wang, G.; Berg, van den M.M.; Roetter, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China¿s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This

  11. A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype microcontroller-based system was developed to automate the measurement and recording of soil-moisture status and canopy-, air-, and soil-temperature levels in cropped fields. Measurements of these conditions within the cropping system are often used to assess plant stress, and can assis...

  12. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  14. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  15. Suppression of soilborne pathogens in mixed cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the green revolution, agricultural production has increased tremendously due to synthetic fertilizers, chemical crop protectants and high yielding plant varieties. However, soilborne pathogens remain yield-limiting factors in agricultural production. Hardly any sustainable solutions are

  16. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops.

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, M. A.; TELLES, T. S.; FAGOTTI, D. dos S. L.; BRITO, O. R.; PRETE, C. E. C.; GUIMARÃES, M. de F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and fodder radish (Raphanus sat...

  17. Effectiveness of carboxylic acids from Pichia membranifaciens against coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Laura Andrade Melchor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coffee rust is a fungal disease that has affected every coffee-producing region in the world. Given that the effectivity of the protectant and systemic fungicides applied routinely to control the spread of the causative agent of the disease (Hemileia vastatrix has gradually diminished, besides are harmful to mammals and ecosystems, the objective of this work was to search for a mixture of harmless natural compounds with the potential to be applied in the field. So, a yeast strain producing a battery of long-chain carboxylic acids (CA with fungicide properties was isolated from soil of coffee crop and identified as Pichia membranifaciens by ITS sequencing. Culture conditions of the yeast were optimized and the CA in the solution were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS as ethyl formate (55.5 g L-1, octadecenoic acid (3.5 g L-1, propionic acid (7.2 g L-1, 3-(octadecanoyl-propionic acid (7.2 g L-1 and methyl acetate (8.4 g L-1. Randomized field studies were conducted in three different locations in Chiapas, México. Five treatments were tested including three concentrations of the CA solution (389, 584 and 778 ppm and copper oxychloride (5 000 ppm as conventional control. The initial coffee rust incidence averages varied between sites: Maravillas (3-9%, Santo Domingo (10-16% and Búcaro (16-22%. The treatments of CA solution proved to be effective at slowing down the progress of the rust disease even for the sites where initial incidence was high. Likewise, the CA solution reduced the viability of H. vastatrix spores, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy.

  18. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR COTTON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITOR MARQUES VIDAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has great socio-economic importance due to its use in textile industry, edible oil and biodiesel production and animal feed. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the best potassium rate and soil management for cotton crops and select among cultivars, the one that better develops in the climatic conditions of the Cerrado biome in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thus, the effect of five potassium rates (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1 of K2O and two soil management systems (no-till and conventional tillage on the growth, development and reproduction of four cotton cultivars (BRS-371, BRS-372, BRS-286 and BRS-201 was evaluated. The data on cotton growth and development were subjected to analysis of variance; the data on potassium rates were subjected to regression analysis; and the data on cultivars and soil management to mean test. The correlation between the vegetative and reproductive variables was also assessed. The conventional tillage system provides the best results for the herbaceous cotton, regardless of the others factors evaluated. The cultivar BRS-286 has the best results in the conditions evaluated. The cultivar BRS-371 under no-till system present the highest number of fruiting branches at a potassium rate of 105.5% and highest number of floral buds at a potassium rate of 96.16%. The specific leaf area was positively correlated with the number of bolls per plant at 120 days after emergence of the herbaceous cotton.

  19. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  20. Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation

  1. The Response to P-Derived from Phosphate Rock and TSP by Crops Grown in a Simulated Crop Rotation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsye L; Sisworo, Widjang H; Havid-Rasjid; Syamsul-Rizal; Komarudin-Idris

    2002-01-01

    A green house experiment was carried out on a simulated crop rotation system of upland rice-soybean-mungbean to determine the effect of P-derived from different phosphate rock (PR) sources and TSP using 32 P. The data obtained reveal that all the P-sources has a significant effect on the growth of all the three crops, expressed in dry weight, % P-total and total P-uptake (mg P pot -1 ). For the P-source it was shown that % P-derived from PR/TSP and their uptake (mg P pot -1 ) was quite high, showing that the PR s applied were of good reactivity. The residue of the PR s has also still a good effect on plant growth than that of TSP. The efficiency of PR s was far below that of TSP. This apparently was due to the high rate of application, ten times the rate of TSP. (author)

  2. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2010-01-01

    Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...... loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical and biological characteristics related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flows. Four organic rotations and an inorganic fertilizer-based system were selected to evaluate effects of fertilizer type...... growth was monitored and grain yields measured at harvest maturity. The different management strategies between 1997 and 2007 led to soil carbon inputs that were on average 18–68% and 32–91% higher in the organic than inorganic fertilizer-based rotations for the sampled winter wheat and spring barley...

  3. Novel Developments of the MetaCrop Information System for Facilitating Systems Biological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippe Klaus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop plants play a major role in human and animal nutrition and increasingly contribute to chemical or pharmaceutical industry and renewable resources. In order to achieve important goals, such as the improvement of growth or yield, it is indispensable to understand biological processes on a detailed level. Therefore, the well-structured management of fine-grained information about metabolic pathways is of high interest. Thus, we developed the MetaCrop information system, a manually curated repository of high quality information concerning the metabolism of crop plants. However, the data access to and flexible export of information of MetaCrop in standard exchange formats had to be improved. To automate and accelerate the data access we designed a set of web services to be integrated into external software. These web services have already been used by an add-on for the visualisation toolkit VANTED. Furthermore, we developed an export feature for the MetaCrop web interface, thus enabling the user to compose individual metabolic models using SBML.

  4. Controlled Drainage As Measure to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in a Wheat Cropping System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Hvid, Søren Kolind; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    for the growing crop, and nutrient exports are reduced. CD has been shown to diminish leaching losses of soluble nutrients. So far CD has only been tested for spring sown crops but widespread implementation on drained clayey soils would rely on its adaption to winter cereal production systems. A new project on CD...... applied at four winter cropped fields in Denmark investigates how effects of anaerobic conditions created by CD will affect chemical/biological processes in the submerged soil, root growth, crop production, and nutrient losses. Nitrification is expected to be retarded by wet soils during winter...

  5. Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment of different cropping systems emphasizing corn and soybean production was performed, assuming that biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for producing biofuels (i.e., ethanol and biodiesel). The functional unit is defined as 1 ha of arable land producing biomass for biofuels to compare the environmental performance of the different cropping systems. The external functions are allocated by introducing alternative product systems (the system expansion allocation approach). Nonrenewable energy consumption, global warming impact, acidification and eutrophication are considered as potential environmental impacts and estimated by characterization factors given by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-TRACI). The benefits of corn stover removal are (1) lower nitrogen related environmental burdens from the soil, (2) higher ethanol production rate per unit arable land, and (3) energy recovery from lignin-rich fermentation residues, while the disadvantages of corn stover removal are a lower accumulation rate of soil organic carbon and higher fuel consumption in harvesting corn stover. Planting winter cover crops can compensate for some disadvantages (i.e., soil organic carbon levels and soil erosion) of removing corn stover. Cover crops also permit more corn stover to be harvested. Thus, utilization of corn stover and winter cover crops can improve the eco-efficiency of the cropping systems. When biomass from the cropping systems is utilized for biofuel production, all the cropping systems studied here offer environmental benefits in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and global warming impact. Therefore utilizing biomass for biofuels would save nonrenewable energy, and reduce greenhouse gases. However, unless additional measures such as planting cover crops were taken, utilization of biomass for biofuels would also tend to increase acidification and eutrophication, primarily because large nitrogen (and phosphorus

  6. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Nogueira

    Full Text Available We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa and fodder radish (Raphanus sativus; sunflower (Heliantus annuus intercropped with Urochloa ruziziensis; corn (Zea mays intercropped with Urochloa; and corn; fodder radish; or wheat (Triticum aestivum as sole crops. The subplots were the years: 2008 and 2009. Determinations consisted of total organic C, labile and resistant C, total N, microbial biomass C and N, the C/N ratio of soil organic matter, and the microbial quotient (qMic, besides microbiological and biochemical attributes, assessed only in 2009. The attributes significantly changed with the winter crops, especially the multicropping of cover crops and fodder radish, as well as effect of years. Despite stimulating the microbiological/biochemical activity, fodder radish cropping decreased the soil C in the second year, likewise the wheat cropping. The multicropping of cover crops in winter is an option for management in the establishment of no-till system, which contributes to increase the concentrations of C and stimulate the soil microbiological/biochemical activity.

  7. Secagem de café em combinação A combined system for coffee drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilio F. de Lacerda Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar um sistema de secagem de café, com meia-seca em leito fixo e complementação da secagem em secador de lotes, intermitente, de fluxos concorrentes, em um experimento instalado na Área de Pré-processamento e Armazenamento de Produtos Vegetais, DEA-UFV. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Fez-se a colheita pelo método de derriça sobre o chão. Os frutos foram pré-processados por via seca, secando-se os frutos verdes, cerejas e passas. Na meia-seca, a umidade inicial dos frutos variou entre 68,9 e 71,3% b.u. e a final entre 44,0 e 47,5% b.u. Na complementação da secagem a umidade final variou entre 12,2 e 13,8% b.u. A temperatura do ar, no secador de leito fixo, variou entre 50,4 e 76 °C, e no de fluxos concorrentes, entre 87,2 e 110 °C. A entalpia específica no secador de leito fixo variou entre 8,4 e 9,1 MJ kg-1 e no de fluxos concorrentes, entre 7,1 e 16,9 MJ kg-1. Relativamente às testemunhas, a qualidade final do produto apresentou melhores características comerciais. Concluiu-se que a meia-seca em leito fixo e a secagem em secador de fluxos concorrentes, além de reduzir o tempo de operação, poderá contribuir para melhor preservar as qualidades que o produto adquire no campo.The general objective of this study was the evaluation of a system for coffee drying, using partial drying in fixed bed dryer and complementary drying in an intermittent concurrent flow batch dryer. The experiment was carried out in the Vegetable Products Processing Area, DEA-UFV. The drying tests were accomplished in completely randomized design. The coffee was harvested on the ground by manual striping process. The fruits were pre-processed by drying of ripe, overripe and greenish cherries. For the preliminary drying, the initial coffee moisture content varied from 68.9 to 71.3% w.b. with the drying being interrupted with moisture content between 44.0 and 47.5% w.b. In the complementary drying phase the final moisture

  8. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further expansion of reduc...

  9. Soil phosphatase and urease activities impacted by cropping systems and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil enzymes can play an important role in nutrient availability to plants. Consequently, soil enzyme measurements can provide useful information on soil fertility for crop production. We examined the impact of cropping system and water management on phosphatase, urease, and microbial biomass C in s...

  10. Agronomic & entomological results from 7 years of dryland cropping systems research at Briggsdale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryland crop production in the semi-arid Great Plains is limited by both the quantity and timing of precipitation. Sustainable dryland cropping systems maximize precipitation use efficiency by managing precipitation capture, storage, and use. Pest management approaches are also critical for efficie...

  11. Understanding cropping systems in the semi-arid environments of Zimbabwe: options for soil fertility management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.

    2007-01-01

    African smallholder farmers face perennial food shortages due to low crop yields. The major cause of poor crop yields is soil fertility decline. The diversity of sites and soils between African farming systems isgreat,therefore strategies to solve soil fertility problems

  12. Assessing the sustainability of wheat-based cropping systems using APSIM: Model parameterisation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeller, C.; Pala, M.; Manschadi, A.M.; Meinke, H.B.; Sauerborn, J.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the sustainability of crop and soil management practices in wheat-based rotations requires a well-tested model with the demonstrated ability to sensibly predict crop productivity and changes in the soil resource. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) suite of models was

  13. The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops Are Not Compatible With Agroecologically Based Systems of Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The coexistence of genetically modified (GM) crops and non-GM crops is a myth because the movement of transgenes beyond their intended destinations is a certainty, and this leads to genetic contamination of organic farms and other systems. It is unlikely that transgenes can be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of…

  14. Biomass productivity and radiation utilisation of innovative cropping systems for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jiao, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    rotation of annual crops (maize, beet, hemp/oat, triticale, winter rye and winter rapeseed), ii) perennial crops intensively fertilised (festulolium, reed canary, cocksfoot and tall fescue), low-fertilised (miscanthus) or unfertilised (grass-legume mixtures) and iii) traditional systems (continuous...

  15. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  16. Long-term effects of potato cropping system strategies on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropping systems incorporating soil health management practices, such as longer rotations, disease-suppressive crops, reduced tillage, and/or organic amendments can substantially affect soil microbial communities, and potentially reduce soilborne potato diseases and increase productivity, but long-t...

  17. Effects of Trigonelline, an Alkaloid Present in Coffee, on Diabetes-Induced Disorders in the Rat Skeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Pytlik, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Śliwiński, Leszek; Krivošíková, Zora; Štefíková, Kornélia; Gajdoš, Martin

    2016-03-02

    Diabetes increases bone fracture risk. Trigonelline, an alkaloid with potential antidiabetic activity, is present in considerable amounts in coffee. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of trigonelline on experimental diabetes-induced disorders in the rat skeletal system. Effects of trigonelline (50 mg/kg p.o. daily for four weeks) were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of trigonelline administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.) or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg i.p.). Serum bone turnover markers, bone mineralization, and mechanical properties were studied. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with significant worsening of bone mineralization and bone mechanical properties. Streptozotocin after nicotinamide induced slight glycemia increases in first days of experiment only, however worsening of cancellous bone mechanical properties and decreased vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) were demonstrated. Trigonelline decreased bone mineralization and tended to worsen bone mechanical properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated rats, trigonelline significantly increased BMD and tended to improve cancellous bone strength. Trigonelline differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with streptozotocin-induced metabolic disorders, intensifying the osteoporotic changes in streptozotocin-treated rats and favorably affecting bones in the non-hyperglycemic (nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated) rats. The results indicate that, in certain conditions, trigonelline may damage bone.

  18. Economic evaluation of cereal cropping systems under semiarid conditions: minimum input, organic and conventional

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo,Gabriel; Aibar,Joaquín; Cavero,José; Zaragoza,Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Cropping systems like organic farming, selling products at a higher price and promoting environmental sustainability by reducing fertilizer and pesticides, can be more profitable than conventional systems. An economic evaluation of three cropping systems in a seven year period experiment was performed, using a common rotation (fallow-barley-vetch-durum wheat) in a semi-arid rainfed field of Spain. The minimum input system included mouldboard ploughing, cultivator preparation, sowing and harve...

  19. Robust cropping systems to tackle pests under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Barzman, Marco; Booij, Kees

    2015-01-01

    ) and the severity of their outbreaks. Increasing concerns over health and the environment as well as new legislation on pesticide use, particularly in the European Union, urge us to find sustainable alternatives to pesticide-based pest management. Here, we review the effect of climate change on crop protection......Agriculture in the twenty-first century faces the challenge of meeting food demands while satisfying sustainability goals. The challenge is further complicated by climate change which affects the distribution of crop pests (intended as insects, plants, and pathogenic agents injurious to crops...... and propose strategies to reduce the impact of future invasive as well as rapidly evolving resident populations. The major points are the following: (1) the main consequence of climate change and globalization is a heightened level of unpredictability of spatial and temporal interactions between weather...

