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Sample records for coffee beans grown

  1. Bean quality attributes of Arabica coffees grown in Ethiopia and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that location did not have significant effects on all coffee quality attributes (cup cleanness, acidity, body, flavour, total point, preliminary grade, aroma, aftertaste, balance, perfumed, and overall attributes) except hundred bean weight and bean moisture content. The preliminary quality attributes for the ...

  2. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  3. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi

  4. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  5. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column

  6. Crushing of roasted Arabica coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with experimental research on the crushing of coffee beans of different kinds under quasi-static compression. The process of the crushing is described in details. It has been shown that there is variability in the crushing strength values. A relation between crushing strength and the coffee grain shape is also studied. Roasted Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica beans were used for analyses. Arabica coffees were produced in Colombia and Indonesia. Abbreviation in the square brackets indicates the coffee type and it is used in the text hereinafter. All Arabica samples were submitted to a light roast. The detail analysis of the experimental data shows that there is no significant relation between parameters describing the fracture behaviour of the grains and grain geometry. These parameters are also independent on the grain weight. Compression of the coffee grains leads to their crushing. The fracture force is different for the different kinds of the coffee. The same is fact valid also for the strain at the fracture and for the energy absorbed during the grain crushing. The obtained results suggest that the fracture parameters obtained at the compression loading are dependent only on the coffee brand and on the roasting conditions.

  7. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination...... by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from...... coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B2 (FB2) and B4 when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g-1) of FB2 were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB4...

  8. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  9. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Drajat, Bambang; Agustian, Adang; Supriatna, Ade

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in International markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  10. Recognition of spectral identifier from green coffee beans of arabica and robusta varieties using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Karina; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Coffee is one of the world's commodity that is cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production of coffee in Indonesia is positioned of fourth rank in the world, after Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia. There are two varieties of coffee grown in Indonesia, i.e. the arabica and robusta. The chemical compositions between arabica and robusta are different each other. A trained coffee tester can distinguish these differences from its taste, but it is very subjective. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a spectroscopic technique based on the analysis of micro-plasma induced on the surface sample after being shot with a laser pulse. In this study, elemental spectra acquired using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique were analysed to differentate between green coffee beans of arabica and robusta, which are collected from plantations in Malang, Bondowoso, Prigen, and Pasuruan. Results show that optimum conditions for acquiring spectra from green coffee beans using LIBS are at 120 mJ of laser energy and 1,0 μs of delay time. Green coffee beans of arabica and robusta contain some elements such as Ca, W, Sr, Mg, Be, Na, H, N, K, Rb, and O. Discriminant analysis method was then applied to distinguish the green beans of arabica and robusta coffee. Element identifiers of green coffee beans are Ca, W, Mg, Be, Na, and Sr. The abundant element in green coffee beans is Calcium (Ca), and depth-profile testing shows that Ca is homogeneous inside the beans.

  11. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  12. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree

  13. Volatile compounds as potential defective coffee beans' markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Farah, Adriana

    2008-06-01

    Although Brazil is the largest raw coffee producer and exporter in the world, a large amount of its Arabica coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P), green (V) and sour (A) defective beans, which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of defective coffee beans (two lots) compared to good quality beans from the respective lots. Potential defective beans' markers were identified. In the raw samples, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furylmethanol acetate were identified only in black-immature beans and butyrolactone only in sour beans, while benzaldehyde and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine showed to be potential markers of defective beans in general. In the roasted PVA beans, pyrazine, 2,3-butanediol meso, 2-methyl-5-(1-propenyl)pyrazine, hexanoic acid, 4-ethyl-guayacol and isopropyl p-cresol sulfide also showed to be potential defective coffee beans' markers. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  15. Changes of physical properties of coffee beans during roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Marija R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of heating time on physical changes (weight, volume, texture and colour of coffee beans (Outspan and Guaxupe coffee were investigated. The roasting temperature of both samples was 170°C and samples for analysis were taken at the intervals of 7 minutes during 40 minutes of roasting. Total weight loss at the end of the roasting process was 14.43 % (light roasted and 17.15 % (medium to dark roasted for Outspan and Guaxupe coffee beans, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05 changes in the coffee bean breaking force values were noted between the 7th and 14th minutes, and statistically not significant (P > 0.05 between the 35th and 40th minutes of the roasting. According to the L* colour parameter as a criterion for the classification of roasted coffee colour (light, medium, dark, the Outspan sample was medium and Guaxupe sample was dark roasted.

  16. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  17. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  18. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: I. Green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of shading on yield, sugar content, phenolic acids and antioxidant property of coffee beans (Coffea Arabica L. cv. Catimor) harvested from north-eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somporn, Chanyarin; Kamtuo, Amnouy; Theerakulpisut, Piyada; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2012-07-01

    Environmental conditions, including shading, generally influence the physical and chemical qualities of coffee beans. The present study assessed the changes in some phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and agronomic characters of coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catimor) as affected by different shading conditions including full sun, three artificial shading conditions using a saran covering (50% shade, 60% shade, and 70% shade) and lychee shade. Bean weight and bean size increased significantly (P antioxidant activity compared to all other beans. Chlorogenic acid was the most predominant phenolic acid in all samples studied, being the highest in the beans grown under lychee shade, followed by 60% shade, 70% shade, 50% shade and full sun, respectively. In contrast, bean grown under full sun had the highest amount of vanillic acid and caffeic acid. Antioxidant activity was highly positively associated with chlorogenic acid content. The content of total sugar (fructose, glucose and sucrose) was found highest in coffee beans grown in 60% shade, with fructose the predominant sugar. Under climatic conditions similar to this experiment, it is advisable that growers provide shade to the coffee crop to reduce heat from direct sunlight and promote yield as well as obtain good quality coffee beans. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated wi...

  2. Medical image of the week: coffee bean and whirlpool signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease presented with altered mental status, poor oral intake, and multiple episodes of nausea and vomiting. An abdominal x-ray demonstrated dilated loops of bowel and the coffee bean sign concerning for sigmoid volvulus (Figure 1. The coffee bean sign occurs when a thick “inner wall” represents the double wall thickness of opposed loops of bowel while the thinner outer walls due single thickness. A contrast CT abdomen showed dilated sigmoid loop and whirlpool sign confirming sigmoid volvulus (Figure 2. She underwent a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and full recovery.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  4. Strength of coffee beans under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with experimental research on the crushing of coffee beans of different kinds under quasi-static and dynamic compression. The process of the crushing is described in details. It has been shown that there is variability in the crushing strength values. A relation between crushing strength and the coffee grain shape is also studied. Roasted Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica beans were used for analyses. Arabica coffees were produced in different countries. All Arabica samples were submitted to a light roast. The detail analysis of the experimental data shows that there is no significant relation between parameters describing the fracture behaviour of the grains and grain geometry. These parameters are also independent on the grain weight. Compression of the coffee grains leads to their crushing. The fracture force is different for the different kinds of the coffee. The same is fact valid also for the strain at the fracture and for the energy absorbed during the grain crushing. Dynamic loading leads to the increase in the fracture force of coffee grains in comparison with the quasi static loading.

  5. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  7. THE OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS, FUNGI AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERISTICS IN STORED COFFEE BEANS IN LAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY s. DHARMAPUTRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on postharvest handling and technology processing of coffee beans at farmer, trader and exporter levels was conducted in West Lampung a nd Tanggamus regencies of Lampung province during harvest time (July 1998. Interviews and sampling of coffee beans were carried out during the survey. The number of respondents at farmer, trader and exporter levels was 22, 20 and 4, respectively, while the number of samples collected from each level was 20. All samples were analyzed for moisture content, physical quality, insect and fungal infestation, reducing sugar content, and coffee cupping. The results of the interviews indicated that posth arvest handling and technol ogy processing became better from farmers to exporters. Moisture contents of coffee beans collected from farmers and traders were higher than the tolerable limit recommended by SNI (13%. Physical quality of coffee beans collected from exporters was higher than that collected from farmers and traders. Insects were found on coffee beans collected from farmers, traders and exporters, but the number of species and the percentage of samples infested by insects from each level were relatively low. The predominant species was Liposcelis entomophila. The number of fungal species on coffee beans collected from farmers was higher than that collected from traders and exporters. The predominant species at the three levels was Aspergillus niger, but the lowest percentage of beans infected by this fungus was found on coffee beans collected from expo rters. The lowest percentage of samples infected by all fungi was also found on coffee beans collected from exporters. Reducing sugar content of coffee beans collected from exporters was lower than that from farmers and traders. Aroma and flavor values tended to increase from farmers through traders to exporters, while the body decreased. Some off-flavors (i.e. earthy, mouldy, fermented and woody were encountered in a few coffee samples from farmers as

  8. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  9. Recognition of Roasted Coffee Bean Levels using Image Processing and Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Andayani, U.

    2017-03-01

    The coffee beans roast levels have some characteristics. However, some people cannot recognize the coffee beans roast level. In this research, we propose to design a method to recognize the coffee beans roast level of images digital by processing the image and classifying with backpropagation neural network. The steps consist of how to collect the images data with image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method and finally normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The values of decimal scaling features become an input of classifying in backpropagation neural network. We use the method of backpropagation to recognize the coffee beans roast levels. The results showed that the proposed method is able to identify the coffee roasts beans level with an accuracy of 97.5%.

  10. Investigation of optimum roasting conditions to obtain possible health benefit supplement, antioxidants from coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of roasting conditions in antioxidant formation, methanol and hot water extracts from Robusta coffee beans roasted for various lengths of time and at various temperatures were analyzed for total phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine content, as well as for their antioxidant activities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and malonaldehyde/gas chromatography (MA/GC) assays. The amount of total phenolics in methanol extracts decreased linearly over the roasting temperature from 63.51 ± 0.77 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent (CAE)/g coffee beans (roasted at 200°C) to 42.56 ± 0.33 mg CAE/g coffee beans (roasted at 240°C). The total chlorogenic acid content decreased when the roasting time was increased from 78.33 ± 1.41 mg/g (green coffee beans) to 4.31 ± 0.23 mg/g (roasted for 16 min at 250°C). All methanol extracts from roasted coffee beans possessed over 90% antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay. The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts ranged from 41.38 ± 1.77% (roasted at 250°C for 10 min) to 98.20 ± 1.49% (roasted at 230°C for 16 min) as tested by the TBA assay. The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of green coffee beans and roasted coffee beans ranged from 93.01% (green coffee beans) to 98.62 ± 1.32% (roasted at 250°C for 14 min) in the MA/GC assays. All hot water extracts exhibited moderate pro-oxidant activities in TBA and MA/GC assays. The results indicated that roasting conditions of coffee beans play an important role in the formation of antioxidants in brewed coffee, which can be dietary supplements having beneficial effect to human health.

  11. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  12. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily. PMID:27086837

  13. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-04-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  14. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  15. beans grown in an intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-02-10

    Feb 10, 2005 ... Sole crops were planted at the recommended PPD of 44 444 and 11 1 1 11 plants ha'l for maize and climbing beans, respectively. Maize in ...... Cali, Colombia. 54pp. Davis, J.H.C. and Garcia, S. 1983. Competitive ability and growth ofindetcrminate beans and maize for intercropping. CIAT Abstract on.

  16. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  17. Modulation of coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with Rhizopus oligosporus: II. Effects of different roast levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate how changes of the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffees induced by Rhizopus oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans (Part I) translated to changes in the volatile and aroma profiles of light, medium and dark roasted coffees and non-volatile profile of roasted coffee where fermentation effects were most distinctive (light roast). R. oligosporus fermentation resulted in 1.7-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold increases in pyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-ethylpyrazine levels in coffees of all roast degrees, respectively. This corresponded with the greater extent of amino acids degradation in light roasted fermented coffee. Ethyl palmitate was detected exclusively in medium and dark roasted fermented coffees. The sweet attribute of light and dark roasted coffees were increased following fermentation along with other aroma profile changes that were roast degree specific. This work aims to develop a direct but novel methodology for coffee aroma modulation through green coffee beans fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  19. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and

  20. IR Spectroscopy of Gasses Evolved During Roasting Coffee Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clain, Alexander; Capaldi, Xavier; Amanuel, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    We measured the IR spectra of the gasses that evolve during roasting of coffee beans. The spectra recorded at different temperature revealed that the intensity of certain IR bands increase as the temperature increases. For instance, the intensity of the CO2 band increased by a factor of four and reached a plateau as the roasting temperature approached 200°C. The intensity further increased as the temperature increased above 200°C, however, in two steps. Similarly the intensity of the OH bands monotonically increased until 200°C and then increased further in two rapid steps above 200°C. The temperature ranges where IR intensities change in two steps coincides with the temperature ranges where typically commercial roasting is done and where the first and second ``cracks'' are heard during roasting.

  1. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  2. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  3. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  4. Role of roasting conditions in the level of chlorogenic acid content in coffee beans: correlation with coffee acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Yoo, Hyui Sun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-06-24

    Total chlorogenic acids of nine isomers from seven commercial green and roasted coffee beans ranged from 34.43 +/- 1.50 to 41.64 +/- 3.28 mg/g and from 2.05 +/- 0.07 to 7.07 +/- 0.16 mg/g, respectively. Methanol/water (7:3) extracts from four commercial green coffee beans roasted at different conditions (230 degrees C, 12 min; 24 degrees C, 14 min; 250 degrees C, 17 min; and 250 degrees C, 21 min) were also analyzed for chlorogenic acids. The total chlorogenic acid found in green coffee beans ranged from 86.42 +/- 2.04 to 61.15 +/- 1.40 mg/g. Total chlorogenic acids present were reduced in accordance with the intensity of roasting conditions. When green beans were roasted at 230 degrees C for 12 min and at 250 degrees C for 21 min, total chlorogenic acid content was reduced to nearly 50% and to almost trace levels, respectively. The results indicate that roasting conditions play an important role in chlorogenic acid content in roasted coffee beans. A general correlation between total caffeoylquinic acids and pH was observed.

  5. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp) Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-01-01

    Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark colored)The optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25...

  6. Elemental detection of arabica and robusta green bean coffee using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Meilina, Hesti; Hedwig, Rinda; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The elemental detection of green bean of arabica and robusta coffee from Gayo Highland, Aceh-Indonesia, has been identified by using fundamental Nd-YAG Laser at 10 Torr of surrounding air gas pressure for distinguishing the characteristics of both coffees. As the preliminary study, we have detected the elements of K 766.49 nm, Na 588.9 nm, Ca 393.3 nm, CN band at 388.3 nm, N 337.13 nm and C 247.8 nm of both coffees. It is noticed that the order of elements concentration from highest to lowest are Ca>K>CN> Na>N> C for arabica and K>Ca>CN >Na>C>N for robusta. The emission intensity of K 766.49 nm is almost same for both of coffee. However, the emission intensity of Na 588.9 nm is lower in Arabica coffee. To distinguish the Arabica coffee and Robusta Coffee, we take the ratio intensity of K/C, Na/C, CN/C, and Ca/C. It is found that the ratio intensities of CN/C and Ca/C in arabica bean are significantly different with robusta bean. That ratio intensities can be used as a marker to discriminate kind of coffee. We also noted that the arabica green bean is 1.3 harder than robusta green bean. These findings prove that the technique of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy can be used to make rapid identification of elements in coffee and can potentially be applied to measure the concentration of blended coffee for the purpose of authentication.

  7. UV/VIS SPECTROMETER DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN GREEN COFFEE BEANS FROM HARARGHE, ETHIOPIA, USING BEER-LAMBERT'S LAW AND INTEGRATED ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ephrem G Demissie; Girma W Woyessa; Arayaselassie Abebe

    2016-01-01

      A total of fifteen samples of green coffee (Coffea arabica L.) beans from the major producing region of Hararghe Ethiopia were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer measurement caffeine quantitative analysis from coffee beans...

  8. UV/VIS SPECTROMETER DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN GREEN COFFEE BEANS FROM HARARGHE, ETHIOPIA, USING BEER-LAMBERT’S LAW AND INTEGRATED ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EPHREM G. DEMISSIE; GIRMA W. WOYESSA; ARAYASELASSIE ABEBE

    2016-01-01

    A total of fifteen samples of green coffee (Coffea arabica L.) beans from the major producing region of Hararghe Ethiopia were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer measurement caffeine quantitative analysis from coffee beans...

  9. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical ap...

  10. Fungal contamination in green coffee beans samples: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Pacífico, Cátia; Faria, Tiago; de Oliveira, Ana Cebola; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Viegas, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the microbiology of coffee cherries and beans have shown that the predominant toxigenic fungal genera (Aspergillus and Penicillium) are natural coffee contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of fungi in Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora L. var. robusta (Robusta coffee) green coffee samples obtained from different sources at the pre-roasting stage. Twenty-eight green coffee samples from different countries of origin (Brazil, Timor, Honduras, Angola, Vietnam, Costa Rica, Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, India, and Uganda) were evaluated. The fungal load in the contaminated samples ranged from 0 to 12330 colony forming units (CFU)/g, of which approximately 67% presented contamination levels below 1500 CFU/g, while 11% exhibited intermediate contamination levels between 1500 and 3000 CFU/g. Contamination levels higher than 3000 CFU/g were found in 22% of contaminated coffee samples. Fifteen different fungi were isolated by culture-based methods and Aspergillus species belonging to different sections (complexes). The predominant Aspergillus section detected was Nigri (39%), followed by Aspergillus section Circumdati (29%). Molecular analysis detected the presence of Aspergillus sections Fumigati and Circumdati. The% coffee samples where Aspergillus species were identified by culture-based methods were 96%. Data demonstrated that green coffee beans samples were contaminated with toxigenic fungal species. Since mycotoxins may be resistant to the roasting process, this suggests possible exposure to mycotoxins through consumption of coffee. Further studies need to be conducted to provide information on critical points of coffee processing, such that fungal contamination may be reduced or eliminated and thus exposure to fungi and mycotoxins through coffee handling and consumption be prevented.

  11. Effect of zinc and its form of supply on production and quality of coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Yonara; Martinez, Herminia E P; Cecon, Paulo R

    2011-10-01

    In Brazil, the usual forms of zinc (Zn) supply to coffee plants have limitations that compromise the element availability to the plant. This study proposes to test an alternative approach to supplying the nutrient to Coffea arabica L. using trunk implanted zinc tablets. Additionally, the effect of Zn on the production and quality of coffee beans was also evaluated. The highest total coffee bean production was recorded in plants implanted with Zn tablets (TA), while the lowest was recorded in the control treatment, without zinc supply (WZn), reaching a bianual production of 188.2 and 130.1 60-kg bags of processed beans per hectare, respectively. In the treatments where Zn were applied as tablet implantation or as foliage spraying (SZn); the bean size was larger, while the grain electrical conductivity and potassium leaching were lower compared with WZn. Zn supply via tablet implantation into tree trunks provides yield and quality similar to those obtained by foliage spraying. Independent of the form of supply, Zn positively influences the production and quality of coffee beans. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Changes in key odorants of raw coffee beans during storage under defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidig, Claudia; Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-11

    During storage of raw coffee beans (green coffee) atypical odors may develop, which are suggested to influence the aroma of particularly the coffee beverage. To gain insight into the aroma compounds responsible for such odor changes, a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis was applied on unstored, raw Arabica coffee beans from Colombia (water content=11.75%) and on the same beans with a water content of 13.5%, which were stored for 9 months at 40 degrees C. In combination with the flavor dilution (FD) factors, the results of the identification experiments showed strong increases in (E)-beta-damascenone (cooked apple-like), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (clove-like), and methyl 2-methyl- and methyl 3-methylbutanoate (fruity), whereas others, such as the earthy smelling 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine as well as 2-phenylethanol and 3-methoxyphenol, remained unchanged during storage. In addition, the previously unknown coffee odorant 2-methoxy-5-vinylphenol (intense smoky odor) increased significantly during storage. Quantitative measurements performed on raw coffee samples stored at various temperatures, water contents, and oxygen availabilities indicated that the significant increase of, in particular, the methyl esters of 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid were responsible for the pronounced and fruity odor quality perceived in the stored green coffee, whereas the higher concentrations of 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 2-methoxy-5-vinylphenol led to the more pronounced smoky, clove-like odor quality. On the basis of the results obtained, in particular the reduction of the water content in combination with lower temperatures can be suggested to avoid aroma changes in raw coffee beans caused by storage.

  13. Roasting process of coffee beans as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance: time course of changes in composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Koda, Masanori; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report a (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of coffee bean extracts of different degrees of roast. The roasting process of coffee bean extracts was chemically characterized using detailed signal assignment information coupled with multivariate data analysis. A total of 30 NMR-visible components of coffee bean extracts were monitored simultaneously as a function of the roasting duration. During roasting, components such as sucrose and chlorogenic acids were degraded and components such as quinic acids, N-methylpyridinium, and water-soluble polysaccharides were formed. Caffeine and myo-inositol were relatively thermally stable. Multivariate data analysis indicated that some components such as sucrose, chlorogenic acids, quinic acids, and polysaccharides could serve as chemical markers during coffee bean roasting. The present composition-based quality analysis provides an excellent holistic method and suggests useful chemical markers to control and characterize the coffee-roasting process.

  14. Comparison of antioxidant activity between green and roasted coffee beans using molecular methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRIFTIS, ALEXANDROS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; KONSTANTINOPOULOS, KONSTANTINOS; TSITSIMPIKOU, CHRISTINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDES M.; TZATZARAKIS, MANOLIS N.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its pleasant taste and aroma. A number of studies have been performed to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of coffee consumption on human health and have shown that coffee exhibits potent antioxidant activity, which may be attributed mainly to its polyphenolic content. However, there is also evidence to suggest that coffee roasting (the procedure which turns green coffee beans to the dark, roasted ones from which the beverage derives) may alter the polyphenolic profile of the beans (e.g., via the Maillard reaction) and, concomitantly, their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of 13 coffee varieties was examined in both green and roasted coffee bean extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-eth-ylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging assays. In addition, 5 selected varieties were also examined for their protective effects against peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand cleavage. Finally, C2C12 murine myoblasts were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of the most potent extract in order to examine its effects on the cellular redox status by measuring the glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that, in 8 out of the 13 coffee varieties, roasting increased free radical scavenging activity as shown by DPPH and ABTS•+ assays. Moreover, we found that when one coffee variety was roasted for different amounts of time, the increase in the antioxidant activity depended on the roasting time. By contrast, in 5 varieties, roasting reduced the antioxidant activity. Similar differences between the roasted and green beans were also observed in the free radical-induced DNA strand cleavage assay. The observed differences in the antioxidant activity between the different coffee varieties may be attributed to their varying polyphenolic

  15. Comparison of antioxidant activity between green and roasted coffee beans using molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Konstantinopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its pleasant taste and aroma. A number of studies have been performed to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of coffee consumption on human health and have shown that coffee exhibits potent antioxidant activity, which may be attributed mainly to its polyphenolic content. However, there is also evidence to suggest that coffee roasting (the procedure which turns green coffee beans to the dark, roasted ones from which the beverage derives) may alter the polyphenolic profile of the beans (e.g., via the Maillard reaction) and, concomitantly, their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of 13 coffee varieties was examined in both green and roasted coffee bean extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+)- radical scavenging assays. In addition, 5 selected varieties were also examined for their protective effects against peroxyl and hydroxyl radical‑induced DNA strand cleavage. Finally, C2C12 murine myoblasts were treated with non‑cytotoxic concentrations of the most potent extract in order to examine its effects on the cellular redox status by measuring the glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that, in 8 out of the 13 coffee varieties, roasting increased free radical scavenging activity as shown by DPPH and ABTS•+ assays. Moreover, we found that when one coffee variety was roasted for different amounts of time, the increase in the antioxidant activity depended on the roasting time. By contrast, in 5 varieties, roasting reduced the antioxidant activity. Similar differences between the roasted and green beans were also observed in the free radical‑induced DNA strand cleavage assay. The observed differences in the antioxidant activity between the different coffee varieties may be attributed to their varying

  16. Modeling and validation of heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during the coffee roasting process using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Torres, Beatriz; Hernández-Pérez, José Alfredo; Sierra-Espinoza, Fernando; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during roasting were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical equations for heat and mass transfer inside the coffee bean were solved using the finite volume technique in the commercial CFD code Fluent; the software was complemented with specific user-defined functions (UDFs). To experimentally validate the numerical model, a single coffee bean was placed in a cylindrical glass tube and roasted by a hot air flow, using the identical geometrical 3D configuration and hot air flow conditions as the ones used for numerical simulations. Temperature and humidity calculations obtained with the model were compared with experimental data. The model predicts the actual process quite accurately and represents a useful approach to monitor the coffee roasting process in real time. It provides valuable information on time-resolved process variables that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, but critical to a better understanding of the coffee roasting process at the individual bean level. This includes variables such as time-resolved 3D profiles of bean temperature and moisture content, and temperature profiles of the roasting air in the vicinity of the coffee bean.

  17. Roasting green coffee beans using spouted bed roaster: changes in physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, V D; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2010-12-01

    Pea-berry grade of green coffee (Coffea arabica) beans were roasted in a laboratory model spouted bed roaster at different temperatures (150-250°C) and times (30-300 s). The roasted samples were analysed for instrumental colour (hue, chroma and brightness) and texture. Brightness of the roasted samples varied between 5.2 and 20.4%, and time of roasting markedly decreased the brightness values. The chroma showed a curvilinear decrease with both time and temperature of roasting; the lowest values were with highest roasting times and temperatures. The hue or dominant wavelength increased from 576 to 603 nm due to roasting. The maximum force offered by the roasted beans decreased with temperature and/or time of roasting. An appropriate condition for spouted bed roasting of green coffee beans was obtained considering colour of samples and desirable low failure/fracture force.

  18. Effect of vacuum roasting on acrylamide formation and reduction in coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anese, Monica; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; Verardo, Giancarlo; Munari, Marina; Mirolo, Giorgio; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo

    2014-02-15

    Coffea arabica beans were roasted in an oven at 200 °C for increasing lengths of time under vacuum (i.e. 0.15 kPa). The samples were then analysed for colour, weight loss, acrylamide concentration and sensory properties. Data were compared with those obtained from coffee roasted at atmospheric pressure (i.e. conventional roasting), as well as at atmospheric pressure for 10 min followed by vacuum treatment (0.15 kPa; i.e. conventional-vacuum roasting). To compare the different treatments, weight loss, colour and acrylamide changes were expressed as a function of the thermal effect received by the coffee beans during the different roasting processes. Vacuum-processed coffee with medium roast degree had approximately 50% less acrylamide than its conventionally roasted counterpart. It was inferred that the low pressure generated inside the oven during the vacuum process exerted a stripping effect preventing acrylamide from being accumulated. Vacuum-processed coffee showed similar colour and sensory properties to conventionally roasted coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of roasting conditions in the profile of volatile flavor chemicals formed from coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2009-07-08

    The volatile chemicals in dichloromethane extracts from green coffee beans, roasted at 230 degrees C for 12 min (light), at 240 degrees C for 14 min (medium), at 250 degrees C for 17 min (city), or at 250 degrees C for 21 min (French), were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 52 volatile compounds identified, the major compounds were 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfuryl alcohol, and 6-methyl-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one in light-roasted beans; furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and gamma-butyrolactone in medium-roasted beans; furfuryl alcohol, gamma-butyrolactone, and 2-acetylpyrrole in city-raosted beans; and gamma-butyrolactone, furfuryl alcohol, and catechol in French-roasted beans. Furfural derivatives and furanones were yielded in relatively high concentrations under mild roasting conditions and then reduced at higher roasting intensities. More pyridines and pyrroles were formed by high roasting intensities than by mild roasting intensities. Chlorogenic acid degradation products, phenols, and a lactone were produced more by high roasting intensities than by low roasting intensities. The results of the present study suggest that controlling the roasting conditions according to the formation of particular chemicals can prepare a roasted coffee with preferable flavor.

  20. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    .... Some policy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition, this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development...

  1. UV/VIS SPECTROMETER DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN GREEN COFFEE BEANS FROM HARARGHE, ETHIOPIA, USING BEER-LAMBERT’S LAW AND INTEGRATED ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    EPHREM G. DEMISSIE; GIRMA W. WOYESSA; ARAYASELASSIE ABEBE

    2016-01-01

    A total of fifteen samples of green coffee (Coffea arabica L.) beans from the major producing region of Hararghe Ethiopia were studied using UV-Vis spectrometer measurement caffeine quantitative analysis from coffee beans. The number density of caffeine in green coffee beans has been reported using Beer-Lambert’s law and integrating absorption coefficient technique. Our results obtained using integrated absorption and Beer-Lambert’s law has a good agreement and we observed a maximum differenc...

  2. Attraction of Coffee Bean Weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus, to Volatiles from the Industrial Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Mei, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yao-Fa; She, Dongmei; Zhang, Tao; Ning, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Five of these substances elicited significant responses in Y-tube behavioral bioassays. Field trapping experiments revealed 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate to be crucial for attraction of CBW. Results show that yeast volatiles play an important role in host location, and that 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate could be utilized as potential attractants in monitoring and control systems against this important pest.

  3. Oligopolistic differentiation of the Colombian green bean coffee in the US market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julián Rendón Cardona

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO literature notes that imperfect foreign competition among commodities may be characterized by prices, quantities and product differentiation. This paper shows that the effectiveness of the differentiation strategy of Colombian green bean coffee in the US market has caused Colombia to compete in terms of quantities with its major opponent, Brazil. In order to show it, this paper brings a set of models which allow us to identify the competitive structure followed by Brazil and Colombia in the United States market of green bean coffee imports. These models are evaluated through a likelihood ratio test to determine which of them best explains the data. Stackelberg is the best model showing Brazil’s leadership in terms of quantities.

  4. COFFEE BEAN MYCO-CONTAMINANTS AND OXALIC ACID PRODUCING ASPERGILLUS NIGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coffee bean-contaminating fungi were determined in random samples collected in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using the direct plating technique. Forty-five samples were examined and 12 fungal species belonging to 5 genera were isolated. Aspergillus niger was the most widely distributed and most frequently isolated fungus (86.67%. The ability of the predominant fungus, A. niger, to produce oxalic acid was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. About 50% of the tested A. niger isolates produced oxalic acid; the amount produced was in the range of 90–550 ppm of oxalic acid. Because A. niger was the predominant and most widely distributed toxigenic fungus in the examined samples, more efforts should be directed to minimize the risk of oxalic acid contamination of commoditized coffee beans in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Bean counting : Fair trade, Delft Reactor Institute shoots neutrons at coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from oil, coffee is the worlds most important export product. The large-scale intensive coffee plantations are also one of the worlds biggest users of pesticides. But cautious signs are emerging of return to the traditional, practically pesticide-free, organic growing methods, a trend that

  6. Ionic Liquids as Additives of Coffee Bean Oil in Steel-Steel Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Grace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness and ever-growing restrictive regulations over contamination have increased the need for more environmentally-friendly lubricants. Due to their superior biodegradability and lower toxicity, vegetable oils are a good alternative to replace currently-used mineral oils. However, vegetable oils show low oxidation and thermal stability and poor anti-wear properties. Most of these drawbacks can be attenuated through the use of additives. In the last decade, ionic liquids have emerged as high-performance fluids and lubricant additives due to their unique characteristics. In this study, the tribological behavior of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids is investigated as additives of coffee bean oil in steel-steel contact. Coffee bean oil-ionic liquid blends containing 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% of each ionic liquid are studied using a block-on-flat reciprocating tribometer and the test results are compared to commercially-available, fully-formulated lubricant. Results showed that the addition of the ionic liquids to the coffee bean oil reduces wear volume of the steel disks, and wear values achieved are comparable to that obtained when the commercially-available lubricant is used.

  7. Rapid Prediction of Moisture Content in Intact Green Coffee Beans Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Adnan; Hörsten, Dieter von; Pawelzik, Elke; Mörlein, And Daniel

    2017-05-19

    Moisture content (MC) is one of the most important quality parameters of green coffee beans. Therefore, its fast and reliable measurement is necessary. This study evaluated the feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid and non-destructive prediction of MC in intact green coffee beans of both Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta) species. Diffuse reflectance (log 1/R) spectra of intact beans were acquired using a bench top Fourier transform NIR instrument. MC was determined gravimetrically according to The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6673. Samples were split into subsets for calibration ( n = 64) and independent validation ( n = 44). A three-component partial least squares regression (PLSR) model using raw NIR spectra yielded a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.80% MC; a four component PLSR model using scatter corrected spectra yielded a RMSEP of 0.57% MC. A simplified PLS model using seven selected wavelengths (1155, 1212, 1340, 1409, 1724, 1908, and 2249 nm) yielded a similar accuracy (RMSEP: 0.77% MC) which opens the possibility of creating cheaper NIR instruments. In conclusion, NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy appears to be suitable for rapid and reliable MC prediction in intact green coffee; no separate model for Arabica and Robusta species is needed.