  20. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...

  1. Economics of wheat based cropping systems in rainfed areas of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, P.; Cheema, N.M.; Malik, A.; Umair, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Pothwar tract of rainfed area has enormous potential to meet incremental food grain needs of the country. However, a significant yield gap in wheat has been reported between yields of substantive and the progressive growers mainly due to poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) at the rate -15 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system even under drought condition and there will be no economical loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM at the rate 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time. (author)

  2. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of intercropping period management on runoff and erosion in a maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Eric; Bielders, C L

    2010-01-01

    The management of winter cover crops is likely to influence their performance in reducing runoff and erosion during the intercropping period that precedes spring crops but also during the subsequent spring crop. This study investigated the impact of two dates of destruction and burial of a rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cover crop on runoff and erosion, focusing on a continuous silage maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Thirty erosion plots with various intercrop management options were monitored for 3 yr at two sites. During the intercropping period, cover crops reduced runoff and erosion by more than 94% compared with untilled, post-maize harvest plots. Rough tillage after maize harvest proved equally effective as a late sown cover crop. There was no effect of cover crop destruction and burial dates on runoff and erosion during the intercropping period, probably because rough tillage for cover crop burial compensates for the lack of soil cover. During two of the monitored maize seasons, it was observed that plots that had been covered during the previous intercropping period lost 40 to 90% less soil compared with maize plots that had been left bare during the intercropping period. The burial of an aboveground cover crop biomass in excess of 1.5 t ha(-1) was a necessary, yet not always sufficient, condition to induce a residual effect. Because of the possible beneficial residual effect of cover crop burial on erosion reduction, the sowing of a cover crop should be preferred over rough tillage after maize harvest.

  4. Primary and Secondary Yield Losses Caused by Pests and Diseases: Assessment and Modeling in Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Rolando; Avelino, Jacques; Gary, Christian; Tixier, Philippe; Lechevallier, Esther; Allinne, Clémentine

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of crop yield losses is needed for the improvement of production systems that contribute to the incomes of rural families and food security worldwide. However, efforts to quantify yield losses and identify their causes are still limited, especially for perennial crops. Our objectives were to quantify primary yield losses (incurred in the current year of production) and secondary yield losses (resulting from negative impacts of the previous year) of coffee due to pests and diseases, and to identify the most important predictors of coffee yields and yield losses. We established an experimental coffee parcel with full-sun exposure that consisted of six treatments, which were defined as different sequences of pesticide applications. The trial lasted three years (2013-2015) and yield components, dead productive branches, and foliar pests and diseases were assessed as predictors of yield. First, we calculated yield losses by comparing actual yields of specific treatments with the estimated attainable yield obtained in plots which always had chemical protection. Second, we used structural equation modeling to identify the most important predictors. Results showed that pests and diseases led to high primary yield losses (26%) and even higher secondary yield losses (38%). We identified the fruiting nodes and the dead productive branches as the most important and useful predictors of yields and yield losses. These predictors could be added in existing mechanistic models of coffee, or can be used to develop new linear mixed models to estimate yield losses. Estimated yield losses can then be related to production factors to identify corrective actions that farmers can implement to reduce losses. The experimental and modeling approaches of this study could also be applied in other perennial crops to assess yield losses.

  5. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  6. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Information about the quantitative effect of conservation tillage combined with a cover crop on soil structure is still limited. This study examined the effect of these management practices on soil pore characteristics of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial. The tillage treatments (main...... plots) included direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H), and moldboard plowing (MP). The cover crop treatments were subplot with cover crop (+CC) and without cover crop (−CC). Minimally disturbed soil cores were taken from the 4- to 8-, 12- to 16-, and 18- to 27-cm depth intervals...... in the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18- to 27-cm...

  7. A spatially based field specific crop recordkeeping system prototype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These spatial data were prepared using ArcGIS 9.3. A database was created in Microsoft Access 2007. The database contained information on crops, fertilizers and past management. The information was linked to the spatial data table and maintained in the database. An application was developed using Visual Basic 6 in ...

  8. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  9. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  10. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  11. Automated Mobile System for Accurate Outdoor Tree Crop Enumeration Using an Uncalibrated Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Thuy Tuong Nguyen; David C. Slaughter; Bradley D. Hanson; Andrew Barber; Amy Freitas; Daniel Robles; Erin Whelan

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an automated computer vision system for outdoor tree crop enumeration in a seedling nursery. The complete system incorporates both hardware components (including an embedded microcontroller, an odometry encoder, and an uncalibrated digital color camera) and software algorithms (including microcontroller algorithms and the proposed algorithm for tree crop enumeration) required to obtain robust performance in a natural outdoor environment. The enumeration system uses a t...

  12. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Kyalo; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Nyasani, Johnson O; Thiel, Michael; Jozani, Hosein; Borgemeister, Christian; Landmann, Tobias

    2017-11-03

    Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF) classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC) and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step). An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer's accuracy and UA: user's accuracy) for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10-20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models.

  13. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyalo Richard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step. An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer’s accuracy and UA: user’s accuracy for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10–20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models.

  14. Redistribution of the solar radiation and the rain inside of coffee plantations (Arabic Coffea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    The following review presents a series of studies on microclimates of non-shaded and shaded conditions of coffee plantations (Coffea arabica L.) in Colombia. Likewise, The redistribution of solar radiation and the temperature, as well as the energy balance, of the coffee plant and the crop are described. The results on the components of water balance and transport of nutrients within the coffee plantations are reported

  15. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  16. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F

    2015-01-01

    The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction......N concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop...

  17. Consideration in selecting crops for the human-rated life support system: a Linear Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, E. F.; Kossowski, J.; Goto, E.; Langhans, R. W.; White, G.; Albright, L. D.; Wilcox, D.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A Linear Programming model has been constructed which aids in selecting appropriate crops for CELSS (Controlled Environment Life Support System) food production. A team of Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) faculty, staff, graduate students and invited experts representing more than a dozen disciplines, provided a wide range of expertise in developing the model and the crop production program. The model incorporates nutritional content and controlled-environment based production yields of carefully chosen crops into a framework where a crop mix can be constructed to suit the astronauts' needs. The crew's nutritional requirements can be adequately satisfied with only a few crops (assuming vitamin mineral supplements are provided) but this will not be satisfactory from a culinary standpoint. This model is flexible enough that taste and variety driven food choices can be built into the model.

  18. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-Huo; Van, Den Berg Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-10-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China's Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops.

  19. Impacts of Cropping Systems on Aggregates Associated Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Semiarid Highland Agroecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Chu

    Full Text Available The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC and nitrogen (N in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates. The cropping systems increased the stocks of OC and N in total soils (0-40 cm at mean rates of 15.6 g OC m-2 yr-1 and 1.2 g N m-2 yr-1 relative to a fallow control. The continuous cropping of alfalfa produced the largest increases at the 0-20 cm depth. The OC and N stocks in total soils were significantly correlated with the changes in the >0.053 mm aggregates. 27-year of cropping increased OC stocks in the >0.053 mm size class of aggregates and N stocks in the >0.25 mm size class but decreased OC stocks in the 0.25 mm aggregate size class accounted for more than 97% of the total increases in the continuous wheat and the legume-grain rotation systems. These results suggested that long-term cropping has the potential to sequester OC and N in soils and that the increases in soil OC and N stocks were mainly due to increases associated with aggregates >0.053 mm.

  20. Integrated cropping systems : an answer to environmental regulations imposed on nursery stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Challa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Government regulations in the Netherlands are increasingly constraining and sometimes even banning conventional cultivation practices in nursery stock cropping systems. As a consequence, growers face problems concerning the use of manure, fertilisers and irrigation. In this study we analysed the

  1. Irrigação e certificação da cafeicultura na Região Centro-Oeste de São Paulo Irrigation and certification on coffee crop in mid-west of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José Perdoná

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rentabilidade insatisfatória tem provocado diminuição paulatina do parque cafeeiro no Estado de São Paulo. Entre as alternativas para a solução deste problema, duas se destacam: a irrigação das lavouras e a certificação das propriedades. Mesmo em regiões consideradas aptas à cultura do café arábica (Coffea arabica L., o uso da irrigação pode promover, na média dos anos, aumento de produtividade de grãos. Além disso, a certificação do produto favorece sua diferenciação no mercado e pode melhorar os resultados econômicos da atividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produtividade de cafeeiros submetidos a sistemas irrigados ou não, comparando os dados econômicos na comercialização do café certificado ou não, nas condições da Região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo. O delineamento utilizado no campo foi o de blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (com e sem irrigação por gotejamento e dez repetições. Foram calculados os custos de produção, bem como a lucratividade com a venda do produto final. A irrigação aumentou o desenvolvimento e a produtividade dos cafeeiros. Houve o retorno do investimento a partir da terceira safra. A venda de café certificado possibilitou resultados econômicos em média de 224,5% superiores ao não certificado. A irrigação aliada à venda de café certificado proporcionou saldo financeiro 1.192% superior ao café não irrigado e não certificado.An unsatisfactory profitability has led to the gradual decline of the coffee plantations in São Paulo. Among the alternatives that arise for solving this problem, two stand out: the irrigation of crops and certification of properties. Even in areas considered suitable for cultivation of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L., the use of irrigation can promote an increase in grain yield. In addition, the product certification promotes their differentiation in the market and can improve the economic results of

  2. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEGM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3

  3. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China.

  4. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  5. Valuation of vegetable crops produced in the UVI Commercial Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Bailey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The UVI Commercial Aquaponic System is designed to produce fish and vegetables in a recirculating aquaculture system. The integration of these systems intensifies production in a small land area, conserves water, reduces waste discharged into the environment, and recovers nutrients from fish production into valuable vegetable crops. A standard protocol has been developed for the production of tilapia yielding 5 MT per annum. The production of many vegetable crops has also been studied but, because of specific growth patterns and differences of marketable product, no single protocol can be promoted. Each crop yields different value per unit area and this must be considered when selecting varieties to produce to provide the highest returns to the farmer. Variables influencing the value of a crop are density (plants/m2, yield (unit or kg, production period (weeks and unit value ($. Combining these variables to one unit, $/m2/week, provides a common point for comparison among crops. Farmers can focus production efforts on the most valuable crops or continue to produce a variety of crops meeting market demand with the knowledge that each does not contribute equally to profitability.

  6. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology de...

  7. Effects of contrasting catch crops on nitrogen availability and nitrous oxide emissions in an organic cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Petersen, Søren O; Sørensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Legume-based catch crops (LBCCs) may act as an important source of nitrogen (N) in organic crop rotations because of biological N fixation. However, the potential risk of high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions needs to be taken into account when including LBCCs in crop rotations. Here, we report...

  8. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  9. The water footprint of coffee and tea consumption in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2007-01-01

    A cup of coffee or tea in our hand means manifold consumption of water at the production location. The objective of this study is to assess the global water footprint of the Dutch society in relation to its coffee and tea consumption. The calculation is carried out based on the crop water

  10. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  11. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  12. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  13. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types  preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained  in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.Keywords: agro-forestry, preferences, adoption, NPV

  14. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  15. Insect pests and their natural enemies on spring oilseed rape in Estonia : impact of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VEROMANN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of different cropping systems, the pests, their hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory ground beetles present in two spring rape crops in Estonia, in 2003, were compared. One crop was grown under a standard (STN cropping system and the other under a minimised (MIN system. The STN system plants had more flowers than those in the MIN system, and these attracted significantly more Meligethes aeneus, the only abundant and real pest in Estonia. Meligethes aeneus had two population peaks: the first during opening of the first flowers and the second, the new generation, during ripening of the pods. The number of new generation M. aeneus was almost four times greater in the STN than in the MIN crop. More carabids were caught in the MIN than in STN crop. The maximum abundance of carabids occurred two weeks before that of the new generation of M. aeneus, at the time when M. aeneus larvae were dropping to the soil for pupation and hence were vulnerable to predation by carabids.

  16. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  17. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  18. Conventional vs. organic cropping systems: yield of crops and weeds in Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Campiglia, Enio; Mancinelli , Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population while simultaneously of minimizing its global environmental impacts. The organic farming, which is a system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, is often proposed as a possible solution. However, critics argue that organic agriculture may give lower yields and therefore more land is required in order to produce the same amount of food of the conventional farms, resulting in more widespread deforestati...

  19. Crop yield network and its response to changes in climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    Crop failure (reduction in crop yield) due to extreme weather and climate change could lead to unstable food supply, reflecting the recent globalization in world agricultural production. Specifically, in several major production countries producing large amount of main cereal crops, wheat, maize, soybean and rice, abrupt crop failures in wide area are significantly serious for world food supply system. We examined the simultaneous changes in crop yield in USA, China and Brazil, in terms of the changes in climate system such as El Nino, La nina and so on. In this study, we defined a crop yield networks, which represent the correlation between yearly changes in crop yields and climate resources during the crop growing season in two regions. The climate resources during the crop growing season represents here the average temperature and the accumulated precipitation during the crop growing season of a target crop. As climate data, we used a reanalysis climate data JRA-25 (Japan Meteorological Agency). The yearly changes in crop yields are based on a gridded crop productivity database with a resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude (Iizumi et al. 2013). It is constructed from the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureau in each country, which covers the period during 1982 to 2006 (25 years). For the regions being lack of data, the data was interpolated referring to NPP values estimated by satellite data. Crop yield network is constructed as follows: (1) let DY(i,y) be negative difference in crop yield of year y from the trend yield at grid i; (2) define the correlation of the differences Cij(y) = DY(i, y) DY(j, y); (3) if Cij(y) > Q, then grids i and j are mutually linked for a threshold value Q. Links between grids make a crop yield network. It is here noted that only negative differences are taken into account because we focused on the lean year cases (i.e. yields of both grids were lower than those in the long-term trend). The arrays of

  20. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  1. Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis of Selected NSIC-registered Coffee Varieties in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy May C. Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea sp. is an important commercial crop worldwide. Three species of coffee are used as beverage, namely Coffea arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica. Coffea arabica L. is the most cultivated among the three coffee species due to its taste quality, rich aroma, and low caffeine content. Despite its inferior taste and aroma, C. canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, which has the highest caffeine content, is the second most widely cultivated because of its resistance to coffee diseases. On the other hand, C. liberica W.Bull ex Hierncomes is characterized by its very strong taste and flavor. The Philippines used to be a leading exporter of coffee until coffee rust destroyed the farms in Batangas, home of the famous Kapeng Barako. The country has been attempting to revive the coffee industry by focusing on the production of specialty coffee with registered varieties on the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC. Correct identification and isolation of pure coffee beans are the main factors that determine coffee’s market value. Local farms usually misidentify and mix coffee beans of different varieties, leading to the depreciation of their value. This study used simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to evaluate and distinguish Philippine NSIC-registered coffee species and varieties. The neighbor-joining tree generated using PAUP showed high bootstrap support, separating C. arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica from each other. Among the twenty primer pairs used, seven were able to distinguish C. arabica, nine for C. liberica, and one for C. canephora.

  2. Emergy analysis of cropping-grazing system in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.X.; Yang, Z.F.; Chen, G.Q.

    2007-01-01

    An ecological energetic evaluation is presented in this paper as a complement to economic account for the cropping-grazing system in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China in the year 2000. Based on Odum's well-known concept of emergy in terms of embodied solar energy as a unified measure for environmental resources, human or animal labors and industrial products, a systems diagram is developed for the crop and livestock productions with arms and sub-arms for free renewable natural resource input, purchased economic investment, yields of and interactive fluxes between the cropping and grazing sub-industries. In addition to conventional systems indices of the emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) introduced for congregated systems ecological assessment with essential implication for sustainability, new indicators of soil emergy cost (SEC), self-support intensity (SSI) and self-support orientation (SSO) are defined to characterize the desertification and internal recycling associated with the special agricultural system. Extensive emergy accounting is made for the cropping-grazing system as a whole as well as for the cropping and grazing subsystems. The overall cropping-grazing system is shown with outstanding production competence compared with agricultural systems in some other provinces and the national average in China, though confronted with severe desertification associated with soil loss. The production of crops has higher emergy density and yield rate per unit area as well as higher rate of soil loss than grazing system. The soil emergy cost defined as the soil loss emergy divided by the yield emergy is estimated to be of the same value for both of the subsystems, but the grazing activity is with less extraction intensity, leaving rangeland to rest and rehabilitate. Suggestions with regard to the local sustainability and national ecological security in

  3. An Assessment of some Fertilizer Recommendations under Different Cropping Systems in a Humid Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fondufe, EY.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to determine the effects of four fertilizer recommendation systems (bianket recommendation, soil test recommendation, recommendation based on nutrient supplementation index and unfertilized control on five cropping systems (sole cassava, maize, melon, cassava + maize and cassava + maize + melon. The experiment was a split-plot in randomised complete block design, with fertilizer recommendation systems in main plots and cropping systems in subplots. Observations were made on plant growth and yield. Plant samples were also analyzed for N, P and K uptake. Cassava and melon gave higher yields in sole cropping than intercropping while maize yield under intercropping exceeded that under sole cropping by 17 %. Cassava root yield was significantly reduced by 24 and 35 % in cassava + maize and cassava + maize + melon plots. Fertilizer recommendation based on nutrient supplementation index (NSI gave the highest crop yield 41, 31, and 27 t/ha of maize in sole maize, maize + cassava and maize + cassava + melon and 0.6 and 0.2 t/ha of sole melon and intercropped melon respectively. Nitrogen uptake by cassava and maize was highest under NSI, but fertilizer recommendation based on soil test gave the highest crop yield and monetary returns per unit of fertilizer used.

  4. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Manachini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  6. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  7. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 decreased on average the emissions of N 2 O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO 2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N 2 O, NO and NH 3 flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha −1 reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N 2 O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact

  8. Development of a European Ensemble System for Seasonal Prediction: Application to crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terres, J. M.; Cantelaube, P.

    2003-04-01

    Western European agriculture is highly intensive and the weather is the main source of uncertainty for crop yield assessment and for crop management. In the current system, at the time when a crop yield forecast is issued, the weather conditions leading up to harvest time are unknown and are therefore a major source of uncertainty. The use of seasonal weather forecast would bring additional information for the remaining crop season and has valuable benefit for improving the management of agricultural markets and environmentally sustainable farm practices. An innovative method for supplying seasonal forecast information to crop simulation models has been developed in the frame of the EU funded research project DEMETER. It consists in running a crop model on each individual member of the seasonal hindcasts to derive a probability distribution of crop yield. Preliminary results of cumulative probability function of wheat yield provides information on both the yield anomaly and the reliability of the forecast. Based on the spread of the probability distribution, the end-user can directly quantify the benefits and risks of taking weather-sensitive decisions.

  9. Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management.

  10. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection a proper crop rotation based on environmental conservation rules is a key factor for increasing long term productivity. On the other hand, the major problem in reaching agricultural sustainability is lack of soil organic matter. Recently, a new viewpoint has emerged based on efficient use of inputs, environmental protection, ecological economy, food supply and security. Crop rotation cannot supply and restore plant needed nutrients, so gradually the productivity of rotation system tends to be decreased. Returning the plant residues to the soil helps to increase its organic matter and fertility in long-term period. Wireworms are multi host pests and we can see them in wheat and barley too. The logic way for their control is agronomic practices like as crop rotation. Wireworms’ population and damages are increased with using grasses and small seed gramineas in mild winters, variation in cropping pattern, reduced chemical control, and cover crops in winter. In return soil cultivation, crop rotation, planting date, fertilizing, irrigation and field health are the examples for the effective factors in reducing wireworms’ damage. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of crop rotations, residue management and yield damage because of wireworms’ population in soil, this experiment was conducted using four rotation systems for five years in Jolgeh- Rokh agricultural research station. Crop rotations were included, 1 Wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, 2 Wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, 3 Wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, 4 Wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW as main plots and three levels of returning crop residues to soil (returning 0, 50 and 100% produced crop residues to soil were allocated as sub plots. This experiment was designed as split plot based on RCBD design with three replications. After ending each rotation treatment, the field was sowed with potato cv. Agria

  11. Soil hydrology of agroforestry systems: Competition for water or positive tree-crops interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjets, Rowena; Richter, Falk; Jansen, Martin; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In dry periods during the growing season crops may suffer from severe water stress. The question arises whether the alternation of crop and tree strips might enhance and sustain soil water resources available for crops during drought events. Trees reduce wind exposure, decreasing the potential evapotranspiration of crops and soils; additionally hydraulic lift from the deep roots of trees to the drier top soil might provide additional water for shallow-rooted crops. To understand the above and belowground water relations of agroforestry systems, we measured soil moisture and soil water potential in crop strips as a function of distance to the trees at varying depth as well as meteorological parameters. At the agroforestry site Reiffenhausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, two different tree species are planted, each in one separated tree strip: willow breed Tordis ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis) and poplar clone Max 1 (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii). In between the tree strips a crop strip of 24 m width was established with annual crop rotation, managed the same way as the reference site. During a drought period in May 2016 with less than 2 mm rain in four weeks, an overall positive effect on hydrological conditions of the agroforestry system was observed. The results show that trees shaded the soil surface, lowering the air temperature and further increasing the soil moisture in the crop strips compared to the reference site, which was located far from the trees. At the reference site the crops took up water in the upper soil (sunlight. The two tree species behaved differently. The poplar strips showed more marked diurnal changes in soil water potential, with fast drying during daytime and rewetting during nighttime. We suppose that the rewetting during nighttime was caused by hydraulic lift, which supports passively the drier upper soil with water from the wetter, lower soil layers. This experimental study shows the importance of above- and

  12. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  13. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  14. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  15. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  16. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  17. Opportunities and challenges for harvest weed seed control in global cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael J; Broster, John C; Schwartz-Lazaro, Lauren M; Norsworthy, Jason K; Davis, Adam S; Tidemann, Breanne D; Beckie, Hugh J; Lyon, Drew J; Soni, Neeta; Neve, Paul; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V

    2017-11-28

    The opportunity to target weed seeds during grain harvest was established many decades ago following the introduction of mechanical harvesting and the recognition of high weed-seed retention levels at crop maturity; however, this opportunity remained largely neglected until more recently. The introduction and adoption of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems in Australia has been in response to widespread occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed populations. With diminishing herbicide resources and the need to maintain highly productive reduced tillage and stubble-retention practices, growers began to develop systems that targeted weed seeds during crop harvest. Research and development efforts over the past two decades have established the efficacy of HWSC systems in Australian cropping systems, where widespread adoption is now occurring. With similarly dramatic herbicide resistance issues now present across many of the world's cropping regions, it is timely for HWSC systems to be considered for inclusion in weed-management programs in these areas. This review describes HWSC systems and establishing the potential for this approach to weed control in several cropping regions. As observed in Australia, the inclusion of HWSC systems can reduce weed populations substantially reducing the potential for weed adaptation and resistance evolution. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  19. Soil phosphorus dynamics and availability and irrigated coffee yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Henrique Pereira Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Research data have demonstrated that the P demand of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is similar to that of short-cycle crops. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of annual P fertilization on the soil P status by the quantification of labile, moderately labile, low-labile, and total P fractions, associating them to coffee yield. The experiment was installed in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol cultivated with irrigated coffee annually fertilized with triple superphosphate at rates of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Phosphorus fractions were determined in two soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. The P leaf contents and coffee yield in 2008 were also evaluated. The irrigated coffee responded to phosphate fertilization in the production phase with gains of up to 138 % in coffee yield by the application of 400 kg ha-1 P2O5. Coffee leaf P contents increased with P applications and stabilized around 1.98 g kg-1, at rates of 270 kg ha-1 P2O5 and higher. Soil P application caused, in general, an increase in bioavailable P fractions, which constitute the main soil P reservoir.

  20. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-06-05

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits.

  1. Nitrate leaching from sandy loam soils under a double-cropping forage system estimated from suction-probe measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trindade, H.; Coutinho, J.; Beusichem, van M.L.; Scholefield, D.; Moreira, N.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from a double-cropping forage system was measured over a 2-year period (June 1994–May 1996) in the Northwest region of Portugal using ceramic cup samplers. The crops were grown for silage making and include maize (from May to September) and a winter crop (rest of the year)

  2. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on

  3. Nitrogen fertilizer fate after introducing maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Irabella; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Lehndorf, Eva; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    After introducing upland crops into permanent flooded cropping systems, soil conditions temporally change from anaerobic to aerobic, which profoundly impacts nitrogen (N) dynamics. In the framework of the DFG research unit 1701 ICON we applied a single 15N-urea pulse in a field experiment in the Philippines with three different crop rotations: continuous paddy rice, paddy rice-dry rice, and paddy rice-maize. Subsequently, we traced the fate of the labelled urea in bulk soil, rhizosphere, roots, biomass and microbial residues (amino sugars) within the following two years. 15N recovery in the first 5 cm of bulk soil was highest in the first dry season of continuous paddy rice cropping (37.8 % of applied 15N) and lowest in the paddy rice-maize rotation (19.2 %). While an accumulation over time could be observed in bulk soil in 5-20 cm depth of the continuous paddy rice system, the recoveries decreased over time within the following two years in the other cropping systems. Highest 15N-recovery in shoots and roots were found in the continuous paddy rice system in the first dry season (27.3 % in shoots, 3.2 % in roots) as well as in the following wet season (4.2 % in shoots, 0.3 % in roots). Lowest recoveries in biomass were found for the paddy rice-dry rice rotation. Long-term fixation of 15N in microbial biomass residues was observed in all cropping systems (2-3 % in the 3rd dry season). The results indicate that the introduction of maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system can reduce the fertilizer N use efficiency especially in the first year, most likely due to nitrate leaching and gaseous losses to the atmosphere.

  4. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  5. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  6. Productivity of organic and conventional arable cropping systems in long-term experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ambreen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2017-01-01

    manure there was a tendency for increased DM yield over time at all sites, whereas little response was seen in N yield. In the O4 rotation DM and N yields tended to increase at Foulum over time, but there was little change at Flakkebjerg. The DM yield gap between organic and conventional systems in the 3......A field experiment comparing different arable crop rotations was conducted in Denmark during 1997–2008 on three sites varying in climatic conditions and soil types, i.e. coarse sand (Jyndevand), loamy sand (Foulum), and sandy loam (Flakkebjerg). The crop rotations followed organic farm management......, and from 2005 also conventional management was included for comparison. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) crop rotation (organic crop rotations varying in use of whole-year green manure (O1 and O2 with a whole-year green manure, and O4 without...

  7. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  8. Impact of wheat / faba bean mixed cropping or rotation systems on soil microbial functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanâa Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases and enhacing ecological serices. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations. These practices also participate to the diversification of agricultural productions, enabling to secure the regularity of income returns across the seasonal and climatic uncertainties. In this context, we designed a field experiment aiming to estimate the two years impact of these practices on wheat yield and on soil microbial activities as estimated through Substrate Induced Respiration (SIR method and mycorrhizal soil infectivity (MSI measurement. It is expected that understanding soil microbial functionalities in response to these agricultural practices might allows to target the best type of combination, in regard to crop productivity. We found that the tested cropping systems largely impacted soil microbial functionalities and mycorrhizal soil infectivity. Intercropping gave better results in terms of crop productivity than the rotation practice after 2 cropping seasons. Benefits resulting from intercrop should be highly linked with changes recorded on soil microbial functionalities.

  9. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Cardoso, I.M.; Duarte, E.M.G.; Fernandes, R.B.A.; Gomes, L.C.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree

  10. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  11. Maximizing land productivity by diversified cropping systems with different nitrogen fertilizer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hafeez Ahmed ZOHRY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Six field experiments were conducted in Giza Agricultural Research Station, Egypt during 2010, 2011 and 2012 growing seasons to study the effect of two types of N fertilizers (urea and urea form as slow-release (UF on intercropping cowpea with sunflower and intercropping wheat with pea. A split plot design with three replications was used. The results indicated that insignificant effect of cropping systems was found for sunflower and significant effect was found for cowpea yield. Significant effect of N fertilizers was found on sunflower and insignificant effect was found for cowpea yield. Furthermore, insignificant effect of interaction of cropping systems and N fertilizers was found for sunflower and significant effect was found for cowpea yield. With respect to wheat and pea intercropping, both crops were significantly affected by intercropping system. Significant effect of N fertilizers was found on wheat and insignificant effect was found for pea yield. Both wheat and pea were significantly affected by the interaction of cropping system and N fertilizers. Yield advantage was achieved because land equivalent ratio exceeded 1.00. Dominance analysis proved that leguminous crop is dominated component. Thus, the studied intercropping systems could be recommended to farmers due to its beneficial returns.

  12. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  13. Designing a new cropping system for high productivity and sustainable water usage under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Wang, Hongfei; Yan, Peng; Pan, Junxiao; Lu, Dianjun; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2017-02-01

    The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L.) cropping system that replaced the traditional winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) -summer maize system. The M-M system improved yield by 14-31% compared with the conventionally managed wheat-maize system, and achieved similar yield compared with the incrementally adapted wheat-maize system with the optimized cultivars, planting dates, planting density and water management. More importantly, water usage was lower in the M-M system than in the wheat-maize system, and the rate of water usage was sustainable (net groundwater usage was ≤150 mm yr-1). Our study indicated that systematic assessment of adaptation and cropping system scale have great potential to address the multiple food supply challenges under changing climatic conditions.