  8. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  9. Determination of Harvesting Time and Fermentation Conditions of Coffee (Coffee sp Beans Based on the Fruit Pericarp Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said Didu

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase enzyme of coffee pericarp, containing pectinesterase and polymetilesterase, is potential to determine harvesting time or to classify coffee beans. The activity of the enzyme on the green fruit is higher than on the yellow one. When the fruit become light red, the activity increaed for the second time and then decrease when the fruit is overripe (dark coloredThe optimum fermentation condition of the fruit is depending on the maturation degree. Study on the fermentation process at 25oC, suggest sorting of harvesting fruits in three groups. (1 fruits are harvested 9-24 days after the fruits reach its yellowish green color, Ao, (2 25 - 32 days after Ao, and (3 33 - 38 days after Ao.Fermenting at 35o C grouping into four types of maturation degree. (1 9 - 11 days after Ao, (2 12 - 22 days after Ao, (3 23 - 30 days after Ao, and (4 24-36 days after Ao. The optimum harvesting time is when the beans reach light red until the color starts getting dark. The optimum activity of the enzyme pectinase is at 35oC.

  10. Bean counting: Fair trade, Delft Reactor Institute shoots neutrons at coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Schrauwers, A.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from oil, coffee is the worlds most important export product. The large-scale intensive coffee plantations are also one of the worlds biggest users of pesticides. But cautious signs are emerging of return to the traditional, practically pesticide-free, organic growing methods, a trend that started in 1972 with the foundation of the International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (ifoam), regarded as the umbrella organisation of organic agriculture. The story goes that consume...

  11. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A.A.; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Suda...

  12. Analysis of volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masayuki; Murakami, Kazuya; Ohtani, Noboru; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Sotoyama, Kazuyoshi; Wada, Akira; Tokuno, Katsuya; Iwabuchi, Hisakatsu; Tanaka, Kiyofumi

    2003-03-26

    A dynamic solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method to sample fresh headspace volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans was described and the analytical results using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/olfactometry (GC/O) were compared to those of the conventional static SPME sampling methods using ground coffee. Volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans (150 g) were obtained by exposing the SPME fiber (poly(dimethylsiloxane)/divinylbenzene, PDMS/ DVB) for 8 min to nitrogen gas (600 mL/min) discharged from a glass vessel in which the electronic coffee grinder was enclosed. Identification and characterization of volatile compounds thus obtained were achieved by GC/MS and GC/O. Peak areas of 47 typical coffee volatile compounds, separated on total ion chromatogram (TIC), obtained by the dynamic SPME method, showed coefficients of variation less than 5% (n = 3) and the gas chromatographic profile of volatile compounds thus obtained was similar to that of the solvent extract of ground coffee, except for highly volatile compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and 4-ethenyl-2-methoxyphenol. Also, SPME dilution analysis of volatile compounds released during the grinding of roasted coffee beans showed linear plots of peak area versus exposed fiber length (R (2) > 0.89). Compared with those of the headspace volatile compounds of ground coffee using GC/MS and GC/O, the volatile compounds generated during the grinding of roasted coffee beans were rich in nutty- and smoke-roast aromas.

  13. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Robusta coffee beans ointment on full thickness wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorinta Putri Kenisa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic lesions, whether chemical, physical, or thermal in nature, are among the most common lesion in the mouth. Wound healing is essential for the maintenance of normal structure, function, and survival of organisms. Experiments of Robusta coffee powder on rat-induced alloxan incision wound, clinically demonstrated similar healing rate with the povidone iodine 10%. No studies that look directly the effect of coffee extract in ointment form when viewed in terms of histopathology. Robusta coffee bean (Coffea canephora consists of chlorogenic acid (CGA and caffeic acid which are belived to act as antioxidant and take part in wound healing process. Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the enhancement of healing process of full-thickness skin wound after Robusta coffee beans extract ointment application. Methods: Sample consisted of 20 Cavia cabaya treated with full-thickness with wounds and was given Robusta coffee beans extract ointment concentration range of 22.5%, 45%, and 90% except the control group which was given ointment base material. Animals were then harvested on the fourth day and made for histopathological preparations. Data were calculated and compared by one-way ANOVA test and LSD test. Results: The study showed that Robusta coffee bean extract ointment can increase the number of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and blood vessels by the presence of chlorogenic acid (CGA and Caffeic acid. Conclusion: In conclusion Robusta coffee bean extract ointment enhance the healing process of fullthickness skin wound of Cavia cabaya.Latar belakang: Lesi traumatik, baik akibat rangsang kimia, fisik, atau termal, merupakan lesi yang paling umum terjadi di dalam rongga mulut. Penyembuhan luka yang terjadi ini penting untuk pemeliharaan struktur normal, fungsi, dan kelangsungan hidup organisme. Percobaan pemberian bubuk kopi Robusta terhadap luka sayatan pada tikus yang diinduksi aloksan, secara klinis

  15. Decolorization of indigo carmine by charcoal from extracted residue of coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takeo; Hirata, Mizuho; Kawasaki, Naohito; Tanada, Seiki; Tamura, Takamichi; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2003-03-01

    The adsorption ability of charcoal from extracted residue of coffee beans for indigo carmine removal was investigated by the batch method. Differences in the removal ratio and removal rate of indigo carmine could be explained by differences in the properties of charcoal. In the relationship between the amount of indigo carmine adsorbed and the square root of elapsed time, a good linearity was recognized. Since the relationship between the amount of indigo carmine adsorbed and square root of elapsed time showed a good linearity, the intraparticle diffusion of indigo carmine onto pores of adsorbents was identified as the rate-limiting step in the adsorption process.

  16. Composição volátil dos defeitos intrínsecos do café por CG/EM-headspace Volatile composition of intrinsic defective coffee beans by GC/MS-headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D. C. C. Bandeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of Brazilian raw coffee production is considered inappropriate for exportation. Consequently, these beans are incorporated to good quality beans in the Brazilian market. This by-product of coffee industry is called PVA due to the presence of black (P, green (V and sour (A defective beans which are known to contribute considerably for cup quality decrease. Data on the volatile composition of Brazilian defective coffee beans are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the volatile composition of immature, black-immature, black defective beans and PVA compared to good quality beans. Potential defective beans markers were identified.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of ochratoxin A contamination in green coffee beans using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taradolsirithitikul, Panchita; Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Dachoupakan Sirisomboon, Cheewanun

    2017-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such, rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee beans in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. PLSR models were generated using pretreated spectroscopic data to predict the OTA concentration. The best model displayed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814, a standard error of prediction (SEP and bias of 1.965 µg kg -1 and 0.358 µg kg -1 , respectively. Additionally, a PLS-DA model was also generated, displaying a classification accuracy of 96.83% for a non-OTA contaminated model and 80.95% for an OTA contaminated model, with an overall classification accuracy of 88.89%. The results demonstrate that the developed model could be used for detecting OTA contamination in green coffee beans in either a quantitative or qualitative manner. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Development of new analytical methods for the determination of caffeine content in aqueous solution of green coffee beans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weldegebreal, Blen; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2017-01-01

    .... The caffeine content of the green coffee beans was found to be 1.52 ± 0.09 (% w/w) using FT-IR-ATR, 1.50 ± 0.14 (% w/w) using NIR and 1.50 ± 0.05 (% w/w) using fluorescence spectroscopy...

  19. Exhaustive Qualitative LC-DAD-MSn Analysis of Arabica Green Coffee Beans: Cinnamoyl-glycosides and Cinnamoylshikimic Acids as New Polyphenols in Green Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Gema; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

    2016-12-28

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, due to its unique aroma and stimulant properties. Although its health effects are controversial, moderate intake seems to be beneficial. The present work deals with the characterization and quantification of polyphenols and methylxanthines in four Arabica green coffee beans from different geographical origins. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Forty-three polyphenols (cinnamic acid, cinnamoyl-amide, 5 cinammoyl-glycosides, and 36 cinnamate esters) were identified using LC-MSn. Among these, cinnamate esters of six different chemical groups (including two dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers, three caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acid isomers, caffeoyl-sinapoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl-feruloylquinic acid, two caffeoylshikimic acid isomers, and trimethoxycinnamoylshikimic acid) in addition to five isomers of cinnamoyl-glycosides called caffeoyl-2,7-anhydro-3-deoxy-2-octulopyranosic acid (CDOA) are described for the first time in Arabica green coffee beans. Moreover, 38 polyphenols (6-7% w/w) and 2 methylxanthines (1.3% w/w) were quantified by HPLC-DAD. Caffeoylquinic was the most abundant group of compounds (up to 85.5%) followed by dicaffeoylquinic and feruloylquinic acids (up to 8 and 7%, respectively) and the newly identified cinnamoyl-glycosides (CDOA) (up to 2.5%). Caffeine was the main methylxanthine (99.8%), with minimal amounts of theobromine (0.2%). African coffees (from Kenya and Ethiopia) showed higher polyphenolic content than American beans (from Brazil and Colombia), whereas methylxanthine contents varied randomly. Both phenols and methylxanthines contributed to the antioxidant capacity associated with green coffee, with a higher contribution of polyphenols. We conclude that green coffee represents an important source of polyphenols and methylxanthines, with high antioxidant capacity.

  20. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  1. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  2. Effect of temperature and relative humidity during transportation on green coffee bean moisture content and ochratoxin A production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Cabrera, Hector A; Menezes, Hilary C; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Canepa, Frederico; Teixeira, Aldir A; Carvalhaes, Nelson; Santi, Domenico; Leme, Plinio T Z; Yotsuyanagi, Katumi; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2007-01-01

    Changes in temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of green coffee beans were monitored during transportation of coffee from Brazil to Italy. Six containers (three conventional and three prototype) were stowed in three different places (hold, first floor, and deck) on the ship. Each prototype was located next to a conventional container. The moisture content of the coffee in the container located on the first floor was less affected by environmental variations (0.7%) than that in the hold and on the deck. Coffee located in the hold showed the highest variation in moisture content (3%); in addition, the container showed visible condensation. Coffee transported on the deck showed an intermediary variation in moisture (2%), and there was no visible condensation. The variation in coffee moisture content of the prototype containers was similar to that of the conventional ones, especially in the top layers of coffee bags (2 to 3%), while the increase in water activity was 0.70. This suggests that diffusion of moisture occurs very slowly inside the cargo and that there are thus sufficient time and conditions for fungal growth. The regions of the container near the wall and ceiling are susceptible to condensation since they are close to the headspace with its high relative humidity. Ochratoxin A production occurred in coffee located at the top of the container on the deck and in the wet bags from the hold (those found to be wet on opening the containers at the final destination).

  3. Roasting Enhances the Anti-Cataract Effect of Coffee Beans: Ameliorating Selenite-Induced Cataracts in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Nana; Oguchi, Jun; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobata, Kenji; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-06-01

    Coffee is a widely consumed beverage. While recent studies have linked its intake to a reduced risk of cataracts, caffeine is believed to be the key factor for its effect. To know how roasting beans affects the effect of coffee on cataract formation, we investigated the impact roasting using a selenite-induced cataract rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were given a single injection of sodium selenite, which induced formation of nuclear cataracts by day 6, with or without coffee intake (100% coffee, 0.2 mL/day) for following 3 days. The concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) in selenite-induced cataract lenses declined to half that of controls. However, 3 days of coffee intake ameliorated the reduction of GSH and AsA so that concentrations remained at 70-80% that of controls. Roasting enhanced the preventive effect of coffee by further reducing cataract formation and ameliorating selenite-induced reduction of antioxidants. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed degradation of chlorogenic acid and generation of pyrocatechol during the coffee roasting process. We discovered that pyrocatechol, at doses equivalent to that found in dark-roasted coffee, was equally effective as caffeine at reducing cataract formation and ameliorating the reduction of antioxidants. Our results indicate that pyrocatechol, generated during the roasting process, acts as an antioxidant together with caffeine to prevent cataract formation.

  4. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Bel Air station, in Dakar using 15N isotope dilution technique and the non nodulating soybean (Glycine max) variety m129 as reference plant to test the compatibility of Dichlorofenthion-thiram (DCT) fungicide to the inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Paulista variety with ...

  5. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  6. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  7. Optimizing of Arabica Coffee Bean Fermentation Process Using a Controlled Fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One  of  primary  coffee  processing  steps  which  affect  the  end  quality  isfermentation.  Fermentation  using  a  controlled  fermentor  might  be  usefulbecause  all  of  parameters  which  influence  coffee  quality  can  be  controlled.The  aim of this  research is to evaluate  performance  of  controlled fermentor forfermentation  process  of  Arabica  coffee  beans.  Main  material  of  this  researchwas ripe Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Research Station in Bondowoso district.  Research  parameters  were  temperature  with  four  levels  i.e.:  ambient temperature,  30o C,  35oC  and  40oC,  and  fermentation  time  with  three  levels  i.e.: 6  hours,  12  hours,  and  18  hours.  A  horizontal  type  of  modified  fermentor  has been  tested  with  20  kg/batch  or  50%  of  maximum  loading  capacity.  The  result showed  that  an  electric  heater  as  energy  source  can  raise  temperature  duringfermentation  process.  Fermentation  process  using  fermentor  at  30-40oC had  not  significant  effect  on  physical  properties  change  such  as  density,  beancount  per  100  g  and  distribution  of  beans.  Optimum  condition  for  Arabica fermentation  process  in  a  modified  fermentor  reactor  was  25oC  temperature, and  12  hours  fermentation  time.  By  this  condition,  green  beans  have  good organoleptic  score  than  other  fermentation  process  treatments. Key words: Fermentor, fermentation, coffee, quality, organoleptic, horizontal cylinder.

  8. Energy restriction combined with green coffee bean extract affects serum adipocytokines and the body composition in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Samadi, Mehnoosh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Jalali, Mohammad Taha; Engali, Kambiz Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has become a public health problem and is a cause of some preventable illnesses. Among several methods for treating obesity, the use of food supplements is highly common. A commonly used food supplement is green coffee bean extract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of green coffee bean extract combined with an energy-restricted diet on the body composition and serum adipocytokines in obese women. In this randomised clinical trial, 64 obese women aged 20-45 years were selected and divided into two groups: an intervention group (receiving 400 mg green coffee bean extract for 8 weeks) and control group (receiving placebo). All participants were on an energy-restricted diet. The body composition, leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile, free fatty acids (FFAs), and fasting blood sugar were compared between the two groups. We observed significant reductions in the body weight, body mass and fat mass indices, and waist-to-hip circumference ratio in both groups; however, the decrease was higher in the intervention group. Moreover, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, leptin, and plasma free fatty acids significantly decreased in the intervention group (penergy and fibre intake. The serum adiponectin concentration significantly increased in the intervention group (pcoffee bean extract combined with an energy-restricted diet affects fat accumulation and lipid metabolism and is thus an inexpensive method for weight control in obese people.

  9. Shade-grown coffee in Puerto Rico: Opportunities to preserve biodiversity while reinvigorating a struggling agricultural commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, R.; Collazo, J.A.; Groom, Martha J.; Jordan-Garcia, A.

    2012-01-01

    Shade-grown coffee contributes to biodiversity conservation and has many ecological benefits. We reviewed historical trends in coffee production and interviewed 100 coffee growers in 1999 to determine current management practices and attitudes toward the cultivation of sun and shade coffee in Puerto Rico. We discuss the outlook for the coffee industry in the 21st century and implications for biodiversity conservation, hoping lessons from Puerto Rico will apply to the international coffee industry. Throughout the 20th century, government intervention, including subsidies and technical assistance, supported coffee farming in Puerto Rico. In an effort to modernize coffee production and increase yields, the conversion from shade to sun coffee plantations was encouraged. Despite government support, the amount of land devoted to this once dominant agricultural commodity declined markedly between 1982 and 2007 (84%), due to labor shortages, low income, and catastrophic hurricanes. We found that a return to shaded plantations would be embraced by most farmers. Growers of shaded coffee were generally happier with their cultivation practices (89.3% satisfied) than growers of sun coffee (60.9% satisfied), valued biodiversity, and were willing to cultivate coffee under shade if given similar incentives to those received for farming sun coffee. The future of the coffee industry in Puerto Rico may depend on government programs that capitalize upon emerging markets for sustainably produced, shade-grown coffee. We conclude that where governments have close ties to the coffee industry, they should strive to wed economic development with the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecological services by providing support and incentives for the production of shade coffee. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice

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    Aitani Michio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiological study conducted in Italy indicated that coffee has the greatest antioxidant capacity among the commonly consumed beverages. Green coffee bean is rich in chlorogenic acid and its related compounds. The effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE on fat accumulation and body weight in mice was assessed with the objective of investigating the effect of GCBE on mild obesity. Methods Male ddy mice were fed a standard diet containing GCBE and its principal constituents, namely, caffeine and chlorogenic acid, for 14 days. Further, hepatic triglyceride (TG level was also investigated after consecutive administration (13 days of GCBE and its constituents. To examine the effect of GCBE and its constituents on fat absorption, serum TG changes were evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. In addition, to investigate the effect on hepatic TG metabolism, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT activity in mice was evaluated after consecutive ingestion (6 days of GCBE and its constituents (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and feruloylquinic acid mixture. Results It was found that 0.5% and 1% GCBE reduced visceral fat content and body weight. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid showed a tendency to reduce visceral fat and body weight. Oral administration of GCBE (100 and 200 mg/kg· day for 13 days showed a tendency to reduce hepatic TG in mice. In the same model, chlorogenic acid (60 mg/kg· day reduced hepatic TG level. In mice loaded with olive oil (5 mL/kg, GCBE (200 and 400 mg/kg and caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg reduced serum TG level. GCBE (1%, neochlorogenic acid (0.028% and 0.055% and feruloylquinic acid mixture (0.081% significantly enhanced hepatic CPT activity in mice. However, neither caffeine nor chlorogenic acid alone was found to enhance CPT activity. Conclusion These results suggest that GCBE is possibly effective against weight gain and fat accumulation by inhibition of fat absorption and activation of fat

  11. Responses of two field-grown coffee species to drought and re-hydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Chen, Y.J.; Cao, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The gas exchange, parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence, contents of pigments, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as lipid peroxidation were investigated in two field-grown coffee species, Coffea arabica and C. liberica, exposed to drought and

  12. Effect of coffee combining green coffee bean constituents with typical roasting products on the Nrf2/ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Nadine; Boettler, Ute; Winkler, Swantje; Teller, Nicole; Schwarz, Christoph; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Haupt, Larissa; Griffiths, Lyn R; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika; Marko, Doris

    2012-09-26

    This study investigated Nrf2-activating properties of a coffee blend combining raw coffee bean constituents with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CGA) as a lead component with typical roasting products such as N-methylpyridinium (NMP). In cell culture (HT29) the respective coffee extract (CN-CE) increased nuclear Nrf2 translocation and enhanced the transcription of ARE-dependent genes as exemplified for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)A1, reflected in the protein level by an increase in GST enzyme activity. In a pilot human intervention study (29 healthy volunteers), daily consumption of 750 mL of CN-coffee for 4 weeks increased Nrf2 transcription in peripheral blood lymphocytes on average. However, the transcriptional response pattern of Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes showed substantial interindividual variations. The presence of SNPs in the Nrf2-promoter, reported recently, as well as the detection of GSTT1*0 (null) genotypes in the study collective strengthens the hypothesis that coffee acts as a modulator of Nrf2-dependent gene response in humans, but genetic polymorphisms play an important role in the individual response pattern.

  13. Effect of post-exercise caffeine and green coffee bean extract consumption on blood glucose and insulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Jason R; Gibson, Ann L; Kerksick, Chad M; Conn, Carole A; White, Ailish C; Mermier, Christine M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine and green coffee bean extract on blood glucose and insulin concentrations during a post-exercise oral glucose tolerance test. Ten male cyclists (age: 26 ± 5 y; height: 179.9 ± 5.4 cm; weight: 77.6 ± 13.3 kg; body mass index: 24 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); VO2 peak: 55.9 ± 8.4 mL·kg·min(-1)) participated in this study. In a randomized order, each participant completed three 30-min bouts of cycling at 60% of peak power output. Immediately after exercise, each participant consumed 75 g of dextrose with either 5 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 10 mg/kg of green coffee bean extract (5 mg/kg chlorogenic acid), or placebo. Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and after exercise during completion of the oral glucose tolerance test. No significant time × treatment effects for blood glucose and insulin were found. Two-h glucose and insulin area under the curve values, respectively, for the caffeine (658 ± 74 mmol/L and 30,005 ± 13,304 pmol/L), green coffee bean extract (637 ± 100 mmol/L and 31,965 ± 23,586 pmol/L), and placebo (661 ± 77 mmol/L and 27,020 ± 12,339 pmol/L) trials were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Caffeine and green coffee bean extract did not significantly alter postexercise blood glucose and insulin concentrations when compared with a placebo. More human research is needed to determine the impact of these combined nutritional treatments and exercise on changes in blood glucose and insulin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Orlistat, Green Coffee Bean Extract, and Its Combinations on Lipid Profi le and Adiponectin Levels

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    Joko Setyono

    2017-01-01

    and ethanol extract of green coffee beans at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Lipid profi les and adiponectin levels were measured with a spectrophotometer at 500nm absorbance. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and then post hoc Least Significant Difference (LSD with α = 0.05. Result: Ethanol extract of green coffee is more effi cient in lowering LDL cholesterol, increasing HDL cholesterol, and lowering the total cholesterol levels on HFD diet-induced mice, but there was no difference in lowering triglycerides . The combination of ethanol extract of green coffee with orlistat showedthe increasing of adiponectin levels were highest than the other treatment groups. Discussion: The ethanol extract of green coffee readily diffuses through the digestive tract epithelium. Green coffee contains chlorogenic acid active compounds that can increase the body’s metabolism, increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce levels of triglycerides in the liver, and working to inhibit lipase and amylase pancreaticenzymes. In addition to chlorogenic acid, polyphenol content in coffee is also potentially reduce visceral fat accumulation. Preparations extract by ethanol allows the absorption process is done effi ciently and quickly. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, greencoffee, lipid profi le, adiponectin

  15. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  16. Hydroxyhydroquinone, a by-product of coffee bean roasting, increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in rat thymic lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Risa; Nojima, Shoko; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Setsu, Shoki; Honda, Sari; Masuda, Toshiya; Oyama, Yasuo

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) is generated during coffee bean roasting. A cup of coffee contains 0.1-1.7 mg of HHQ. The actions of HHQ on mammalian DNA were examined because HHQ is a metabolite of benzene, which causes leukemia. Currently, information on the cellular actions of HHQ is limited. We examined the effects of sublethal levels of HHQ on the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) in rat thymic lymphocytes by using a flow cytometric technique with fluorescent probes. HHQ at 10 μM or more significantly elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels by increasing the membrane permeability of divalent cations, resulting in hyperpolarization via the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels. HHQ-induced changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and membrane potential may affect the cell functions of lymphocytes. HHQ-reduced coffee may be preferable in order to avoid the possible adverse effects of HHQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  18. [Cloning and expression of alpha-D-galactosidase from coffee bean (Coffea liberica & Coffea canephora)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Su-Yu; Zheng, Xue-Qin

    2005-09-01

    Alpha-D-galactosidase (alpha-Gal,E.C. 3.2.1.22) is an exo-glycosidase. The enzyme isolated from coffee beans has been well characterized. It has high activity in hydrolyzing the terminal alpha-D-galactoside residues from glycoconjugates on human blood group B erythrocytes, as well as in converting the blood group B into O. A different 1089 bp cDNA open reading frame(ORF) encoding Gal of Coffea liberica & C. canephora was cloned by homology-based RT-PCR. The cloned Gal most closely resembles the corresponding one from C. aribica (98.7% and 99.27% identity). Heterologous overexpression of the two 1.1 kb cDNA fragments was obtained by using one Pichia pastoris stain GS115 and two secret expression vectors, pPICZalphaA and pGAPZalphaA. The expressed protein from P. pastoris stain GS115 was concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and SDS-PAGE assay showed a clear band in the gel. The highest activity of the recombinant enzyme was up to 48.22 U/mL.

  19. Identification of nutritional descriptors of roasting intensity in beverages of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, Antóanto Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; De Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2011-12-01

    Arabica and Robusta coffee beans were roasted at 220 ± 10°C for 7, 9 and 11 min to identify chemical descriptors in the beverages. The pH of the beverages showed the lowest value in the medium roasting level. In each degree of browning, the soluble solids content remained slightly higher in Arabica drinks. The contents of caffeine did not vary, but trigonelline decreased with burning up intensity. Chlorogenic acids also decreased with increasing roasting time. The 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid prevailed in Arabica and Robusta beverages, but the isomers of dicaffeoylquinic and feruolilquínic acids remained higher in Robusta. It was concluded that trigonelline and total caffeoylquinic, fatty dicaffeoylquinic and fatty feruolilquínic acids detached the beverages according to roasting intensity. Caffeine and pH allowed drinks separation between both species. Soluble solids take apart Arabica and Robusta drinks in each degree of roasting. All the individual groups of chlorogenic acids also explained 90% of the variance among samples.

  20. Grãos defeituosos em café colhido verde Occurrence of commercial defective coffee beans in unripe fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teixeira

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de café Mundo Novo, colhidos verdes, após o benefício, foram analisados quanto aos defeitos comerciais que apresentaram. A classificação foi efetuada independentemente, por três classificadores, com a contagem de grãos "normais" e daqueles considerados defeitos, isto é, "verde" (três categorias, "ardido" e "prêto". Notou-se uma elevada porcentagem de grãos normais quanto à coloração, e também a ocorrência de grãos dos tipos "ardido" e "prêto", no café não maduro. Com a remoção da película prateada verificou-se uma redução na porcentagem de grãos "verdes" e um acentuado aumento na porcentagem de grãos "ardidos", e um aumento menor na de grãos "normais" e "prêtos". Estas observações indicam que os grãos normalmente classificados no comércio como "verdes" devem esta característica à côr .anormal da película, e que os grãos "ardidos" têm, como uma das suas origens, a colheita de frutos verdes.The frequency of defective coffee beans was determined in samples of unripe fruits of the cultivar Mundo Novo (Coffea arabica.Ten samples of 1000 seeds each obtained from green fruits after sundrying and shelling were independently scored for the commercial defects by three coffee classifiers. Each one of the classifiers recorded the occurrence of green-coated, brown and black beans before and after removal of the silver skin. The data revealed that more than half of the beans had normal green color whereas 44.9 per cent were green-coated, 3.5 per cent were brown and 0.1 per cent were black beans. The removal of the silver skin affected the previous classification giving 59.7 per cent of normal green beans, 39.5 per cent of brown and 0.3 per cent of black beans. These observations indicated that the so-called green-coated beans are caused by the presence of the silver skin which retains green pigments probably chlorophyll. On the other hand the browns which have been considered as product of over-fermentation were

  1. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Determination of antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract on periodontogenic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, Nagaraj; Sowmya, Nagur Karibasappa; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of pure green coffee bean extract on periodonto pathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were used to assess the antibacterial effect of pure green coffee bean extract against periodonto pathogenic bacteria by micro dilution method and culture method, respectively. MIC values of Pg, Pi and Aa were 0.2 μg/ml whereas Fn showed sensitive at concentration of 3.125 μg/ml. MBC values mirrors the values same as that of MIC. Antimicrobial activity of pure green coffee bean extract against Pg, Pi, Fn and Aa suggests that it could be recommended as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease.

  3. Determination of antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract on periodontogenic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitrostudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of pure green coffee bean extract on periodonto pathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were used to assess the antibacterial effect of pure green coffee bean extract against periodonto pathogenic bacteria by micro dilution method and culture method, respectively. Results: MIC values of Pg, Pi and Aa were 0.2 μg/ml whereas Fn showed sensitive at concentration of 3.125 μg/ml. MBC values mirrors the values same as that of MIC. Conclusion: Antimicrobial activity of pure green coffee bean extract against Pg, Pi, Fn and Aa suggests that it could be recommended as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease.

  4. Can volatile organic metabolites be used to simultaneously assess microbial and mite contamination level in cereal grains and coffee beans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Angelo C; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC-ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans.

  5. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  6. Woody plant diversity and structure of shade-grown-coffee plantations in Northern Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Soto-Pinto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Shade-grown coffee is an agricultural system that contains some forest-like characteristics. However, structure and diversity are poorly known in shade coffee systems. In 61 coffee-growers’ plots of Chiapas, Mexico, structural variables of shade vegetation and coffee yields were measured, recording species and their use. Coffee stands had five vegetation strata. Seventy seven woody species mostly used as wood were found (mean density 371.4 trees per hectare. Ninety percent were native species (40% of the local flora, the remaining were introduced species, mainly fruit trees/shrubs. Diametric distribution resembles that of a secondary forest. Principal Coordinates Analysis grouped plots in four classes by the presence of Inga, however the majority of plots are diverse. There was no difference in equitability among groups or coffee yields. Coffee yield was 835 g clean coffee per shrub, or ca. 1668 kg ha-1. There is a significant role of shade-grown coffee as diversity refuge for woody plants and presumably associated fauna, as well as an opportunity for shade-coffee growers to participate in the new biodiversity-friendly-coffee marketEl café bajo sombra es un sistema agrícola que contiene algunas características de los bosques. Sin embargo, las características estructurales y de diversidad de la sombra del café son poco conocidas. En 61 parcelas de productores del norte de Chiapas, Mexico, se midieron variables estructurales de la vegetación de sombra y los rendimientos de café, registrando las especies y sus usos. Los cafetales presentaron cinco estratos de vegetación. Se encontraron 77 especies leñosas, la mayoría de uso maderable (densidad promedio de 371.4 árboles por hectárea. Noventa por ciento fueron especies nativas (40% de la flora local, el porcentaje restante fueron especies introducidas, principalmente árboles o arbustos frutales. La distribución diamétrica se asemeja a la distribución típica de bosques secundarios

  7. Tree management and environmental conditions affect coffee (Coffea arabica L.) bean quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, A.D.; Vos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Coffees with specific taste and quality fetch higher prices. Although coffee plays a dominant role in the Ethiopian national economy, the country's coffee industry is generally characterized by low productivity and low quality. To address this issue, this study analysed the interactive effect of

  8. Deficiency symptoms and uptake of micronutrients by castor bean grown in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lavres Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean is a nutrient-demanding species, but there is still little information on its micronutrient requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of levels of B (2.5, 12.5 and 25.0 µmol L-1, Cu (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 µmol L-1, Mn (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol L-1 and Zn (0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 µmol L-1 in a nutrient solution on plant B, Cu, Mn and Zn concentrations and uptake, vegetative growth and fruit yield of castor bean "Iris", grown in greenhouse. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. The first deficiency symptoms were observed for B, followed by Zn, Cu and Mn. The main changes in the cell ultrastructure due to lack of B were thickening of the cell walls and middle lamellae, distorted chloroplasts and tightly stacked thylakoids, besides the absence of starch grains. The Mn, Zn and Cu deficiencies led to disruption of chloroplasts, disintegration of thylakoids and absence of amyloplasts. The concentration and uptake of B, Cu, Mn, and Zn in castor bean plants increased with micronutrient supply in the solution. Fruit yield was drastically reduced by B and Mn deficiencies. On the other hand, the dry matter yield of the shoot and root of castor bean plants was not. In the treatment with full nutrient solution, the leaves accumulated 56 and 48 % of the total B and Mn taken up by the plants, respectively, and the seeds and roots 85 and 61 % of the total Cu and Zn taken up, respectively. This shows the high demand of castor bean Iris for B and Mn for fruit yield.

  9. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon H; Abelmann, Anders; Pierce, Jennifer S; Glynn, Meghan E; Henshaw, John L; McCarthy, Lauren A; Lotter, Jason T; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (roast combination and sample location, diketone concentrations during grinding were higher than those measured during roasting. During grinding, concentrations decreased with increased distance from the source. Measured concentrations of both diketones were higher during grinding of soft beans than hard beans. The results indicate that airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1) are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2) are likely to exceed some recommended short-term occupational exposure limits, but; (3) based on previous analyses of exposure response relationships in animal studies, are far below the concentrations that are expected to cause even minimal responses in the human respiratory tract.

  10. On-line process monitoring of coffee roasting by resonant laser ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: bridging the gap from industrial batch roasting to flavour formation inside an individual coffee bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, R; Dorfner, R; Yeretzian, C; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) enables the fast and sensitive on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during coffee roasting. On the one hand, REMPI-TOFMS was applied to monitor roasting gases of an industrial roaster (1500 kg/h capacity), with the aim of determining the roast degree in real-time from the transient chemical signature of VOCs. On the other hand, a previously developed μ-probe sampling device was used to analyse roasting gases from individual coffee beans. The aim was to explore fundamental processes at the individual bean level and link these to phenomena at the batch level. The pioneering single-bean experiments were conducted in two configurations: (1) VOCs formed inside a bean were sampled in situ, i.e. via a drilled μ-hole, from the interior, using a μ-probe (inside). (2) VOCs were sampled on-line in close vicinity of a single coffee bean's surface (outside). The focus was on VOCs originating from hydrolysis and pyrolytic degradation of chlorogenic acids, like feruloyl quinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid. The single bean experiments revealed interesting phenomena. First, differences in time-intensity profiles between inside versus outside (time shift of maximum) were observed and tentatively linked to the permeability of the bean's cell walls material. Second, sharp bursts of some VOCs were observed, while others did exhibit smooth release curves. It is believed that these reflect a direct observation of bean popping during roasting. Finally, discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora was demonstrated based on high-mass volatile markers, exclusively present in spectra of Coffea arabica. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Zamora, A.; Esperón-Rodríguez, M.; Barradas, V.L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE) and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1) and other perturbed (MCF2). We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation. Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity). We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites. Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region. Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement) of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity. (Author)

  12. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo González-Zamora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1 and other perturbed (MCF2. We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation.Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity. We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites.Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region.Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity.

  13. Amounts of NPK removed from soil in harvested coffee berries as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly samples of ripened improved robusta coffee berries from compact and large growth forms from three locations, which are representative of the main ecological zones where coffee is grown in Ghana, were taken for 3 years. The pulp and parchment and beans were analysed for N, P and K contents. The amounts of ...

  14. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  15. Freshness indices of roasted coffee: monitoring the loss of freshness for single serve capsules and roasted whole beans in different packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöss, Alexia N; Schönbächler, Barbara; Rast, Markus; Deuber, Louis; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    With the growing demand for high-quality coffee, it is becoming increasingly important to establish quantitative measures of the freshness of coffee, or the loss thereof, over time. Indeed, freshness has become a critical quality criterion in the specialty coffee scene, where the aim is to deliver the most pleasant flavor in the cup, from highest quality beans. A series of intensity ratios of selected volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of coffee (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were revisited, with the aim to establish robust indicators of freshness of coffee - called freshness indices. Roasted whole beans in four different packaging materials and four commercial capsule systems from the Swiss market were investigated over a period of up to one year of storage time. These measurements revealed three types of insight. First, a clear link between barrier properties of the packaging material and the evolution of selected freshness indices was observed. Packaging materials that contain an aluminum layer offer better protection. Second, processing steps prior to packaging are reflected in the absolute values of freshness indices. Third, differences in the standard deviations of freshness-indices for single serve coffee capsule systems are indicative of differences in the consistency among systems, consistency being an important quality attribute of capsules.

  16. Pathogenic seedborne viruses are rare but Phaseolus vulgaris endornaviruses are common in bean varieties grown in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J R; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in databases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.

  17. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Karaś, Monika; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Szymanowska, Urszula; Baraniak, Barbara; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is important source of natural antioxidants in the diet, such as phenolic compounds, alkaloids, mainly caffeine, diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) and Maillard reaction products formed during roasting. In aqueous and methanolic extracts of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) roasted using traditional techniques from Brazil (B), Colombia (C), Ethiopia (E), Kenya (K) and coffee roasted using an industrial technique from Brazil (T), the phenolic and caffeine content as well as antioxidant properties were determined. Comparing the results from water and methanolic extracts it should be noted that the highest amount of phenolics was determined for a methanolic extract of coffee roasted using the industrial technique (650.96 mg GAE/g DW) and a water extract of Kenya coffee (461.63 mg GAE/g DW). Caffeine content was on average two times higher in all methanolic extracts than in water extracts. The radical scavenging activity of aqueous extracts was found to be higher than methanolic extracts. The highest antioxidant scavenging activity was determined for C (EC50 = 1.16 mg DW/ml) and E (EC50 = 1.3 mg DW/ml) water extracts. Compared to water extracts methanolic extracts showed significantly higher reducing power, ability to chelate Fe2+, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and inhibition of lipoxygenase. This study demonstrated that the methanolic extracts obtained from different types of coffee exhibit potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by traditionally roasted coffees from Colombia and Ethiopia.

  18. Sensory analysis of four cultivars of coffee (Coffea arabica L., grown at different altitudes in the San Martin region - Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Estrella Gamonal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sensory characteristics were evaluated such as aroma, taste, aftertaste, acidity, body, consistency, balance, cleanliness of the cup, sweetness and beverage quality of four coffee cultivars (Catuaí, Caturra, Pache and Catimor harvested from two different attitudes [sic: altitudes] (800-1000 and 1000-1200 meters above sea level in the Province of San Martin - Peru. The focus of this research was to look for significant differences between sensory characteristics evaluated by 05 professional coffee-tasters certified by the Cooperativa Agraria Cafetalera y de Servicios Oro Verde. Ripe cherries were hand-picked, wet processed with natural fermentation and last of all submitted to solar drying. The roasting and grinding procedures followed those specified by the Specialty Coffee Association of America. The coffee-tasters evaluated the sensory attributes on a scale of 6-10 for each criterion. Our results suggested that the sensory quality of Pache and Caturra coffee beans increases the higher the altitude they are cultivated. Although, there is no significant difference between altitudes, the interaction between these two varieties and altitude favors a greater gain in beverage quality as well as aroma, flavor and acidity for the Caturra variety.

  19. Study of composition of espresso coffee prepared from various roast degrees of Coffea arabica L. coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučera, Lukáš; Papoušek, Roman; Kurka, Ondřej; Barták, Petr; Bednář, Petr

    2016-05-15

    Espresso coffee samples prepared at various roasting degrees defined according to its basic conventional classification (light, medium, medium-dark and dark roasted) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained raw data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to evaluate chemical differences between each roasting degrees (untargeted part of study). All four roasting degrees were resolved in appropriate Score plot. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures provided signals of significant markers describing the differences among particular roasting degrees. Detailed interpretation of those signals by targeted LC/MS(2) analysis revealed four groups of compounds. The first two groups involve chlorogenic acids and related lactones. The signals of other two sets of markers were ascribed to some specific atractylosides and particular melanoidins. Ratios of contents of selected representatives of each group to the sum of all identified markers were proposed as definite parameters for determination of roasting degree of Brazilian coffee Arabica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajini; Jawaid, Mohammad; Anumakonda, Varadarajulu; Siengchin, Suchart

    2017-11-01

    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonenzymatic Transglycosylation Reactions Induced by Roasting: New Insights from Models Mimicking Coffee Bean Regions with Distinct Polysaccharide Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Simões, Joana; Nunes, Fernando M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Domingues, Pedro; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2016-03-02

    Three mixtures containing different molar proportions of (β1→4)-D-mannotriose and (α1→5)-L-arabinotriose, oligosaccharides structurally related to coffee polysaccharides (galactomannans and arabinogalactans), were roasted at 200 °C for different periods. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analyses of labeled ((18)O) and unlabeled samples allowed identification of not only nonhybrid oligosaccharides but also hybrid oligosaccharides composed of both hexose and pentose units. The identification of hybrid oligosaccharides allowed us to infer the occurrence of nonenzymatic transglycosylation reactions involving both oligosaccharides in the starting mixtures. Also, it was observed that using different proportions of the oligosaccharides in the starting mixtures and extents of thermal treatment led to a variation in the composition of the compounds formed. These results have led to the conclusion that, depending on the distribution of the polysaccharides in the bean cell walls and the roasting conditions, different nonhybrid and hybrid structures can be formed during coffee roasting.

  2. Naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione concentrations associated with roasting and grinding unflavored coffee beans in a commercial setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon H. Gaffney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, concerns have been raised about potential respiratory health effects associated with occupational exposure to the flavoring additives diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Both of these diketones are also natural components of many foods and beverages, including roasted coffee. To date, there are no published studies characterizing workplace exposures to these diketones during commercial roasting and grinding of unflavored coffee beans. In this study, we measured naturally occurring diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust at a facility that roasts and grinds coffee beans with no added flavoring agents. Sampling was conducted over the course of three roasting batches and three grinding batches at varying distances from a commercial roaster and grinder. The three batches consisted of lightly roasted soft beans, lightly roasted hard beans, and dark roasted hard beans. Roasting occurred for 37 to 41 min, and the grinding process took between 8 and 11 min. Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and respirable dust concentrations measured during roasting ranged from less than the limit of detection (bean/roast combination and sample location, diketone concentrations during grinding were higher than those measured during roasting. During grinding, concentrations decreased with increased distance from the source. Measured concentrations of both diketones were higher during grinding of soft beans than hard beans. The results indicate that airborne concentrations of naturally occurring diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione associated with unflavored coffee processing: (1 are similar to the concentrations that have been measured in food flavoring facilities; (2 are likely to exceed some

  3. Influence of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown in Elevated CO2 on Apatite Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, A. A.; Morra, B.

    2016-12-01

    We ran a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that release of plant nutrients contained in apatite will be accelerated by the growth of Langstrath Stringless green bean in the presence of atmospheric CO2 meant to simulate possible future atmospheric conditions due a higher demand of nutrients and growth rate caused by elevated CO2. We hypothesize that elevated atmospheric CO2 will lead to both increased root growth and organic acid exudation. These two traits will lead to improved acquisition of P derived from apatite. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Plants were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Mini-greenhouses were utilized to control CO2 levels. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution lacking in Ca and P. Calcium and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served as a proxy for apatite dissolution. Plants were harvested biweekly during the eight-week experiment and analyzed for Ca and P to calculate apatite dissolution kinetics. Preliminary results suggest that approximately four times more P and Ca are present in the leachate from experiments containing plants under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels than in abiotic experiments; however, the amounts of both P and Ca released in experiments conducted under both ambient and elevated CO2 levels are similar. Additionally, the amount of P in plant tissue grown under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions is similar. Plants grown in elevated CO2 had a greater root to shoot ratio. The planted microcosms were found to have a lower pH than abiotic controls most likely due to root respiration and exudation of organic acids.

  4. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF CASTOR BEANS GROWN UNDER SALINITY CONDITIONS (VARIETIES BRS ENERGIA, MPA 34 AND MPB 01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL ANTÔNIO PRESOTTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that some plant species exhibit satisfactory production levels when grown under high salinity levels, whereas others exhibit decreased production due to sodium sensitivity even at low sodium concentrations. The castor bean is moderately sensitive to salinity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early growth of three castor bean varieties (BRS Energia, MPA 34 and MPB 01 grown in nutrient solution with increasing sodium concentrations (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol L - 1 . A completely randomized split - plot experimental design was used, with a 5x3 factorial scheme and three replicates per treatment. Salinity resulted in decreased dry weight of all castor bean varieties grown for 31 days under hydroponic conditions. The dry weight accumulation was less affected at the root than at the shoot level. Nevertheless, the shoot dry weight decreased with the increasing salinity. MPA 34 exhibited higher early growth than the remaining tested varieties. Salinity affected the early development of the tested castor bean varieties, and this effect was more pronounced at the shoot than at the root. Variety MPA 34 is promising for cultivation under moderate salinity levels.

  5. In vitro evaluation and determination of responsible fraction of coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves for alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    K. Singh; A. Kafka; B-H Kang; R. Goundra; Y-I Kwon; E. Apostolidis

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Recent studies have identified that hydrophobic phenolic phytochemicals and hydrophilic Amadori compounds have potential for type 2 diabetes management via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Here, we determined the phenolic content, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of water extracts of roasted and unroasted coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves. Sugar beet leaves appeared to have the lowest total phenolic content while unr...

  6. Molecularly imprinted coated graphene oxide solid-phase extraction monolithic capillary column for selective extraction and sensitive determination of phloxine B in coffee bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Haiyun, E-mail: zhaihaiyun@126.com [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Su, Zihao [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Zuanguang, E-mail: chenzg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Zhenping; Yuan, Kaisong; Huang, Lu [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • A new GO-MISPE monolithic capillary column was prepared. • The column showed ability of impurities removal and excellent selectivity. • Phloxine B existed in real sample was enriched more than 90 times. • The GO-MISPE column presented good recovery and high stability. • The method was prospered to analyze phloxine B and LOD achieved 0.3 ng g{sup −1}. - Abstract: A method was developed to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coated graphene oxide (GO) solid-phase extraction (GO-MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPLC–LIF). The GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column was prepared by water-bath in situ polymerization, using GO as supporting material, phloxine B, methacrylic acid (MAA), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the homemade GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column, including capacity and specificity, were investigated under optimized conditions. The GO-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mean recoveries of phloxine B in coffee bean ranged from 89.5% to 91.4% and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values all ranged from 3.6% to 4.7%. Good linearity was obtained over 0.001–2.0 μg mL{sup −1} (r = 0.9995) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.075 ng mL{sup −1}. Under the selected conditions, enrichment factors of over 90-fold were obtained and extraction on the monolithic column effectively cleaned up the coffee bean matrix. The results demonstrated that the proposed GO-MISPE HPLC–LIF method can be applied to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean.

  7. Molecularly imprinted coated graphene oxide solid-phase extraction monolithic capillary column for selective extraction and sensitive determination of phloxine B in coffee bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haiyun; Su, Zihao; Chen, Zuanguang; Liu, Zhenping; Yuan, Kaisong; Huang, Lu

    2015-03-20

    A method was developed to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coated graphene oxide (GO) solid-phase extraction (GO-MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). The GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column was prepared by water-bath in situ polymerization, using GO as supporting material, phloxine B, methacrylic acid (MAA), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the homemade GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column, including capacity and specificity, were investigated under optimized conditions. The GO-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mean recoveries of phloxine B in coffee bean ranged from 89.5% to 91.4% and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values all ranged from 3.6% to 4.7%. Good linearity was obtained over 0.001-2.0 μg mL(-1) (r=0.9995) with the detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.075 ng mL(-1). Under the selected conditions, enrichment factors of over 90-fold were obtained and extraction on the monolithic column effectively cleaned up the coffee bean matrix. The results demonstrated that the proposed GO-MISPE HPLC-LIF method can be applied to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antihypertensive Potential of Combined Extracts of Olive Leaf, Green Coffee Bean and Beetroot: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H.X. Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP, arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in adults with untreated high normal or borderline elevated BP. They were randomised to take an active supplement, comprising 500 mg olive leaf extract, 100 mg green coffee bean extract and 150 mg beet powder, or a matching placebo twice daily for six weeks, followed by the alternate supplement for a further six weeks. Assessments of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP, clinic BP arterial compliance (pulse-wave analysis, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin were obtained at baseline and at the end of each treatment phase. Baseline clinic BP in 37 overweight middle-aged men and women who completed the trial averaged 145/84 mmHg. There was no significant effect of treatment on ABP or any other outcome measure. The failure to confirm prior evidence of the antihypertensive benefits of these extracts emphasises the importance of placebo control and the value of ABP monitoring. Further dose-response evaluation of olive leaf, green coffee bean or beetroot extracts is required to confirm or refute the purported benefits.

  9. Qualidade de grãos de café beneficiados em resposta à adubação potássica Potassium fertilization and the quality of processed coffee beans

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    Enilson de Barros Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O clima e o solo tem elevada influência na qualidade dos grãos de café (Coffea arabica L. beneficiado. Foram instalados dois experimentos sobre latossolo (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico e Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico com o objetivo de verificar a qualidade dos grãos de café beneficiados submetidos à adubação potássica em duas condições edafoclimáticas. Em ambos os locais, os experimentos foram delineados em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, utilizando-se três fontes de K: cloreto de potássio (KCl, sulfato de potássio (K2SO4 e nitrato de potássio (KNO3 nas parcelas e quatro doses de K (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 aplicadas nas subparcelas com quatro repetições. Usou-se nos experimentos o cultivar Catuaí Vermelho no espaçamento 3,5 x 0,7 m, com uma planta por cova. As avaliações foram: atividade enzimática da polifenoloxidase, índice de coloração e açúcares totais. Os valores das características qualitativas dos grãos mostraram que a fonte KCl teve uma resposta inferior em termos de qualidade dos grãos em relação às fontes K2SO4 e KNO3. Estas últimas fontes tiveram melhor resposta quando aplicadas nas condições de São Sebastião do Paraíso do que nas de Patrocínio. Em termos de doses aplicadas, os melhores resultados para qualidade dos grãos foram obtidos com as doses de 200 kg de K ha-1 na forma de KCl e K2SO4 e 100 kg de K ha-1 na forma de KNO3.Climate and soil strongly influence the quality of processed coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans. This work studied the influence of potassium fertilization on the quality of processed coffee beans grown on two Oxisols (Rhodic Acrudox and Xanthic Acrustox. Trials were set up in a completely randomized split plot block design, to test the influence of three sources and four potassium rates - potassium chloride (KCl, potassium sulphate (K2SO4 and potassium nitrate (KNO3 at 0; 100; 200 and 400 kg ha-1, applied to plants of cv. Catua

  10. Microwave assisted thermal treatment of defective coffee beans press cake for the production of adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, Adriana S; Oliveira, Leandro S; Nunes, Anne A; Alves, Cibele C O

    2010-02-01

    Defective coffee press cake, a residue from coffee oil biodiesel production, was evaluated as an adsorbent for removal of basic dyes (methylene blue--MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was prepared by microwave treatment, providing a significant reduction in processing time coupled to an increase in adsorption capacity in comparison to conventional carbonization in a muffle furnace. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 25 degrees C and the effects of particle size, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial solution pH were investigated. Adsorption kinetics was better described by a second-order model. The experimental adsorption equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models, with Langmuir providing the best fit. The results presented in this study show that microwave activation presents great potential as an alternative method in the production of adsorbents.

  11. Chlorogenic acid from coffee beans: evaluating the evidence for a blood pressure-regulating health claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, Tara B; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of coffee has been associated with a number of health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Coffee may help reduce blood pressure (BP) in humans, which might be attributable to its polyphenolic compound, chlorogenic acid. The high incidence of hypertension among Canadians underscores the need for new and effective strategies to reduce BP. Dietary interventions may constitute such a strategy, but consumers need to be informed about which foods are most effective for regulating BP. To guide healthy eating, Health Canada permits the use of health claims on the labels of foods that confer health benefits. Currently, there is only one health claim for BP regulation. Additional health claims for foods that assist in BP regulation are therefore warranted. This review provides background information on chlorogenic acid and examines the evidence regarding the use of chlorogenic acid for BP regulation in the context of Health Canada's health claims framework. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Soil Bacterial Diversity and Productivity of Coffee - Shade Tree Agro-ecosystems

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    Rusdi Evizal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee productions should have environmental values such as providing high soil microbial diversity while producinghigh yield. To examine that purposes, two experimental plots were constucted at benchmark site of Conservationand Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity (CSM-BGBD, in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, WestLampung, Indonesia, during 2007-2010. Types of coffee agro-ecosystem to be examined were Coffea canephorawith shade trees of Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina sububrams, Michelia champaca, and no shade. Two plots wereconstructed at 5-years-coffee and 15-years-coffee. Diversity of soil bacteria was determined based on DNA fingerprinting of total soil bacteria using Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA method. The results showed that:(1 For mature coffee (15 years old, shade-grown coffee agro-ecosystems had higher soil bacterial diversity thanthose of no shade coffee agro-ecosystem, (2 Shaded coffee agro-ecosystems were able to conserve soil bacterialdiversity better than no-shade coffee agro-ecosystem. Soil organic C and total litter biomass had positive effect onsoil bacterial diversity, (3 Types of agro-ecosystem significantly affected the bean yield of 15 years coffee. Coffeeagro-ecosystems shaded by legume trees had higher yield than those of non-legume shade and no shade coffeeagro-ecosystem, (4 Shannon-Weaver indices of soil bacterial diversity together with weed biomass and N contentof coffee leaf had positive effect on coffee bean yield.

  13. Carotenoids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown on soil enriched with spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rebeca; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, José Alberto; Casal, Susana

    2012-02-07

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%). This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  14. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Casal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v. All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%. This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  15. Quantitative studies on the influence of the bean roasting parameters and hot water percolation on the concentrations of bitter compounds in coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-03-24

    To investigate the influence of roasting time and temperature on the degradation of the bitter precursors 3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (2), and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (3) as well as the formation of bitter tastants during coffee roasting, we prepared coffee brews from beans roasted either at 260 degrees C for 60-600 s or for 240 s at 190-280 degrees C. By means of HPLC-UV/vis and HPLC-MS/MS, bitter-tasting monocaffeoyl quinides (4-8), dicaffeoyl quinides (9-11), and 4-vinylcatechol oligomers (12-20) as well as the parent bitter precursors 1-3 were quantitatively analyzed in these brews. Quinides 4-11, exhibiting a coffee-typical bitter taste profile, were found to be preferentially formed under slight to medium roasting degrees and were observed to be degraded again to generate harsh bitter-tasting 4-vinylcatechol oligomers under more severe roasting conditions, thus matching the change in bitter taste quality observed by means of sensory studies. In addition, quantitative studies of the release profile of bitter compounds from ground coffee upon water percolation revealed that compounds 1-8 were rapidly extracted, dicaffeoyl quinides 9-11 were released rather slowly, and, in particular, compounds 12-17 were found to show strong retention to the ground coffee material. These data imply that the knowledge-based control of the roasting and/or the extraction conditions might be helpful in tailoring the bitter taste signature of coffee beverages.

  16. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  17. Do French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in proximity to Mt Kenya forest- Kenya- experience pollination deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Masiga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yields of commercially important crops in Kenya are often far below their potential. Amongst the possible reasons for such low yields may be the ecosystem degradation that can be expected to have negative impacts on pollinator presence in cropland, and the consequent food security issue for smallholder farmers who depend on these crops for their livelihood. Our study was carried out to assess the potential pollination deficit of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major export vegetable crop in Kenya grown by small-scale farmers. Sufficient pollination of French beans likely results in high seed set and uniform heavier green pods. Such pods get the highest grade while malformed pods are unmarketable, reducing family income. We hypothesized that pollination success was linked to the abundance and diversity of large pollinators, itself associated with the proximity to natural habitats. Flower visitors to French beans were sampled in 2011 and 2012 in ten farmer-managed plots, five within 200 m from the edge of Mt. Kenya forest and five farther away, more than 1000 m. Each plot measured 760 m2 and was planted at the same time, with the “Julia” variety. Flowers were observed for 2 h in each plot once weekly for three weeks at peak flowering from 0900-1100 h in the morning and 1200 – 1400 h in the afternoon on alternate days. Honey bees (Apis mellifera were the most abundant visitors of French bean flowers followed by carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp. and leafcutter bees (Megachile spp.. Significantly higher numbers of leafcutter bees were recorded on farms far to the forest. There was no significant difference in honey bee abundance among the study sites, probably because apiaries and wild colonies are located across the landscape. French bean yield was significantly correlated with the mean abundance of carpenter bees in 2011. This suggests the possible occurrence of pollination deficit in French beans where the density of carpenter bees is

  18. The climatic-environmental significance, status and socio-economic perspective of the grown-shade coffee agroecosystems in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Loreto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate and vegetation coexist in a dynamic equilibrium. However, lack of vegetation can cause local and regional climate changes. Grown-shade coffee agroecosystem provides resources, environmental services and socio-economic benefits. We found that coffee production has decreased but its economical value has increased; however, the socio-economic indicators decreased. High deforestation rate is causing changes in the precipitation patterns and fog frequency, contributing to an environmental and socio-economical crisis in the region. This work presents an analysis of the influence of local and regional climate on the grown-shade coffee in central Veracruz, and the factors involved in land-use change with the respective consequences for the coffee producers.

  19. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  20. Comparison of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity in Three Bean Varieties Grown in Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Gong-Jian; Ndolo, Victoria U; Katundu, Mangani; Kerr, Rachel Bezner; Arntfield, Susan; Beta, Trust

    2016-06-01

    The aims of the current work were: (1) to study the influence of variety and geographical production area on the total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total flavonoid content, total carotenoid content and antioxidant activity in bean varieties (Dimeta, Napirira and Nanyati) from different growing areas in central Malawi, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of establishing a classification based on the geographical areas of the growing regions. A total of 47 bean samples were collected from Makowe, Mphathi, Chuma-Chitsala and Khulungira Zone. These four locations were segregated based on altitude, latitude and longitude. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to distinguish and classify among these samples. Significant differences (P phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity could serve as parameters to establish a bean classification according to the geographical area of production.

  1. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans, cafestol, as an agonist ligand for the farnesoid and pregnane X receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Kreeft, Arja J.; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.; Moen, Corina J. A.; Mueller, Michael; Frants, Rune R.; Kasanmoentalib, Soemini; Post, Sabine M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Porter, J. Gordon; Katan, Martijn B.; Hofker, Marten H.; Moore, David D.

    Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetiere coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound-knownin the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol,

  2. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  3. Influência dos grãos deteriorados ("tipo" sobre a qualidade da "bebida" de café Influence of deteriorated coffee beans on the taste of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lazzarini

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a hipótese de que os grãos de café deteriorados - parcial ou totalmente - existentes normalmente no café beneficiado, pudessem ocasionar desvalorização na qualidade da BEBIDA além do natural rebaixamento do TIPO. Em amostras de café de diversas procedências foi constatado que há acentuada influência dos grãos deteriorados na qualidade da bebida. Cafés isentos de grãos deteriorados foram classificados como de bebida estritamente mole ou mole tornando-se de bebida dura quando nesse mesmo café se encontrou elevada quantidade daqueles grãos. Com menores proporções de grãos deteriorados eram obtidas bebidas de classificação intermediária. Para os cafés de bebida Rio não houve variação na classificação: as amostras com ou sem grãos deteriorados se apresentavam sempre com a mesma bebida.Partly or fully deteriorated beans are present in varying amounts in commercial coffee. They seem to have been affected by external agents prior to drying and vary in color from almost normal to black. The experiments reported in this paper were designed to study the influence of the deteriorated beans on the coffee flavor. Samples were secured from the various coffee growing areas of São Paulo: Campinas, Ribeirão Prêto, Mococa, Pindorama, and Vale do Paraíba. Each was hand--graded, the partly or fully deteriorated beans being separated from the normal ones. The normal beans were then mixed with varying amounts of partly or fully deteriorated beans from the same samples. The following blends were prepared for each of the coffee sources: 1 . normal beans only 2. partly deteriorated beans exclusively 3. mixture of normal beans plus 10% in weight of partly deteriorated ones 4. ditto with 20% 5. ditto with 40% 6. ditto with 2.5% of fully deteriorated beans 7. ditto with 5% 8. ditto with 10% The 8 treatments for each source were replicated 4 times, giving thus a total of 256 variables. They were then submitted to

  4. Effect of Magnesium on Gas Exchange and Photosynthetic Efficiency of Coffee Plants Grown under Different Light Levels

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    Kaio Gonçalves de Lima Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of magnesium on the gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency of Coffee seedlings grown in nutrient solution under different light levels. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions in growth chambers and nutrient solution at the Department of Plant Pathology of the Federal University of Lavras. The treatments consisted of five different Mg concentrations (0, 48, 96, 192 and 384 mg·L−1 and four light levels (80, 160, 240 and 320 µmol photon m−2·s−1. Both the Mg concentration and light levels affected gas exchange in the coffee plants. Photosynthesis increased linearly with the increasing light, indicating that the light levels tested were low for this crop. The highest CO2 assimilation rate, lowest transpiration, and highest water use efficiency were observed with 250 mg·Mg·L−1, indicating that this concentration was the optimal Mg supply for the tested light levels.

  5. Efeito da irrigação sobre a classificação do café Irrigation effect on coffee beans classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo A. de P. Custódio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da irrigação sobre a classificação do café grão cru, quanto ao tipo, formato do grão e sua granulometria, nas cinco primeiras safras, em lavoura irrigada por pivô- central, aplicando-se cinco lâminas de irrigação em função do balanço entre a evaporação do tanque classe A (ECA e precipitação (P, além de tratamento-testemunha (não-irrigado. A cultivar plantada foi a Rubi, em março de 1999, no espaçamento de 3,5 m entre linhas e 0,8 m entre plantas. Não foi observado efeito significativo da irrigação sobre os aspectos estudados: tipo (defeitos intrínsecos, formato (grãos chatos e moca e granulometria dos grãos (peneiras. Contudo, entre as classes de defeito, os grãos verdes e ardidos foram os que apresentaram os maiores percentuais de defeitos para todas as safras estudadas e lâminas aplicadas. No que se refere às classes granulométricas, os tratamentos que receberam lâminas de 60% e 80% da ECA apresentaram os maiores percentuais de café médio (peneiras 15 e 16, 55,6% e 55,3%, respectivamente. O efeito da irrigação sobre a classificação do café grão cru, quanto ao tipo (número de defeitos, apresentou-se mais suscetível devido aos maiores coeficientes de variabilidade (C.V. obtidos quando comparados a granulometria e o formato dos grãos.This study was carried on to verify the irrigation effects on coffee classification related to bean type, shape and size. These characteristics were investigated. The plants were irrigated by a center pivot where five different water depths were applied based on the difference between precipitation and evaporation from a Class A Pan (ECA. The cultivar planted was Rubi, installed in March 1999, spaced 3.5 meters between rows and 0.8 meters between plants. Statistical differences were not observed on the studied factors type (intrinsic defects, format (plain beans and "moca" and size (sieves. Among the types of defects, green and sour beans were the ones

  6. Manganese and zinc leaf application on common bean grown on a "Cerrado" soil

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    Teixeira Itamar Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of micronutrient deficiencies, mainly of manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn in "cerrado" soils, has been increasing in several crops, including bean. Such a problem is caused by high rates of liming material applied entirely on the soil surface. In this study, the effects of the leaf application of Mn and Zn rates were evaluated. Three experiments were carried out: two in greenhouse and one under field conditions. The greenhouse experiments were set up using a randomized block design and a 5 x 5 factorial, with three replicates, consisting of five rates of Mn (0, 75, 150, 300, and 600 g ha-1 and five rates of Zn (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 g ha-1 applied via leaves at the 25th day, or both alternatively parceled at 25 and 35 days after emergency (DAE, respectively, for the first and second experiments. In the field experiment, a randomized block design was used with four replicates, and the same treatments as those used in the greenhouse. Leaf applications performed at 25 and 35 DAE were efficient in correcting the symptoms of the Mn and Zn deficiencies. The combined application of Mn and Zn caused an increase in plant height, primary yield components as number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, and productivity itself. The maximum technical efficiency was obtained with 315 g ha-1 Mn and 280 g ha-1 Zn for a bean productivity of 2.275 kg ha-1, corresponding to 60% above control.

  7. Changes in sensory quality characteristics of coffee during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis...

  8. Coffee bean extracts rich and poor in kahweol both give rise to elevation of liver enzymes in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouten Evert G

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee oil potently raises serum cholesterol levels in humans. The diterpenes cafestol and kahweol are responsible for this elevation. Coffee oil also causes elevation of liver enzyme levels in serum. It has been suggested that cafestol is mainly responsible for the effect on serum cholesterol levels and that kahweol is mainly responsible for the effect on liver enzyme levels. The objective of this study was to investigate whether coffee oil that only contains a minute amount of kahweol indeed does not cause elevation of liver enzyme levels. Methods The response of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT to Robusta coffee oil (62 mg/day cafestol, 1.6 mg/day kahweol was measured in 18 healthy volunteers. Results After nine days one subject was taken off Robusta oil treatment due to an ALAT level of 3.6 times the upper limit of normal (ULN. Another two subjects stopped treatment due to other reasons. After 16 days another two subjects were taken off Robusta oil treatment. One of those subjects had levels of 5.8 ULN for ALAT and 2.0 ULN for ASAT; the other subject had an ALAT level of 12.4 ULN and an ASAT level of 4.7 ULN. It was then decided to terminate the study. The median response of subjects to Robusta oil after 16 days was 0.27 ULN (n = 15, 25th,75th percentile: 0.09;0.53 for ALAT and 0.06 ULN (25th,75th percentile -0.06;0.22 for ASAT. Conclusions We conclude that the effect on liver enzyme levels of coffee oil containing hardly any kahweol is similar to that of coffee oil containing high amounts of kahweol. Therefore it is unlikely that kahweol is the component of coffee oil that is responsible for the effect. Furthermore, we conclude that otherwise unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels observed in patients might be caused by a switch from consumption of filtered coffee to unfiltered coffee.

  9. determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    The radioactivity level in soil can plausible be used to show the magnitude of contamination in locally grown food crops, but it cannot describe the biological effects of radiation exposure to individuals who consume that food. Therefore the estimation of doses is usually carried out for assessing health safety of an individual.

  10. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Fátima Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L. were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems.

  11. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems.

  12. Teor de óleo e de cafeína em variedades de café Oil and caffeine content in the coffee bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Tango

    1963-01-01

    content in the coffee bean. The value of the lr allele was stressed in reducing the caffeine content in the coffee selected cultivars.