  14. Dynamics of Phenol Degrading-Iron ReducingBacteria{1mm in Intensive Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate theeffects of cropping season, nitrogen fertilizer input and aeratedfallow on the dynamics of phenol degrading-iron reducingbacteria (PD-IRB) in tropical irrigated rice ({ Oryza sativa L.)systems. The PD-IRB population density was monitored at different stagesof rice growth in two cropping seasons (dry and early wet) in acontinuous annual triple rice cropping system under irrigated condition.In this system, the high nitrogen input (195 and 135 kg N ha-1 indry and wet seasons, respectively) plots and control plots receiving noN fertilizer were compared to investigate the effect of nitrogen rate onpopulation size. The phenol degrading-iron reducing bacteria (PD-IRB)were abundant in soils under cropping systems of tropical irrigatedrice. However, density of the bacterial populations varied with ricegrowth stages. Cropping seasons, rhizosphere, and aerated fallow couldaffect the dynamics of PD-IRB. In the field trial, viable counts ofPD-IRB in the topsoil layer (15 cm) ranged between 102 and 108cells per gram of dry soil. A steep increase in viable counts during thesecond half of the cropping season suggested that the population densityof PD-IRB increased at advanced crop-growth stages. Population growth ofPD-IRB was accelerated during the dry season compared to the wet season.In the greenhouse experiment, the adjacent aerated fallow revealed 1-2orders of magnitude higher in most probable number (MPN) of PD-IRB thanthe wet fallow treated plots. As a prominent group of Fe reducingbacteria, PD-IRB predominated in the rhizosphere of rice, since maximumMPN of PD-IRB (2.62108 g-1 soil) was found in rhizospheresoil. Mineral N fertilizer rates showed no significant effect on PD-IRBpopulation density.

  15. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  17. Management of agroforestry systems for enhancing resource use efficiency and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Agroforestry is a low-input system which combines trees with crops in various combinations or sequences. It is an alternative to intensive cropping systems, which rely on large inputs of manufactured fertilizers and other external inputs to sustain production. Agroforestry also has the potential to reduce risk through diversification of a variety of products, including food, fuelwood and animal fodder. Other perceived benefits include enhanced nutrient and water use efficiencies, reduced nutrient leaching to groundwater and improved soil physical and biological properties. The use of leguminous or actinorhizal trees may further enhance these benefits because of their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Depending on the type of agroforestry system and the management practices employed, a substantial portion of this fixed nitrogen can be transferred to companion crops and to the soil. In considering the overall productivity of agroforestry systems, it is essential to investigate the competition or complementarity in the capture and partitioning of resources between tree and crop components. This is especially true for nutrients and water, usually the two most limiting factors influencing crop growth. The focus of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to evaluate the efficacy of various agroforestry systems used in Member States in terms of crop productivity, resource use efficiency and improvements in soil properties. The use of isotopes and nuclear techniques was essential for understanding the dynamics of nutrients and water in agroforestry systems. The contribution of nitrogen from fertilizers and leguminous trees to soil and crops was studied using both direct and indirect 15 N labelling techniques. The cycling of carbon from trees or crops to soil was studied using natural variations in the 13 C signatures of the soils and the different species. The soil moisture neutron probe in conjunction with tensionics was used to monitor soil water status and

  18. Production, Competition Indices, and Nutritive Values of Setaria splendida, Centrosema pubescens, and Clitoria ternatea in Mixed Cropping Systems in Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate production, different competition indices and nutritive value of Setaria splendida, Centrosema pubescens, and Clitoria ternatea in monoculture and mix cropping system on peat soil land. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. The five treatments were: S. splendida sole cropping (SS, C. pubescens sole cropping (CP, C. ternatea sole cropping (CT, S. splendida and C. pubescens mix cropping (SS/CP and S. splendida/C. ternatea mix cropping (SS/CT. The DM yield of S. splendida in mixed cropping with C. pubescens increased 43.4% and in mix cropping with C. ternatea increased 15.7% compared to sole S. splendida. The value of land equivalent ratio of SS/CP (LERSS/CP was >1. The LERSS/CT value was 1. The competition ratio (CR values of S. splendida in both mix cropping were >1. The agressivity (A values of S. splendida in both mix cropping were positive. The crude protein, NDF and ADF content of forage were not affected by mix cropping system. In conclusion, mix cropping in peatland do not affect productivity and nutritive value of S. splendida, C. pubescens, and C. ternatea. S. splendida is more effective in exploiting environmental resources when intercropped with C. pubescens compared to C. ternatea on peatland.

  19. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  20. Compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems of the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransby, D.I.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Sladden, S.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to examine the compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems in the southeastern USA, relative to other regions. In particular, the issues addressed are (1) competition between switchgrass as an energy crop and existing farm enterprises, based primarily on economic returns, (2) complementarity between switchgrass and existing farm enterprises, and (3) environmental benefits. Because projected economic returns for switchgrass as an energy crop are highest in the Southeast, and returns from forestry and beef pastures (the major existing enterprises) are low, there is a very strong economic incentive in this region. In contrast, based on current information, economic viability of switchgrass as an energy crop in other regions appears doubtful. In addition, switchgrass in the southeastern USA would complement forage-livestock production, row crop production and wildlife and would provide several additional environmental benefits. It is concluded that the southeastern USA offers the greatest opportunity for developing switchgrass as an economically viable energy crop.

  1. Roots Withstanding their Environment: Exploiting Root System Architecture Responses to Abiotic Stress to Improve Crop Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koevoets, Iko T.; Venema, Jan Henk; Elzenga, J. Theo. M.; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    To face future challenges in crop production dictated by global climate changes, breeders and plant researchers collaborate to develop productive crops that are able to withstand a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, crop selection is often focused on shoot performance alone, as observation of root properties is more complex and asks for artificial and extensive phenotyping platforms. In addition, most root research focuses on development, while a direct link to the functionality of plasticity in root development for tolerance is often lacking. In this paper we review the currently known root system architecture (RSA) responses in Arabidopsis and a number of crop species to a range of abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, drought, salinity, flooding, and extreme temperatures. For each of these stresses, the key molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the RSA response are highlighted. To explore the relevance for crop selection, we especially review and discuss studies linking root architectural responses to stress tolerance. This will provide a first step toward understanding the relevance of adaptive root development for a plant’s response to its environment. We suggest that functional evidence on the role of root plasticity will support breeders in their efforts to include root properties in their current selection pipeline for abiotic stress tolerance, aimed to improve the robustness of crops. PMID:27630659

  2. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, Robert K; Schulte, Lisa A; Hall, Richard B; Hallam, Arne; Heaton, Emily A; Gunther, Theo; Moore, Ken J

    2013-01-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  3. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  4. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of a Highly Diverse Vegetable Multi-Cropping System in Fengqiu County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biodiversity usually leads to greater sustainability in production practices. To understand the environmental implications of the development of village-level multi-cropping in rural China, we compared the environmental impact of a highly diverse vegetable multi-cropping system to a conventional wheat/maize rotation system based on the method of life cycle assessment (LCA. Using household level cultivation data, this study examined the gate-to-gate environmental impacts of on-site cultivation practices relating to the production of 10,000 nutrient equivalent units. Results show that vegetable multi-cropping resulted in decreased average land requirement, and diesel, water and electricity usage by 69.8%, 62.2%, 71.7%, and 63.4%, respectively, while average nitrogen (Total N, phosphorus (P2O5, and potassium (K2O usage in vegetable multi-cropping systems decreased by 16.3%, 42.1%, and 75.8%, respectively. Additional corresponding effects led to a decrease in the total global warming, eutrophication, and acidification potentials from external inputs by 21.6%, 16.7%, and 16.2% of the entire system, respectively. Moreover, the midpoint human toxicity potential from pesticide usage of the vegetable multi-cropping system was lower than that of the conventional system. However, the midpoint eco-toxicity potential from pesticide usage was higher due to certain highly toxic substances, and both human and eco-toxicity potentials from heavy metals were all higher by a few orders of magnitudes. Thus, to mitigate these detrimental consequences, some related measures are proposed for sustainable practices in the future implementation of multi-cropping systems.

  6. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  7. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  8. Economic Evaluation of Pollination Services Comparing Coffee Landscapes in Ecuador and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Olschewski; Teja Tscharntke; Pablo C. Benítez; Stefan Schwarze; Alexandra-Maria Klein

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation through land-use systems on private land is becoming a pressing environmental policy issue. Agroforestry, such as shade-coffee production, contributes to biodiversity conservation. However, falling coffee prices force many coffee growers to convert their sites into economically more attractive land uses. We performed an economic evaluation of coffee pollination by bees in two distinct tropical regions: an area of low human impact with forests neighboring agroforestry...

  9. Soil water infiltration affected by topsoil thickness in row crop and switchgrass production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversion of annual grain crop systems to biofuel production systems can restore soil hydrologic function; however, information on these effects is limited. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and swi...

  10. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  11. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  12. Effect of cropping system on yield of some sweetpotato and okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted for 2 years to determine cropping system effect on yield of some sweetpotato and okra cultivars in an intercropping system. Sweetpotato variety TIS 87/0087 produced significantly (P<0.05) higher number of tubers per plant than Tis 8164 and Tis 2532.op.1.13 varieties. Tuber yield was also ...

  13. Developing a Coffee Yield Prediction and Integrated Soil Fertility Management Recommendation Model for Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and quantitative system for coffee yield estimation and nutrient input advice, so as to address the problem of declining annual coffee production in Tanzania (particularly in its Northern coffee zone), which is related to declining soil fertility. The

  14. Biological N2 Fixation by Chickpea in inter cropping System on Sand Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. M.; Moursy, A. A. A.; Kotb, E. A.; Farid, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea inter cropping. The benefits of N 2 fixation by legumes to cereals growing in inter crops or to grasses growing in mixed swards are high clear. in cases the benefit to the N status of cereals has bee seen when they are inter cropped with legumes , where benefit is found ,it is mainly due to sparing of soil N rather than direct transfer from the legume. inter cropped wheat has a high grains yield as compared to those recorded under sole crop. The application of inter cropping system induced an increase of wheat grain yield against the sole system. regardless the cultivation system, the over all means of fertilizer rates indicated (50% MF + 50% OM) treatment was superiority (100% OM) and (75% MF + 25% OM) or those recorded with either un fertilizer when wheat grain yield considered. Comparison heed between organic sources reflected the superiority of under sole cultivation, while chickpea straw was the best under inter cropping. Inter cropped has a high grain N uptake compared to soil system. While totally organic materials had accumulates more N in grain than those of underrated treated control. In the same time, the overall mean indicated the superiority of compost treatment combined with 50% mineral fertilizer under inter cropping system over those of either only organic materials treatment or those combined with 75% mineral fertilizer. Plants treated of chickpea straw and compost, achieved the best value of straw weight. Among the organic manure treatments, chickpea straw and compost seem to be the best ones. Nitrogen derived from air (% Ndfa) shoots and seeds of chickpea plant: In case of cow manure and maize stalk, the best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general

  15. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  16. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  17. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  18. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego N. Chavarría

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L., vetch (Vicia sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. which were sown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1 and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2, with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield.

  19. Soil microbial functionality in response to the inclusion of cover crop mixtures in agricultural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavarría, D.N.; Verdenelli, R.A.; Muñoz, M.J.; Conforto, C.; Restovich, S.B.; Andriulo, A.E.; Meriles, J.M.; Vargas-Gil, S.

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural systems where monoculture prevails are characterized by fertility losses and reduced contribution to ecosystem services. Including cover crops (CC) as part of an agricultural system is a promising choice in sustainable intensification of those demanding systems. We evaluated soil microbial functionality in cash crops in response to the inclusion of CC by analyzing soil microbial functions at two different periods of the agricultural year (cash crop harvest and CC desiccation) during 2013 and 2014. Three plant species were used as CC: oat (Avena sativa L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) which weresown in two different mixtures of species: oat and radish mix (CC1) and oat, radish and vetch mix (CC2), with soybean monoculture and soybean/corn being the cash crops. The study of community level physiological profiles showed statistical differences in respiration of specific C sources indicating an improvement of catabolic diversity in CC treatments. Soil enzyme activities were also increased with the inclusion of CC mixtures, with values of dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis up to 38.1% and 35.3% higher than those of the control treatment, respectively. This research evidenced that CC inclusion promotes soil biological quality through a contribution of soil organic carbon, improving the sustainability of agrosystems. The use of a CC mixture of three plant species including the legume vetch increased soil biological processes and catabolic diversity, with no adverse effects on cash crop grain yield. (Author)

  20. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  1. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  2. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  3. Cover Crop Species and Management Influence Predatory Arthropods and Predation in an Organically Managed, Reduced-Tillage Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ariel N; Mullen, Christina A; Barbercheck, Mary E

    2018-04-05

    Agricultural practices affect arthropod communities and, therefore, have the potential to influence the activities of arthropods. We evaluated the effect of cover crop species and termination timing on the activity of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in transition to organic production in Pennsylvania, United States. We compared two cover crop treatments: 1) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) planted together with triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) after wheat harvest, and 2) cereal rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus) planted after corn harvest. We terminated the cover crops in the spring with a roller-crimper on three dates (early, middle, and late) based on cover crop phenology and standard practices for cash crop planting in our area. We characterized the ground-dwelling arthropod community using pitfall traps and assessed relative predation using sentinel assays with live greater waxworm larvae (Galleria mellonella Fabricius). The activity density of predatory arthropods was significantly higher in the hairy vetch and triticale treatments than in cereal rye treatments. Hairy vetch and triticale favored the predator groups Araneae, Opiliones, Staphylinidae, and Carabidae. Specific taxa were associated with cover crop condition (e.g., live or dead) and termination dates. Certain variables were positively or negatively associated with the relative predation on sentinel prey, depending on cover crop treatment and stage, including the presence of predatory arthropods and various habitat measurements. Our results suggest that management of a cover crop by roller-crimper at specific times in the growing season affects predator activity density and community composition. Terminating cover crops with a roller-crimper can conserve generalist predators.

  4. Nuclear techniques in the development of fertilizer practices for multiple cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    This document summarizes the results of a coordinated research programme. Eight Member States of the FAO and IAEA carried out a series of field studies aimed at identifying optimum practices for the use of fertilizers in multiple cropping systems and for maximizing the contribution of atmospheric nitrogen biologically fixed by the legume component of such systems to the non-fixing cereal component or to the succeeding crop. Isotope techniques allowed the researchers to accurately determine the uptake of specific nutrients and to compare selected treatments

  5. Nitrogen Leaching in Intensive Cropping Systems in Tam Duong District, Red River Delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, M.V.; Keulen, van, H.; Roetter, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of nitrogen (N) lost in rice-based systems in Vietnam is important but has not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of N lost in major cropping systems in the Red River Delta. An experiment was conducted in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, on five different crops including rose, daisy, cabbage, chili, and a rice–rice–maize rotation during 2004 and 2005. Core soil samples were taken periodically in 20-cm inc...

  6. Can phosphorus application and cover cropping alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soybean performance after a five-year phosphorus-unfertilized crop rotational system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Sato, Ryohei; Serizawa, Ayu; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Tatewaki, Yuya; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation. In this study, we established three cover crop systems (wheat, red clover and oilseed rape) or bare fallow in rotation with soybean. The P-application rates before the seeding of soybeans were 52.5 and 157.5 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We measured AMF colonization in soybean roots, soybean growth parameters such as aboveground plant biomass, P uptake at the flowering stage and grain yields at the maturity stage in both years. AMF community structure in soybean roots was characterized by specific amplification of small subunit rDNA. The increase in the root colonization at the flowering stage was small as a result of P-application. Cover cropping did not affect the aboveground biomass and P uptake of soybean in both years, but the P-application had positive effects on the soybean performance such as plant P uptake, biomass and grain yield in 2015. AMF communities colonizing soybean roots were also significantly influenced by P-application throughout the two years. Moreover, the diversity of AMF communities in roots was significantly influenced by P-application and cover cropping in both years, and was positively correlated with the soybean biomass, P uptake and grain yield throughout the two years. Our results indicated that P-application rather than cover cropping may be a key factor for improving soybean growth performance with respect to AMF diversity in P-limited cover

  7. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  8. The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil Impacto da variabilidade e da mudança climática na produção de café arábica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bento Paes de Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatic variability is the main factor responsible for the oscillations and frustrations of the coffee grain yield in Brazil. The relationships between the climatic parameters and the agricultural production are quite complex, because environmental factors affect the growth and the development of the plants under different forms during the growth stages of the coffee crop. Agrometeorological models related to the growth, development and productivity can supply information for the soil water monitoring and yield forecast, based on the water stress. A soil water balance during different growth stages of the coffee crop, can quantify the effect of the available soil water on the decrease of the final yield. Other climatic factors can reduce the productivity, such as adverse air temperatures happened during different growth stages. Solar radiation and relative humidity influence many physiological processes of the coffee tree but are not generally thought to play an important role as thermal and rainfall conditions in defining potential yield or ecological limitations for this crop. According to the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007, the global temperature is supposed to increase 1.1ºC to 6.4ºC and the rainfall 15% in the tropical areas of Brazil. Some Global warming projections as presented by IPCC will cause a strong decrease in the coffee production in Brazil. According to the literature besides the reduction of suitable areas for coffee production, the crop will tend to move South and uphill regions. This review article analyze the effect that these possible scenarios would have in the agro-climatic coffee zoning in Brazil, and adaptive solutions, such as agronomic mitigations and development of cultivars adapted to high temperatures is considered.A variabilidade climática é o principal fator responsável pelas oscilações e frustrações da produção de café no Brasil. As relações entre os

  9. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  10. Soil characterization in contrasting cropping systems under the fast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contrasting production systems under study were communal area, A2 (large scale resettlement) and A1 (small scale resettlement).All these systems are in Manicaland province, Zimbabwe. The A1 and A2 production systems were brought about during the 2000 land reform programme. The soil samples were collected ...

  11. Soil nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in integrated crop-livestock systems in subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckow, Jeferson; Pergher, Maico; Moraes, Anibal de; Piva, Jonatas Thiago; Bayer, Cimélio; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2015-01-01

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system is an agricultural practice in which crop-pasture rotation is carried out in the same field over time. In Brasil, ICL associated with no-tillage farming is increasingly gaining importance as a soil use strategy that improves food production (grain, milk and beef) and economic returns to farmers. Integrated crop-livestock-forestry (ICLF) is a recent modification of ICL in Brazil, with the inclusion of trees cultivation aiming at additional wood production and offering thermal comfort to livestock (Porfírio-da-Silva & Moraes, 2010). However, despite the increasing importance of ICL, little information is available on how this system may affect soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 )

  12. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna LENZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest. 

  13. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops. PMID:16187411

  14. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  15. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information system and modeling for estimating crop yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Luis Alonso

    This thesis explores various aspects of the use of remote sensing, geographic information system and digital signal processing technologies for broad-scale estimation of crop yield in Kansas. Recent dry and drought years in the Great Plains have emphasized the need for new sources of timely, objective and quantitative information on crop conditions. Crop growth monitoring and yield estimation can provide important information for government agencies, commodity traders and producers in planning harvest, storage, transportation and marketing activities. The sooner this information is available the lower the economic risk translating into greater efficiency and increased return on investments. Weather data is normally used when crop yield is forecasted. Such information, to provide adequate detail for effective predictions, is typically feasible only on small research sites due to expensive and time-consuming collections. In order for crop assessment systems to be economical, more efficient methods for data collection and analysis are necessary. The purpose of this research is to use satellite data which provides 50 times more spatial information about the environment than the weather station network in a short amount of time at a relatively low cost. Specifically, we are going to use Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based vegetation health (VH) indices as proxies for characterization of weather conditions.

  16. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  17. Combining Multi-Agent Systems and Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Crop Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Villarrubia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mechanisms that ensure efficient crop growth are essential on many farms, especially in certain areas of the planet where water is scarce. Most farmers must assume the high cost of the required equipment in order to be able to streamline natural resources on their farms. Considering that many farmers cannot afford to install this equipment, it is necessary to look for more effective solutions that would be cheaper to implement. The objective of this study is to build virtual organizations of agents that can communicate between each other while monitoring crops. A low cost sensor architecture allows farmers to monitor and optimize the growth of their crops by streamlining the amount of resources the crops need at every moment. Since the hardware has limited processing and communication capabilities, our approach uses the PANGEA architecture to overcome this limitation. Specifically, we will design a system that is capable of collecting heterogeneous information from its environment, using sensors for temperature, solar radiation, humidity, pH, moisture and wind. A major outcome of our approach is that our solution is able to merge heterogeneous data from sensors and produce a response adapted to the context. In order to validate the proposed system, we present a case study in which farmers are provided with a tool that allows us to monitor the condition of crops on a TV screen using a low cost device.

  18. Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Clark, M. A. Z.

    Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.

  19. The Development of a Remote Sensor System and Decision Support Systems Architecture to Monitor Resistance Development in Transgenic Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacas, Joseph; Glaser, John; Copenhaver, Kenneth; May, George; Stephens, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that "significant benefits accrue to growers, the public, and the environment" from the use of transgenic pesticidal crops due to reductions in pesticide usage for crop pest management. Large increases in the global use of transgenic pesticidal crops has reduced the amounts of broad spectrum pesticides used to manage pest populations, improved yield and reduced the environmental impact of crop management. A significant threat to the continued use of this technology is the evolution of resistance in insect pest populations to the insecticidal Bt toxins expressed by the plants. Management of transgenic pesticidal crops with an emphasis on conservation of Bt toxicity in field populations of insect pests is important to the future of sustainable agriculture. A vital component of this transgenic pesticidal crop management is establishing the proof of concept basic understanding, situational awareness, and monitoring and decision support system tools for more than 133650 square kilometers (33 million acres) of bio-engineered corn and cotton for development of insect resistance . Early and recent joint NASA, US EPA and ITD remote imagery flights and ground based field experiments have provided very promising research results that will potentially address future requirements for crop management capabilities.

  20. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E.; Jacobsen, Krista L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea) and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems. PMID:29403512

  1. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Shelton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem nitrogen (N loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1 an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, or a mix of the two (bi-culture; (2 an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach; and (3 a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N. In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat. Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  2. [Soil quality assessment under different cropping system and straw management in farmland of arid oasis region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng Peng; Pu, Xiao Zhen; Zhang, Wang Feng

    2018-03-01

    To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agricultural management practices on soil quality, an experiment was carried out to study the different cropping system and straw management on soil organic carbon and fractions and soil enzyme activity in farmland of arid oasis region, which would provide a scientific basic for enhancing agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development. In crop planting planning area, we took the mainly crop (cotton, wheat, maize) as research objects and designed long-term continues cropping and crop rotation experiments. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass C, labile C, water-soluble organic C, and hot-water-soluble organic C content were increased by 3.6%-9.9%, 41.8%-98.9%, 3.3%-17.0%, 11.1%-32.4%, 4.6%-27.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 12%-35.9%, 22.4%-49.7%, 30.7%-51.0%, 10.6%-31.9%, 41.0%-96.4% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. The soil catalase, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, invertase glucose, cellulase glucose activity were increased by 6.4%-10.9%, 6.6%-18.8%, 5.9%-15.3%, 10.0%-27.4%, 28.1%-37.5% by crop rotation compared to continues cropping, and 31.4%-47.5%, 19.9%-46.6%, 13.8%-20.7%, 19.8%-55.6%, 54.1%-70.9% by straw incorporated compared to straw removed, respectively. There were significant positive linear correlations among SOC, labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme. Therefore, we concluded that labile SOC fractions and soil enzyme were effective index for evaluating the change of SOC and soil quality. Based on factor analysis, in arid region, developing agricultural production using cropland management measures, such as straw-incorporated and combined short-term continues cotton and crop rotation, could enhance SOC and labile SOC fractions contents and soil enzyme activity, which could improve soil quality and be conducive to agricultural sustainable development.

  3. From the Academy: Colloquium perspective. Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R James

    2006-12-05

    The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding.

  4. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits. PMID:28587254

  5. Soil physical properties and grape yield influenced by cover crops and management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dalla Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in vineyards is a conservation practice with the purpose of reducing soil erosion and improving the soil physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate cover crop species and management systems on soil physical properties and grape yield. The experiment was carried out in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Southern Brazil, on a Haplic Cambisol, in a vineyard established in 1989, using White and Rose Niagara grape (Vitis labrusca L. in a horizontal, overhead trellis system. The treatments were established in 2002, consisting of three cover crops: spontaneous species (SS, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, and a mixture of white clover (Trifolium repens L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and annual rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum L. (MC. Two management systems were applied: desiccation with herbicide (D and mechanical mowing (M. Soil under a native forest (NF area was collected as a reference. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks, with three replications. The soil physical properties in the vine rows were not influenced by cover crops and were similar to the native forest, with good quality of the soil structure. In the inter-rows, however, there was a reduction in biopores, macroporosity, total porosity and an increase in soil density, related to the compaction of the surface soil layer. The M system increased soil aggregate stability compared to the D system. The treatments affected grapevine yield only in years with excess or irregular rainfall.

  6. Future Food Production System Development Pulling From Space Biology Crop Growth Testing in Veggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Romeyn, Matt; Fritsche, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary crop testing using Veggie indicates the environmental conditions provided by the ISS are generally suitable for food crop production. When plant samples were returned to Earth for analysis, their levels of nutrients were comparable to Earth-grown ground controls. Veggie-grown produce food safety microbiology analysis indicated that space-grown crops are safe to consume. Produce sanitizing wipes were used on-orbit to further reduce risk of foodborne illness. Validation growth tests indicated abiotic challenges of insufficient or excess fluid delivery, potentially reduced air flow leading to excess water, elevated CO2 leading to physiological responses, and microorganisms that became opportunistic pathogens. As NASA works to develop future space food production, several areas of research to define these systems pull from the Veggie technology validation tests. Research into effective, reusable water delivery and water recovery methods for future food production systems arises from abiotic challenges observed. Additionally, impacts of elevated CO2 and refinement of fertilizer and light recipes for crops needs to be assessed. Biotic pulls include methods or technologies to effectively sanitize produce with few consumables and low inputs; work to understand the phytomicrobiome and potentially use it to protect crops or enhance growth; selection of crops with high harvest index and desirable flavors for supplemental nutrition; crops that provide psychosocial benefits, and custom space crop development. Planning for future food production in a deep space gateway or a deep space transit vehicle requires methods of handling and storing seeds, and ensuring space seeds are free of contaminants and long-lived. Space food production systems may require mechanization and autonomous operation, with preliminary testing initiated to identify operations and capabilities that are candidates for automation. Food production design is also pulling from Veggie logistics

  7. Biological N2 fixation by chickpea in inter cropping system on sand soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. M.; Moursy, A. A. A.; Kotb, E. A.; Farid, I. M.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the plant nutrition and fertilization unit, Soils and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt on wheat and chickpea incorporating. The benefits of N 2 fixation by legumes to cereals growing in inter crops or to grasses growing in mixed swards are high clear. In cases the benefit to the N status of cereals has bee seen when they are inter cropped with legumes, where benefit is found, it is mainly due to sparing of soil N rather than direct transfer from the legume. Inter cropped wheat, has a high grains yield as compared to those recorded under sole crop. The application of inter cropping system an increase of wheat grain yield against the sole system, regardless the cultivation system, the over all means of fertilizer rates indicated (50% MF + 50% OM) treatment was superiority (100% OM) and (75% MF + 25% OM) or those recorded with either un fertilizer when wheat grain yield considered. Comparison heed between or gain sources reflected the superiority of compost under sole cultivation, while chickpea straw was the best under inter cropping. Inter cropped has a high grain N uptake compared to soil systems. While totally organic materials had accumulates more N in grains than those of untreated treated control. In the some time, the overall mean indicated the superiority of compost treatment combined with 50% mineral fertilizer under inter cropping system over those of either only organic materials treatment or those combined with 75% mineral fertilizer. Plants treated of chickpea straw and compost, achieved the best value of straw weight. A mong the organic manure treatments, chickpea straw and compost seem to be the best ones. Nitrogen derived from air (%Ndfa) shoots and seeds of chickpea plants: In case of cow manure and maize stalk, the best value of nitrogen derived from air was detected followed by compost, while the lowest value was recorded with wheat straw. In general

  8. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluvione, Francesco; Moretti, Barbara; Sacco, Dario; Grignani, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg -1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg -1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg -1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: → We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. → Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. → Energy flows were compared using indicators. → Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. → Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  9. Impact of Cropping Systems, Soil Inoculum, and Plant Species Identity on Soil Bacterial Community Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Johnson, Stephen P; Miller, Zach J; Lehnhoff, Erik A; Olivo, Sarah; Yeoman, Carl J; Menalled, Fabian D

    2017-02-01

    Farming practices affect the soil microbial community, which in turn impacts crop growth and crop-weed interactions. This study assessed the modification of soil bacterial community structure by organic or conventional cropping systems, weed species identity [Amaranthus retroflexus L. (redroot pigweed) or Avena fatua L. (wild oat)], and living or sterilized inoculum. Soil from eight paired USDA-certified organic and conventional farms in north-central Montana was used as living or autoclave-sterilized inoculant into steam-pasteurized potting soil, planted with Am. retroflexus or Av. fatua and grown for two consecutive 8-week periods to condition soil nutrients and biota. Subsequently, the V3-V4 regions of the microbial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Treatments clustered significantly, with living or sterilized inoculum being the strongest delineating factor, followed by organic or conventional cropping system, then individual farm. Living inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness and was more diverse than sterile inoculum-treated soil (observed OTUs, Chao, inverse Simpson, Shannon, P soil contained more Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria, while the sterile inoculum soil had more Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Organically farmed inoculum-treated soil had greater species richness, more diversity (observed OTUs, Chao, Shannon, P soil. Cyanobacteria were higher in pots growing Am. retroflexus, regardless of inoculum type, for three of the four organic farms. Results highlight the potential of cropping systems and species identity to modify soil bacterial communities, subsequently modifying plant growth and crop-weed competition.