  13. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinson JA

    2012-01-01

    .Keywords: green coffee bean extract, chlorogenic acid, body mass index, weight loss, body fat mass, blood pressure, heart rate

  14. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  15. PRESENCE OF ASPERGILLUS AND OTHER FUNGAL SYMBIONTS IN COFFEE BEANS FROM COLOMBIA Presencia de Aspergillus y otros simbiontes fúngicos en granos de café procedentes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL ÁNGEL GAMBOA-GAITÁN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common inhabitants of plants and plant-derived products. Some of these fungal species are potentially dangerous to human health since they are able to produce chemical substances that alter normal physiological activity. There are no studies about natural mycoflora associated with coffee beans in Colombia, and nothing is known about the presence and abundance of toxigenic fungal species in Colombian coffee. In this study 5,000 coffee beans were studied by plating them on potato-based artificial culture medium and it was shown that potentially toxigenic fungal taxa (mostly from genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, are currently found in Colombian coffee beans. This is true for all steps of coffee processing, from berries in trees to toasted grains, including packed coffee ready for retail in supermarkets. Results show that the distribution of these fungi is not random among different steps of coffee processing, which means that some steps are more vulnerable to infection with some fungi that others. The convenience of establishing a program devoted to detect fungi and/or mycotoxins in Colombian commodities, specially coffee, is discussed hereLos hongos son comúnmente encontrados tanto en plantas como en sus productos, bien sea para uso humano o animal. Algunos de tales hongos son potencialmente peligrosos para la salud porque producen compuestos químicos fisiológicamente activos, como alcaloides y toxinas. En Colombia no hay estudios sobre la micoflora naturalmente asociada a granos de café, ni sobre la presencia de especies toxígenas en dicho producto. En este estudio se tomaron muestras de 5.000 granos de café en diferentes estadios de su procesamiento, encontrando que taxones fúngicos potencialmente toxígenos, tales como Aspergillus, Fusarium y Penicillium, son comúnmente encontrados en todos los estadios del procesamiento de café. El estudio incluyó muestras desde el fruto en el árbol hasta café tostado y empacado

  16. A multi-residue method for pesticides analysis in green coffee beans using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Dickow Cardoso, Carmem; Reichert, Bárbara; de Kroon, Marijke; Wind, Wouter; Weber Righi, Laís; Caiel da Silva, Rosselei

    2012-08-17

    In this study, a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using the very selective negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode, was developed and applied in combination with a modified acetonitrile-based extraction method (QuEChERS) for the analysis of a large number of pesticide residues (51 pesticides, including isomers and degradation products) in green coffee beans. A previously developed integrated sample homogenization and extraction method for both pesticides and mycotoxins analysis was used. An homogeneous slurry of green milled coffee beans and water (ratio 1:4, w/w) was prepared and extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (1%), followed by magnesium sulfate addition for phase separation. Aliquots from this extract could be used directly for LC-MS/MS analysis of mycotoxins and LC-amenable pesticides. For GC-MS analysis, a further clean-up was necessary. C18- and PSA-bonded silica were tested as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) sorbents, separate and as a mixture, and the best results were obtained using C18-bonded silica. For the optimal sensitivity and selectivity, GC-MS detection in the NCI-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode had to be used to allow the fast analysis of the difficult coffee bean matrix. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike concentrations, 10, 20 and 50 μg kg(-1), with 6 replicates (n=6) at each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, estimated instrument and method limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOD(i), LOD(m), LOQ(i) and LOQ(m), respectively), accuracy (as recovery %), precision (as RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual pesticide. From the 51 analytes (42 parent pesticides, 4 isomers and 5 degradation products) determined by GC-MS (NCI-SIM), approximately 76% showed average recoveries between 70-120% and 75% and RSD ≤ 20% at the lowest spike concentration of 10 μg kg(-1), the target method LOQ. For the

  17. Classification of Coffee Beans by GC-C-IRMS, GC-MS, and 1H-NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Andrea Arana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work using 1H-NMR we reported encouraging steps towards the construction of a robust expert system for the discrimination of coffees from Colombia versus nearby countries (Brazil and Peru, to assist the recent protected geographical indication granted to Colombian coffee in 2007. This system relies on fingerprints acquired on a 400 MHz magnet and is thus well suited for small scale random screening of samples obtained at resellers or coffee shops. However, this approach cannot easily be implemented at harbour’s installations, due to the elevated operational costs of cryogenic magnets. This limitation implies shipping the samples to the NMR laboratory, making the overall approach slower and thereby more expensive and less attractive for large scale screening at harbours. In this work, we report on our attempt to obtain comparable classification results using alternative techniques that have been reported promising as an alternative to NMR: GC-MS and GC-C-IRMS. Although statistically significant information could be obtained by all three methods, the results show that the quality of the classifiers depends mainly on the number of variables included in the analysis; hence NMR provides an advantage since more molecules are detected to obtain a model with better predictions.

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CAFÉ CEREZA EMPLEANDO TÉCNICAS DE VISIÓN ARTIFICIAL AN ARTIFICIAL VISION SYSTEM FOR CLASSIFICATION OF COFFEE BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Liliana Sandoval Niño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de visión artificial para la clasificación de frutos de café en once categorías dependiendo de su estado de madurez. Para la descripción de la forma, el color y la textura de cada fruto de café se extrajeron 208 características. La reducción del conjunto de características de 208 a 9 se hizo con base en los resultados de dos métodos de selección de características, uno univariado y otro multivariado. Las características seleccionadas corresponden a 4 características de textura, 3 de color y 2 de forma. Este conjunto final de características se evaluó en dos técnicas de clasificación: Bayesiano y redes neuronales. Con el clasificador Bayesiano se obtuvo un error de clasificación del 5,43% y requirió un tiempo de clasificación de 5,5 ms, mientras que usando redes neuronales el error de clasificación fue de 7,46%, pero disminuyó el tiempo de clasificación a 0,8 ms.An artificial vision system for classification of coffee beans, in eleven categories, according to its state of maturity was developed. The description of the coffee beans was done by using 208 characteristics (form, color and texture characteristics. The reduction of the set of characteristics from 208 to 9 was done by using two methods of characteristic selection. The final set of characteristics is composed by 4 texture characteristics, 3 color characteristics and 2 shape characteristics. This final set was evaluated in two classifiers: The Bayesian and a neuronal networks classifier. The classification error obtained by the Bayesian classifier was 5,43%, it required 5,5 ms for the classification process, while the error obtained by neuronal networks classifier was 7,46% and the classification time decreased to 0,8 ms.

  19. Coffee brew melanoidins Structural and Functional Properties of Brown-Colored Coffee Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis was the identification of structural and functional properties of coffee brew melanoidins, and their formation mechanisms, that are formed upon roasting of coffee beans.

  20. Determination of multiple mycotoxins in dietary supplements containing green coffee bean extracts using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Begley, Timothy H; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-22

    An ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 34 mycotoxins in dietary supplements containing green coffee bean (GCB) extracts was developed, evaluated, and used in the analysis of 50 commercial products. A QuEChERS-like procedure was used for isolation of target analytes from the examined matrices. Average recoveries of the analytes were in the range of 75-110%. The precision of the method expressed as relative standard deviation was below 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 1.0 to 50.0 μg/kg and from 2.5 to 100 μg/kg, respectively. Due to matrix effects, the method of standard additions was used to ensure accurate quantitation. Ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, fumonisin B1 and mycophenolic acid were found in 36%, 32%, 10%, and 16% of tested products, respectively. Mycotoxins occurred in the following concentration ranges: ochratoxin A, <1.0-136.9 μg/kg; ochratoxin B, <1.0-20.2 μg/kg; fumonisin B1, <50.0-415.0 μg/kg; mycophenolic acid, <5.0-395.0 μg/kg. High-resolution mass spectrometry operated in full MS and MS/MS mode was used to confirm the identities of the reported compounds.

  1. Co-Combustion of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Derived from Coffee Bean Residue and Diesel in an Oil-Fired Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of co-firing bio-oil produced from the fast pyrolysis process of coffee bean residue and diesel in a 300-kWth oil-fired furnace are investigated. Using bio-oil to completely replace fossil fuels has limitations since bio-oil has undesirable properties, such as high water and oxygen contents, high viscosity, and low heating value. However, a low blend ratio of bio-oil used as a substitute for petroleum-derived oil has advantages; i.e., it can be easily combusted in existing furnaces without modifications. Thus, a promising solution is the partial substitution of diesel with bio-oil, rather than completely replacing it. A furnace test is performed for diesel alone and bio-oil/diesel blends with 5 vol % bio-oil. The results show that excellent stable combustion is observed during the co-firing test. Compared with diesel, with 5 vol % bio-oil content in the blends, both the wall temperature and gas temperature drop only slightly and exhibit similar furnace temperature distribution; meanwhile, comparable NO emissions (smaller than 57 ppm are obtained, and lower CO2 emissions are achieved because biomass is both carbon neutral and renewable. Moreover, SO2 and CO emissions under these two burning conditions are very low; SO2 and CO emissions are smaller than 6 and 35 ppm, respectively.

  2. Triacylglycerol composition of coffee beans (Coffea canephora P.) by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and positive electrospray tandem mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Sérgio D; Artz, William E; Raslan, Délio S; Jham, Gulab N; Takahashi, Jacqueline A

    2005-12-14

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of coffee beans (Coffea canephora P.) was determined by reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The TAGs were separated on a Microsorb RP C-18 column in series with a Supelcosil RP C-18 column using isocratic elution with acetonitrile/2-propanol/hexane (v/v/v, 57:38:5) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for 100 min. Under these conditions, 13 TAGs were identified (elution order): trilinoleyl-glycerol (LLL, 11.76%), dilinolenoyl-palmitoyl-glycerol (PLnLn, 2.94%), dilinoleyl-oleyl-glycerol (OLL, 7.77%), dilinoleyl-palmitoyl-glycerol (PLL, 25.90%), dipalmitoyl-linolenoyl-glycerol (PPLn, 1.66%), dioleoyl-linoleyl-glycerol (OOL, 1.68%), dilinoleyl-stearyl-glycerol (SLL, 8.28%), palmitoyl-oleyl-linoleyl-glycerol (POL, 8.76%), dipalmitoyl-linoleyl-glycerol (PPL, 13.74%), dilinoleyl-arachidyl-glycerol (ALL, 3.51%), trioleoyl-glycerol (OOO, 2.33%), palmitoyl -linoleyl-stearyl -glycerol (PLS, 8.73%), and distearoyl-linolenonyl-glycerol (SSLn, 2.91%). The relative composition (%) was obtained directly from the data system with the photodiode array detector.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characterisation of AC1: a naturally decaffeinated coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Benjamim Benatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the biochemical characteristics of the beans of a naturally decaffeinated Arabica coffee (AC1 discovered in 2004 with those of the widely grown Brazilian Arabica cultivar "Mundo Novo" (MN. Although we observed differences during fruit development, the contents of amino acids, organic acids, chlorogenic acids, soluble sugars and trigonelline were similar in the ripe fruits of AC1 and MN. AC1 beans accumulated theobromine, and caffeine was almost entirely absent. Tests on the supply of [2-14C] adenine and enzymatic analysis of theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase in the endosperm of AC1 confirmed that, as in the leaves, caffeine synthesis is blocked during the methylation of theobromine to caffeine. The quality of the final coffee beverage obtained from AC1 was similar to that of MN.

  5. Vírus da mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee ringspot virus - CoRSV: influência na qualidade da bebida e na produção de grãos de café Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV: influence on the beverage quality and yield of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Jesus Boari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha anular do cafeeiro, causada pelo Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV que é transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, tem sido observada em altas incidências em várias regiões cafeeiras do Estado de Minas Gerais. O CoRSV causa manchas cloróticas arrendondadas ou irregulares nas folhas, caules e frutos. Foi feita uma avaliação do efeito da infecção de frutos do cafeeiro pelo CoRSV na qualidade da bebida por meio de teste bioquímico e de degustação, e também na eventual perda de peso nos grãos. Testes revelaram que grãos provenientes de frutos de café infectados pelo CoRSV apresentavam menor teor de açúcares redutores e maior condutividade elétrica. Houve também depreciação na qualidade de bebida gerada pelos frutos infectados por meio do teste de degustação (teste de xícara. O peso médio dos grãos provenientes de frutos manchados foi cerca de 5% menor do que dos grãos de frutos sem sintomas.Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV, transmitted by the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, has been found in high incidences in several regions of the state of Minas Gerais. It induces chlorotic spots on the leaves and fruits and may induce severe fall of the leaves with implication in the yield. An evaluation was made on the effects of CoRSV-infected coffee berries on the beverage quality as well as on the weight of the beans. Infected beans had less reducing sugars and presented an increase in the electrical conductivity. The quality of the beverage prepared from infected fruits was lower than that of healthy fruits. There was a reduction of about 5% in the weight of beans from infected fruits.

  6. Sistemas de produção de feijão intercalado com cafeeiro adensado recém-plantado Production systems for bean associated with recently planted dense coffee shrub cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner José de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    cafeeiro recém-plantado quando se utiliza seis linhas intercalares de feijoeiro.A field experiment was carried out in a typical dystrophic Red Latosol at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, in order to study the effects of the row numbers and fertilization level of the bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. upon the agronomic performance of the coffee shrub (Coffea arabica L. associated with bean plant. The experimental randomized block design was used with three replicates and factorial scheme 4 x 4 + 1, as involving four intercalary row numbers of the bean plant (one, three, four, and six lines by each inter row of coffee shrub and four fertilization doses (0, 50, 100, and 150% from the fertilization recommended for monocropping, consisting of 20 kg ha-1 N, 40 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 20 kg ha-1 K2O at planting timeplus 30 kg ha-1 N side-dressing, as well as one more additional treatment (monocropping of either coffee shrub or bean plant. The assay was conducted in a recently planted commercial Catucaí farming, whereas the cultivar of the bean plant was BRS-MG-Talismã. The following variables were evaluated for the bean plant: the initial and final stands; the plant heights; and the productivity of the beans with its primary components (pod number per plant, graim number per pod, and average100 graim weight. In coffee shrub, the characteristics under evaluation were the emission of leaf pairs and the increment in either plant height and stem diameter observed between sowing and harvesting the bean plant, as well as the mortality of the coffee shrubs. According to the results the increased number of the bean-plant intercalary rows rather rises the productivity of this leguminous, but reduces the increment of the stem diameter in the recently-planted coffee shrub. From four bean plant rows there is tendency to increased mortality of coffee shrubs, mainly in the absence of the leguminous fertilization. The fertilization up to 150% of the dose recommended to monocropping

  7. COFFEE TO FUEL LONDON BUSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    .... A company called Bio-bean, in partnership with the oil giant Royal Dutch Shell, introduced relatively small amounts of oil produced from coffee grounds into the mix of diesel and biofuels mandated...

  8. Molecular identification of Aspergillus spp. isolated from coffee beans Identificação molecular de Aspergillus spp. isolados de grãos de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciane Magnani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species belonging to the genus Aspergillus are potential producers of ochratoxin A (OA, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Aspergillus that contaminate the inside of coffee beans collected in the stage of maturation and drying, from 16 producing areas located in the northern region of the State of Paraná, in the South of Brazil. A total of 108 isolates of Aspergillus spp. was identified at the species level, by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. The results revealed the presence of potentially ochratoxigenic species in 82% of the geographic regions studied, among which Aspergillus niger was the species most frequently detected, followed by A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius. The presence of A. carbonarius in immature coffee fruits harvested from trees is reported for the first time.Algumas espécies pertencentes ao gênero Aspergillus possuem potencial para produção de Ocratoxina A (OA, uma micotoxina de efeitos nefrotóxicos, imunossupressivos, teratogênicos e carcinogênicos. Com o objetivo de identificar as espécies de Aspergillus que contaminam o interior de grãos de café, foram coletadas amostras em diferentes estádios de maturação do produto, em 16 propriedades produtoras do norte do estado do Paraná. Um total de 108 isolados de Aspergillus spp. foram identificados ao nível de espécie, pelo sequenciamento dos espaços internos transcritos (ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 do DNA ribossomal (rDNA. Os resultados revelaram a presença de espécies potencialmente ocratoxigênicas em 82% das regiões analisadas, sendo dentre estas, Aspergillus niger a espécie mais freqüentemente detectada,seguida por A. ochraceus, e A. carbonarius. É relatada pela primeira vez a presença de A. carbonarius em frutos de café coletados na árvore.

  9. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  10. Translocação e compartimentalização de Zn aplicado via ZnSO4 e ZnEDTA nas folhas de cafeeiro e feijoeiro Translocation and compartmentation of zinc by ZnSO4 e ZnEDTA applied on coffee and bean seedlings leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Alencar de Lima Franco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a translocação e a compartimentalização de Zn, aplicado via foliar nas formas de ZnSO4 e ZnEDTA, foram conduzidos dois ensaios em solução nutritiva, em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se mudas de cafeeiro e feijoeiro, em condições de suficiência e deficiência de Zn. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições em esquema fatorial (2 x 3, correspondendo a dois níveis de Zn na solução nutritiva (suficiência e deficiência e três formas de suprimento de Zn às plantas (ZnSO4 e ZnEDTA a 14mmol L-1 de Zn, ambos em pincelamento na folha, e testemunha sem receber aplicação de Zn. Em ambas as espécies, o ZnSO4 foi mais adsorvido à cutícula da folha do que o ZnEDTA, demonstrando ser a retenção cuticular de Zn importante barreira na sua absorção. O estado nutricional do feijoeiro em Zn afetou o aproveitamento do Zn aplicado via foliar. Tanto a folha pincelada como a planta inteira de feijoeiro adquiriram maior quantidade de Zn do que as do cafeeiro. Em condição de inadequada nutrição em Zn, em ambas as espécies, a utilização de ZnEDTA foi mais eficiente na translocação do Zn. Quando foi aplicado ZnSO4 às folhas de cafeeiro crescidas em solução nutritiva não contendo Zn, houve acúmulo de Zn no caule, indicando que há grande afinidade do Zn2+ do sulfato com as cargas livres existentes nos vasos condutores.Two experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate translocation and compartmentation of ZnSO4 and ZnEDTA applied on leaves of coffee and bean seedlings previously grown under Zn sufficiency or deficiency in nutritive solution in greenhouse. The treatments applied were 14mmol L-1 ZnSO4, ZnEDTA and test without zinc applied on leaves. In both species, ZnSO4 was more retained on leaf cuticle, indicating cuticular zinc retention to be an important barrier in its uptake. The nutritional status of bean plants had a significant effect upon zinc utilization when it was

  11. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY AND NITROGEN DEFICIENCY ON THE CHANGES IN SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLEUS VULGARIS L. GROWN IN HYDROPONIC CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wróbel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the physiological activity of common bean grown under the conditions of stress being induced by salinity and nitrogen deficiency and its lack in substrate. Three series of two-factorial hydroponic experiment with the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Basta were carried out from May to July in 2013–2014. The first experimental factor was three levels of nitrogen content in a Hoagland hydroponic medium (level 1 – a complete medium, level 2 – without 50% N, level 3 – without 100% N. The second experimental factor was three levels of medium salinity (level 1 – no NaCl addition, level 2 – 30 mM NaCl addition, level 3 – 50 mM NaCl addition. Nitrogen deficiency in a Hoagland hydroponic medium, together with increased salinity level, significantly affected the changes in the physiological parameters of the common bean cultivar Basta being tested, i.e. assimilation pigment concentration (chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and chlorophyll-a+b and carotenoids, assimilation and transpiration intensities, and RWC (relative water content. The 50% nitrogen deficiency in medium induced a significant increase in the concentration of all assimilation pigments in common bean leaves and was by far the highest among the experimental variants being tested. A significant decrease in the content of assimilation pigments was observed in the hydroponic mediums without nitrogen and salined with 30 and 50 mM sodium chloride. The interaction of these two experimental factors being analysed, i.e. nitrogen deficiency and its lack in a Hoagland hydroponic medium and its salinity, significantly decreased the intensity of assimilation in bean leaves, while a significant increase in transpiration was observed in the variant without nitrogen and with 50 mM NaCl. The experimental variants being tested had a significant effect on the changes in leaf water balance of the common bean cultivar being tested. Salinity, in interaction with

  12. Effect of Cd stress on the bioavailability of Cd and other mineral nutrition elements in broad bean grown in a loess subsoil amended with municipal sludge compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Nan, Zhongren; Wang, Houcheng; Li, Xiaolin; Zhou, Jian; Yao, Xun; Jin, Pen

    2017-12-26

    Municipal sludge compost (MSC) is commonly used as fertilizer or an amendment in barren soils. However, MSC-borne Cd is of great concern in food safety because of its toxicity. Loess subsoil (LS) is barren and lacks nutrients, but it has a strong ability to absorb and stabilize heavy metals. Hence, LS may be amended with MSC and may reduce the bioavailability of Cd. To simulate the dose effect of the accumulated MSC-borne Cd in amended LS, pot experiments were conducted to study the bioavailability of Cd and other mineral nutrition elements in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Cd stress. Plant height and dry biomass remarkably increased as the physicochemical properties of LS were significantly improved; however, they were not significantly influenced by the added Cd. The Cd in the plants grown in MSC amended-LS (P2) mainly accumulated in roots (32.12 mg kg-1) and then in stems and leaves (6.00 mg kg-1). Less Cd (0.74 mg kg-1) accumulated in the edible parts, where the Cd concentration was 53% lower than that in the edible parts of plants grown in LS (P1). The decreased Cd concentrations in the P2 beans may be due to the biomass dilution effect. Notably, the Cd concentrations in the beans exceeded the national safety limit value (0.2 mg kg-1) when the Cd treatment levels exceeded 2 mg kg-1 in LS and 6 mg kg-1 in amended LS. The MgCl2 extraction procedures can be used to assess Cd bioavailability in amended soil-plant systems. The potential antagonism of Zn and Cu against Cd toxicity in the soil-plant system may explain why this plant can tolerate higher Cd concentrations after MSC application.

  13. Overview on the mechanisms of coffee germination and fermentation and their significance for coffee and coffee beverage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V

    2017-01-22

    Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.

  14. Impact of rhizobial inoculation and reduced N supply on biomass production and biological N2fixation in common bean grown hydroponically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulou, Charis-Konstantina; Liasis, Epifanios; Iannetta, Pietro Pm; Tampakaki, Anastasia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Testing rhizobial inoculation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in hydroponics enables accurate quantification of biological N 2 fixation (BNF) and provides information about the potential of reducing inorganic N fertilizer use. In view of this background, common bean grown on pumice was inoculated with Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 (Rt) and supplied with either full-N (total nitrogen 11.2 mmol L -1 ), 1/3 of full-N or N-free nutrient solution (NS). BNF was quantified at the early pod-filling stage using the 15 N natural abundance method. Full-N supply to Rt-inoculated plants resulted in markedly smaller nodules than less- or zero-N supply, and no BNF. Rt inoculation of full-N-treated plants did not increase biomass and pod yield compared with non-inoculation. Restriction (1/3 of full-N) or omission of inorganic N resulted in successful nodulation and BNF (54.3 and 49.2 kg N ha -1 , corresponding to 58 and 100% of total plant N content respectively) but suppressed dry shoot biomass from 191.7 (full-N, +Rt) to 107.4 and 43.2 g per plant respectively. Nutrient cation uptake was reduced when inorganic N supply was less or omitted. Rt inoculation of hydroponic bean provides no advantage when full-N NS is supplied, while 1/3 of full-N or N-free NS suppresses plant biomass and yield, partly because the restricted NO 3 - supply impairs cation uptake. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  16. Optimation of a Table Conveyor Type Grading Machine to Increase the Performance of Green Coffee Manual Sortation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-01-01

    Coffee consumers request a good quality of green coffee to get a good coffee cup taste. Defective beans e.g. black bean, brown bean and broken bean are associated to low coffee quality which give negative effects to final taste. To meet the standard export requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is generally carried out manually. The method gives better product, so the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwh...

  17. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  18. P Status In Andisol And P Content In Arabica Coffee Seedling Leaves Due To The Application Of Phosphate Providing Microorganisms And Organic Matters In Bener Meriah District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifnalisa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bener Meriah district is one of the arabica coffee producing regions in Indonesia. Most of arabica coffee in Bener Meriah district grown on Andisol. Generally the availability of P in Andisol is very low. Phosphate providing microorganisms and organic matters can be used to increase Andisol P availability. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the application of phosphate providing microorganisms and organic matters on P status in Andisol and P content in arabica coffee seedlings leaves in Bener Meriah district. The experiment used a randomized block design that consisted of two factors. Factor I was the application of phosphate providing microorganisms consisting of without microorganisms Glomus sp. Kurthia sp. Corynebacterium sp. and Listeria sp. Factor II was the application of organic matters consisting of T. diversifolia and coffee bean skins. The results of the study showed that Glomus sp. Kurthia sp. Corynebacterium sp. and Listeria sp. decreased soil P-retention by 2.38 5.12 7.48 9.17 respectively increased soil P-available by 24.85 36.03 52.79 77.33 respectively and increased P-content in the arabica coffee seedling leaves by 22.22 33.33 37.0372.27 respectively compared to without the application of microorganisms. The application of coffee bean skins resulted in lower soil P-retention higher soil P-available and P-content in arabica coffee seedling leaves than T. diversifolia. The application of Listeria sp.-coffee bean skins resulted in the lowest soil P-retention the highest soil P-available and P-content in arabica coffee seedlings leaves.

  19. Association of Arabica coffee quality attributes with selected soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) bean quality attributes differ based on the origin of the produce. Several agro-ecological conditions influence coffee bean quality attributes. Soil chemical properties may be some of the factors affecting the quality attributes. However, no study has so far been conducted to elucidate the association ...

  20. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yashin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc. in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.. Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.

  1. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  2. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro S; Franca, Adriana S; Camargos, Rodrigo R S; Ferraz, Vany P

    2008-05-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters.

  4. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  5. Roasting Effects on Formation Mechanisms of Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Loots, M.J.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the roasting degree on coffee brew melanoidin properties and formation mechanisms was studied. Coffee brew fractions differing in molecular weight (Mw) were isolated from green and light-, medium-, and dark-roasted coffee beans. Isolated fractions were characterized for their

  6. Agronomic effectiveness of biofertilizers with phosphate rock, sulphur and Acidithiobacillus for yam bean grown on a Brazilian tableland acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamford, N P; Santos, P R; Santos, C E S; Freitas, A D S; Dias, S H L; Lira, M A

    2007-04-01

    Phosphate rocks have low available P and soluble P fertilizers have been preferably used in plant crop production, although economic and effective P sources are needed. Experiments were carried out on a Brazilian Typic Fragiudult soil with low available P to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock (PR) compared with soluble phosphate fertilizer. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) inoculated with rhizobia (strains NFB 747 and NFB 748) or not inoculated was the test crop. Biofertilizers were produced in field furrows by mixing phosphate rock (PR) and sulphur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus (S+Ac) in different rates (50, 100, 150 and 200 g S kg(-1) PR), with 60 days of incubation. Treatments were carried out with PR; biofertilizers B(50), B(100), B(150), B(200); triple super phosphate (TSP); B(200) without Acidithiobacillus and a control treatment without P application (P(0)). TSP and biofertilizers plus S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus increased plant growth. Soil acidity and available P increased when biofertilizers B(150) and B(200) were applied. We conclude that biofertilizers may be used as P source; however, long term use will reduce soil pH and potentially reduce crop growth.

  7. Relationship between caffeine content and flavor with light intensity of several coffee Robusta clones

    OpenAIRE

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah; Yusianto Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  8. Relationship Between Caffeine Content and Flavor with Light Intensity of Several Coffee Robusta Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Pranata Erdiansyah, Novie; Yusianto, Yusianto

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCR...

  9. An exploratory investigation of coffee and lemon scents and odor identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosofsky, Alexis; Haupert, Margaret L; Versteeg, Schyler W

    2011-04-01

    Fragrance sellers often provide coffee beans to their customers as a "nasal palate cleanser," to reduce the effects of olfactory adaptation and habituation. To test this idea, college students smelled three fragrances multiple times, rating odors each time. After completing nine trials, participants sniffed coffee beans, lemon slices, or plain air. Participants then indicated which of four presented fragrances had not been previously smelled; Coffee beans did not yield better performance than lemon slices or air.

  10. Application of EPR spectroscopy to the examination of pro-oxidant activity of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna

    2014-05-15

    Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Cellular Mutagenicity of Americano Coffees from Popular Coffee Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.

  12. Ocorrência dos principais defeitos do café em várias fases de maturação dos frutos Occurrence of the main coffee beans deffects in several stages of ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1970-01-01

    samples were monthly collected during the year 1967 and 1968. The so-called abnormal dried fruits have a dull black exocarp, whereas the normal ones have bright black colored shells. The total production of three plants was harvested every month, separated according to the different ripening stages, and then, after drying, were shelled and the proportion of defective beans was scored. The data showed that the so-called green coated beans appear in significant proportions in all stages studied. The highest percentage of these was found in the unriped fruits and in the abnormal dried fruits. Its occurrence decreases as the fruits become more and more mature. The lowest percentage was found in the samples of dried fruits which had fallen on the ground. The green color is produced by the silver skin which retains the green pigment, probably chrolophyll. The brown beans appear more frequently in the fallen fruits and they also occur in a decreasing proportion in the normal and abnormal dried berries and from unriped to over-riped fruits. This type have been considered to be caused by over-fermentation, however our results indicate that it may have other causes, due to their appearance even in the unriped fruits. The high percentage of brown beans in the fruits dried on the tree indicates that the berries must be harvested in the cherry stage to have a high quality product. The black beans, characterized exclusively by the black endosperm, were more frequently found in the berries dried on the tree or in the dried fruits fallen on the ground. It seems reasonable to assume that the black beans represent a more advanced stage of deterioration of the endosperm. The initial stages would, probably, be characterized by the different shades of brown. Based on these findings it is proposed a revision on the defective beans nomenclature in Brazil. Considering the Brazilian system of coffee classification it was suggested that for the nomenclature of the defective beans more emphasis

  13. In vitro investigations of the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba beans (Vicia faba L.): chemopreventative capacity and inhibitory effects on the angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-glucosidase and lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Siem D; Konczak, Izabela; Agboola, Samson; Wood, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Christopher L

    2012-08-01

    The functional properties, including antioxidant and chemopreventative capacities as well as the inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, of three Australian-grown faba bean genotypes (Nura, Rossa and TF(Ic*As)*483/13) were investigated using an array of in vitro assays. Chromatograms of on-line post column derivatisation assay coupled with HPLC revealed the existence of active phenolics (hump) in the coloured genotypes, which was lacking in the white-coloured breeding line, TF(Ic*As)*483/13. Roasting reduced the phenolic content, and diminished antioxidant activity by 10-40 % as measured by the reagent-based assays (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) in all genotypes. Cell culture-based antioxidant activity assay (cellular antioxidant activity) showed an increase of activity in the coloured genotypes after roasting. Faba bean extracts demonstrated cellular protection ability against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (assessed using RAW264.7 cells), and inhibited the proliferation of all human cancer cell lines (BL13, AGS, Hep G2 and HT-29) evaluated. However, the effect of faba bean extracts on the non-transformed human cells (CCD-18Co) was negligible. Flow cytometric analyses showed that faba bean extracts successfully induced apoptosis of HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukaemia) cells. The faba bean extracts also exhibited ACE, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities. Overall, extracts from Nura (buff-coloured) and Rossa (red-coloured) were comparable, while TF(Ic*As)*483/13 (white-coloured) contained the lowest phenolic content and exhibited the least antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities. These results are important to promote the utilisation of faba beans in human diets for various health benefits.

  14. Effects of organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of bush bean, winged bean and yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VC (20%, TC (20% and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata. Plants grown with VC (20% produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2, winged bean (1168.61 g m-2 and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2. In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20% treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1 grown with VC (20%. The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1, winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1 and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1 were also found in VC (20% treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g, followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g and winged bean (22.04 g/100g, under VC (20% treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20% produced the highest yield and yield attributes.

  15. Hydrolysis of isolated coffee mannan and coffee extract by mannanases of Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachslehner, A; Foidl, G; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G; Haltrich, D

    2000-06-23

    Different mannanase preparations obtained from the filamentous fungus Sclerotium rolfsii were used for the hydrolysis of coffee mannan, thus reducing significantly the viscosity of coffee extracts. Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of these extracts and is responsible for their high viscosity, which negatively affects the technological processing of instant coffee. Coffee mannan was isolated from green defatted Arabica beans by delignification, acid wash and subsequent alkali extraction with a yield of 12.8%. Additionally, coffee extract polysaccharides were separated by alcohol precipitation and were found to form nearly half of the coffee extract dry weight. These isolated mannans as well as the mannan in the coffee extract were efficiently hydrolysed by the S. rolfsii mannanase, which resulted in significant viscosity reductions. Concurrently, the reducing sugar content increased continuously due to the release of various mannooligosaccharides including mannotetraose, mannotriose, and mannobiose. Both a partially purified, immobilised and a soluble, crude mannanase preparation were successfully employed for the degradation of coffee mannan.

  16. Innovative Strategies for Control of Coffee Insect Pests in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee insect pests are one of the major factors which affect coffee production and quality. globally, coffee insect pests are estimated to cause losses of about 13%. However in Africa, yield losses can be much higher, particularly where Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown for a long time. In Tanzania the major insect pests ...

  17. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  18. Comparison of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detector and with Tandem Mass Spectrometry methods for detection and quantification of Ochratoxin A in green and roasted coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte da Costa Cunha Bandeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical methods for the determination and confirmation of ochratoxin A (OTA in green and roasted coffee samples were compared. Sample extraction and clean-up were based on liquid-liquid phase extraction and immunoaffinity column. The detection of OTA was carried out with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined either with fluorescence detection (FLD, or positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS. The results obtained with the LC-ESI-MS/MS were specific and more sensitive, with the advantages in terms of unambiguous analyte identification, when compared with the HPLC-FLD.