  10. Soil Nutrient Dynamics under Old and Young Cocoa, Coffee and Cashew Plantations at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Rufus Ipinmoroti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess nutrient dynamics of soils under old and young cocoa, coffee and cashew plantations and the leaf nutrient contents of the crops at Uhonmora, Edo State, Nigeria for proper cultural and soil fertility management of the plantations. Soil and crop leaf samples were collected from each plantation using a random sampling technique. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures for sand, silt, clay, pH (H2O, electrical conductivity (EC, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC. Leaf samples were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Data were compared with the corresponding soil and foliar critical nutrient values for each crop. Results indicated that the soils were texturally sandy clay loam and acidic. The soils varied in their nutrient contents, with soil P for the old cocoa, young coffee and cashew plantations far below critical values. The young cashew plot was low in N content but adequate for other plots. However, the soil ECEC increased with the increasing of calcium contents. Leaf N was below critical for all the crops. Leaf K was low for cocoa and coffee plants, leaf Ca was low for the young cashew plants, while leaf Mg was low for the young cocoa and old cashew. The high soil Mg/K ratio of 8.7- 22.3 as against the established value of 2.0 might have resulted in gross nutrient imbalance which must have affected the absorption and utilization of other nutrients. Hence, adequate soil N did not translate the same availability to the crops. The ECEC showed that the soil needs to be improved upon for sustainable productivity. Soil nutrient content variation across the plantations with age of establishment will necessitate the need for consistent routine soil nutrient assessment for proper and balanced soil nutrient supply to the crops, for healthy crop growth and optimum yield. Management practices of soil surface mulching using organic wastes and cover crops under

  11. Can impurities from soil-contaminated coffees reach the cup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Joacir De Franca, E.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    Depending on the harvest conditions, coffee beans can be contaminated by soil when dropped to the ground. It is well known that agricultural soils act as sinks for agrochemicals applied to the crops. While coffee is brewed, substances present in the roasted and ground coffee beans are extracted by hot water, emphasizing the need to assess the possible transfer of impurities from the soil to the beverage. Soil-contaminated samples of roasted coffee beans were split into 2 groups according to the treatments: (a) washed and ground and (b) only ground. Brewing was performed in a household espresso machine for both coffees. The resulting beverage was freeze-dried and the elemental composition determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of the terrigenous elements Fe, La, Sc, Sm and Th in the freeze-dried non-washed coffee beverages were, at least, 2 times higher than in the washed samples. These elements are tracers of the soil, indicating that the impurities from the soil reached the beverage. (author)

  12. Storage of soil organic carbon in coffee (Coffea arabica L. production systems in the municipality of Líbano, Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade Castañeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase in greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources has resulted in climate change, which affects all living beings. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations, in monoculture or together with timber species such as salmwood (Cordia alliodora, mitigate climate change due to fixation of atmospheric CO2 that is deposited in biomass and soils. This study was carried out in the municipality of Líbano, Tolima, Colombia with the objective of defining which of the following coffee production systems store more soil organic carbon (SOC: 1 monoculture, 2 agroforestry systems (AFS with salmwood, and 3 AFS with plantain. Farms with those systems that are the most dominant in the study zone were selected. From each system, five repetitions were identified to be analyzed with a completely randomized design. In each plot or repetition, five samples for bulk density (BD using the cylinder method and a composite sample for concentration of SOC were taken and analyzed using the Walkley and Black approach. The systems of production did not significantly (p > 0.05 affect either the BD or the concentration of SOC. However, AFS with plantain tended to have less BD than monoculture and AFS with salmwood (0.83 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.03 vs 0.92 ± 0.04 g·cm-3, respectively. These systems of production stored between 50 and 54 t·ha-1 of SOC in the top 30 cm, which indicates their capacity for climate change mitigation.

  13. VIC–CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Malek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively. A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC–CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology, it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC–CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC–CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land–atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC–CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois. The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET, applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI, and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  14. VIC-CropSyst-v2: A regional-scale modeling platform to simulate the nexus of climate, hydrology, cropping systems, and human decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Stöckle, Claudio; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran; Nelson, Roger; Liu, Mingliang; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Barik, Muhammad; Adam, Jennifer C.

    2017-08-01

    Food supply is affected by a complex nexus of land, atmosphere, and human processes, including short- and long-term stressors (e.g., drought and climate change, respectively). A simulation platform that captures these complex elements can be used to inform policy and best management practices to promote sustainable agriculture. We have developed a tightly coupled framework using the macroscale variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model and the CropSyst agricultural model. A mechanistic irrigation module was also developed for inclusion in this framework. Because VIC-CropSyst combines two widely used and mechanistic models (for crop phenology, growth, management, and macroscale hydrology), it can provide realistic and hydrologically consistent simulations of water availability, crop water requirements for irrigation, and agricultural productivity for both irrigated and dryland systems. This allows VIC-CropSyst to provide managers and decision makers with reliable information on regional water stresses and their impacts on food production. Additionally, VIC-CropSyst is being used in conjunction with socioeconomic models, river system models, and atmospheric models to simulate feedback processes between regional water availability, agricultural water management decisions, and land-atmosphere interactions. The performance of VIC-CropSyst was evaluated on both regional (over the US Pacific Northwest) and point scales. Point-scale evaluation involved using two flux tower sites located in agricultural fields in the US (Nebraska and Illinois). The agreement between recorded and simulated evapotranspiration (ET), applied irrigation water, soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI), and yield indicated that, although the model is intended to work on regional scales, it also captures field-scale processes in agricultural areas.

  15. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  16. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Jennifer Pc; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2010-09-08

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

  17. Radio/antenna mounting system for wireless networking under row-crop agriculture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-colle...

  18. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.K.; Su, F.; Ju, X.T.; Gao, B.; Oenema, O.; Christie, P.; Huang, B.X.; Jiang, R.F.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment,

  20. Surface N Balances in Agricultural Crop production systems in China for the period 1980-2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, B.; Shen, R.P.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Surface nitrogen (N) balances for China's crop production systems were estimated using statistical data collected from 1980 to 2004 at the national and provincial scale and from 1994 to 1999 at the county level. There was a surplus N balance throughout these periods, but the surplus was nearly

  1. Trough and pot crop systems with leaching recirculation and defoliation levels for mini tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Perin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of raw rice husk as substrate allows the use of crop systems that promote the recirculation of leachate in long crop cycles. Mini tomatoes present relatively low demand for photoassimilates. Thus, partial defoliation of the sympodium could benefit the crop without damage to the production or quality of the fruits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the plant growth, fruit yield and fruit quality of Cherry Hybrid Wanda and Grape Hybrid Dolcetto mini tomatoes cultivated in two recirculation crop systems (pots and troughs, using raw rice husk as substrate, under three defoliation conditions (without defoliation, removal of one and two leaves of the sympodium. The Cherry cultivar showed higher plant growth, fruit yield and mean fruit size. The Grape cultivar produced fruits with higher sugar concentration. For the Grape cultivar, the removal of one sympodium leaf did not affect the plant responses. However, for the Cherry cultivar, it was necessary to maintain the complete sympodium. The trough cultivation system improved plant growth and yield, whereas the pot system increased fruit sugar concentration.

  2. Exploring profit - Sustainability trade-offs in cropping systems using evolutionary algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVoil, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Hammer, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Models that implement the bio-physical components of agro-ecosystems are ideally suited for exploring sustainability issues in cropping systems. Sustainability may be represented as a number of objectives to be maximised or minimised. However, the full decision space of these objectives is usually

  3. Integrated Assessment of Crop-Livestock Production Systems Beyond Biophysical Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masikati, Patricia; Homann Kee-Tui, Sabine; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Sisito, Gevious; Senda, Trinity; Crespo, Olivier; Nhamo, Nhamo

    2017-01-01

    Crop-livestock farming systems that are predominant in Africa, are complex with various interrelated ecological and economic factors. They involve multiple products or benefits (intended and nonintended), with trade-offs and synergies occurring both on- and off-site and varying over time.

  4. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  5. Smart investments in sustainable food production: revisiting mixed crop-livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Thornton, P K; Notenbaert, A M; Wood, S; Msangi, S; Freeman, H A; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Peters, M; van de Steeg, J; Lynam, J; Parthasarathy Rao, P; Macmillan, S; Gerard, B; McDermott, J; Seré, C; Rosegrant, M

    2010-02-12

    Farmers in mixed crop-livestock systems produce about half of the world's food. In small holdings around the world, livestock are reared mostly on grass, browse, and nonfood biomass from maize, millet, rice, and sorghum crops and in their turn supply manure and traction for future crops. Animals act as insurance against hard times and supply farmers with a source of regular income from sales of milk, eggs, and other products. Thus, faced with population growth and climate change, small-holder farmers should be the first target for policies to intensify production by carefully managed inputs of fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies.

  6. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  7. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  8. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crop and Irrigation Management Systems under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Caparrós

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Ruscus aculeatus, known as “butcher’s broom”, Maytenus senegalensis, known as “confetti tree”, and Juncus acutus, known as “spiny rush” were grown in pots with a mixture of sphagnum peat-moss and Perlite in order to determine the effect and evolution over time of three water use systems on plant growth, water saving and nutrient uptake. These were an open system (irrigated with standard nutrient solution and two closed systems (blended-water (drainage water blended with water of low electrical conductivity (EC and sequential reuse of drainage (sequential-reuse water, over a period of 8 weeks. Irrigation with blended- and sequential-reuse-water increased the biomass of all three species at the end of the experiment, compared to the open system. Overall, sequential-reuse-water treatment maximised biomass production. The application of blended- and sequential-reuse-water allowed savings of 17% of water in comparison to the open system. Regarding Cl, NO3− and H2PO4− loads, there was a removal of 5%, 32% and 32%; respectively in the blended-water treatment and 15%, 17% and 17% in the sequential-reuse water treatment compared to the open system. For the cation loads (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in these water treatments there was a removal of 10%, 32%, 7% and 18% respectively in the blended-water treatment, and 17%, 22%, 17% and 18% respectively in the sequential-reuse treatment, compared to the open system.

  10. Water and nitrogen in crop and pasture systems in southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.F.; Peoples, M.B.; Herwaarden, A.F. van

    1998-01-01

    Recent research on water and N for dryland crops in southern Australia has addressed the need for more efficient and sustainable production. Water-use efficiency is well below the potential and N-use efficiency well below optimum on farms. Excess water and N cause on-site and off-site environmental damage. The most effective means of illustrating these inefficiencies to growers is to present simple benchmarks of water and N-use efficiencies with which farmers can assess and improve the performance of their own crops. The practices shown by our recent research that best support the goals of more efficient and sustainable production are those that maximize extraction of soil water and mineral N, and increase biological N 2 fixation. Wheat growing after a brassica break-crop extract more water and mineral N from the soil than when grown as a continuous cereal, apparently because of a 'biofumigation' effect that reduces the numbers of soil-borne pathogens of wheat and produces a stronger root system. In the case of phased pasture-crop systems, annual pastures do not fully extract subsoil water or mineral N. However, when the grasses are removed from annual pastures with a selective herbicide, the remaining pure clover rapidly decomposes after maturity, leaving a large amount of mineral N for the following crop. Perennial pastures containing lucerne produce more forage and fix more N 2 than do annual pastures, but they dry the soil profile. After removal of the lucerne, the soil may be so dry that mineralization is slow, with the risk of water deficit for the subsequent crop. (author)

  11. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  12. The Influence of Agroforestry on Soil Fertility in Coffee Cultivations : A Review and a Field Study on Smallholding Coffee Farms in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ekqvist, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is, together with cacao, the crop most commonly cultivated under shade trees in order to cope with physiological stress (as drought and sun radiation) and erosion as well as to generate additional income for the farmer. However, today this agroforestry coffee management is increasingly transformed into industrial plantation with little or no shade using varieties that tolerates full sun and can be planted with higher density. This conversion most often brings an intensified use of exte...

  13. Development of Intelligent Spray Systems for Nursery Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two intelligent sprayer prototypes were developed to increase pesticide application efficiency in nursery production. The first prototype was a hydraulic vertical boom system using ultrasonic sensors to detect tree size and volume for liner-sized trees and the second prototype was an air-assisted sp...

  14. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  15. Selection of arabica coffee progenies tolerant to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Lara Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to high temperatures, practically all coffee farms in the state of Rondonia are of the C. canephora species. Thus, importing arabica coffee from other states becomes necessary for composition of blends, as well as for the specialty or gourmet coffee market. The purpose of this study was to select arabica coffee genotypes that exhibit satisfactory agronomic performance under high temperature conditions. The experiment was conducted in OuroPreto do Oeste, RO, Brazil, with mean annual temperature of 25.8°C and mean annual rainfall of 2300mm year-1. The experiment was composed of 114 arabica coffee genotypes, with 103 progenies and eleven control cultivars, provided by EPAMIG. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replications, spacing of 3.0x1.0 meters and five plants per plot. All the crop seasons showed significant difference for the green coffee yield trait. In joint analysis, significant differences were detected among progenies and control cultivars. In the average of the four harvests, green coffee yield was 32.38 bags ha-1. The cultivars 'CatuaíVermelho IAC 15', 'Obatã IAC 1669-20' and 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SLCAK' stood out, achieving yields greater than 40 bags ha-1. The gain obtained from selection was 14.33 bags ha-1, which is equivalent to an increase of 44.04% in production of green coffee. The progeny H514-7-10-6-2-3-9 stood out with an average yield of 51.20 bags ha-1. In regard to maturation cycle, 56% of the progenies were classified as early maturity and 44% as medium maturity. Late maturity genotypes were not observed

  16. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampling points within the system of treatment and four replications were made at different times and with different amounts of coffee cherry. We evaluated the parameters of temperature, pH, settleable solids, total suspended solids, fixed and volatile, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. The temperature of wastewater entering the system has recorded 16.5 o C, increasing during the treatment process at 17.5 °C and record the output is 16.5 ºC. The pH increased from 4.51 to 6.04 which occurred at the last two gaps oxygenation and not in the neutralization tank. Settleable solids (SS increased from 0.1 mg / L to 0.15 mg / L, which was recorded at the lakes of oxygen, is attributed to the drag of fine gravel. Total suspended solids (TSS have been reduced from 1927.5 mg / L to 299 mg / L gradually throughout the treatment process. Fixed suspended solids (SSF were reduced from 137.5 mg / L to 58.5 mg / L. Volatile suspended solids (VSS were reduced from 1790 mg / L to 240.5 mg / L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD was reduced from 6102.5 mg O2 / L to 1245 mg O2 / L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD was reduced from 9800 mg O2 / L to 1658.75 mg O2 / L. Dissolved oxygen (DO increased from 0 to 2.4 mg O2 / L, in the last two gaps in oxygenation, due to the reduction of solids and chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen. Of the nine parameters measured, six meet the maximum permissible values for download in source receptor (stream

  17. Spatial variability of leaf wetness duration in cotton, coffee and banana crop canopies Variabilidade espacial da duração do período de molhamento foliar nas culturas do algodão, do café e da banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alvarez Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of leaf wetness duration for plant disease epidemiology, there has been little attention paid to research on how its variability relates to different cropping situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of leaf wetness duration (LWD in three crops, comparing these measurements with turfgrass LWD, obtained in a standard weather station. LWD was measured by electronic sensors in three crops with different canopy structures and leaf area: cotton, coffee and banana. For the cotton crop, cylindrical sensors were deployed at the lower third and on the top of the canopy, facing southwest. For the coffee crop, flat plate sensors were installed in the lower third of the canopy facing northeast and southwest; in the middle third facing northeast and southwest; and inside and on the top of the canopy. For the banana canopy, cylindrical sensors were used to measure LWD in the lower third of the canopy and in the upper third of the plant. Turfgrass LWD was simultaneously measured in a nearby standard weather station. The LWD showed different patterns of variation in the three crop canopies. For coffee plants, the longest LWD was found in the lower portions of the canopy; for the banana crop, the upper third of the canopy showed the longest LWD; whereas for the cotton crop no difference was observed between the top and lower third of the canopy. Turfgrass LWD presented a good relationship with LWD measured on the top or in the upper third of the crops. Thus, the estimate of crop LWD can be perfomed based on turfgrass LWD, this being a useful tool for plant disease management purposes for crops in which the longer LWD occurs at the upper canopy portion.Apesar da importância da duração do período de molhamento para a epidemiologia de doenças de plantas, pouca atenção tem sido dada à sua variabilidade em diferentes posições da cultura. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a variabilidade

  18. Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Hernandez-Santana; X. Zhou; M.J. Helmers; H. Asbjornsen; R. Kolka; M. Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Intensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration, in particular hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, but its effect is still not well understood. Therefore, our objective was...