  19. Effect of a Combination of Extract of Centella asiaticaL. Leaves and Extract of Green Coffee (Coffea canephora robusta P. Beans in a Cream Preparation for Grade 1-3 Cellulite and Slimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riska Febriadne Primastuti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An accumulation of fat in the subcutaneous tissue causes cellulite and dimpling on the surface of the skin. Although not related to obesity, obesity worsens cellulite. There are abundant topical anticellulite creams on the market, but the efficacy of these creams has not been scientifically proven. A combination of Centella asiaticaL. leaves extract and green coffee (Coffea canephora robustaP. bean extract in a cream preparation was clinically tested in 30 women for 84 days in the absence of diet and exercise. The descriptive-true experimental before (T-0-after (T-84 method was used to classify the cellulite (grade 1–3 and to determine the slimming effect. The cellulite appearance and the body circumferences (abdominal and thighperimeters were photographed 5cm and 10cm below the navel and below the gluteal fold. The results of before and after the treatment showed that grade 1 cellulite lower (p< 0.000, the measurement of abdominal circumference showed reduction (p< 0.013, but the measurement of both thigh circumference showed insignificantly reduction (p< 0.512. The combination of both extracts reduce cellulite and fat deposits in the abdominal area, making the volunteers look slimmer.

  20. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  1. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    OpenAIRE

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA; ROXANA SARBU; ELENA CONDREA

    2014-01-01

    The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s). The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many...

  2. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  3. Spectral identifiers from roasting process of Arabica and Robusta green beans using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirani, Ayu Puspa; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Coffee (Coffea spp.) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. World coffee consumption is around 70% comes from Arabica, 26% from Robusta , and the rest 4% from other varieties. Coffee beverages characteristics are related to chemical compositions of its roasted beans. Usually testing of coffee quality is subjectively tasted by an experienced coffee tester. An objective quantitative technique to analyze the chemical contents of coffee beans using LIBS will be reported in this paper. Optimum experimental conditions was using of 120 mJ of laser energy and delay time 1 μs. Elements contained in coffee beans are Ca, W, Sr, Mg, Na, H, K, O, Rb, and Be. The Calcium (Ca) is the main element in the coffee beans. Roasting process will cause the emission intensity of Ca decreased by 42.45%. In addition, discriminant analysis was used to distinguish the arabica and robusta variants, either in its green and roasted coffee beans. Observed identifier elements are Ca, W, Sr, and Mg. Overall chemical composition of roasted coffee beans are affected by many factors, such as the composition of the soil, the location, the weather in the neighborhood of its plantation, and the post-harvesting process of the green coffee beans (drying, storage, fermentation, and roasting methods used).

  4. Modernization of the Grinding Electromechanical Drive System of the Automated Coffee Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Nuca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to espresso coffee machines high quality and some possibilities to increase the level of automation and productivity. Existing machines require manual adjustment of coffee grinder depending on the quality of coffee beans. To eliminate this flaw has been developed and implemented an adjustable electromechanical system with DC servomotor and numerical control of coffee grinder. Computer simulation results demonstrate the functionality of the proposed electromechanical drive system of the coffee grinder

  5. Qualidade do café-cereja descascado produzido na região sul de Minas Gerais Quality of the parchment coffee grown in the southern region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira da Silva

    2004-12-01

    processing, the few studies on the subject and the contradictions observed in the results obtained up to now, the present study aimed to characterize the quality of the parchment coffee produced in the Southern region of Minas Gerais state as well as to assess the influence of the altitude on the quality of these coffees by means of physical, chemical and sensorial analyses of the samples in their original state and after removal of defective beans. Crops of coffee enterprises situated in ranges of altitude varying from 720 to 920 meters and from 920 to 1120 meters were randomly selected. The coffee samples of the 2001/2202 crop were duly collected on 32 farms distributed in 10 towns. At the "Polo de Tecnologia em Qualidade do Café" of the "Universidade Federal de Lavras" (UFLA, the following analyses were performed: water content, total titrable acidity, total sugars and sensorial analyses. The physical, chemical and sensorial analyses accomplished on coffee beans showed that: most parchment coffees present water content bellow the value recommended; the average values of total titrable acidity and total sugars in all the samples analyzed lie within the values characteristic of fine beverages; hard beverage occurs in 75% of the parchment coffee samples with the presence of the defects; the coffees without the presence of the defects produced in the range of altitude of 920 to 1120 meters present body and acidity weaker and sweetness higher than the ones produced in the range of 720 to 920 meters; higher altitudes enable the production of better quality coffees.

  6. Heat of Combustion of Dried and Undried Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giso, Mathew; Amanuel, Samuel

    Globally, over two billion cups of coffee are consumed per day. During roasting, 15-20% of the weight of the coffee beans is lost. We studied the gasses released during the roasting process using an IR spectrometer and identified the evaporation profile of water as a function of temperature. The heat of combustion (Hºc) of the beans was also determined using an Isoperibol Oxygen-Bomb calorimeter and the Hºc of dry beans were determined to be 21.24 +/-0.13 MJ/kg while the Hºc of the wet beans were determined to be 19.56 +/-0.12 MJ/kg. This study can potentially lead to developing more economical and environmentally friendly techniques of roasting coffee beans. This work was partially supported by NSF-DMR: 1229142.

  7. Secagem de café cereja descascado por ar quente e microondas Drying pulped coffee cherry beans by means of hot air ond microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cunha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a viabilidade de produzir café cereja descascado seco pela aplicação de microondas para assistir a secagem convencional a ar quente, a fim de reduzir o tempo de processo, com o aumento do rendimento industrial e da qualidade do produto perante os métodos tradicionais de secagem. Dois ciclos de secagem foram testados: a processo em secador rotativo convencional a ar quente, com umidade do produto reduzida de 45-50 a 11-13% b.u.; b processo subdividido em uma primeira etapa de pré-secagem convencional a ar quente de 45-50 a 30% b.u., seguida de etapa de secagem final por ar quente e microondas, com redução de 30 a 11-13% b.u. de umidade do produto. O tempo global do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de secagem foi reduzido de 15 a 37,5 para pouco mais de 10 horas, respectivamente. A qualidade sensorial do produto foi avaliada pela "prova da xícara", complementada por análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, com resultados satisfatórios. Um estudo preliminar dos aspectos econômicos envolvidos na ampliação de escala para uma linha industrial de processamento de café com a inclusão de um sistema a microondas foi também delineado.This research concerns a process development study focussing the application of microwaves to pulped coffee cherries production, in order to reduce the drying time and increase the industrial yield and product quality when compared to conventional drying processes. Two drying cycles were tested: a a hot air drying process using a conventional batch rotary dryer from 45-50 to 11-13% w.b. product moisture; b a two stage process, whereby the product was pre dried with hot air from 45-50 to 30% w.b., followed by a final microwave and hot air drying stage, to reduce product moisture from 30 to 11-13% w.b. The overall drying time was reduced from 15 to 37.5 hours to about 10 hours, respectively. The sensory quality of the product was evaluated by the "cup test", complemented

  8. variation for green bean caffeine, chlorogenic acid, sucrose and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    991 and 1.681 had relatively low (<1.00%) caffeine content and seem valuable to develop low caffeine coffee variety. Coffee berry disease resistant accessions, 7411.2 and 74158, had relatively higher green bean chlorogenic acid content indicating the association. Ageze is known for better cup quality and had the highest ...

  9. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large

  10. Determination of ochratoxin A levels in ivorian cocoa beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to monitor levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in terms of the marketability of Ivorian cocoa beans stored at the ports of Abidjan and San Pedro. Thus, 270 samples of cocoa beans were analyzed. Merchantability and OTA levels were determined respectively according to the Ivorian Coffee and Cocoa ...

  11. Coffee roasting acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Preston S

    2014-06-01

    Cracking sounds emitted by coffee beans during the roasting process were recorded and analyzed to investigate the potential of using the sounds as the basis for an automated roast monitoring technique. Three parameters were found that could be exploited. Near the end of the roasting process, sounds known as "first crack" exhibit a higher acoustic amplitude than sounds emitted later, known as "second crack." First crack emits more low frequency energy than second crack. Finally, the rate of cracks appearing in the second crack chorus is higher than the rate in the first crack chorus.

  12. Separate effects of the coffee diterpenes cafestol and kahweol on serum lipids and liver transaminases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urgert, R.; Essed, N.; Weg, van der G.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, T.G.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The coffee diterpene cafestol occurs in both robusta and arabica beans. It is present in unfiltered coffee brews and raises serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and alanine aminotransferase in humans. The effects are linear with the cafestol dose. Unfiltered coffee also contains

  13. Metabolism of alkaloids in coffee plants

    OpenAIRE

    ASHIHARA, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Coffee beans contain two types of alkaloids, caffeine and trigonelline, as major components. This review describes the distribution and metabolism of these compounds. Caffeine is synthesised from xanthosine derived from purine nucleotides. The major biosynthetic route is xanthosine -> 7-methylxanthosine -> 7-methylxanthine -> theobromine -> caffeine. Degradation activity of caffeine in coffee plants is very low, but catabolism of theophylline is always present. Theophylline is converted to xa...

  14. KARAKTERISASI ISOTERM SORPSI AIR BIJI KOPI DENGAN MODEL BET DAN GAB Water soption isotherms characterization of green coffee beans by BET and GAB models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2012-03-01

    32 oC and 25 oC temperature storage were 11.93 % and 11.22 % by BET model, and 12.81 % and 11.87 % by GAB model. For Arabica, 11.07 % and 11.09 % by BET model, and 11.65 % and 11.78 % by GAB model.   Keywords : Coffee, water sorption isotherm, water activity, BET, GAB ABSTRAK   Permasalahan dalam mempertahankan mutu selama penyimpanan dan pengiriman berkaitan dengan kadar air dan aktivitas air di dalam bahan. Equilibrium of Moisture Content (EMC didefinisikan sebagai kandungan air pada bahan yang seimbang dengan kandungan air udara sekitarnya. EMC merupakan tolok ukur kemampuan berkembangnya mikro organisme yang menyebabkan terjadinya kerusakan atau pembusukan bahan pada saat penyimpanan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan karakteristik isotermi sorpsi air biji kopi dengan menggunakan model BET dan GAB. Kondisi suhu yang digunakan adalah 25-39 oC sesuai dengan kondisi penyimpanan di daerah tropis. Biji kopi yang digunakan adalah kopi Arabika dan Robusta hasil pengolahan kering dari Sulawesi Selatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan pembagian daerah sorpsi, hasil analisis persamaan garis isotermi sorpsi model BET menunjukkan bahwa kadar air kopi Robusta yang berkeseimbangan dengan menggunakan model BET dan GAB pada kelembaban relatif 70 % pada suhu 32 oC masing-masing 11,93 % dan 11,22 %, sedangkan pada suhu 25 oC adalah 12,81 % dan 11,87 %. Untuk kopi Arabika pada suhu 32 oC masing-masing adalah 11,07 % dan 11,09 %, sedangkan pada suhu 25 oC adalah 11,65 % dan 11,78 %.   Kata kunci : Kopi, isotermi sorpsi air, aktivitas air, BET, GAB

  15. Development of mathematic model for coffee decaffeination with leaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple mathematic model for caffeine kinetic description during the extraction process (leaching of coffee bean was developed. A non­steady diffusion equation coupled with a macroscopic mass transfer equation for solvent was developed and them solved analytically. The kinetic of caffeine extraction from coffee bean is depend on initial caffeine content, final caffeine content, caffeine content at certain time, mass­transfer coefficient, solvent volume, surface area of coffee beans, process time, radius of coffee bean, leaching rate of caffeine, caffeine diffusivity and a are constan, solvent concentration, activation energy, temperature absolute and gas constant. Caffeine internal mass diffusivity was estimated by fitting the model to an experiment using acetic acid and liquid waste of cocoa beans fermentation. The prediction equation for leaching rate of caffeine in coffee beans has been found. It was found that Dk (m2/sec=1.345x10­7—4.1638x10­7, and kL (m/sec=2.445x10­5—5.551x10­5 by acetic acid as solvent depended on temperature and solvent concentration. The prediction equation for length of time to reduce initial caffeine content to certain concentration in coffee beans has been developed, Caffeine diffusivity (Dk and mass­transfer coefficient (kL was found respectively 1.591x 10­7—2.122x10­7 m2/sec and 4.897x10­5—6.529x10­5 m/sec using liquid waste of cocoa bean fermentation as solvent which depend on temperature and solvent concentration. Key words: Coffee, caffeine, decaffeination, leaching, mathematic model.

  16. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  17. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  18. Performance of a table vibration type coffee grading machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available One of important coffee beans quality is the size uniformity. To confirm with the standart requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is still carried out fully manual, so that the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is as a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, machine for grading coffee beans is good alternative for grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table vibration type coffee grading machine for grouping of coffee beans in order to consistent quality and reduce grading cost. The machine has dimension of 272 cm length, 126 cm height, and 144 cm width. The machine has three primary components, i.e. grader table, combustion engine, and beam. The machine has three kinds of grader table that each grader table has different holes size, i.e. 7 mm x 7 mm for top grader table, 5 mm x 5 mm for axle grader table, and 4 mm x 4 mm for bottom grader table. Each grader table has dimension of 206 cm length, 105.5 cm height, and 14 cm width. The grading mechanism is by vibration grader table with the power source 5.5 HP combustion engine. The results shown that the outlet are in farms of three grades of coffee beans with connected to each compartement. Assessment of the grading machine reveals that the optimum capacity of 1,406 kg/hour reached when the speed 2,600 rpm and the angle 10O. Economic analysis showed that operational cost for grading one kilogram Robusta coffee beans with moisture content 13—14% wet basis is Rp 7.17.Key words : grading, coffee, quality, vibration table.

  19. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  1. Positive and negative aspects of green coffee consumption - antioxidant activity versus mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Stanisz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    The quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms that can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage. The antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed higher activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica beans. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in green coffee beans was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, the content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was the dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples, with the highest level at 17.45 ng g -1 . Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples at levels ranging from 1.27 to 4.34 ng g -1 , and fungi potentially producing this toxin, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated. Steaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to legal limits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Microclimatic characterization and productivity of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeon pea in Southern Brazil Caracterização microclimática e produtividade de cafeeiros sombreados com guandu no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivation in agroforestry systems in Southern Brazil have shown the potential of partial shading to improve management of this crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate microclimatic conditions and their effects on coffee production of plants shaded with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan in comparison to unshaded ones, from May 2001 to August 2002 in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. The appraised microclimatic characteristics were: global radiation, photosynthetic and radiation balance; air, leaf and soil temperatures; and soil humidity. Shading caused significant reduction in incident global solar radiation, photosynthetically active radiation and net radiation, and attenuated maximum leaf, air and soil temperatures, during the day. Shade also reduced the rate of cooling of night air and leaf temperatures, especially during nights with radiative frost. Soil moisture at 0-10 cm depth was higher under shade. The shaded coffee plants produced larger cherries due to slower maturation, resulting in larger bean size. Nevertheless, plants under shade emitted less plagiotropic branches, with smaller number of nodes per branch, and fewer nodes with fruits, resulting in a large reduction in coffee production. These results show the need to find an optimal tree density and management that do not compromise coffee production and protect against extreme temperatures.Recentes estudos sobre cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cultivados em sistemas agroflorestais no Sul do Brasil têm mostrado o potencial do sombreamento parcial no manejo desta cultura. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições do microclima e seus efeitos na produção de café sombreado com guandu (Cajanus cajan, em comparação ao cultivado a pleno sol, no período de maio de 2001 a agosto de 2002 em Londrina, PR. As características microclimáticas avaliadas foram: radiação global, fotossintética e saldo de radiação; temperaturas

  3. Sugars metabolism and ethanol production by different yeast strains from coffee industry wastes hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Machado, Ercília M. S.; Carneiro, Lívia M.; Teixeira,J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Significant amounts of wastes are generated by the coffee industry, among of which, coffee silverskin (CS) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the most abundantly generated during the beans roasting and instant coffee preparation, respectively. This study evaluated the sugars metabolism and production of ethanol by three different yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis and Kluyveromyces fragilis) when cultivated in sugar rich hydrolysates produced by acid hydrolysis of CS and...

  4. Modernization of the Grinding Electromechanical Drive System of the Automated Coffee Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie Nuca; Adrian Țurcanu

    2014-01-01

    The paper refers to espresso coffee machines high quality and some possibilities to increase the level of automation and productivity. Existing machines require manual adjustment of coffee grinder depending on the quality of coffee beans. To eliminate this flaw has been developed and implemented an adjustable electromechanical system with DC servomotor and numerical control of coffee grinder. Computer simulation results demonstrate the functionality of the proposed electrome...

  5. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  6. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  7. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes and N Uptake by Coffee Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Sá Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manures are an alternative for substituting or supplementing mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this study was to quantify biological N fixation (BNF and the N contribution derived from BNF (N-BNF to N levels in leaves of coffee intercropped with legumes grown on four family farms located in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following green manures were evaluated: pinto peanuts (Arachis pintoi, calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis, Brazilian stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lablab beans (Dolichos lablab, and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum, and spontaneous plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 4 × 8 factorial arrangement (four agricultural properties and eight green manures, and four replications. One hundred grams of fresh matter of each green manure plant were dried in an oven to obtain the dry matter. We then performed chemical and biochemical characterizations and determined the levels of 15N and 14N, which were used to quantify BNF through the 15N (δ15N natural abundance technique. The legumes C. mucunoides, S. guianensis, C. cajan, and D. lablab had the highest rates of BNF, at 46.1, 45.9, 44.4, and 42.9 %, respectively. C. cajan was the legume that contributed the largest amount of N (44.42 kg ha-1 via BNF.C. cajan, C. spectabilis, and C. mucunoides transferred 55.8, 48.8, and 48.1 %, respectively, of the N from biological fixation to the coffee plants. The use of legumes intercropped with coffee plants is important in supplying N, as well as in transferring N derived from BNF to nutrition of the coffee plants.

  8. Effect of roasting degree on the antioxidant activity of different Arabica coffee quality classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odžaković, Božana; Džinić, Natalija; Kukrić, Zoran; Grujić, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    of coffee depends on a variety of bioactive components in coffee beans. Antioxidant activity largely depends on the class of coffee. The coffee samples of 1stclass quality (maximum 8 black beans/300 g from the sample and large bean size) had higher antioxidant activity compared to samples of 2nd quality class (maximum 19 black beans/300 g in the sample and medium-sized beans).

  9. Analysis of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) performance in relation to radiation level and rate of nitrogen supply II. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen, leaf photosynthesis and first bean yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna Debela; Zana, Zewdneh; Ocho, Fikre L.; Vos, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Natural supply of nitrogen is often limiting coffee production. From the viewpoints of growth and biomass production, adequate nitrogen supply is important. Growing coffee under full sunlight not only enhances potential yields but also increases demands for nitrogen fertilizer, the extent of which

  10. Incidência de ocratoxina A em diferentes frações do café (Coffea arabica L.: bóia, mistura e varrição após secagem em terreiros de terra, asfalto e cimento Incidence of ochratoxin A in fraction diferents coffee beans (Coffea Arabica L: "boia", mixes and "varrição"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A incidência de ocratoxina A foi estudada em café mistura, bóia e varrição secas em três tipos de terreiro: terra, cimento e asfalto. Foram analisadas 238 amostras coletadas em 11 municípios da região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, sendo 35 bóia, 97 - mistura e 106 varrição. Das amostras analisadas, em 40% não foi detectada a presença de ocratoxina A, em 31%, foram detectadas a presença de ocratoxina A em níveis que variaram de 0,1 a 5,0 µg/Kg de café. Estes resultados demonstram que 169 amostras (71% analisadas estariam dentro dos limites em estudo da Legislação Européia que regulamenta a concentração máxima de ocratoxina A em grãos de café torrado. As espécies de Aspergillus identificadas como produtoras de ocratoxina A foram Aspergillus ochraceus, A. sclerotiorum e A. sulphureus. Os níveis de contaminação de ocratoxina A em grãos de café foram maiores na fração varrição e nas frações bóia e mistura, secas em terreiro de terra. Os resultados deste estudo concluem que o terreiro de terra aumenta o risco de contaminação com ocratoxina A em grãos de café. A fração varrição devido aos riscos de exposição a ocratoxina A, deve ser reduzida através da adoção de boas práticas agrícolas e não ser utilizada para fins de consumo humano e animal.The ochratoxin incidence was studied in coffee it mixes, it "bóia" and "varrição" dry in three yard types: earth, cement and asphalt. 238 samples were analyzed collected in 11 municipal districts of the south of Minas Gerais state, being 35 "bóia", 97 - it mixes and 106 varrição. Of the analyzed samples, in 40% the ochratoxin A presence it was not detected, in 74 samples, 31%, ochratoxin A presence were detected the in levels that varied from 0,1 to 5,0 µg/Kg of coffee beans. These results demonstrate that in 169 samples (71% analyzed they would be inside of the limits in study of the European Legislation that regulates the maximum concentration of

  11. Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2017-04-05

    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.

  12. Processing of a novel powdered herbal coffee (Pistacia Terebinthus L. Fruits Coffee) and its sensorial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secilmis, S S; Yanık, D Kocak; Gogus, F

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effects of roasting method, grinding and reduction in oil content on the characteristics of Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee were investigated. Pistacia terebinthus fruit was roasted by microwave, pan and combined (microwave and convection) methods. The degree of roasting was determined by L*, a*, b* color values. The roasting times were 1,500, 1,900 and 1,620 s for microwave, pan and combined roasting methods, respectively. Cold press was used to reduce the oil content both prior to roasting and after the roasting. The oil content was reduced to around 21.5 % in all roasting methods to approach to that of coffee beans. Powdered Pistacia terebinthus fruit coffee brews were compared with each other and Turkish coffee in terms of aroma, flavor, acidity aftertaste, and overall acceptability. Sensorial analysis results showed that coffee brews prepared by pressing after the roasting process were better than those pressing prior to roasting.

  13. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-04

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  14. A model of canopy irradiance in relation to changing leaf area in a phytotron-grown snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J. H.; Reynolds, J. F.

    1984-03-01

    Simple exponential decay models were used to describe the variation in irradiance profiles within a snap bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) canopy over a 33-day period of canopy development. The extinction coefficients of these models were varied over time as a function of changing canopy leaf area; nonlinear least-squares procedures were used to estimate parameter values. The resultant model response surfaces depict the changes in canopy irradiance that accompany canopy maturation and illustrate the dynamic nature of canopy closure. A criterion index is defined to aid in assessing the applicability of these models for use in whole-plant simulation models, and an evaluation of these models is given based on this index, their predictive accuracy, and the utility for use within varying modeling frameworks.

  15. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Michael Joe; Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B

    2015-10-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. What's Inside That Seed We Brew? A New Approach To Mining the Coffee Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is a critically important agricultural commodity for many tropical states and is a beverage enjoyed by millions of people worldwide. Recent concerns over the sustainability of coffee production have prompted investigations of the coffee microbiome as a tool to improve crop health and bean quality. This review synthesizes literature informing our knowledge of the coffee microbiome, with an emphasis on applications of fruit- and seed-associated microbes in coffee production and processing. A comprehensive inventory of microbial species cited in association with coffee fruits and seeds is presented as reference tool for researchers investigating coffee-microbe associations. It concludes with a discussion of the approaches and techniques that provide a path forward to improve our understanding of the coffee microbiome and its utility, as a whole and as individual components, to help ensure the future sustainability of coffee production. PMID:26162877

  17. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee.

  18. Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effects of columbia arabica coffee with different roasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji Hee; Jeong, Hee Rok; Jo, Yu Na; Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin

    2013-03-01

    In vitro antioxidant activities and neuronal cell protective effects of ethanol extract from roasted coffee beans were investigated. Colombia arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) green beans were roasted to give medium (230°C, 10 min), city (230°C, 12 min) and french (230°C, 15 min) coffee beans. Total phenolics in raw green beans, medium, city and french-roasted beans were 8.81±0.05, 9.77±0.03, 9.92±0.04 and 7.76±0.01 mg of GAE/g, respectively. The content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, the predominant phenolic, was detected higher in medium-roasted beans than others. In addition, we found that extracts from medium-roasted beans particularly showed the highest in vitro antioxidant activity on ABTS radical scavenging activity and FRAP assays. To determine cell viability using the MTT assay, extracts from medium-roasted beans showed higher protection against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity than others. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was also inhibited by the extracts due to prevention of lipid peroxidation using the malondialdehyde (MDA) assay from mouse whole brain homogenates. These data suggest that the medium-roasting condition to making tasty coffee from Columbia arabica green beans may be more helpful to human health by providing the most physiological phenolics, including 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids.

  19. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  20. Ochratoxin A contamination of coffee batches from Kenya in relation to cultivation methods and post-harvest processing treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Daniel; Mburu, Joseph K; Durand, Noël; Clarke, Renata; Frank, John M; Guyot, Bernard

    2010-06-01

    This study set out to assess the relative importance of sound and unsound beans in a batch of coffee with regard to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination. Initially, unsound beans were found to account for 95% of contamination in a batch of coffee, whatever the methods used for post-harvest processing. It was also found that beans displaying traces of attacks by Colletotrichum kahawae were the greatest contributors to OTA contamination. In a second stage, the study compared the contamination of sound beans with that of beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae. On average, beans attacked by Colletotrichum kahawae had a statistically higher OTA content than sound beans (18.0 microg kg(-1) as opposed to 1.2 microg kg(-1)). In addition, the average OTA content in unsound beans varied depending on growing conditions.

  1. Análise de compostos bioativos, grupos ácidos e da atividade antioxidante do café arábica (Coffea arabica do cerrado e de seus grãos defeituosos (PVA submetidos a diferentes torras Bioactive compounds, acids groups and antioxidant activity analysis of arabic coffee (Coffea arabica and its defective beans from the Brazilian savannah submitted to different roasting degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou os compostos bioativos (ácidos clorogênicos, trigonelina, cafeína, fenóis totais e proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos e atividade antioxidante de um café arábica proveniente do Cerrado Mineiro e de seu PVA (grãos pretos, verdes e ardidos. As amostras foram preparadas nas torras clara (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutos, média (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos e escura (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutos. Considerando-se a média das três torras do café e do PVA, a diferença observada no teor de todos os constituintes acima não foi significativa (p > 0,05, exceto com o teor de grupos hidroxila ácidos que foi ligeiramente superior no PVA e cafeína calculada pelo método semiquantitativo que foi superior no café. Portanto, dentre esses constituintes, os compostos com grupos ácidos seriam os únicos que poderiam contribuir para explicar a grande diferença de sabor existente entre o café de grãos sadios e o de PVA. Tanto o café como o PVA apresentaram atividade seqüestradora do radical DPPH. nas três torras, sendo a atividade do café sempre superior. Analisando-se as variações dos teores de cafeína, fenóis totais, proantocianidinas, grupos hidroxila ácidos, trigonelina e ácidos clorogênicos, não foi possível explicar a atividade antioxidante superior apresentada pelo café da torra média (CE50 de 2,3 mg.mg-1 de DPPH..This work reports the results of the investigation of bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total phenolics, and proanthocyanidins, total acid groups, and the antioxidant activity of the Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica from the Brazilian cerrado (vast tropical savannah (Minas Gerais state and its defective beans (Black, green, and sour beans. The samples were prepared using three roasting degrees: light (180 ± 10 °C; 6,0 ± 1,0 minutes, medium (180 ± 10 °C; 8,0 ± 1,0 minutos, and dark (180 ± 10 °C; 10,0 ± 1,0 minutes. Considering the

  2. Cultivo orgânico de cultivares de café a pleno sol e sombreado Organic cultivation of coffee cultivars grown under full sun and under shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de dois sistemas de cultivo orgânico sobre crescimento, fenologia, nutrição e produtividade de cultivares de cafeeiro, e sobre as características químicas do solo. Seis cultivares de café foram avaliadas em monocultura a pleno sol e em cultivo sombreado com banana e Erythrina verna, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O sombreamento reduziu a taxa de crescimento das cultivares nos primeiros 15 meses de cultivo. Depois de três anos reduziu, também, o diâmetro, o número de ramos produtivos e de nós dos cafeeiros; aumentou a área foliar e o tamanho dos grãos; reduziu o teor de K do solo, e aumentou os teores de N e de Mg nas folhas do café. Na primeira etapa da colheita (março/2004, a produtividade média das cultivares foi menor no sistema sombreado, o que evidencia que o sombreamento retarda a maturação dos grãos. Na segunda etapa (junho/2004, houve diferença entre cultivares, porém não entre os sistemas de cultivo. A produtividade média total (soma das duas etapas foi igual nos dois sistemas de cultivo. As cultivares Tupi, Icatu e Obatã são as mais promissoras para o cultivo sombreado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of two organic cultivation systems on the growth, phenology, nutrition, and productivity of coffee cultivars, as well as on soil chemical characteristics. Six coffee cultivars were evaluated under both a monoculture system under full sun, and an intercropped system with banana and Erythrina verna plants for shading. The experimental design adopted was the randomized blocks with four replicates. The shading reduced the growth rate of cultivars only during the first 15 months of cultivation. After three years of cultivation, the shading reduced the plant diameter, the number of branches and the number of nodes; increased the leaf area and grain size; reduced soil K content and increased N and Mg contents in

  3. The Climate Change and Rwandan Coffee Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Hakorimana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed overview of the current situation of the coffee sector in the Rwandan economy and identifies the possible challenges that the sector is currently facing. The study has identified the economic and the livelihood indicators for farmers who are engaged in coffee production and also gives the Rwandan coffee sector’ situation and its position in the global coffee market. Also, the research has found out that in Rwanda, nearly 500,000 farmers produce coffee along with other crops, notably beans, savory banana and corn and found out that in 2012, coffee accounted for almost 30 percent of Rwanda’s total export revenue. On the other hand, the study revealed that the sector throughout all the coffee production process, has undergone different challenges especially climate change as it is reported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources. A low yield was reported in 2007 and climate variability was quoted among the causes. Insufficient rainfall in the last three months of 2006 (the period of coffee flowering proceeding the short dry season in the first two months of 2007 was recorded. The reduced rainfall was also poorly distributed across coffee growing regions in Rwanda. In addition, the research revealed that even though the area under coffee production is increasing, the coffee production is decreasing due to unexpected climate change and variability in current years and also the improper use of chemical fertilizers by coffee farmers is very critical. The study concluded that adding value to the coffee supply chain of Rwanda is adding direct economic benefits and important indirect social benefits to the lives of individuals and to the health of communities in Rwanda. Moreover, more effort should continue to raise the profile of the Rwandan coffee sector suggesting that proper use of chemical fertilizers, solid marketing channels and climate change adaptations measures would be the fair ways of making the

  4. Challenges in Specialty Coffee Processing and Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important crop that assures a sustainable economy to farmers in tropical regions. A dramatic concern for coffee production is currently represented by climate change, which threatens the survival of Coffea arabica cultivation worldwide and imposes modifications of the agronomic practices to prevent this risk. The quality of coffee beans depends on optimized protocols of cultivation, ripe berries collection, and removal of the outer fruit layers by dry or wet processes and moisture reduction. Storage and shipment represent two steps where bean quality needs to be preserved by preventing fungal contamination that may impact the final product and form mycotoxins, mainly ochratoxin A. In this review, we describe the challenges faced by the coffee industry to guarantee quality from production to roasting and brewing. An overview of novel technologies, such as the application of starter cultures in fermentation and the exploitation of industrial enzymes in accelerating the process of flavour development in coffee beans, is given. Moreover, the results of studies on microbial populations on coffee and the differences found in fungi, yeasts and bacteria composition among the investigations, are summarized. In particular, this review describes new attempts to contain the development of mycotoxigenic fungi, through the application of antagonistic microorganisms such as S. cerevisiae. The new wave of specialty coffees, i.e., those with a cupping score higher than 85/100, is also presented. It is shown how, through careful coffee production methods and controlled fermentation processes, coffee producers may increase their income by assuring high standards of quality and high added value for the coffee experience sector.

  5. What is the influence of ordinary epidermal cells and stomata on the leaf plasticity of coffee plants grown under full-sun and shady conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF. Pompelli

    Full Text Available Stomata are crucial in land plant productivity and survival. In general, with lower irradiance, stomatal and epidermal cell frequency per unit leaf area decreases, whereas guard-cell length or width increases. Nevertheless, the stomatal index is accepted as remaining constant. The aim of this paper to study the influence of ordinary epidermal cells and stomata on leaf plasticity and the influence of these characteristics on stomata density, index, and sizes, in the total number of stomata, as well as the detailed distribution of stomata on a leaf blade. As a result, a highly significant positive correlation (R²a = 0.767 p < 0.001 between stomatal index and stomatal density, and with ordinary epidermal cell density (R²a = 0.500 p < 0.05, and a highly negative correlation between stomatal index and ordinary epidermal cell area (R²a = -0.571 p < 0.001, were obtained. However in no instance was the correlation between stomatal index or stomatal density and stomatal dimensions taken into consideration. The study also indicated that in coffee, the stomatal index was 19.09% in shaded leaves and 20.08% in full-sun leaves. In this sense, variations in the stomatal index by irradiance, its causes and the consequences on plant physiology were discussed.

  6. Fate of mucilage cell wall polysaccharides during coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, S; Guiraud, J P; Guyot, B; Olguin, E; Brillouet, J M

    2001-11-01

    Effects of a 20-h fermentation on cell wall polysaccharides from the mucilage of pulped coffee beans were examined and compared to those of unfermented beans, on alcohol insoluble residues (AIRs), their hot-water-soluble crude pectic substances (PECTs), and their hot-water-insoluble residues (RESs). Yields and compositions were very similar: AIRs, which consisted of approximately 30% highly methylated pectic substances, approximately 9% cellulose, and approximately 15% neutral noncellulosic polysaccharides, exhibited no apparent degradation. However, PECTs from fermented beans were shown to have undergone a slight reduction of their intrinsic viscosity and weight-average molecular weight by capillary viscosimetry and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. After fermentation, hot-water-insoluble pectic substances of RES exhibited partial de-esterification. Removal of coffee bean mucilage by natural fermentation seems to result from a restricted pectolysis, the mechanism of which remains to be elucidated.

  7. Data on coffee composition and mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of coffee related carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S.P. Moreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction” (Moreira et al., 2017 [1]. Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS chromatograms and respective GC–MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.

  8. Optimation of a Table Conveyor Type Grading Machine to Increase the Performance of Green Coffee Manual Sortation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee consumers request a good quality of green coffee to get a good coffee cup taste. Defective beans e.g. black bean, brown bean and broken bean are associated to low coffee quality which give negative effects to final taste. To meet the standard export requirement, coffee beans have to be graded before being traded. Until now, grading process is generally carried out manually. The method gives better product, so the grading cost is very expensive about 40% of total processing cost. Meanwhile, shortage of skill workers is a limiting factor of the process. Therefore, improving the manual sorting by providing machine for grading of green coffee is good alternative to reduce the grading cost. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed a table conveyor type grading machine in order to improve the performance of the manual grading productivity and consistent quality and to reduce the grading cost. The conveyor belt has a dimension of 5700 mm of length, 610 mm of width and 6 mm of thickness. The rotating of belt conveyor powered by an electro motor 3 HP, 3 phase and 1420 rpm. The result showed that the optimum capacity of grading machine was 390 kg/hour reached when the speed 16 rpm and 3 kg/m 2 of green beans on belt conveyor with productivity 1870 kg/man-day compared to the productivity full manually process 743 kg/man-day. Percentage of product in outlet 1 was 4.2% as broken beans, 0.26% as brown beans, 0.68% as one hole in beans and 0.61% as more than one hole in beans. Percentage of product in outlet 2 was 39.54% as broken beans, 4.23% as brown beans 7.19% as black beans, 4.47% as one hole in beans and 4.43% as more than one hole in beans. Cost of grading process per kg of green coffee is Rp20,-. Key words : Coffee, Grading, Conveyor table, Quality

  9. The hypercholesterolemic effect of cafestol in coffee oil in gerbils and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Weusten-van, der M.P.M.E.; Roos, de B.; Beynen, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Coffee beans contain the diterpene cafestol, which raises plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. Daily consumption of 2 g coffee oil, which provides approximately 60 mg cafestol (equivalent to 5.7 mg cafestol/MJ), increases plasma cholesterol concentrations by 28%. We studied the effect of

  10. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  11. Role of food emulsifiers in milk coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Cho, H

    2015-07-01

    To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of Roasted Cocoa Bean Winnower for Small Holder Chocolate Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Firmanto, Hendy; Aklimawati, Lya; Abdurrizal, Bayu Setyo

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa bean winnowing has a function to separate cocoa nibs from shell after roasting process of dry bean. Nibs are further processed into fine cocoa liquor by refining process. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate working performance of a home-scale winnower to separate shell from nibs with minimum shell parchment content in cocoa nibs. This experiment was conducted in Postharvest Laboratory at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using roasted cocoa bean grade A according...

  13. Interactions between major chlorogenic acid isomers and chemical changes in coffee brew that affect antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Xue, Wei; Kennepohl, Pierre; Kitts, David D

    2016-12-15

    Coffee bean source and roasting conditions significantly (pcoffee. CGA isomer content was positively correlated (pcoffee to reduce nitric oxide and scavenge Frémy's salt. Indices of browning in roasted coffee were positively correlated (pcoffee corresponded to intracellular antioxidant capacity measured in Caco-2 intestinal cells. This study concluded that the intracellular antioxidant capacity that best describes potential health benefits of coffee positively corresponds best with CGA content. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  16. Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis of Selected NSIC-registered Coffee Varieties in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy May C. Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea sp. is an important commercial crop worldwide. Three species of coffee are used as beverage, namely Coffea arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica. Coffea arabica L. is the most cultivated among the three coffee species due to its taste quality, rich aroma, and low caffeine content. Despite its inferior taste and aroma, C. canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner, which has the highest caffeine content, is the second most widely cultivated because of its resistance to coffee diseases. On the other hand, C. liberica W.Bull ex Hierncomes is characterized by its very strong taste and flavor. The Philippines used to be a leading exporter of coffee until coffee rust destroyed the farms in Batangas, home of the famous Kapeng Barako. The country has been attempting to revive the coffee industry by focusing on the production of specialty coffee with registered varieties on the National Seed Industry Council (NSIC. Correct identification and isolation of pure coffee beans are the main factors that determine coffee’s market value. Local farms usually misidentify and mix coffee beans of different varieties, leading to the depreciation of their value. This study used simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to evaluate and distinguish Philippine NSIC-registered coffee species and varieties. The neighbor-joining tree generated using PAUP showed high bootstrap support, separating C. arabica, C. canephora, and C. liberica from each other. Among the twenty primer pairs used, seven were able to distinguish C. arabica, nine for C. liberica, and one for C. canephora.

  17. Índices de qualidade e crescimento de mudas de café produzidas em tubetes Seedling quality in coffee grown in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Marana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos das doses de fertilizante de liberação lenta e dois substratos sobre o crescimento e a qualidade das mudas de Coffea arabica L., a fim de gerar parâmetros que permitam a padronização e a classificação da qualidade de cada lote de mudas. Foram utilizados dois substratos (substrato comercial Plantmax® e o vermicomposto de esterco de curral com casca de arroz carbonizada na proporção de 4:1 v/v e cinco doses de fertilizante de liberação lenta: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20kg m-3 de substrato em tubetes com plântulas de Catuaí Vermelho IAC 99, conduzidas em viveiro coberto por tela de polipropileno com 50% de sombreamento. Cinco meses após emergência, foram determinados a matéria seca de raiz, caule, folha, a matéria seca total, o número de folhas, a área foliar, o diâmetro de caule, a altura da parte aérea, a relação parte aérea raiz, a relação altura da planta e diâmetro do coleto e o índice de qualidade de Dickson. Para cada característica avaliada dentro de cada substrato, foram testados modelos polinomiais para o efeito de doses de adubo de liberação lenta. Os substratos necessitaram de adubação para garantir o crescimento e desenvolvimento adequado das mudas. A dose de 10kg de fertilizante de liberação lenta por m³ de substrato foi a mais adequada, independentemente do substrato utilizado. Nessa dose, o substrato comercial apresentou desempenho superior para todos os parâmetros de crescimento avaliados. As mudas desenvolvidas em substrato comercial adubado com 10kg de fertilizante de liberação lenta por m-3 apresentaram a relação altura da planta e o diâmetro do caule de 4,0; o índice de qualidade de Dickson de 0,21 e a relação de matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz de 4,7.This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of slow-releasing fertilizer and substrates on the growth of coffee seedlings, in order to generate parameters to allow classification

  18. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Setoyama

    Full Text Available The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  19. TABLE COFFEE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dextroamphetamine with amphetamine and dextroamphetamine are the best known drug treatment for ADHD. 1 However, these drugs are not available in our environment. Caffeine is a psychoactive substance available in table coffee. When consumed in a low to moderate doses, it leads to increased alertness, energy and.

  20. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By ... the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed. Some medications ...

  1. Melatonin and serotonin profiles in beans of Coffea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Akula; Giridhar, Parvatam; Sankar, Kadimi Udaya; Ravishankar, Gokare Aswathanarayana

    2012-05-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) methods were applied to quantify the profiles of melatonin and serotonin (5-HT) in green and roasted beans of Coffea canephora (robusta) and Coffea arabica (arabica). Both melatonin and 5-HT were detected in green coffee beans (5.8±0.8μg/g dry weight (DW), 10.5±0.6μg/g DW) and also in roasted beans of C. canephora (8.0±0.9μg/g DW, 7.3±0.5μg/g DW). Melatonin (3.0±0.6μg/50mL) and 5-HT (4.0±0.7μg/50mL) were detected in coffee brew. In C. arabica, 5-HT was high in green beans (12.5±0.8μg/g DW) compared with roasted beans (8.7±0.4). The levels of melatonin were higher (9.6±0.8μg/g DW) in roasted beans compared with green beans (6.8±0.4μg/g DW). Both melatonin (3.9±0.2μg/50mL) and 5-HT (7.3±0.6μg/50mL) were detected in coffee brew. Because of the relevance of indoleamines as bioactive molecules with implications for food, nutritional sciences and human health, it was of interest to explore their levels in coffee, an important universal beverage. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Exposure to lead from intake of coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food and bevera......Food and beverages is one of the primary sources of intake of and exposure to lead, with beverages accounting for almost 50%. Previous studies from Denmark have estimated that the intake of lead from coffee is very high and may contribute to up to 20% of the total lead intake from food...... and beverages. This estimate is, however, based on older, non-published data. In the current project extensive chemical analyses of coffee beans, drinking water and ready-to-drink coffee have been performed. The results hereof have been compared to calculations of the total intake of lead from food...... and beverages. The results show that the intake of lead from coffee is considerably lower than previously estimated and account for 4.2% and 3.3% of the total lead intake from food and beverages for Danish men and women, respectively. It can generally be concluded that the intake of lead from coffee is low...

  3. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  4. Effective microorganisms enhance the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in salty soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2014-07-01

    No information is available regarding effective microorganisms (EM) influence on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under saline conditions. Therefore, as a first approach, this article focuses on the contribution of EM to the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in salt-stressed plants. It investigates some mechanisms underlying alleviation of salt toxicity by EM application. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Nebraska plants were grown under non-saline or saline conditions (2.5 and 5.0 dSm(-1)) with and without EM application. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content were significantly increased in response to salinity, while they decreased with EM application in both stressed and non-stressed plants. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) increased under saline conditions; these increases were more significant in salt-stressed plants treated by EM. Activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; EC 1.8.5.1) decreased in response to salinity; however, they were significantly increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased with the increasing salt concentration; moreover they further increased in stressed plants treated with EM. Ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG decreased under saline conditions, whereas they were significantly increased with EM treatment in the presence or in the absence of soil salinization. The EM treatment detoxified the stress generated by salinity and significantly improved plant growth and productivity. Enhancing the H2O2-scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in EM-treated plants may be an efficient mechanism to attenuate the activation of plant defences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Coffee Adulteration: More than Two Decades of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline Theodoro; Farah, Adriana; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is a ubiquitous food product of considerable economic importance to the countries that produce and export it. The adulteration of roasted coffee is a strategy used to reduce costs. Conventional methods employed to identify adulteration in roasted and ground coffee involve optical and electron microscopy, which require pretreatment of samples and are time-consuming and subjective. Other analytical techniques have been studied that might be more reliable, reproducible, and widely applicable. The present review provides an overview of three analytical approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) to the identification of coffee adulteration. A total of 30 published articles are considered. It is concluded that despite the existence of a number of excellent studies in this area, there still remains a lack of a suitably sensitive and widely applicable methodology able to take into account the various different aspects of adulteration, considering coffee varieties, defective beans, and external agents.

  6. The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell

    2014-05-28

    The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.

  7. TRACKING THE PROCESSES OF MELANODIN FORMATION IN COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhana Ivanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoidins are high molecular brown colored substances and products of sugar-amine reaction of Maillard. They are formed during roasting a green coffee beans under different thermal regimes of heat treatment. In the technological production of different types coffee beverages, the coffee powder is subjected to after-heat treatment. In these additional operations again become active processes of melanoidin formation and their changing their structures. This is changes of the Melanoidins have different effects on human health. It is therefore important to know their chemical structures and changes. Previous studies have shown that polysaccharides, proteins and chlorogenic acids are included in the formation of these melanoidins. However, the precise structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in the formation are not yet clarified. This article systematize available information and provides an overview of research obtained so far on the structure of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms of their formation and potential health effects.

  8. Recent Advances in the Genetic Transformation of Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380

  9. Inibição da tripsina de bicho-mineiro do cafeeiro por um fator não-protéico presente em extratos de folhas de mamona Coffee leaf miner trypsin inhibition with castor bean leaf extracts mediated by a non-protein agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Duarte Rossi

    2010-04-01

    insects is a control form whose efficacy was verified by different authors. In order to observe the efficiency of castor bean leaf extracts in inhibiting trypsin-like enzymes of the coffee leaf miner, an experiment was carried out with the purpose of observing an "in vitro" inhibition phenomenon. The results of the trypsin inhibition tests with normal and boiled with and without β-mercaptoethanol 0.2% (v/v castor bean leaf extracts and the results of the acetone precipitation process indicated that the inhibitor is a heat-resistant molecule and it is not a protein. This way, the purification process was made by adsorption chromatography with later analysis in mass spectrometer. The reached results indicated that the presence of a trypsin inhibitor of the coffee leaf miner in the castor bean leaf extracts is capable of inhibiting 2.48 + 0.15 UTI, which stands for about 40% of inhibition. Tests performed with bovine trypsin indicated that the castor bean leaf extract have no inhibiting power on this enzyme.

  10. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  11. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  12. Relationship between caffeine content and flavor with light intensity of several coffee Robusta clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is a refreshing beverage product and its price is determined by physical quality and flavor. An excellent coffee flavor is resulted only from qualified coffee beans, produced by well managed plantation. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of sunlight intensity entering coffee farm on flavor profiles and caffeine content of Robusta coffee. The experiment was conducted at the field experimental Kaliwining Estate of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI during 2009–2011. Treatments were Robusta coffee clones and sunlight intensity. Experimental design was split plot design with three replications. Robusta clones used were BP 409, BP 534, BP 936 and BP 939, planted in 2002. The sunligt intensity treatments were 100% (without shade tree, 50—60% (Leucaena leucocephala shade, and 20—30% (Hibiscus macrophyllus and Melia azedarach L. shades. Only red coffee cherries were harvested for flavor and caffeine analysis. Coffee cherries were washed, depulped and sundried until moisture content of less than 12%. The green coffee bean samples were roasted at medium level (Agtron Scale at 65# for cupping test which involved five expert panelists by using ICCRI protocol. Caffeine content was determined by spectrophotometric method. The experiment result indicated that high sunlight intensity resulted in strong aroma of Robusta coffee, while good flavor coffee need medium light intensity. Cafein content had positive correlation with light intensity entering the coffee farm, whereas cafein content had no direct effect on Robusta coffee flavor.Key words: Coffea canephora, clone, sunlight intensity, flavor, caffeine. 

  13. Influence of growing altitude, shade and harvest period on quality and biochemical composition of Ethiopian specialty coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; D'heer, Jolien; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Coffee quality is a key characteristic for the international market, comprising cup quality and chemical bean constituents. In Ethiopia, using total specialty cup scores, coffees are grouped into Q1 (specialty 1) ≥ 85 and Q2 (80-84.75). This classification results in market segmentation and higher prices. Although different studies have evaluated the effects of altitude and shade on bean quality, optimum shade levels along different altitudinal ranges are not clearly indicated. Information on effects of harvest periods on coffee quality is also scanty. The present study examined the influences of these factors and their interactions on Ethiopian coffee quality RESULTS: Coffee from high altitude with open or medium shade and early to middle harvest periods had a superior bean quality. These growing conditions also favoured the production of beans with lower caffeine. An increasing altitude, from mid to high, at approximately 400 m, decreased caffeine content by 10%. At high altitude, dense shade decreased Q1 coffee by 50%. Compared to late harvesting, early harvesting increased the percentage from 27% to 73%. At mid altitude, > 80% is Q2 coffee. Changes of quality scores driven by altitude, shade and harvest period are small, although they may induce dramatic switches in the fraction Q1 versus Q2 coffee. The latter affects both farmers' profits and competitiveness in international markets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. REMPI-TOFMS for on-line monitoring and controlling the coffee roasting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Zimmermann, Ralf; Kettrup, Antonius

    2001-08-01

    REMPI@266nm-TOFMS is used for on-line analysis of the coffee roasting process. Volatile and flavor active compounds of coffee were ionized by REMPI@266nm and monitored on-line and in real-time by TOFMS during the coffee roasting process. The phenol and 4-vinylguaiacol time-intensity profiles, for example, show typical behavior for different roasting temperatures and provide an indicator to the achieved degree of roasting. The impact of the moisture level of the green coffee beans on the time shift of a typical (commercial) roasting time, correlates with REMPI-TOFMS measurements and literature data.

  15. Coffee and Its Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Baiq Rien

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely served beverage. Flavor mainly the aroma is the most important attribute to specialty coffee. Coffee flavor consisted of volatile and non volatile compounds. The compounds were influenced by several factors i.e. growth environment, physiology, harvesting, post-harvest, roasting process and preparation. Keywords: coffee, flavor

  16. Coffee and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the effects of coffee on human health.

  17. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.

  18. Activity of some isoenzymatic systems in stored coffee grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Saath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.

  19. Botanical and geographical characterization of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora): chemometric evaluation of phenolic and methylxanthine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Salces, Rosa M; Serra, Francesca; Reniero, Fabiano; Héberger, Károly

    2009-05-27

    Green coffee beans of the two main commercial coffee varieties, Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta), from the major growing regions of America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania were studied. The contents of chlorogenic acids, cinnamoyl amides, cinnamoyl glycosides, free phenolic acids, and methylxanthines of green coffee beans were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with UV spectrophotometry to determine their botanical and geographical origins. The analysis of caffeic acid, 3-feruloylquinic acid, 5-feruloylquinic acid, 4-feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-5-feruloylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-4-feruloylquinic acid, 3-p-coumaroyl-4-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-4-dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoyl-5-dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl-N-tryptophan, feruloyl-N-tryptophan, caffeoyl-N-tryptophan, and caffeine enabled the unequivocal botanical characterization of green coffee beans. Moreover, some free phenolic acids and cinnamate conjugates of green coffee beans showed great potential as means for the geographical characterization of coffee. Thus, p-coumaroyl-N-tyrosine, caffeoyl-N-phenylalanine, caffeoyl-N-tyrosine, 3-dimethoxycinnamoyl-5-feruloylquinic acid, and dimethoxycinnamic acid were found to be characteristic markers for Ugandan Robusta green coffee beans. Multivariate data analysis of the phenolic and methylxanthine profiles provided preliminary results that allowed showing their potential for the determination of the geographical origin of green coffees. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) provided classification models that correctly identified all authentic Robusta green coffee beans from Cameroon and Vietnam and 94% of those from Indonesia. Moreover, PLS-DA afforded independent models for Robusta samples from these three countries with sensitivities and specificities of classifications close to 100% and for Arabica samples from America and

  20. Potential of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for analyzing the quality of unroasted and ground coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Varão; Hubinger, Silviane Zanni; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; Milori, Débora Marcondes Bastos Pereira; Ferreira, Ednaldo José; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Coffee is an important commodity and a very popular beverage around the world. Its economic value as well as beverage quality are strongly dependent of the quality of beans. The presence of defective beans in coffee blends has caused a negative impact on the beverage Global Quality (GQ) assessed by cupping tests. The main defective beans observed in the productive chain has been those Blacks, Greens and Sours (BGS). Chemical composition of BGS has a damaging impact on beverage GQ. That is why analytical tools are needed for monitoring and controlling the GQ in coffee agro-industry. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully applied for assessment of coffee quality. Another potential technique for direct, clean and fast measurement of coffee GQ is Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Elements and diatomic molecules commonly present in organic compounds (structure) can be assessed by using LIBS. In this article is reported an evaluation of LIBS for the main interferents of GQ (BGS defects). Results confirm the great potential of LIBS for discriminating good beans from those with BGS defects by using emission lines of C, CN, C2 and N. Most importantly, some emission lines presented strong linear correlation (r > 0.9) with NIRS absorption bands assigned to proteins, lipids, sugar and carboxylic acids, suggesting LIBS potential to estimate these compounds in unroasted and ground coffee samples.

  1. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  2. How Can High-Biodiversity Coffee Make It to the Mainstream Market? The Performativity of Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Outcomes for Coffee Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".

  3. Awaken olfactory receptors of humans and experimental animals by coffee odourants to induce appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Yaser; Sabeghi, Maryam; Kurien, Biji T

    2007-01-01

    Smell and its mechanism has been of interest to scientists for many years. Smell, not only provides a sensual pleasure of food and perfumes for humans but also reminds us of past memories, thoughts, locations and finally warns of dangers such as fire. One of the uses of coffee beans is on perfume counters, enabling people to distinguish between perfume fragrances. We hypothesize that coffee can be also used to refresh olfactory receptors after cooking, since people usually experience loss of appetite after cooking. We have experienced an increase in appetite, after cooking, by smelling coffee beans. This is probably due to the detachment of food odourants from olfactory receptors by the coffee odourant molecules. We also think that coffee smell could be used in animal research studies, to keep animals healthy by stimulating their appetite. In a recent study, 28 different odourants have been identified from coffee. One or more of these odourants may have strong binding affinity to olfactory receptors which results in detachment of other odourants from the receptors. The high vibration intensity from coffee odourant molecules may cause the detachment of food odourant from olfactory receptors. Another hypothesis might be the unique structure of these coffee odourants. Studies need to be done to investigate the effect of coffee smell on salivary flow and appetite in animals and humans.

  4. biological nitrogen fixation by inoculated soya beans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) by soya beans (Glycine max) was estimated using the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) for varieties Davis, Kudu, Impala, Hardee, Geduld, and an unidentified variety, grown in pure and mixed cultures with maize (Zea mays) over two seasons. All varieties had higher levels of BNF when ...

  5. Selected parameters of arabica coffee quality affected by its geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate selected parameters of Arabica coffee quality. Arabica coffee beans originated from 21 different regions of the world. Parameters of their moisture content, water extract, water extract in dry matter, dry mater, caffeine and caffeine content in dry matter were assessed by the Slovak Technical Standard. Dry matter content ranged from 98.64 to 99.07%, the highest content was measured in sample from Cuba. Minimum dry matter content was detected in coffee beans from Mexico. Caffeine in studied samples ranged from 10 200 mg.kg-1 to 13 500 mg.kg-1. The lowest caffeine content was determined in Panama coffee, the highest was found in the sample from Indonesia. The results of moisture content and caffeine in dry mater were evaluated by the Food Code of the Slovak Republic and all observed parameters in the coffee beans meet the maximum levels given in legislation. By statistical procesing it can be seen that coffee samples originating from Ecuador, Indonesia and Nepal were similar in parameters of caffeine content and caffeine in dry matter. Other similar samples originating from Cuba, Peru, Ethiopia and Panama were statistically similar at dry matter content. Special statistical group was coffee from Salvador at the parameters of water extract and water extract in dry matter. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Free choice profiling sensory analysis to discriminate coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Sorane Good Kitzberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory attributes were evaluated from Arabica coffee genotypes growing in two places in Brazil, Mandaguari and Londrina. Post-harvest and roasted process was standardized. Free choice profiling sensory analysis was apply to investigate the influence of genetic variability and local cultivation (Londrina and Mandaguari, Brazil on the sensory characteristics of coffee genotypes. A sensory panel evaluated coffees from Mandaguari in two groups: one (Sarchimor derived, IPR100, IPR102, IPR105, IPR106 characterized by transparency, coffee colour, green aroma, taste (green, bitter, fermented, astringent and a watery texture, another group (Catuaí, Sarchimor derived, IPR101, IPR103 was characterized by coffee colour, brightness, aroma (coffee, acid, sweet, chocolate, acidity, bitterness, burnt aroma, sweetness and full-bodied. Coffees from Londrina presented brightness, coffee colour, sweet, green, burnt aroma, astringent, bitter, fermented, green taste; and watery texture (Catuaí, IPR97, IPR98, IPR100. Another group (Sarchimor derived, IPR101, IPR102, IPR103, IPR105, IPR106 were associated with turbidity, aroma (green, coffee, sweet, acidity, astringency, bitterness, sweetness and full-bodied. Catuaí, Iapar59, IPR99, IPR101, IPR103 and IPR108 exhibited positive attributes when grown in either locale. Edaphoclimatic conditions play a major role in the sensory profiles of coffee.

  7. Use of colour parameters for roasted coffee assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Cavaco Bicho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and non-destructive indicators were evaluated as tools to measure the technological quality of Arabica and Robusta coffee. Accordingly, considering the roasting intensity in highly valuable commercial samples, volume, mass, apparent density, moisture, total ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, and ether extract were characterized. The chromatic parameters L*, C*, Hº were measured using illuminants D65 and C. It was found that in roasted coffee beans, the parameters L*, C*, Hº, and coordinate b* had an antagonist interaction due to an increase in the roasting intensity, whereas after milling, only L* and Hº decreased progressively. Considering that the parameters L* and Hº followed similar patterns using both illuminants, D65 and C, it can be concluded that they are appropriate to evaluate coffee colour changes during roasting, enabling a relationship with coffee quality.

  8. Occurrence of furan in coffee from Spanish market: Contribution of brewing and roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2011-06-15

    In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Freezing as a treatment to prevent the spread of Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert C; Jang, Eric B; Follett, Peter A

    2013-04-01

    Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious insect pest of coffee around the world. Although it is already present in most of the world's major coffee growing regions, it is important to delay further spread and to prevent reintroductions that might include hyperparasites or improve the genetic base of existing populations. Green coffee is shipped around the world for custom blending and roasting and such shipments carry the risk of spreading H. hampei. We used heavily infested coffee berries as a surrogate for green coffee to test the freezing tolerance of H. hampei. After freezing, all life stages of H. hampei were dissected from coffee berries and mortality was assessed. Counting all life stages, > 15,000 insects were measured in this study. A temperature of approximately -15 degrees C (range, -13.9 to -15.5) for 48 h provided 100% control of all life stages. A logit regression model predicted < or = 1 survivor in a million for treatments of -20 degrees C for 5 d or -15 degrees C for 6 d. A freezing treatment for green coffee might be more economical and acceptable compared with fumigation with methyl bromide, especially for small-scale and organic growers and millers in Hawaii who ship green coffee beans to other islands for custom roasting. Freezing treatments could also be used to kill H. hampei in coffee seeds before export with minimal effects on seed germination if coffee seeds are first dried to critical water content levels in accordance with published methods.

  10. The influence of peeling and type of drying on chemical and sensorial analysis of organic coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Caixeta Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic coffee is characterized by being produced without the use of chemical products and by having a similar or superior quality in comparison to that of coffee produced by traditional methods. The production of organic coffee does not include the use of highly soluble nutrients, which makes consumers concerned with environmental issues and healthy eating habits realize its true value. This paper aims to analyze the influence of harvesting, peeling and drying on the quality of organic coffee, in order to present the best way of producing high quality coffee. Samples of organic coffee were harvested by both conventional and selective ways, and some were peeled. They were then dried on concrete patio and on suspended terraces. The beans were analyzed for potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, titratable acidity, and submitted to coffee cupping-test. The results obtained indicated that the selective harvesting of the peeled or unpeeled cherry coffee dried on concrete terrace is feasible for production of fine coffees. This type of processing effectively influenced the final quality of the organic coffee, thus being an alternative to improve the quality and market value of the product, especially for small producers, cooperatives, and associations of coffee producers.

  11. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  12. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  13. Exergoeconomic evaluation of real processes for coffee roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Goran D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exergoeconomic methods provide an effective approach for identifying, evaluating and reducing thermodynamic inefficiencies and costs in an energy system. The aim of this paper is to show the potential for cost reduction on the demand side, using the exergoeconomic method in the example of real processes for coffee roasting. More than 6.5•109 kg of coffee beans is roasted worldwide annually, mostly in batch roasters. Near the end of the roast, roasting coffee emits volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide and other pollutants, which in many industrialized countries have to be oxidized in afterburners. Afterburners release exhaust gases with a temperature of 250-450°C, depending on the roasting process and the method of exhaust gas cleaning. The aim of this paper is to use exergy analysis and exergoeconomic performance evaluation to determine the energy use for coffee roasting and the afterburning process, and evaluate the way to utilize waste heat and reduce costs in the factory. For roasters with the capacity of up to 4 tons of green coffee beans per hour, the potential of heat recovery is 1.1 MW and the possibility to save money is around 60,000 € per year. This case study is similar to many others worldwide, and the results of this analysis could lead to more general conclusions.

  14. Preservation of roasted and ground coffee during storage Part 1: Moisture content and repose angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study evaluates the influence of the level of roasting and the grind size on the moisture content and repose angle of coffee during storage. Raw coffee beans (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, hulled and dried, were roasted to two different levels: medium light (SCAA#65 and moderately dark (SCAA#45. The beans were then ground into three different grind sizes: fine (0.59 mm, medium (0.84 mm and coarse (1.19 mm. An additional coffee lot was kept whole. Following grinding, samples were stored at two different temperatures (10 and 30 ºC and analyzed after five different storage durations (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. The moderately dark roast was found to have a lower moisture content. Finely ground samples had higher angles of repose. It is concluded that the grind size, level of roasting and duration of storage significantly affect the moisture content and angle of repose of coffee.

  15. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal.

  16. Are Fairtrade Prices Fair? An Analysis of the Distribution of Returns in the Swedish Coffee Market

    OpenAIRE

    Durevall, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Consumers pay a premium for Fair Trade coffee, often assuming that it mainly benefits poor coffee farmers. However, several studies report that most of the premium accrues to actors in the consumer countries, such as roasters and retailers. This paper analyses how the returns to Fair Trade are distributed among bean producer countries, roasters and retailers, and Fairtrade Sweden, using scanner data on 185 products from Sweden and information about costs of production. The distribution depend...

  17. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  18. Coffee, its roasted form, and their residues cause birth failure and shorten lifespan in dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Ellias, Salbiah Binti; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abang, Fatimah; Ghani, Idris Abd; Noor, Sabina; Ahmad, Hamdan; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Hipolito, Cirilo N; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-06-01

    In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process. We examined whether exposure to coffee during embryonic development could alter larval eclosion and lifespan of dengue vectors. A series of bioassays with different coffee forms and their residues indicated that larval eclosion responses of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were appreciably lower when embryonic maturation occurred in environments containing coffee, especially roasted coffee crude extract (RCC). In addition, the lifespan of adults derived from eggs that hatched successfully in a coffee milieu was reduced, but this effect was less pronounced with roasted and green coffee extracts (RCU and GCU, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggested that coffee and its residues have embryocidal activities with impacts that are carried over onto the adult lifespan of dengue vectors. These effects may significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of these insects. Reutilizing coffee waste in vector control may also represent a realistic solution to the issues associated with its pollution.

  19. Características fisiológicas e de crescimento de cafeeiro sombreado com guandu e cultivado a pleno sol Physiological characteristics and growth of coffee plants grown under shade of pigeonpea and unshaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos efeitos do sombreamento sobre a fisiologia de cafeeiros é importante para se determinar níveis ótimos de radiação e temperatura, bem como para subsidiar estudos sobre o crescimento de plantas sombreadas, a fim de determinar a arquitetura ideal do cafeeiro que maximize a captura da radiação solar disponível em ambientes sombreados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características fisiológicas e de crescimento de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cultivados sob sombreamento denso com guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. e a pleno sol. O baixo nível de radiação incidente sobre os cafeeiros sombreados com guandu resultou em decréscimos na taxa fotossintética e na transpiração, maior altura de planta, folhas maiores e com menor quantidade de matéria seca. Esses resultados indicam que o excesso de sombra afeta drasticamente a fisiologia e morfologia de C. arabica.The characterization of shade effects on the physiology of coffee is important to determine optimum levels of radiation and temperature, as well as to subsidize studies on growth of shaded plants aiming at determining the ideal coffee plant architecture that maximizes the capture of the available solar radiation in shaded environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and growth characteristics of coffee (Coffea arabica L. shaded with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. and under full sun. The low level of incident radiation on the coffee shaded with pigeonpea caused decreases in the photosynthetic rate and transpiration, increased plant height and leaf size, but diminished leaf dry matter. These results indicate that the excess of shade drastically affects the physiology and morphology of C. arabica.

  20. Performance of coffee origin and genotype in organoleptic and physical quality of arabica coffee in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau, Sabam; Siagian, Albiner; Sirait, Bilter; Pandiangan, Samse

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effect of coffee origin and genotype on organoleptic and physical quality of Arabica coffea L. growing in North Sumatra. Seven districts treated as origins and 28 genotypes were chosen. The research was conducted with nested design with 3 factors. Organoleptic parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, aftertaste, acidity, body, uniformity, balance, clean cup, sweetness, overall and total score. Physical quality was green bean weight. The results revealed that origins affected significantly organoleptic quality. Coffee from Dairi showed the highest total score (90,82). Genotypes were significantly different in organoleptic quality. Genotype Da17, Da18, Da19, Da20 and Hu4 had the best total score (89,85 -91,68). Total score did not correlate with green bean weight but had positive correlation with altitude. Among organoleptic parameters, acidity was more significant for total score (r2 = 0,836). Altitude had more effect on acidity (r2 = 0,486).