  19. Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Devos, Yann; Beckie, Hugh J; Owen, Micheal D K; Tillie, Pascal; Messéan, Antoine; Kudsk, Per

    2017-06-01

    Conventionally bred (CHT) and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have changed weed management practices and made an important contribution to the global production of some commodity crops. However, a concern is that farm management practices associated with the cultivation of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland biodiversity and accelerate the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Diversification in crop systems and weed management practices can enhance farmland biodiversity, and reduce the risk of weeds evolving herbicide resistance. Therefore, HT crops are most effective and sustainable as a component of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. IWM advocates the use of multiple effective strategies or tactics to manage weed populations in a manner that is economically and environmentally sound. In practice, however, the potential benefits of IWM with HT crops are seldom realized because a wide range of technical and socio-economic factors hamper the transition to IWM. Here, we discuss the major factors that limit the integration of HT crops and their associated farm management practices in IWM systems. Based on the experience gained in countries where CHT or GMHT crops are widely grown and the increased familiarity with their management, we propose five actions to facilitate the integration of HT crops in IWM systems within the European Union.

  20. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  1. Regional application of a cropping systems simulation model: crop residue retention in maize production systems of Jalisco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.D.; White, J.W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bakker, E.J.; Rabbinge, R.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the productivity of smallholder maize production systems in Central America, increased attention must be paid to conserving soil and water resources. Various stakeholders from national agricultural research services (NARS), networks, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and research

  2. Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in southern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCHINI, J. C.; CRISPINO, C. C.; SOUZA, R. A.; TORRES, E.; HUNGRIA, M.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This article attempts to recognize soil parameters that can be used to monitor soil quality under different crop and soil management systems. The rates of CO2 emissions (soil respiration) were affected by variations in the sampling period, as well as in soil management and crop rotation. Considering all samples, CO2 emissions were 21% greater in conventional tillage. Soil microbial biomass was also influenced by sampling period and soil management, but not by crop rota...

  3. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, J.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  4. Relationship between stoichiometry and ecosystem services in organic crop production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Fan

    contribute to and mitigate global ES loss. Organic farming has been suggested as one possible solution to alleviate the loss of ES in agro-ecosystems due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional farming. However, only a few studies have accounted for the economic value of ES in different...... organic crop production systems and little is known about how anthropogenic activities affect the supply of ES in such organic crop production systems. Ecological stoichiometry, which is the study of the fluxes of chemical elements and the ratio between them, has been considered as a new approach....... The organic farming systems with a high soil C:N stoichiometric ratio had a potential to produce more food, sequester more carbon from the atmosphere, store more water in the soil, attract more aphid predators, and regulate more nitrogen compared with the organic farming systems with a low soil C...

  5. Development of a Time-Intensity Evaluation System for Consumers: Measuring Bitterness and Retronasal Aroma of Coffee Beverages in 106 Untrained Panelists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotow, Naomi; Moritani, Ami; Hayakawa, Yoshinobu; Akutagawa, Akihito; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to develop products that are acceptable to consumers, it is necessary to incorporate consumers' intentions into products' characteristics. Therefore, investigation of consumers' perceptions of the taste or smell of common beverages provides information that should be useful in predicting market responses. In this study, we sought to develop a time-intensity evaluation system for consumer panels. Using our system, we performed time-intensity evaluation of flavor attributes (bitterness and retronasal aroma) that consumers perceived after swallowing a coffee beverage. Additionally, we developed quantitative evaluation methods for determining whether consumer panelists can properly perform time-intensity evaluation. In every trial, we fitted an exponential function to measured intensity data for bitterness and retronasal aroma. The correlation coefficients between measured time-intensity data and the fitted exponential curves were greater than 0.8 in about 90% of trials, indicating that we had successfully developed a time-intensity system for use with consumer panelists, even after just a single training trial using a nontrained consumer. We classified participants into two groups based on their consumption of canned coffee beverages. Significant difference was observed in only AUC of sensory modality (bitterness compared with retronasal aroma) among conventional TI parameters using two-way ANOVA. However, three-way ANOVA including a time course revealed significant difference between bitterness and retronasal aroma in the high-consumption group. Moreover, the high-consumption group more easily discriminated between bitterness and retronasal aroma than the low-consumption group. This finding implied that manufacturers should select consumer panelists who are suitable for their concepts of new products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Fitting maize into sustainable cropping systems on acid soils of the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    One of the key elements of sustainable cropping systems is the integration of crops and/or crop cultivars with high tolerance of soil acidity and which make most efficient use of the nutrients supplied by soil and fertilizer. This paper is based mainly on on-going work within an EU-funded project combining basic research on plant adaptation mechanisms by plant physiologists, and field experimentation on acid soils in Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia and Guadeloupe by breeders, soil scientists and a agronomists. The results suggest that large genetic variability exists in adaptation of plants to acid soils. A range of morphological and physiological plant characteristics contribute to tolerance of acid soils, elucidation of which has contributed to the development of rapid techniques for screening for tolerance. Incorporation of acid-soil-tolerant species and cultivars into cropping systems contributes to improved nutrient efficiency overall, and thus reduces fertilizer needs. This may help to minimize maintenance applications of fertiliser through various pathways: (i) deeper root growth resulting in more-efficient uptake of nutrients from the sub-soil and less leaching, (ii) more biomass production resulting in less seepage and less leaching, with more intensive nutrient cycling, maintenance of higher soil organic-matter content, and, consequently, less erosion owing to better soil protection by vegetation and mulch. (author)

  7. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  8. Reduced tillage and green manures for sustainable cropping systems - Overview of the TILMAN-ORG project

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Reduced tillage and green manures are environmentally friendly practices that increase levels of soil organic matter and biological activity, improve soil stability, and reduce fuel consumption and may mitigate the climate impact of crop production. The avoidance of deep ploughing is successfully practiced as no-tillage agriculture in conventional farming systems. However, these no-tillage systems rely on herbicides for weed control and mineral fertilisers for plant nutrients. As these inputs...

  9. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  10. Cloud Cover Assessment for Operational Crop Monitoring Systems in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaque Daniel Rocha Eberhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of optical remote sensing data to identify, map and monitor croplands is well recognized. However, clouds strongly limit the usefulness of optical imagery for these applications. This paper aims at assessing cloud cover conditions over four states in the tropical and sub-tropical Center-South region of Brazil to guide the development of an appropriate agricultural monitoring system based on Landsat-like imagery. Cloudiness was assessed during overlapping four months periods to match the typical length of crop cycles in the study area. The percentage of clear sky occurrence was computed from the 1 km resolution MODIS Cloud Mask product (MOD35 considering 14 years of data between July 2000 and June 2014. Results showed high seasonality of cloud occurrence within the crop year with strong variations across the study area. The maximum seasonality was observed for the two states in the northern part of the study area (i.e., the ones closer to the Equator line, which also presented the lowest averaged values (15% of clear sky occurrence during the main (summer cropping period (November to February. In these locations, optical data faces severe constraints for mapping summer crops. On the other hand, relatively favorable conditions were found in the southern part of the study region. In the South, clear sky values of around 45% were found and no significant clear sky seasonality was observed. Results underpin the challenges to implement an operational crop monitoring system based solely on optical remote sensing imagery in tropical and sub-tropical regions, in particular if short-cycle crops have to be monitored during the cloudy summer months. To cope with cloudiness issues, we recommend the use of new systems with higher repetition rates such as Sentinel-2. For local studies, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs might be used to augment the observing capability. Multi-sensor approaches combining optical and microwave data can be another

  11. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  12. Zoneamento agroclimático da cultura do café para a Bacia do Rio Doce Agriculture-climatological zoning of coffee crop for the Rio Doce Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís Nunes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho, através da geoespacialização, a identificação das regiões aptas, restritas e inaptas ao cultivo do café (Coffea arabica L. na Bacia do Rio Doce. Utilizou-se para tal, dados de temperatura e déficit hídrico de 50 estações meteorológicas instaladas na bacia e em bacias limítrofes. Os dados de déficit hídrico foram determinados utilizando o balanço hídrico segundo Thornthwaite & Mather (1955. Foram identificadas regiões equivalentes a um terço da bacia, localizadas na parte central e no nordeste da mesma, como sendo inaptas ao cultivo do café, conforme os critérios de produtividade relacionados com as exigências térmicas e hídricas da cultura.It was aimed in this work, through the geospatialization, the identification of the apt, restricted and inapt regions for cultivation of coffee (Coffea arabica L. in Rio Doce watershed. It was used for such, temperature and water deficit data of 50 meteorological stations installed in the watershed and in bordering watershed. The data of water deficit were determined using the water balance according to Thornthwaite & Mather (1955. They were identified equivalent regions the one third of the watershed, located in the central part and in the northeast of the same, as being inapt to the cultivation of coffee, according to the productivity criterions related with the thermal and hydric demands of culture.

  13. Design Guidelines for Coffee Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidermeier, Tim; Burghardt, Manuel; Wolff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walk-up-and-use-systems such as vending and self-service machines request special attention concerning an easy to use and self-explanatory user interface. In this paper we present a set of design guidelines for coffee vending machines based on the results of an expert-based usability evaluation of thirteen different models.

  14. Scope for improved eco-efficiency varies among diverse cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Peter S; Liang, Wei-li; Twomlow, Stephen; Holzworth, Dean P; Dimes, John P; McClelland, Tim; Huth, Neil I; Chen, Fu; Hochman, Zvi; Keating, Brian A

    2013-05-21

    Global food security requires eco-efficient agriculture to produce the required food and fiber products concomitant with ecologically efficient use of resources. This eco-efficiency concept is used to diagnose the state of agricultural production in China (irrigated wheat-maize double-cropping systems), Zimbabwe (rainfed maize systems), and Australia (rainfed wheat systems). More than 3,000 surveyed crop yields in these three countries were compared against simulated grain yields at farmer-specified levels of nitrogen (N) input. Many Australian commercial wheat farmers are both close to existing production frontiers and gain little prospective return from increasing their N input. Significant losses of N from their systems, either as nitrous oxide emissions or as nitrate leached from the soil profile, are infrequent and at low intensities relative to their level of grain production. These Australian farmers operate close to eco-efficient frontiers in regard to N, and so innovations in technologies and practices are essential to increasing their production without added economic or environmental risks. In contrast, many Chinese farmers can reduce N input without sacrificing production through more efficient use of their fertilizer input. In fact, there are real prospects for the double-cropping systems on the North China Plain to achieve both production increases and reduced environmental risks. Zimbabwean farmers have the opportunity for significant production increases by both improving their technical efficiency and increasing their level of input; however, doing so will require improved management expertise and greater access to institutional support for addressing the higher risks. This paper shows that pathways for achieving improved eco-efficiency will differ among diverse cropping systems.

  15. The beginnings of crop phosphoproteomics: exploring early warning systems of stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof eRampitsch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines why a knowledge of plant protein phosphorylation events is important in devising strategies to protect crops from both biotic and abiotic stresses, and why proteomics should be included when studying stress pathways. Most of the achievements in elucidating phospho-signalling pathways in biotic and abiotic stress are reported from model systems: while these are discussed, this review attempts mainly to focus on work done with crops, with examples of achievements reported from rice, maize, wheat, grape, Brassica, tomato and soy bean after cold acclimation, hormonal and oxidative H2O2 treatment, salt stress, mechanical wounding or pathogen challenge. The challenges that remain to transfer this information into a format that can be used to protect crops against biotic and abiotic stresses are enormous. The tremendous increase in the speed and ease of DNA sequencing is poised to reveal the whole genomes of many crop species in the near future, which will facilitate phosphoproteomics and phosphogenomics research.

  16. Coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop plant production in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, James; Ling, Peter P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework for coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop analysis of plant production for NASA's program in advanced life support. Crop status may be monitored through non-destructive observations, while models may be independently applied to crop production planning and decision support. To achieve coupling, environmental variables and observations are linked to mode inputs and outputs, and monitoring results compared with model predictions of plant growth and development. The information thus provided may be useful in diagnosing problems with the plant growth system, or as a feedback to the model for evaluation of plant scheduling and potential yield. In this paper, we demonstrate this coupling using machine vision sensing of canopy height and top projected canopy area, and the CROPGRO crop growth model. Model simulations and scenarios are used for illustration. We also compare model predictions of the machine vision variables with data from soybean experiments conducted at New Jersey Agriculture Experiment Station Horticulture Greenhouse Facility, Rutgers University. Model simulations produce reasonable agreement with the available data, supporting our illustration.

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions in cover crop-based corn production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian Wesley

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas; the majority of N2O emissions are the result of agricultural management, particularly the application of N fertilizers to soils. The relationship of N2O emissions to varying sources of N (manures, mineral fertilizers, and cover crops) has not been well-evaluated. Here we discussed a novel methodology for estimating precipitation-induced pulses of N2O using flux measurements; results indicated that short-term intensive time-series sampling methods can adequately describe the magnitude of these pulses. We also evaluated the annual N2O emissions from corn-cover crop (Zea mays; cereal rye [Secale cereale], hairy vetch [Vicia villosa ], or biculture) production systems when fertilized with multiple rates of subsurface banded poultry litter, as compared with tillage incorporation or mineral fertilizer. N2O emissions increased exponentially with total N rate; tillage decreased emissions following cover crops with legume components, while the effect of mineral fertilizer was mixed across cover crops.