  1. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem,Ciro Antonio; Leite,Vagner Maximino

    2007-01-01

    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  2. Nitrogen fertilization of coffee: organic compost and Crotalaria juncea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo,João Batista Silva; Rodrigues,Mateus Cupertino; Rodrigues,Luisa Bastos; Santos,Ricardo Henrique Silva; Martinez,Herminia Emilia Prieto

    2013-01-01

    Information concerning the response of coffee to organic fertilizers is scarce. This study evaluates the effect of different doses of compost and Crotalaria juncea L. on growth, production and nitrogen nutrition of coffee trees. The treatments consisted of compost at rates of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended fertilization, with or without the aerial part of C. juncea. C. juncea was grown with NH4-N (2% 15N) and applied to coffee. The use of C. juncea increased growth in height and diame...

  3. Understanding the fate of chlorogenic acids in coffee roasting using mass spectrometry based targeted and non-targeted analytical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius F; Golon, Agnieszka; Witt, Matthias; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-09-01

    Coffee is one of mankind's most popular beverages obtained from green coffee beans by roasting. Much effort has been expended towards the chemical characterisation of the components of the roasted coffee bean, frequently termed melanoidines, which are dominated byproducts formed from its most relevant secondary metabolites - chlorogenic acids. However, impeded by a lack of suitable authentic reference standards and analytical techniques sufficiently powerful for providing insight into an extraordinarily complex enigmatic material, unsurprisingly little structural and mechanistic information about the products of coffee roasting is available. Here we report on the characterisation of low molecular weight melanoidine fractions of roasted coffee using a conceptually novel combination of targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometrical techniques. We provide an unprecedented account of the chemical composition of roasted coffee beans. Using a targeted analytical approach we show for the first time, by comparison to authentic reference standards obtained by chemical synthesis, that chlorogenic acids follow four distinct reaction pathways including epimerization, acyl migration, lactonisation and dehydration. The analytical strategy employed in a non-targeted approach uses high resolution mass spectrometry to identify the most abundant molecular formulas present in roasted coffee samples and model roasts followed by van Krevelen and homologous series analysis. We identified the molecular formulas formed from reactions of chlorogenic acids, carbohydrates and proteins, both between classes of compounds and within same classes of compounds. Furthermore, we identified two new classes of compounds formed from chlorogenic acids during roasting, chlorogenic acid acetates and O-phenolic quinoyl and shikimoyl esters of chlorogenic acids.

  4. Dynamics of the international coffee market and instrumental in price formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Candéa Sá Barreto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study's main general objective of studying the behavior of coffee beans on the international market. Empirical analysis uses econometric tool as a model of simultaneous equations using least squares in a three-stage annual data base extending over the period 1964 / 65-2014 / 15. The results suggest that the factors that affect the production of coffee beans are the actual prices and the planted area. However, demand is affected by the growth of the world economy. The price simulations for the period 2014/15 - 2020/21 indicate that a yearly growth (GDP of 2.1% there is a tendency of small high price to 3.6% moderate rise in the price of coffee until 2018/19 and a stronger growth trend of prices from 2019/20 and a growth of 4.7% a high coffee prices trend in grain on the international market. Thus the tendency of the projections 3 and the key market factors continue to favor the maintenance of current high coffee prices. For the full period 1964/65 to 2014/15 there is a moderate relationship between coffee prices and the stock. It follows that the results obtained with the scenarios developed in this work can be useful to rethink measures to recover income from coffee producing countries

  5. N,N-dimethylpiperidinium (mepiquat) Part 2. Formation in roasted coffee and barley during thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermann, Silke; Theurillat, Viviane; Verzegnassi, Ludovica; Hofmann, Jocelyne; Kuchenbecker, Ralf; Constable, Anne; Delatour, Thierry; Stadler, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in model systems has demonstrated that mepiquat can be formed under typical roasting conditions from the amino acid lysine via the Maillard reaction and trigonelline, the latter alkaloid serving as a methyl donor. This study shows for the first time that mepiquat is formed in low mg kg(-1) amounts during the coffee roasting process and consequently can be detected in roast and ground as well as soluble coffee up to levels of 1.4 mg kg(-1). Darker roast coffees contain relatively higher amounts of mepiquat versus light roasted beans, with an excellent correlation of mepiquat formation to roast colour (r(2) = 0.99) in robusta beans. A survey of 20 of the major green coffee origins (robusta and arabica coffees) showed the absence of mepiquat (roasting (0.64 mg kg(-1)). Mepiquat can therefore be considered a process-induced compound formed from natural constituents during the roasting process. Even considering a high intake of seven cups per day of soluble coffee containing 1.4 mg kg(-1) mepiquat in the coffee powder (the highest amount measured in this study), the resulting intake would exhaust less than 0.2% of the ADI of mepiquat.

  6. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  7. Identification of two metallothioneins as novel inhalative coffee allergens cof a 2 and cof a 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Peters

    Full Text Available Dust of green coffee beans is known to be a relevant cause for occupational allergic disorders in coffee industry workers. Recently, we described the first coffee allergen (Cof a 1 establishing an allergenic potential of green coffee dust.Our aim was to identify allergenic components of green coffee in order to enhance inhalative coffee allergy diagnosis.A Coffea arabica pJuFo cDNA phage display library was created and screened for IgE binding with sera from allergic coffee workers. Two further coffee allergens were identified by sequence analysis, expressed in E. coli, and evaluated by Western blots. The prevalence of sensitization to recombinant Cof a 1, Cof a 2, and Cof a 3 and to commercially available extract was investigated by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively CAP (capacity test screening in 18 sera of symptomatic coffee workers.In addition to the previously described chitinase Cof a 1, two Coffea arabica cysteine-rich metallothioneins of 9 and 7 kDa were identified and included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature as Cof a 2 and Cof a 3. Serum IgE antibodies to at least one of the recombinant allergens were found in 8 out of 18 symptomatic coffee workers (44%. Only 2 of the analysed sera (11% had reacted previously to the commercial allergy test.In addition to the previously described Cof a 1 we have identified two further coffee proteins to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3 which may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis and/or therapy of coffee allergy.

  8. Avaliação da qualidade de frutos de café atacados por Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae Evaluation of the quality of coffee fruit attacked by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Cividanes

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram usadas plantas de Coffea arabica L., variedade Catuaí Vermelho, localizadas no Campus da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - USP, Piracicaba,SP, para avaliação dos danos que Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 pode causar aos frutos do cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que o ataque de C. capitula não causou queda prematura dos frutos, mas aumentou a queda de cerejas e foram encontradas, fortes evidências, com base na atividade da enzima polifenol oxidase e lixiviação de potássio, que cerejas atacadas podem produzir bebida de café de qualidade inferior.The present work was carried out using trees of Coffea arabica L. variety Red Catuaí grown at Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" - Campus of the University of São Paulo, Piracicaba,SP. The objective was to estimate damages that Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 can cause to coffee fruits. The results showed that C.capitata did not cause premature fruit fall, but it increased berry fall. The activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase and potassium lixiviatiou give strong evidences that atacked coffee beans produce coffee beverage of inferior quality.

  9. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  10. Analysis of the Structure and Performance of the Beans Marketing System in Nairobi

    OpenAIRE

    Odhiambo, Mark O.; Oluoch-Kosura, Willis; Kibiego, Michael B.

    2006-01-01

    Beans are widely grown as a major food crop in Eastern and Southern Africa. It is the most important staple food crop after maize in Kenya (ECABREN, 2000). The beans industry in Kenya is faced with problems of shortages, seasonal supply and price fluctuations and inadequate information on production, marketing and consumption. These problems are more acute in urban areas. This paper analyzes the structure and performance of the beans marketing system in Nairobi metropolitan area, the single m...

  11. Use of a mobile nursery to obtain a virulence pattern of common bean.

    OpenAIRE

    Steadman, James; Godoy-Lutz, Gabriela; Rosas, Juan Carlos; Beaver, James

    2006-01-01

    As new sources of resistance genes areidentified to rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, weneed to know if these genes or others incorporated in the beangermplasm will become susceptible to the pathogen when theresistant varieties are widely grown. We have used a mobilenursery of bean lines/varieties with different rust resistancegenes to answer this question. This nursery, composed of sixday-old bean plants, is placed in a rusted bean field for two tothree hours, misted for 15 hours in a ...

  12. Breeding for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rust resistance in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, T. L. P. O.; FALEIRO, F. G.; DESSAUNE, S. N.; PAULA JUNIOR, T. J. de; MOREIRA, M. A.; E. G. BARROS

    2013-01-01

    Common bean is an economically, nutritionally, and socially important crop. It is grown in distinct regions and different seasons around the world by subsistence level farmers with low-technology input as well as by farmers that use high input technologies. One important factor that can limit the bean growing and drastically affect grain yields is the high number of destructive pathogens that attack and cause serious damage to the crop. Among them is bean rust, incited by the fungus Uromyces ...

  13. Physical Land Suitability for Civet Arabica Coffee: Case Study of Bandung and West Bandung Regencies, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairani, E.; Supriatna, J.; Koestoer, R.; Moeliono, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as the best Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) producer, in terms of both aspects, quality and number of product. Currently, its production, however, declines to the 3rd rank internationally. Issues emerged in the coffee cultivation are: land unsuitability, low quality of seeds, and poor management. Among Arabica coffee types, wild civet coffee is the most expensive one and harvested from the coffee beans which have been digested naturally. The study aims to determine the physical suitability of land as well as the constraints related to land for civet Arabica coffee in selected study cases, e.g., Bandung and Bandung Barat. The research methods employ multi-criteria analysis, and combined with weighted overlaying techniques for mapping. The criteria include temperature, rainfall, humidity, duration of dry season, slope, altitude, type of soil, soil texture, and erosion potential. Parameters of civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) are land use, altitude, and temperature. Local policy strongly supports the extensive management for land and the increase of coffee export. Processing data involved matching the comparison between guideline requirements for the land suitability classes, characteristics of Arabica coffee and civet habitat. The results covered the profile suitable land of the civet Arabica coffee in the study areas.

  14. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  15. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  16. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  17. Registration of partial white mold resistant pinto bean germplasm line USPT-WM-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the most widely grown dry bean market class across the United States, is highly susceptible to white mold disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib deBary. The Agricultural Research Service, Michigan State University AgBioResearch, and the...

  18. Ultraviolet spectral fingerprints: A simple approach for classification of bean cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetics and a variety of environmental factors can lead to chemical differences in the same plant materials. A simple and inexpensive method is described that allows the categorization of different bean cultivars. Nine cultivars of bean samples grown in three different states (Maryland, Michigan,...

  19. Effect Of Plant Population On Yield Of Maize And Climbing Beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased adoption of climbing beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kabale district, south-western Uganda, has been limited by scarcity of staking materials, despite the crop\\'s higher yield potential compared to bush bean types when grown on fertile soils. There is therefore need to explore other appropriate mechanisms such ...

  20. Biogas Technology on Supporting “Sustainable” Coffee Farmers in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been conducted in an area of coffee plantation in Samosir District, North Sumatera Province. The study was conducted in August until September 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefits of using biogas technology in supporting coffee farmers’ productivity to be sustainable, i.e. methane as energy source for coffee roasting proceed instead of fired wood and slurry as organic fertilizer. Coffee cherry causes environmental problem when it is dumped openly, hence it is used to mix with buffalo feces in biodigesters to produce methane and organic fertilizer. Five biodigesters were used with 5 differents designs of composition: T1) 100% buffalo feces, T2) 75% buffalo feces + 25% coffee cherry, T3) 50% buffalo feces + 50% coffee cherry, T4) 25% buffalo feces + 75% coffee cherry, and T5) 100% coffee cherry. The key parameters measured were methane production and slurry chemical compositions including NPK, pH, and C/N. It is found that designs T1 and T2 were superior in methane production, and about 400 liters of methane were used in roasting 3 kg coffee bean as opposed to 6,6 kg fired wood. Designs T1 and T2 were also better in slurry chemical compositions than the other 3 designs. It is recommeded that local coffee farmers utilize coffee cherry based biogas technology in order for their productivity to be sustainable. It is noteworthy that this study is continued with the next one in which the resulting slurries are implemented to foster the growth of the coffee plants during the period of October until December 2016.

  1. Coffee Leaf Rust Epidemics ( Hemileia vastatrix ) in Montane Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is native to southwestern Ethiopia growing as understory of the rainforests that harbor huge floral and faunal diversities. Besides drastic reduction in the forest cover and low average yield, the crop is attacked by several diseases among which coffee berry disease, coffee wilt disease and coffee ...

  2. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  3. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  4. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...... and mean birth weight. Based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort we evaluated the association between coffee intake and fetal death in 88,482 pregnant women who participated in a comprehensive interview during second trimester. Information about fetal death was obtained from registries...

  5. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  6. Investigation of CO2precursors in roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation kinetics of furfuryl alcohol in a coffee model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouchi, Abdullatif; Murkovic, Michael

    2018-03-15

    The production of furfuryl alcohol from green coffee during roasting and the effect of multiple parameters on its formation were studied employing HPLC-DAD. Results show that coffee produces furfuryl alcohol in larger quantities (418µg/g) compared to other beans or seeds (up to 132µg/g) roasted under the same conditions. The kinetics of furfuryl alcohol production resemble those of other process contaminants (e.g., HMF, acrylamide) produced in coffee roasting, with temperature and time of roasting playing significant roles in quantities formed. Different coffee species yielded different amounts of furfuryl alcohol. The data point out that the amounts of furfuryl alcohol found in roasted coffee do not reflect the total amounts produced during roasting because great amounts of furfuryl alcohol (up to 57%) are evaporating and released to the atmosphere during roasting. Finally the effect of the moisture content on furfuryl alcohol formation was found to be of little impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily intake of trace metals through coffee consumption in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N

    2001-02-01

    The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%.

  9. Physical, Chemicals and Flavors of Some Varieties of Arabica Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Export of Arabica coffee was 28,100 tons/year or 8.28% total export of Indonesian coffee, most of them are specialty coffee. Beside their origin, variety and determine the of physical, chemical and flavors characters. The promising clones or varieties i.e. BP 416A, BP 418A, BP 430A, BP 431A, BP 432A, BP 507A, BP 508A, BP 509A, BP 511A, BP 513A, BP 516A, BP 517A and BP 518A still not be determined their quality This research was conducted to analyze their physicals, chemicals and flavors during 2 periods of harvesting (2004 and 2005, using AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762 as the control. Mature coffee berry was harvested, sorted manually, and depulped, cleaned manually and then fermented in plastic sacks during 36 hours. The fermented parchment was washed, and then sun dried, dehulled to get green coffee. Observations wre conducted on green coffee yield, husk content, color of green coffee, distribution of size, bulk density of green and roasted coffee, roasting characters, color of roasted beans, and pH, acidity and flavors. The results showed (a The lowest content of husk was BP 432A and the highest was USDA 762. The control varieties of AS 1, S 795 and USDA 762, showed husk content >15%, while those potential varieties were < 15% except BP 416A. (b Beans size >6,5 mm and more than 80% were BP 416A, BP 430A, BP 432A, BP 509A, P 88 and S 795. Green coffee of BP 430A, BP 432A and BP 509A were uniform, but S 795 was not uniform. AS 1 and BP 416A and P 88 was one group; S 795 was one group with BP 542A; BP 509 was a group with BP 432A; but BP4 30A and USDA 762 were the other groups. (c Green coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color, but BP 542A was the darkest color. AS 1 and S 795 were a group with all potential varieties, except BP 542A. (d Roasted coffee of USDA 762 was the palest color and AS 1 was the darkest. In this case, AS 1 was a group with BP 430A, BP 509A and P 88, while S 795 was a group with BP 416A and BP 432A, but USDA 762 and BP 542A were

  10. Effect of management practices on mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean Efeito de práticas culturais sobre a infecção micorrízica, crescimento e partição da matéria seca de feijão-vagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto Rocha Oliveira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. The treatments were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months. After the cultural practices, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder was grown in this soil. Fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. Mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than in the fallow soil. Prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize increased infectivity even further.O experimento foi realizado em solo não-esterilizado com baixo teor de fósforo. Os tratamentos foram: três pré-cultivos (milho, trigo e solo nu, seguidos por três manejos do solo (distúrbio mecânico do solo, cobertura morta e solo nu sem distúrbio no inverno. No ano seguinte à aplicação dos tratamentos, a área experimental foi semeada com Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder. Os tratamentos com solo nu e o submetido a distúrbio mecânico exibiram as menores densidades de esporos de fungos micorrízicos e reduzida infecção radicular do feijoeiro. A infecção micorrízica foi maior nas parcelas anteriormente cultivadas com cereais, especialmente no pré-cultivo com milho.

  11. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  12. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  13. Improved green coffee oil antioxidant activity for cosmetical purpose by spray drying microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B.F.L. Nosari

    Full Text Available AbstractThe oil extracted by cold pressing unroasted coffee beans, known as green coffee oil, has been widely used for cosmetic purposes. The objective of this work was to prepare and characterize microcapsules containing green coffee oil and to verify its antioxidant activity under the effect of light, heat and oxygen. The encapsulating material was arabic gum and the microcapsules were obtained by spray drying an oil-in-water emulsion containing green coffee oil. The characterization of the microcapsules was performed by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by a modified active oxygen method with light irradiation, heating and oxygen flux. The microparticles were effectively produced by the proposed spray drying method, which resulted in green coffee oil loads of 10 and 30%. The morphological evaluation of microcapsules showed spherical shape with smooth and non-porous surfaces, demonstrating the adequacy of arabic gum as encapsulating material. Calorimetric analysis of individual components and microcapsules with 10 and 30% green coffee oil showed diminished degradation temperatures and enthalpy, suggesting a possible interaction between arabic gum and green coffee oil. The antioxidant activities for pure green coffee oil and its microcapsules with loads of 10 and 30% showed high activity when compared to the reference antioxidant alfa-tocopherol. Microcapsules containing 10 and 30% of oil showed 7-fold and 3-fold increase in antioxidant activity when compared to pure green coffee oil. The new method for antioxidant activity determination proposed here, which applies heat, light and oxygen simultaneously, suggests a high improvement in encapsulated green coffee oil when compared to this active alone. The results showed herein indicate a promising industrial application of this microencapsulated green coffee oil.

  14. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    and ethnomethodology we – researchers - decided to study the interplay between practitioners and researchers negotiating on how a psychiatric patient who drinks too much coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the interlocutors’ different common......-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee. Moreover, the examination of the dialogue between these show how important it is to respect multivocality in order to be sensitive to how different...

  15. Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Aklimawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem identification at farmer’s level. This research was carried out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data, as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physical quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholders consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one duty officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection were based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical quality of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4—6 (fair to poor quality, while broken beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted to be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of land ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900—1,000 kg green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limited accessibility to financing and technology. Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora

  16. Response of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield losses in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may occur due to boron (B) deficiency when the susceptible cultivars are grown in calcareous boron deficient soils. The study was therefore aimed at investigating the effects of three B doses: control (0.0 kg ha-1), soil application (3.0 kg ha-1) and foliar fertilization (0.3 kg ...

  17. Kinetic modeling of water sorption by roasted and ground coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Baptestini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to model the kinetics of water sorption in roasted and ground coffee. Crude Arabica coffee beans with an initial moisture content of 0.1234 kgwkgdm-1 were used. These beans were roasted to a medium roast level (SCCA # 55 and ground at three particle sizes: coarse (1.19 mm, medium (0.84 mm and fine (0.59 mm. To obtain the water sorption isotherms and the isosteric heat, different conditions of temperature and relative humidity were analyzed using the dynamic method at 25ºC (0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and 30°C (0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, and 0.80 of RH and using the static method at 25ºC (0.332 and 0.438 of RH. The GAB model best represented the hygroscopic equilibrium of roasted coffee at every particle size. Isosteric heat of sorption for the fine particle size increased with increments of equilibrium moisture content, indicating a strong bond energy between water molecules and the product components. The Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in equilibrium moisture content and with temperature.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Coffea arabica bean in testosterone induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alfonso G. Cueto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has been described as the uncontrolled prostate gland growth which leads to difficulty in urination. One of the treatment of BPH is saw palmetto lipid extracts which has been shown to inhibit prostate 5 α-reductase and some of its components (lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid also inhibit the enzyme. Coffee was also rich in fatty acids namely linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid. The aim of this research is to investigate whether coffee is effective in preventing testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats using testosterone propionate and estradiol valerate. After and before the induction, the rats were tested for prostate specific antigen (PSA . The condition of the prostate gland of the test animals were correlated with the results of the said test and in the histopathologic results. After 14 days of experimentation, animals in the test group significantly decreased their PSA levels as compared to the BPH group. The histomorphology showed that Coffea arabica bean oil inhibited testosterone propionate while estradiol valerate induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that Coffee arabica bean oil effectively inhibited the development of BPH. With the proven safety of coffee oil, these findings strongly support the feasibility of using Coffea arabica bean oil therapeutically in treating BPH.

  19. Covering the different steps of the coffee processing: Can headspace VOC emissions be exploited to successfully distinguish between Arabica and Robusta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Ilaria; Taiti, Cosimo; Marone, Elettra; Magnelli, Susanna; Gonnelli, Cristina; Mancuso, Stefano

    2017-12-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS technique in distinguishing between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora var. robusta (Robusta) commercial stocks in each step of the processing chain (green beans, roasted beans, ground coffee, brews). volatile organic compounds (VOC) spectra from coffee samples of 7 Arabica and 6 Robusta commercial stocks were recorded and submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. Results clearly showed that, in each stage of the coffee processing, the volatile composition of coffee is highly influenced by the species. Actually, with the exception of green beans, PTR-ToF-MS technique was able to correctly recognize Arabica and Robusta samples. Particularly, among 134 tentatively identified VOCs, some masses (16 for roasted coffee, 12 for ground coffee and 12 for brewed coffee) were found to significantly discriminate the two species. Therefore, headspace VOC analyses was showed to represent a valuable tool to distinguish between Arabica and Robusta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of Pyrogallol in the Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Part of Coffee as the Main Contributor to Its Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Sari; Masuda, Toshiya

    2016-10-10

    In this study, ethyl acetate-soluble parts of hot-water extracts from roasted coffee beans were found to demonstrate potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. The XO inhibitory activities and chlorogenic lactone contents (chlorogenic lactones have previously been identified as XO inhibitors in roast coffee) were measured for ethyl acetate-soluble parts prepared from coffee beans roasted to three different degrees. Although chlorogenic lactone contents decreased with higher degrees of roasting, the XO inhibitory activity did not decrease. These data led us to investigate new potent inhibitors present in these ethyl acetate-soluble extracts. Repeated assay-guided purifications afforded a highly potent XO inhibitor, which was eluted before chlorogenic lactones via medium-pressure chromatography using an octadecylsilica gel column. The obtained inhibitor was identified as pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene), which had an IC 50 of 0.73 μmol L -1 , much stronger than that of other related polyphenolic compounds. Quantitative analysis of pyrogallol and chlorogenic lactones revealed that pyrogallol (at concentrations of 33.9 ± 4.2 nmol mL -1 in light roast coffee and 39.4 ± 3.9 nmol mL -1 in dark roast coffee) was the main XO inhibitor in hot-water extracts of roasted coffee beans (i.e., drinking coffee).

  1. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  2. Marketing Strategies Evolved by Entrepreneurs in Marketing the Coffee Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thangaraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of conjoint analysis showed quality attributes preferred by the entrepreneurs. They were Arabica and Robusta (50:50 mixed variety, mixing of 70:30 coffee, chicory ratio, keeping quality up to 6 months, medium level of taste/aroma, filter size of the powder and roasting time of 15 minutes/ 10 kg of seeds. About 83.00 per cent of entrepreneurs produced coffee powder as a final form of coffee product, nearly two-third (63.00 % of the entrepreneurs did not have any brand name or logo, cent per cent of them reported manual packing only. Major criteria to fix different price rate of coffee product were International daily market price (90.00 %, factors affecting the price policy were market price fluctuation (93.33 %, season (90.00 % and Cent per cent of them had adopted coffee price forecasting broadcasted by various media. Selection of the location depends on nearby town and coffee potential area, techniques to overcome the competitor were better pricing and supply of quality coffee product, attraction of customers depends on personal contact, attractive display boards, quality, taste, aroma and flavor. Promotional activities carried out by the entrepreneurs were developing the customer base (83.33 % and working towards building customer loyalty (76.67%. Relationships followed among stakeholders were good partnership, price and profit sharing, commission basis, service and quality, supply-service and demand. Further, market demand reported by entrepreneurs were: the demand for coffee beans peaked during July to November, coffee powder were more demand in three seasons namely rainy season (June-September, winter season (December- January and summer holidays (April-May. Feedback mechanism reported by coffee entrepreneurs were: quality analysis report received from the export organization, physical analysis, cup test, personal contact through phone, e-mail and also personal letters.

  3. Design Of A Small-Scale Hulling Machine For Improved Wet-Processed Coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of primary processing of coffee is a vital determinant of quality and price. Wet processing method produces higher quality beans but is very labourious. This work outlines the design of a small scale cost-effective ergonomic and easily maintained and operated coffee hulling machine that can improve quality and productivity of green coffee beans. The machine can be constructed from locally available materials at a relatively low cost of about NGN 140000.00 with cheap running cost. The beaters are made from rubber strip which can deflect when in contact with any obstruction causing little or no stresses on drum members and reducing the risk of damage to both the beans and machine. The machine is portable and detachable which make it fit to be owned by a group of farmers who can move it from one farm to the other making affordability and running cost easier. The easily affordable and relatively low running cost may be further reduced by the fact that the machine is powered by 3.0 Hp petrol engine which is suitable for other purposes among the rural dwellers. The eventual construction of the machine will encourage more farmers to go into wet processing of coffee and reduce the foreign exchange hitherto lost to this purpose.

  4. Coffee roasting and aroma formation: application of different time-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggenstoss, Juerg; Poisson, Luigi; Kaegi, Ruth; Perren, Rainer; Escher, Felix

    2008-07-23

    The impact of time-temperature combinations of roasting processes on the kinetics of aroma formation in coffee was investigated. The development of 16 aroma compounds and the physical properties of coffee beans was followed in a commercial horizontal drum roasting process and in laboratory scale fluidizing-bed roasting processes at high temperature-short time and low temperature-long time conditions. All trials were run to an equal roast end point as defined by the lightness of coffee beans. In addition, the effect of excessive roasting on aroma composition was studied. Compared to low temperature-long time roasting, high temperature-short time roasting resulted in considerable differences in the physical properties and kinetics of aroma formation. Excessive roasting generally led to decreasing or stable amounts of volatile substances, except for hexanal, pyridine, and dimethyl trisulfide, whose concentrations continued to increase during over-roasting. When the drum roaster and the fluidizing bed roaster were operated in the so-called temperature profile mode, that is, along the identical development of coffee bean temperature over roasting time, the kinetics of aroma generation were similar in both processes.

  5. Determination of chlorogenic acids and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee prepared under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Sup; Kim, Han-Taek; Jeong, Il-Hyung; Hong, Se-Ra; Oh, Moon-Seog; Park, Kwang-Hee; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M

    2017-10-01

    Coffee, a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds, is one of the most valuable commodity in the world, whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are the most common compounds. CGAs are mainly composed of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs), and feruloylquinic acids (FQAs). The major CGAs in coffee are neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Many studies have shown that it is possible to separate the isomers of FQAs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, some authors have shown that it is not possible to separate 4-feruloylquinic acid (4-FQA) and 5-feruloylquinic acid (5-FQA) by HPLC. Therefore, the present study was designated to investigate the chromatographic problems in the determination of CGAs (seven isomers) and caffeine using HPLC-DAD. The values of determination coefficient (R 2 ) calculated from external-standard calibration curves were >0.998. The recovery rates conducted at 3 spiking levels ranged from 99.4% to 106.5% for the CGAs and from 98.8% to 107.1% for the caffeine. The precision values (expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs)) were coffee bean, coffee-ground size, and numbers of boiling-water pours, on the concentration of CGAs and caffeine in homemade brewed coffee, using nine green coffee bean samples of different origins. It was reported that medium-roasted, fine-ground coffees brewed using three pours of boiling water were the healthiest coffee with fluent CGAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 'Beans' or 'Sizzlin' Beans:' Words Get People Eating Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy-boosting green beans and shallots" or "smart-choice vitamin C citrus carrots." Indulgent. For example, phrases like "dynamite chili and tangy lime-seasoned beets," "sweet sizzlin' green beans and crispy shallots" or "twisted ...

  7. Influence of the degree of roasting on the antioxidant capacity and genoprotective effect of instant coffee: contribution of the melanoidin fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; González-SanJosé, María L; Rivero-Pérez, María D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-10-24

    The roasting process induces chemical changes in coffee beans that strongly affect the antioxidant activity of coffee. In this study, the polyphenol and melanoidin contents and the antioxidant activity of three instant coffees with different roasting degrees (light, medium, and dark) were assessed. Coffee brews were separated into fractions, and the potential biological activity of the melanoidins was evaluated by simulating their gastrointestinal digestion. Total antioxidant capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenger activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, and protection against DNA oxidative damage (in vitro and ex vivo genoprotective effects) were determined. We report that instant coffee has a high total antioxidant capacity and protective effect against certain oxidative stress biomarkers (lipids and DNA), although this capacity decreases with the roasting degree. Our study confirms the hypothesis that several of the polyphenols present in coffee may become part of the melanoidins generated during roasting. Furthermore, the elevated genoprotective effect of melanoidin-digested fractions is noteworthy.

  8. Volatile compounds profiles in unroasted Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora beans from different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel KNYSAK

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma is the most important factor in assessing the quality of coffee. The volatile compounds profile could be very important to confirm the authenticity of Coffea arabica. The study was carried out on two species of unroasted coffee beans: Coffea arabica from Colombia and Nepal and Coffea robusta from Uganda and Vietnam. Both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora were imported to the country of analysis approximately 5 months prior to the research. Before the analysis, the coffee beans were kept in a sealed, dark container, at 21 °C. The tests were performed using an electronic nose. Its functioning is based on gas chromatography with two columns of different polarities in parallel and with 2 ultra sensitive Flame Ionization Detectors (FID. With multivariate statistics – Principal Components Analysis – it was possible to reduce the number of links and present them in two dimensions, which allowed for the unambiguous identification and assignment of samples to a particular species of coffee. By using an electronic nose, one can distinguish and group unroasted coffee beans’ flavours depending on the country of origin and species.

  9. GIS-Based Multi-Criteria Analysis for Arabica Coffee Expansion in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeyimana, Innocent; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Geissen, Violette

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS) for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha−1, and 70% has a low yield potential (coffee ha−1). Only 9% of the country has a high yield potential of 1.6–2.4 t coffee ha−1. Those areas are found near Lake Kivu where the dominant soil Orders are Inceptisols and Ultisols. Moderate yield potential is found in the Birunga (volcano), Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential. PMID:25299459

  10. GIS-based multi-criteria analysis for Arabica coffee expansion in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Nzeyimana

    Full Text Available The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha-1, and 70% has a low yield potential (<1.0 t coffee ha-1. Only 9% of the country has a high yield potential of 1.6-2.4 t coffee ha-1. Those areas are found near Lake Kivu where the dominant soil Orders are Inceptisols and Ultisols. Moderate yield potential is found in the Birunga (volcano, Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (<1 t ha-1 occur in the eastern semi-dry lowlands, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, Buberuka Highlands, and Mayaga zones. The weighted overlay analysis and ordinary kriging indicated a large spatial variability of potential productivity indices. Increasing the area and productivity of coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential.

  11. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  12. Time-Resolved Gravimetric Method To Assess Degassing of Roasted Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Wellinger, Marco; Suzuki, Tomonori; Balsiger, Franz; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2017-11-15

    During the roasting of coffee, thermally driven chemical reactions lead to the formation of gases, of which a large fraction is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Part of these gases is released during roasting while part is retained inside the porous structure of the roasted beans and is steadily released during storage or more abruptly during grinding and extraction. The release of CO 2 during the various phases from roasting to consumption is linked to many important properties and characteristics of coffee. It is an indicator for freshness, plays an important role in shelf life and in packaging, impacts the extraction process, is involved in crema formation, and may affect the sensory profile in the cup. Indeed, and in view of the multiple roles it plays, CO 2 is a much underappreciated and little examined molecule in coffee. Here, we introduce an accurate, quantitative, and time-resolved method to measure the release kinetics of gases from whole beans and ground coffee using a gravimetric approach. Samples were placed in a container with a fitted capillary to allow gases to escape. The time-resolved release of gases was measured via the weight loss of the container filled with coffee. Long-term stability was achieved using a customized design of a semimicro balance, including periodic and automatic zero value measurements and calibration procedures. The novel gravimetric methodology was applied to a range of coffee samples: (i) whole Arabica beans and (ii) ground Arabica and Robusta, roasted to different roast degrees and at different speeds (roast air temperatures). Modeling the degassing rates allowed structural and mechanistic interpretation of the degassing process.

  13. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Iriondo-DeHond

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector’s sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.

  14. A process for reduction in viscosity of coffee extract by enzymatic hydrolysis of mannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Sharma, Prince; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen

    2014-07-01

    Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of coffee extract and is responsible for its high viscosity, which in turn negatively affects the technological processing involved in making instant coffee. In our study, we isolated mannan from coffee beans and extract of commercial coffee and it was enzymatically hydrolyzed using alkali-thermostable mannanase obtained from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11. As mannan is found to be more soluble under alkaline conditions, an alkali-thermostable mannanase is well suited for its hydrolysis. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized by response surface methodology. Under the following optimized conditions viz enzyme dose of 11.50 U mannanase g(-1) coffee extract, temperature of 44.50 °C and time of 35.80 min, significant twofold decrease in viscosity (50 mPas to 26.00 ± 1.56 mPas) was achieved. The application of this process in large-scale industrial production of coffee will help in reduction of energy consumption used during freeze-drying. It will also make technological processing involved in making coffee more economical.