  18. Effect of different cover crops on C and N cycling in sorghum NT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Ileana; Quiroga, Alberto; Noellemeyer, Elke

    2016-08-15

    In many no-till (NT) systems, residue input is low and fallow periods excessive, for which reasons soil degradation occurs. Cover crops could improve organic matter, biological activity, and soil structure. In order to study changes in soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass a field experiment (2010-2012) was set up with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench.) monoculture and with cover crops. Treatments were control (NT with bare fallow), rye (Secale cereale L.) (R), rye with nitrogen fertilization (R+N), vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) (V), and rye-vetch mixture (VR) cover crops. A completely randomized block design with 4 replicates was used. Soil was sampled once a year at 0.06 and 0.12m depth for total C, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and-nitrogen (MBN) determinations. Shoot and root biomass of sorghum and cover crops, litter biomass, and their respective carbon and nitrogen contents were determined. Soil temperatures at 0.06 and 0.12m depth, volumetric water contents and nitrate concentrations were determined at sowing, and harvest of each crop, and during sorghum's vegetative phase. NT led to a small increase in MBC and MBN, despite low litter and root biomass residue. Cover crops increased litter, root biomass, total C, MBC, and MBN. Relationships between MBC, MBN, and root-C and -N adjusted to logistic models (R(2)=0.61 and 0.43 for C and N respectively). Litter cover improved soil moisture to 45-50% water filled pore space and soil temperatures not exceeding 25°C during the warmest month. Microbial biomass stabilized at 20.1gCm(-2) and 1.9gNm(-2) in the upper 0.06m. Soil litter disappearance was a good indicator of mineral N availability. These findings support the view that cover crops, specifically legumes in NT systems can increase soil ecosystem services related to water and carbon storage, habitat for biodiversity, and nutrient availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated weed management systems with herbicide-tolerant crops in the European Union: lessons learnt from home and abroad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Devos, Yann; Beckie, Hugh J.

    2017-01-01

    of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland biodiversity and accelerate the evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Diversification in crop systems and weed management practices can enhance farmland biodiversity, and reduce the risk of weeds evolving herbicide resistance. Therefore, HT crops...... are most effective and sustainable as a component of an integrated weed management (IWM) system. IWM advocates the use of multiple effective strategies or tactics to manage weed populations in a manner that is economically and environmentally sound. In practice, however, the potential benefits of IWM...... with HT crops are seldom realized because a wide range of technical and socio-economic factors hamper the transition to IWM. Here, we discuss the major factors that limit the integration of HT crops and their associated farm management practices in IWM systems. Based on the experience gained in countries...

  20. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolain, N.M.; Charles, R.; Wirth, J.; Schwarz, J.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bonin, L.; Jensen, P.K.; Kudsk, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of

  1. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  2. Effect of roller/crimper designs in terminating rye cover crop in small-scale conservation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, use of cover crops in no-till organic production systems has steadily increased. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue mulch protects the soil from erosion, runoff, soil compaction, and weed pressure, and conserves soil water. In ...

  3. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Development and Application of Crop Evaluation System Based on GRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since it was proposed, grey system theory has attracted the attention of scientific researchers and scholars. And it also has been widely used in many fields and solved a large number of practical problems in production, life, and scientific research. With the development and popularization of computer science and network technology, this traditional mathematical model can be applied more simply and efficiently to solve practical problems. Firstly, this paper, to implement steps of grey relational analysis, has made the exclusive analysis and has made the simple introduction to grey relational analysis characteristics. Then, based on grey relational theory and ASP.NET technology, the crop evaluation system is developed. Lastly, by using Excel and the crop evaluation system, the paper carries out a comprehensive evaluation about eight features of Fuji apple, which is from nine different producing areas, respectively. The experiment results show that the crop evaluation system is effective and could greatly improve the work efficiency of the researcher and expand the application scope.

  5. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  6. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  7. Sustaining soil productivity by integrated plant nutrient management in wheat based cropping system under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilshad, M.; Lone, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the use of organic (FYM) and inorganic (NPK) nutrient sources with bio fertiliser on wheat-fallow and wheat-maize cropping system under rainfed environment revealed significant increase in bio metric parameters of wheat during winter and summer seasons of two years. During both the seasons, application of half NPK + half FYM + Bio power (brand) produced the highest grain yield (3684 kg/ha) and (3781 kg/ha) of wheat with the maximum N uptake of 357 kg/ha, P uptake of 51 kg/ha and K uptake of 215 kg/ha. Wheat-maize cropping system was found to be profitable economically with integrated use of mineral and organic and/or Bio power under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. (author)

  8. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  9. The use of the shaded coffee (sombrío del cafeto production thecnique (Coffea arabica in colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Enrique Mancilla Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of coffee production under shade has been one of the most effective methods used by our ancestors in order to adapt the coffee trees to precarious conditions, where they would not otherwise produce profitably due to the conditions of elevation, light, water availability, percentage of organic matter, temperature and other climatic and geographic factors. The objective of this study was to explain in a consistent and clear way the interaction of different effects generated in the soil, atmosphere and the crop, as a result of the use of the shaded coffee technique (sombrío de café in coffee plantations. This provides tools that are applicable to the Colombian coffee growing industry, which can produce an improvement in the use of this technique, based on the zoning of the productive unit. This will generate an increase in the life and productivity of the crop.

  10. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  11. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Life cycle assessment of a Brassica carinata bioenergy cropping system in southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Anton, Assumpcio; Rigola, Miquel; Carrasco, Juan; Ciria, Pilar; Solano, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energetic and environmental performance of production and distribution of the Brassica carinata biomass crop in Soria (Spain) is analysed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology in order to demonstrate the major potential that the crop has in southern Europe as a lignocellulosic fuel for use as a renewable energy source. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including midpoint impact analysis that was performed shows that the use of fertilizers is the action with the highest impact in six of the 10 environmental categories considered, representing between 51% and 68% of the impact in these categories. The second most important impact is produced when the diesel is used in tractors and transport vehicles which represents between 48% and 77%. The contribution of the B. carinata cropping system to the global warming category is 12.7 g CO 2 eq. MJ -1 biomass produced. Assuming a preliminary estimation of the B. carinata capacity of translocated CO 2 (631 kg CO 2 ha -1 ) from below-ground biomass into the soil, the emissions are reduced by up to 5.2 g CO 2 eq. MJ -1 . The production and transport are as far as a thermoelectric plant of the B. carinata biomass used as a solid fuel consumes 0.12 MJ of primary energy per 1 MJ of biomass energy stored. In comparison with other fossil fuels such as natural gas, it reduces primary energy consumption by 33.2% and greenhouse gas emission from 33.1% to 71.2% depending on whether the capacity of translocated CO 2 is considered or not. The results of the analysis support the assertion that B. carinata crops are viable from an energy balance and environmental perspective for producing lignocellulosic solid fuel destined for the production of energy in southern Europe. Furthermore, the performance of the crop could be improved, thus increasing the energy and environmental benefits. (author)

  13. Soil denitrifier community size changes with land use change to perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Karen A.; Deen, Bill; Dunfield, Kari E.

    2016-10-01

    Dedicated biomass crops are required for future bioenergy production. However, the effects of large-scale land use change (LUC) from traditional annual crops, such as corn-soybean rotations to the perennial grasses (PGs) switchgrass and miscanthus, on soil microbial community functioning is largely unknown. Specifically, ecologically significant denitrifying communities, which regulate N2O production and consumption in soils, may respond differently to LUC due to differences in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs between crop types and management systems. Our objective was to quantify bacterial denitrifying gene abundances as influenced by corn-soybean crop production compared to PG biomass production. A field trial was established in 2008 at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada (n  =  30), with miscanthus and switchgrass grown alongside corn-soybean rotations at different N rates (0 and 160 kg N ha-1) and biomass harvest dates within PG plots. Soil was collected on four dates from 2011 to 2012 and quantitative PCR was used to enumerate the total bacterial community (16S rRNA) and communities of bacterial denitrifiers by targeting nitrite reductase (nirS) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. Miscanthus produced significantly larger yields and supported larger nosZ denitrifying communities than corn-soybean rotations regardless of management, indicating large-scale LUC from corn-soybean to miscanthus may be suitable in variable Ontario climatic conditions and under varied management, while potentially mitigating soil N2O emissions. Harvesting switchgrass in the spring decreased yields in N-fertilized plots, but did not affect gene abundances. Standing miscanthus overwinter resulted in higher 16S rRNA and nirS gene copies than in fall-harvested crops. However, the size of the total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying bacterial communities changed differently over time and in response to LUC, indicating varying controls on these communities.

  14. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J Ryan

    2015-01-01

    As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species), typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities in resource availability and needs between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  15. Agave as a model CAM crop system for a warming and drying world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan eStewart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As climate change leads to drier and warmer conditions in semi-arid regions, growing resource-intensive C3 and C4 crops will become more challenging. Such crops will be subjected to increased frequency and intensity of drought and heat stress. However, agaves, even more than pineapple (Ananas comosus and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica and related species, typify highly productive plants that will respond favorably to global warming, both in natural and cultivated settings. With nearly 200 species spread throughout the U.S., Mexico, and Central America, agaves have evolved traits, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, that allow them to survive extreme heat and drought. Agaves have been used as sources of food, beverage, and fiber by societies for hundreds of years. The varied uses of Agave, combined with its unique adaptations to environmental stress, warrant its consideration as a model CAM crop. Besides the damaging cycles of surplus and shortage that have long beset the tequila industry, the relatively long maturation cycle of Agave, its monocarpic flowering habit, and unique morphology comprise the biggest barriers to its widespread use as a crop suitable for mechanized production. Despite these challenges, agaves exhibit potential as crops since they can be grown on marginal lands, but with more resource input than is widely assumed. If these constraints can be reconciled, Agave shows considerable promise as an alternative source for food, alternative sweeteners, and even bioenergy. And despite the many unknowns regarding agaves, they provide a means to resolve disparities between natural and human systems in semi-arid regions.

  16. Emissions of N2O from peat soils under different cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Lisbet; Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture use leads to an increase in nitrogen turnover rate causing emissions of N2O to the atmosphere. Agriculture contributes to a substantial part of the anthropogenic emissions of N2O therefore mitigation options for the farmers are important. Here we present a field study with the aim to investigate if the choice of cropping system can mitigate the emission of N2O from cultivated organic soils. The sites used in the study represent fen peat soils with a range of different soil properties located in different parts of southern Sweden. All sites are on active farms with good drainage. N2O emissions from the soil under two different crops grown on the same field, with the same soil type, drainage intensity and weather conditions, are compared by gas sampling. The crops included are oat, barley, carrot, potato and grassland. Three or four sampling occasions during the growing season in 2010 were carried out with static chambers. The N2O emission is calculated from the linear increase of gas concentration in the chamber headspace during the incubation time of 40 minutes. Parallel to the gas sampling soil temperature and soil moisture are measured and some soil properties determined. The result from the gas sampling and measurements show no significant difference in seasonal average N2O emission between the compared crops at any site. There are significant differences in N2O emissions between the compared crops at some of the single sampling occasions but the result vary and no crop can be pointed out as a mitigation option. The seasonal average N2O emissions varies from 16±17 to 1319±1971 μg N2O/m2/h with peaks up to 3317 μg N2O/m2/h. The N2O emission rate from peat soils are determined by other factors than the type of crops grown on the field. The emission rates vary during the season and especially between sites. Although all sites are fen peat soil the soil properties are different, e.g. carbon content varies between 27-43% and

  17. Chemical and physical soil attributes in integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Hernani Alves da; Moraes,Anibal de; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio; Fonseca,Adriel Ferreira da; Caires,Eduardo Fávero; Dias,Carlos Tadeu dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Although integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) under no-tillage (NT) is an attractive practice for intensify agricultural production, little regional information is available on the effects of animal grazing and trampling, particularly dairy heifers, on the soil chemical and physical attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of animal grazing on the chemical and physical attributes of the soil after 21 months of ICLS under NT in a succession of annual winter pastur...

  18. Integrated crop livestock systems in sub-Saharan Africa: An option or an imperative?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J.W.; Naazie, A.; Larbi, A.; Agyemang, K.; Tarawali, S.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record Rapid growth of the human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan Africa is creating unprecedented increases in food and feed demands. These population pressures on a fixed landbase are likely to promote severe competition for resources and drive agriculture progressively towards intensification. Integrated crop livestock systems, already common in the highlands, are expected to evolve rapidly elsewhere. Research is required to develop technological alternatives which...

  19. Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Food system consequences of a fungal disease epidemic in a major crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman

    2016-12-05

    Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia. The epidemic and subsequent crop losses led to substantially increased global rice prices. However, as long as global commodity trade was unrestricted and able to respond fast enough, the effects on individual calorie consumption were, to a large part, mitigated. Some of the worse effects were projected to be experienced by poor net-rice importing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which were not affected directly by the disease but suffered because of higher rice prices. We critique the assumptions of our models and explore political economic pressures to restrict trade at times of crisis. We finish by arguing for the importance of 'stress-testing' the resilience of the global food system to crop disease and other shocks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbies, Mark [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Volk, Timothy [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Abrahamson, Lawrence [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shuren, Richard [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Stanton, Brian [GreenWood Resources, Inc., Portland, OR (United States); Posselius, John [Case New Holland, New Holland, PA (United States); McArdle, Matt [Mesa Reduction Engineering and Processing, Inc., Auburn, NY (United States); Karapetyan, Samvel [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Patel, Aayushi [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Shi, Shun [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zerpa, Jose [State Univ. of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Biomass for biofuels, bioproducts and bioenergy can be sourced from forests, agricultural crops, various residue streams, and dedicated woody or herbaceous crops. Short rotation woody crops (SRWC), like willow and hybrid poplar, are perennial cropping systems that produce a number of environmental and economic development benefits in addition to being a renewable source of biomass that can be produced on marginal land. Both hybrid poplar and willow have several characteristics that make them an ideal feedstock for biofuels, bioproducts, and bioenergy; these include high yields that can be obtained in three to four years, ease of cultivar propagation from dormant cuttings, a broad underutilized genetic base, ease of breeding, ability to resprout after multiple harvests, and feedstock composition similar to other sources of woody biomass. Despite the range of benefits associated with SRWC systems, their deployment has been restricted by high costs, low market acceptance associated with inconsistent chip quality (see below for further explanation), and misperceptions about other feedstock characteristics (see below for further explanation). Harvesting of SRWC is the largest single cost factor (~1/3 of the final delivered cost) in the feedstock supply system. Harvesting is also the second largest input of primary fossil energy in the system after commercial N fertilizer, accounting for about one third of the input. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the harvesting system has the potential to reduce both cost and environmental impact. At the start of this project, we projected that improving the overall efficiency of the harvesting system by 25% would reduce the delivered cost of SRWC by approximately $0.50/MMBtu (or about $7.50/dry ton). This goal was exceeded over the duration of this project, as noted below.

  2. Métodos de controle de plantas daninhas no cafeeiro afetam os atributos químicos do solo Effects of weed control methods on coffee crop on soil chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elifas Nunes de Alcântara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos ecossistemas agrícolas sob cafeeiro, nos quais o manejo do solo se resume, basic