  15. Coffee Silverskin Extract Protects against Accelerated Aging Caused by Oxidative Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo-DeHond, Amaia; Martorell, Patricia; Genovés, Salvador; Ramón, Daniel; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Fresno, Manuel; Molina, Antonio; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, coffee beans are almost exclusively used for the preparation of the beverage. The sustainability of coffee production can be achieved introducing new applications for the valorization of coffee by-products. Coffee silverskin is the by-product generated during roasting, and because of its powerful antioxidant capacity, coffee silverskin aqueous extract (CSE) may be used for other applications, such as antiaging cosmetics and dermaceutics. This study aims to contribute to the coffee sector's sustainability through the application of CSE to preserve skin health. Preclinical data regarding the antiaging properties of CSE employing human keratinocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans are collected during the present study. Accelerated aging was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in HaCaT cells and by ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) in C. elegans. Results suggest that the tested concentrations of coffee extracts were not cytotoxic, and CSE 1 mg/mL gave resistance to skin cells when oxidative damage was induced by t-BOOH. On the other hand, nematodes treated with CSE (1 mg/mL) showed a significant increased longevity compared to those cultured on a standard diet. In conclusion, our results support the antiaging properties of the CSE and its great potential for improving skin health due to its antioxidant character associated with phenols among other bioactive compounds present in the botanical material.

  16. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  17. Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2013-03-20

    Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one.

  18. [Coffee tree cultivation and the social history of onchocerciasis in Soconusco, Chiapas state, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Castellanos, J L

    1991-01-01

    Due to the social and ecological changes that have taken place in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, the coffee tree growth economy (established in the latter part of the last century) has been an important factor in the transmission of onchocerciasis. The optimum ecological conditions for the growth of the coffee tree coincide with those of the disease's growth rate vector; the mobilization of migrant workers for the cultivation and gathering of coffee beans, plus changes in the natural environment, are elements which explain the disease's distribution in the different regions. The origin of the disease in Chiapas may be due to the migration of coffee plantation workers from Guatemala in search of land in which to settle. Social changes occurring after the Agrarian Distribution (land distributions that occurred in 1918 and 1940) caused an intensification and modernization in the areas of cultivation which in turn caused a decline in the disease's growth rate vector. This, together with standard of living improvements and control measures against the disease, explain why the problem in these regions has decreased considerably. The use of ivermectin as a new therapy paves the way for better disease control in the future. Nevertheless, in the smaller locations occupied by middle and poor class farmers, where coffee bean cultivation is just commencing and still in a rudimentary form, onchocerciasis and other diseases continue to present serious health problems.

  19. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  20. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  1. Characterization of a new potential functional ingredient: coffee silverskin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Rosa Cinzia; Esposito, Fabrizio; Napolitano, Aurora; Ritieni, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2004-03-10

    Dietary fiber (DF) is one of the main dietary factors contributing to consumers' well-being. In this work the possibility of using the roasted coffee silverskin (CS), a byproduct of roasted coffee beans, as a DF-rich ingredient has been evaluated. The results of our investigation showed that this material has 60% total DF, with a relevant component (14%) of soluble DF. Although a small amount of free phenol compounds is present in CS, it has a marked antioxidative activity, which can be attributed to the huge amount of Maillard reaction products, the melanoidins. Static batch culture fermentation experiments showed that CS induces preferential growth of bifidobacteria rather than clostridia and Bacteroides spp. CS can be proposed as a new potential functional ingredient in consideration of the high content of soluble DF, the marked antioxidant activity, and the potential prebiotic activity.

  2. Post-harvest practices linked with ochratoxin A contamination of coffee in three provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Jonathan M; Barcelo, Racquel C

    2018-02-01

    One of the emerging concerns in the Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines is ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in coffee. During 2015 to 2016, a total of 51 Arabica (Coffea arabica) coffee samples from Benguet province and 71 Robusta (Coffea canephora var. Robusta) coffee samples from the provinces of Ifugao and Kalinga were analysed for OTA contamination. The OTA-producing fungal contaminants during drying and storage of Arabica and Robusta coffee were Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus ochraceus. Ochratoxin A was more commonly detected in Robusta coffee (36.6%) than in Arabica coffee (21.6%). Among the contaminated samples, Robusta coffee cherries in the drying yard had the highest mean OTA level (120.2 μg kg -1 , n = 10) while roasted Robusta coffee beans had the lowest mean level (4.8 μg kg -1 , n = 9). The onset of contamination of Arabica coffee occurred during storage, with a mean OTA level of 46.7 μg kg -1 (n = 9). Roasted coffee had lower OTA content although five samples had levels >5.0 μg kg -1 . Pearson Chi-square analysis (χ 2 ) and Fisher's exact test revealed that several post-harvest practices involving non-removal of the husk or hull and mixing of defective coffee were significantly associated with the occurrence of OTA during drying and storage (p coffee in all stages of post-harvest and rapid reduction of moisture content particularly during drying.

  3. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  4. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  5. coffee growing areas in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enal eudiodiorg.uk -. Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank Jennifer Leavy, Steve Wiggins, Colin Poulton and Kay Sharp for comments on various versions of this paper. ... coffee for a considerable share of their income, and provides jobs for many more people in coffee-related activities (e.g. coffee processing, ...

  6. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  7. Redução de nitrato em plantas jovens de café cultivadas em diferentes níveis de luz e de nitrogênio Nitrate reduction in young coffee trees grown under different levels of light and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Carvalho Carelli

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito de níveis de luz e de nitrogênio na atividade da enzima redutase de nitrato e nos teores de nitrato e de açúcares nas folhas de plantas jovens de café (Coffea arabica L, assim como as possíveis relações entre a disponibilidade desses compostos e a atividade enzimática. Foram utilizadas plantas de dez meses de idade cultivadas em vasos contendo uma mistura de terra mais composto, e mantidas em condições ambientais em pleno sol e em 50% da luz solar. Metade das plantas de cada tratamento de luz foi suplementada semanalmente com nitrogênio. Os resultados mostraram que a atividade da redutase de nitrato, nos dois tratamentos de luz, foi maior nas plantas suplementadas com nitrogênio. Para um mesmo nível de nitrogênio, as plantas cultivadas em pleno sol apresentaram menor atividade da redutase de nitrato, maiores teores de nitrato e de açúcares e maiores taxas de transpiração, do que as cultivadas na sombra. Tais resultados indicam que a menor atividade da redutase de nitrato nas plantas cultivadas em pleno sol aparentemente não foi devida a limitações na disponibilidade de nitrato e de açúcares para fornecer a energia necessária para a redução de nitrato.The effect of levels of light and nitrogen on the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase and its relationship with the availability of sugars and nitrate was studied in leaves of coffee plants (Coffea arabica L. cv. Catual. Ten month old plants were grown on pots containing a mixture of soil and compost, and were kept at full or 50% sunlight. Half of the plants of each light treatment received nitrogen supply. The results showed that the activity of nitrate reductase was higher on plants supplied with nitrogen at both light treatments. For the same nitrogen level, plants grown under full sunlight presented lower nitrate reductase activity, higher nitrate and sugars concentrations, and higher transpiration rates than plants kept at 50% sunlight

  8. Bioavailability of hydroxycinnamates in an instant green/roasted coffee blend in humans. Identification of novel colonic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Juaristi, Miren; Martínez-López, Sara; Sarria, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

    2017-11-27

    Roasting greatly reduces the phenolic content in green coffee beans. Considering the beneficial effects of coffee polyphenols, blends containing green coffee beans are being consumed as a healthier alternative to roasted coffee. This study was aimed at assessing the absorption and metabolism of hydroxycinnamates in an instant green/roasted (35/65) coffee blend in healthy humans. Twelve fasting men and women consumed a cup of coffee containing 269.5 mg (760.6 μmol) of chlorogenic acids. Blood and urine samples were taken before and after coffee consumption at different times and analyzed by LC-MS-QToF. Up to 25 and 42 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine, respectively, mainly in the form of sulfate and methyl derivatives, and to a lower extent as glucuronides. Un-metabolized hydroxycinnamate esters (caffeoyl-, feruloyl-, and coumaroylquinic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acids) and their phase II metabolites, in addition to phase II derivatives of lactones, represented a minor group of metabolites (16.3% of the metabolites excreted in urine) with kinetics compatible with small intestine absorption. Dihydrohydroxycinnamic acids and their phase II derivatives, in addition to feruloylglycine, showed delayed kinetics due to their colonic origin and represented the most abundant group of metabolites (75.7% of total urinary metabolites). Dihydrohydroxycinnamate esters (dihydroferuloyl-, dihydrocaffeoyl- and dihydrocoumaroylquinic acids) have been identified for the first time in both plasma and urine, with microbial origin (excreted 8-12 h after coffee intake) amounting to 8% of total urinary metabolites. In conclusion, coffee polyphenols are partially bioavailable and extensively metabolized, mainly by the colonic microbiota.

  9. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Heavy metals in wet method coffee processing wastewater in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Y; Mejia, G; Mejia-Saavedra, J; Pohlan, J; Sokolov, M

    2007-05-01

    One of the driving forces of the economy in southeast Mexico is agriculture. In Soconusco, Chiapas, coffee is one of the main agricultural products and is traded on the international market. Coffee grown in this region is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. In the beneficio (coffee processing plant) water is an essential resource which is required in great quantities (Matuk et al., 1997; Sokolov, 2002) as it is used to separate good coffee berries from defective ones, as a method of transporting the coffee berries to the processing machinery, in the elimination of the berry husk from the coffee grains (pulping) and finally in the post-fermentation washing process. This process gives rise to one of the smoothest, high-quality coffees available (Zuluaga, 1989; Herrera, 2002). Currently, many producers in Soconusco are opting for ecological coffee production, which has, among its many criteria, human health and environmental protection (Pohlan, 2005). Furthermore, increasing concern during the past few years regarding the production of food that is free from contaminants such as heavy metals, and recent environmental policies in relation to aquatic ecosystem protection, have given rise to questions concerning the quality of water used in coffee processing, as well as pollutants produced by this agroindustry. Water used in the coffee processing plants originates from the main regional rivers whose hydrological basins stretch from the Sierra Madre mountain range down to the coastal plain. As well as providing water, these rivers also receive the wastewater produced during coffee processing (Sokolov, 2002).

  11. Full of Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a genetics activity illustrating genetic variation, mutation, and influence of environmental factors on genotypic expression. Irridiated bean seeds are planted and observed (x-rayed by dentist's x-ray machine at different exposures and for different times). Questions to extend the activity are discussed. (Author/JN)

  12. Evaluation, Bean Dehuller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hopper unit is shown in Fig. 2. It is the de- vice through which the machine is fed or charged with bean seeds. It has a square base on which an inverted hollow pyramidal frustrum is attached. It is constructed from 1.5mm thick galvanised metal sheet and the square base is constructed with mild steel angle bar of 3mm.

  13. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  14. Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, António Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; de Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2013-01-01

    Roasted coffee samples of the two major trade species (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) were studied to identify sensory descriptors that might be used to determine blends production and evaluation, following the expectations of consumers. Coffee beans were roasted at 220 + 10 °C, for 7, 9, and 11 min, and the sensory profiles of the beverages were assessed. From descriptive analysis the eigenvalues allowed the identification of two principal components (PCs), being the variance between samples 68.9% and 21.1%. In the first PC the characteristic odor, astringency, body, bitter flavor, burned aroma, and residual, typical, and burned tastes prevailed. The correlation coefficient between the second PC and citric acid flavor and aroma reached 0.96 and 0.78, respectively. It was concluded that in beverages of these species, the descriptors of both components can be separated according to bean roasting time. Considering roasting time, the overall quality was also rated.

  15. Polyphenolic and hydroxycinnamate contents of whole coffee fruits from China, India, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Stalmach, A; Ali, S; Combet, E

    2013-06-05

    Air-dried whole coffee fruits, beans, and husks from China, India, and Mexico were analyzed for their chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine, and polyphenolic content. Analysis was by HPLC and Orbitrap exact mass spectrometry. Total phenol, total flavonol, and antioxidant capacity were measured. The hydroxycinnamate profile consisted of caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids. A range of flavan-3-ols as well as flavonol conjugates were detected. The CGA content was similar for both Mexican and Indian coffee fruits but was much lower in the samples from China. Highest levels of flavan-3-ols were found in the Indian samples, whereas the Mexican samples contained the highest flavonols. Amounts of CGAs in the beans were similar to those in the whole fruits, but flavan-3-ols and flavonols were not detected. The husks contained the same range of polyphenols as those in the whole fruits. The highest levels of caffeine were found in the Robusta samples.

  16. Effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under different nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M E; Casati, P; Hsu, T P; Ku, M S; Edwards, G E

    1999-02-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation on growth, photosynthesis, UV-B-absorbing compounds and NADP-malic enzyme have been examined in different cultivars of Phaseolous vulgaris L. grown under 1 and 12 mM nitrogen. Low nitrogen nutrition reduces chlorophyll and soluble protein contents in the leaves and thus the photosynthesis rate and dry-matter accumulation. Chlorophyll, soluble protein and Rubisco contents and photosynthesis rate are not significantly altered by ambient levels of UV-B radiation (17 microW m-2, 290-320 nm, 4 h/day for one week). Comparative studies show that under high nitrogen, UV-B radiation slightly enhances leaf expansion and dry-matter accumulation in cultivar Pinto, but inhibits these parameters in Vilmorin. These results suggest that the UV-B effect on growth is mediated through leaf expansion, which is particularly sensitive to UV-B, and that Pinto is more tolerant than Vilmorin. The effect of UV-B radiation on UV-B-absorbing compounds and on NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity is also examined. Both UV-B radiation and low-nitrogen nutrition enhance the content of UV-B-absorbing compounds, and among the three cultivars used, Pinto exhibits the highest increases and Arroz the lowest. The same trend is observed for the specific activity and content of NADP-ME. On a leaf-area basis, the amount of UV-B-absorbing compounds is highly correlated with the enzyme activity (r2 = 0.83), suggesting that NADP-ME plays a key role in biosynthesis of these compounds. Furthermore, the higher sensitivity of Vilmorin than Pinto to UV-B radiation appears to be related to the activity of NADP-ME and the capacity of the plants to accumulate UV-B-absorbing compounds.

  17. Relationship between Physiological Characteristic and Bean Quality on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the physiological process that influence the bean weight and this process related with the efectiveness of the stomata character and chlorophyll content in the leaves. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Design of experiment was randomized complete block design (RCBD consisted of six clones as treatment were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, Sca 6, ICS 60, TSH 858, ICCRI 03, PA 300. Each treatment was replicated three times.  Stomata resistance diffusion, tranpiration,the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, bean number and bean weight were observed. The resuts  of experiment showed that  difference in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, stomata resistance diffusion, bean number and bean weight existed within  six clones tested. Transpiration rate did not show the significantly different between six clones tested. Sulawesi 1 showed the highest content of chlorophyll a and  ICS 60 and ICCRI 03 showed higher content of chlorophyll b than the other clones. Chlorophyll a, b and total (a+b showed positively influence on bean number and bean weight. Transpiration rate had negatively influence to bean number per pod, on the otherhand it showed positively influence to bean weight. Chlorophyll total (a+b showed high genetic variance (σg2, high phenotypic variance (σf2  and high estimated value of heritability (H.  The chlorophyll a,b had moderate genetic variance, moderate phenotypic variance and high of estimated value of heritability.  Chlorophyll total (a+b could be used a selection criteria based on the value of correlation, genetic variance, phenotypic variance and estimated value of heritability would give high opportunity in selection process. 

  18. The polyphenolic and hydroxycinnamate contents of whole coffee fruits from China, India and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, W.; Nemzer, B.; Stalmach, A.; Sidrah, A.; Combet, E.

    2013-01-01

    Air dried whole coffee fruits, beans and husks from China, India and Mexico were analysed for their chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine, and polyphenolic content. Analysis was by HPLC and Orbitrap exact mass spectrometry. Total phenol, total flavonol and antioxidant capacity were measured. The hydroxycinnamate profile consisted of caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids. A range of flavan-3-ols as well as flavonol conjugates were detec...

  19. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  20. Development of Selection Criteria on Bean Weight Character of Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. through Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Path coefficient analysis is frequently used for development of selection criteria on various type of plants. Path analysis on this research was conducted to find the selection criteria of yield component which directly affect bean weight. In addition to the value of path analysis coefficient, genetic variation coefficient, heritability and the value of genetic progress were also studied. The study was conducted at the Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research used randomized complete block design consisting of 14 accession numbers and each consisting of three replications. Pod girth, pod length, pod weight, wet beans weight per pod, number of normal beans per pod, number of abnormal beans per pod, dry weight per normal bean, and shell content were observed. The results showed that the pod weight character had an important role in determining the dry weight of normal bean. The character had a positive genotype correlation coefficient values which was high and significantly different (r=0.46 for dry weight per normal bean, considerable direct influence (P=0.479, moderate of the genotype variation coefficient (9.6%, and high genetic progress (95.23. Character of wet bean weight per pod could also be used indirectly for the selection criteria for dry weight per normal bean based on genetic variation coefficient value (11.88%, genetic progress value (82.48, and direct effect on dry weight per normal bean had positive value (P=0.006. Key words: Selection criteria, dry weight per bean, path analysis,Theobroma cacaoL.

  1. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated...

  2. DETERMINATION OF ZINC, CADMIUM, LEAD AND COPPER IN SAMPLES OF COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Kupchik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential pollutants which can get to the body using food products were explored in this work. The content of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, lead and copper are determined in coffee by inversion voltammetry. Sample preparation of samples was performed by oxidizing mineralization of paint sample in nitrate acid. It is shown that the method of inversion voltammetry can be successfully applied for the determination of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper at their combined presence in coffee. It is established that lead and zinc contain in all investigated samples, most of them contain cadmium and copper. Based on the analysis of experimental data discovered that the content of lead and cadmium don’t exceed permissible limits. It is noted that the average number of heavy metals increases in the order: coffee drinks- a soluble coffeecoffee beans and Grinded – green coffee. However, for an objective assessment of hair dyes quality, it is recommended to use a separate identification on each of heavy metals.

  3. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Candidate coffee reference material for element content: production and certification schemes adopted at CENA/USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radioisotopos], e-mail: fabiotag@cena.usp.br, e-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, e-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br, e-mail: ejfranca@cena.usp.br; Bode, Peter; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Franca, Elvis Joacir de [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.], e-mail: P.Bode@iri.tudelft.nl

    2003-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a fundamental role in analytical chemistry establishing the traceability of measurement results and assuring accuracy and reliability. In spite of the huge importance of measurements in the food sector, Brazil does not produce CRMs to supply the demand. Consequently the acquisition of CRMs depends on imports at high costs. The coffee sector needs CRMs, however there is no material that represents the coffee composition. Since 1998, the Laboratorio de Radioisotopos (LRi) of CENA/USP has been involved in analysis of coffee. During this period, knowledge has been accumulated about several aspects of coffee, such as system of cultivation, elemental composition, homogeneity of the material, possible contaminants and physical properties of beans. Concomitantly, LRi has concentrated efforts in the field of metrology in chemistry, and now all this expertise is being used as the basis for the production of a coffee certified reference material (CRM) for inorganic element content. The scheme developed for the preparation and certification of coffee RM relies on the ISO Guides 34 and 35. The approaches for selection, collection and preparation of the material, moisture determination method, homogeneity testing, certification and long-term stability testing are discussed and a time frame for the expected accomplishments is provided. (author)

  5. Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian E W; Smrke, Samo; Goodman, Bernard A; Keller, Marco; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-11-12

    Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants; some are present in the green bean, whereas others are generated during roasting. However, there is no single accepted analytical method for their routine determination. This paper describes the adaption of three complementary assays (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ABTS and ORAC) for the routine assessment of antioxidant capacity of beverages, their validation, and use for determining the antioxidant capacities of extracts from coffee beans at different stages in the roasting process. All assays showed a progressive increase in antioxidant capacity during roasting to a light roast state, consistent with the production of melanoidins having a higher antioxidant effect than the degradation of CGAs. However, the three assays gave different numbers for the total antioxidant capacity of green beans relative to gallic acid (GA), although the range of values was much smaller when chlorogenic acid (CGA) was used as reference. Therefore, although all three assays indicated that there was an increase in antioxidant activity during coffee roasting, and the large differences in responses to GA and CGA illustrate their different sensitivities to different types of antioxidant molecule.

  6. Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian E. W. Opitz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants; some are present in the green bean, whereas others are generated during roasting. However, there is no single accepted analytical method for their routine determination. This paper describes the adaption of three complementary assays (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC, ABTS and ORAC for the routine assessment of antioxidant capacity of beverages, their validation, and use for determining the antioxidant capacities of extracts from coffee beans at different stages in the roasting process. All assays showed a progressive increase in antioxidant capacity during roasting to a light roast state, consistent with the production of melanoidins having a higher antioxidant effect than the degradation of CGAs. However, the three assays gave different numbers for the total antioxidant capacity of green beans relative to gallic acid (GA, although the range of values was much smaller when chlorogenic acid (CGA was used as reference. Therefore, although all three assays indicated that there was an increase in antioxidant activity during coffee roasting, and the large differences in responses to GA and CGA illustrate their different sensitivities to different types of antioxidant molecule.

  7. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  8. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta. Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica. Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics. This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid, drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.

  9. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the first 15K coffee microarray, a new tool for discovering candidate genes correlated to agronomic and quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privat, Isabelle; Bardil, Amélie; Gomez, Aureliano Bombarely; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Fuentes, Ivanna; Mueller, Lukas; Joët, Thierry; Pot, David; Foucrier, Séverine; Dussert, Stéphane; Leroy, Thierry; Journot, Laurent; de Kochko, Alexandre; Campa, Claudine; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe; Bertrand, Benoit

    2011-01-05

    Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research.

  10. The 'PUCE CAFE' Project: the First 15K Coffee Microarray, a New Tool for Discovering Candidate Genes correlated to Agronomic and Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of coffee biology will have an impact on future agronomical improvements for this economically important tree. During the past years, EST collections were generated in Coffee, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics. Results The "PUCE CAFE" Project, organized by the scientific consortium NESTLE/IRD/CIRAD, has developed an oligo-based microarray using 15,721 unigenes derived from published coffee EST sequences mostly obtained from different stages of fruit development and leaves in Coffea Canephora (Robusta). Hybridizations for two independent experiments served to compare global gene expression profiles in three types of tissue matter (mature beans, leaves and flowers) in C. canephora as well as in the leaves of three different coffee species (C. canephora, C. eugenoides and C. arabica). Microarray construction, statistical analyses and validation by Q-PCR analysis are presented in this study. Conclusion We have generated the first 15 K coffee array during this PUCE CAFE project, granted by Génoplante (the French consortium for plant genomics). This new tool will help study functional genomics in a wide range of experiments on various plant tissues, such as analyzing bean maturation or resistance to pathogens or drought. Furthermore, the use of this array has proven to be valid in different coffee species (diploid or tetraploid), drastically enlarging its impact for high-throughput gene expression in the community of coffee research. PMID:21208403

  11. Common bean yield under water suppression and application of osmoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J. de C. Bastos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the common bean crop grown with application of osmoprotectants based on algae of the genus Durvillaea potatorum in the winter crop season, with occurrence or not of water suppression. The experiment used a randomized block design, in split plots, arranged in a 4x7 factorial scheme, in which the plots were composed of four treatments - periods of water suppression (7, 14, 21 days and the control treatment: 100% of field capacity throughout the crop cycle and the subplots consisted of seven types of osmoprotectants. The treatments with osmoprotectants was applied during the full flowering of the common bean. Three days after application of osmoprotectants, the treatments with suppression of irrigation were established. The use of osmoprotectants based on algae of the genus Durvillaea does not affect the variables plant height, stem diameter, stem and pod dry matter, first pod height, number of pods per plant and number of grains per pod in common bean plants cultivated with occurrence of water suppression. Common bean plants under water restriction conditions have lower leaf and shoot dry matter and lower 100-grain weight. Common bean grain yield was influenced by the type of osmoprotectants and the water suppression period.

  12. GIS-based multi-criteria analysis for Arabica coffee expansion in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeyimana, Innocent; Hartemink, Alfred E; Geissen, Violette

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS) for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha-1, and 70% has a low yield potential (volcano), Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (<1 t ha-1) occur in the eastern semi-dry lowlands, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, Buberuka Highlands, and Mayaga zones. The weighted overlay analysis and ordinary kriging indicated a large spatial variability of potential productivity indices. Increasing the area and productivity of coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential.

  13. TRADITIONAL USE OF THREE EDIBLE INSECTS IN COFFEE AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE STATE OF VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Escamilla Prado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea arabica L. is one of the most economically, socioculturally and environmentally important crops in Veracruz. Shade-grown coffee plantations provide environmental services and play a key role in biodiversity conservation. In coffee farms in Veracruz insects are an abundant natural resource, and part of the use of this resource is the consumption of some edible insects in certain coffee regions. The objective of this study was to know the traditional use of three species of edible insects in the coffee agroecosystem of Veracruz. During the period 2007-2012, an ethnoentomological study was conducted in coffee regions from central Veracruz. The insect species identified were the ants chicatanas (Atta mexicana Smith and Atta cephalotes Latreille in the municipality of Huatusco, the larva gusano del jonote (Arsenura armida armida Cramer in the municipalities of Zongolica, Tequila and Tezonapa, and the larva gusanillo (Phassus triangularis H.E. in the municipalities of Córdoba, Ixhuatlán del Café, Tepatlaxco, Chocamán and Zongolica. The results showed the traditional knowledge held by coffee growers related to these edible species which are a valuable natural resource in their coffee plantations. Knowledge on agroecological relationships, collection, consumption and marketing was rescued. In conclusion, the insect species studied are used for local consumption and have great economic potential due to their high sell price during the harvest season.

  14. Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: Inhibition by Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Simões, Cristiana; Maciel, Elisabete; Domingues, Pedro; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2017-07-15

    Under roasting conditions, polysaccharides depolymerize and also are able to polymerize, forming new polymers through non-enzymatic transglycosylation reactions (TGRs). TGRs can also occur between carbohydrates and aglycones, such as the phenolic compounds present in daily consumed foods like coffee. In this study, glycosidically-linked phenolic compounds were quantified in coffee melanoidins, the polymeric nitrogenous brown-colored compounds formed during roasting, defined as end-products of Maillard reaction. One third of the phenolics present were in glycosidically-linked form. In addition, the roasting of solid-state mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition allowed the conclusion that proteins play a regulatory role in TGRs extension and, consequently, modulate melanoidins composition. Overall, the results obtained showed that TGRs are a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in melanoidins and are inhibited by amino groups through Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preservation of roasted and ground coffee during storage. Part 2: Bulk density and intergranular porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The determination of physical properties is an important factor in the design of machinery and the scaling of post-harvest operations. The present study evaluates the influence of the level of roasting and the size of grinding on the physical properties of coffee during storage. The following physical properties were evaluated: true and bulk density, and intergranular porosity. Raw coffee beans (Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, hulled and dried, were roasted to two different levels: medium light (SCAA#65 and moderately dark (SCAA#45. The beans were then grinded into three different sizes: fine (0.59 mm, medium (0.84 mm and coarse (1.19 mm. An additional coffee lot was kept whole. Following grinding, samples were stored at two different temperatures (10 and 30 ºC and analyzed after five different storage durations (0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 days. The medium light roast had higher values for each of the measured physical properties. Finely ground samples had higher true and bulk densities, and porosities. It is concluded that the size of grinding, level of roasting and duration of storage significantly affect the physical properties of coffee.

  16. Identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance in coffee by high-throughput sequencing in the shoot apex of different Coffea arabica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofatto, Luciana Souto; Carneiro, Fernanda de Araújo; Vieira, Natalia Gomes; Duarte, Karoline Estefani; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Alekcevetch, Jean Carlos; Cotta, Michelle Guitton; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Lapeyre-Montes, Fabienne; Lartaud, Marc; Leroy, Thierry; De Bellis, Fabien; Pot, David; Rodrigues, Gustavo Costa; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Andrade, Alan Carvalho; Marraccini, Pierre

    2016-04-19

    Drought is a widespread limiting factor in coffee plants. It affects plant development, fruit production, bean development and consequently beverage quality. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance exists within the coffee genus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of coffee plants to drought are largely unknown. In this study, we compared the molecular responses to drought in two commercial cultivars (IAPAR59, drought-tolerant and Rubi, drought-susceptible) of Coffea arabica grown in the field under control (irrigation) and drought conditions using the pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices and analysing the expression of 38 candidate genes. Pyrosequencing from shoot apices generated a total of 34.7 Mbp and 535,544 reads enabling the identification of 43,087 clusters (41,512 contigs and 1,575 singletons). These data included 17,719 clusters (16,238 contigs and 1,575 singletons) exclusively from 454 sequencing reads, along with 25,368 hybrid clusters assembled with 454 sequences. The comparison of DNA libraries identified new candidate genes (n = 20) presenting differential expression between IAPAR59 and Rubi and/or drought conditions. Their expression was monitored in plagiotropic buds, together with those of other (n = 18) candidates genes. Under drought conditions, up-regulated expression was observed in IAPAR59 but not in Rubi for CaSTK1 (protein kinase), CaSAMT1 (SAM-dependent methyltransferase), CaSLP1 (plant development) and CaMAS1 (ABA biosynthesis). Interestingly, the expression of lipid-transfer protein (nsLTP) genes was also highly up-regulated under drought conditions in IAPAR59. This may have been related to the thicker cuticle observed on the abaxial leaf surface in IAPAR59 compared to Rubi. The full transcriptome assembly of C. arabica, followed by functional annotation, enabled us to identify differentially expressed genes related to drought conditions. Using these data, candidate genes were selected and

  17. Application of gas chromatography/flame ionization detector-based metabolite fingerprinting for authentication of Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2015-11-01

    Development of authenticity screening for Asian palm civet coffee, the world-renowned priciest coffee, was previously reported using metabolite profiling through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, a major drawback of this approach is the high cost of the instrument and maintenance. Therefore, an alternative method is needed for quality and authenticity evaluation of civet coffee. A rapid, reliable and cost-effective analysis employing a universal detector, GC coupled with flame ionization detector (FID), and metabolite fingerprinting has been established for discrimination analysis of 37 commercial and non-commercial coffee beans extracts. gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) provided higher sensitivity over a similar range of detected compounds than GC/MS. In combination with multivariate analysis, GC/FID could successfully reproduce quality prediction from GC/MS for differentiation of commercial civet coffee, regular coffee and coffee blend with 50 wt % civet coffee content without prior metabolite details. Our study demonstrated that GC/FID-based metabolite fingerprinting can be effectively actualized as an alternative method for coffee authenticity screening in industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Influência de esterco bovino e calcário sobre o efeito residual da adubação fosfatada para a Brachiaria brizantha cultivada após o feijoeiro Influence of cattle manure and limestone on residual effects of phosphorus fertilizer in Brachiaria brizantha grown after common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2010-02-01

    to evaluate the influence of manure and lime applications on the residual effect of phosphorus applied to common bean on phosphorus nutrition and yield of Brachiaria brizantha grown in succession. Four experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, in a 4 x 5 factorial layout with three replications. Each experimental unit consisted of a pot containing 4 dm³ of the following soil: clayey dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol, sandy clay loam dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol, sandy loam dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol, or sandy orthic Quartzarenic Neosol (Quartzpsament. Each soil represented an experiment and was treated with four liming levels (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 times the recommended dose to reach 60 % base saturation and five doses of cattle manure (0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 % of the soil volume. In each pot, bean plants were grown and harvested and followed by planting of three brachiaria plants, which were cut 70, 160 and 290 days after seedling emergency. Total dry matter productions and P accumulation in the above-ground part of the brachiaria plants were positively influenced by manuring and liming. These treatments influenced positively the residual effect of P fertilizer applied to the bean plants, in terms of P nutrition and production of the succession Brachiaria brizantha crop.

  19. Comparative analysis of nutritional compositions of transgenic RNAi-mediated virus-resistant bean (event EMB-PV051-1) with its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, José L V; de Oliveira Santos, Juliana; Conte, Carmine; Pacheco, Sidney; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Souza, Thiago L P O; Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-10-01

    Golden mosaic is among the most economically important diseases that severely reduce bean production in Latin America. In 2011, a transgenic bean event named Embrapa 5.1 (EMB-PV051-1), resistant to bean golden mosaic virus, was approved for commercial release in Brazil. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the nutritional components of the beans, as well as the anti-nutrient levels in the primary transgenic line and its derived near-isogenic lines after crosses and backcrosses with two commercial cultivars. Nutritional assessment of transgenic crops used for human consumption is an important aspect of safety evaluations. Results demonstrated that the transgenic bean event, cultivated under field conditions, was substantially equivalent to that of the non-transgenic bean plants. In addition, the amounts of the nutritional components are within the range of values observed for several bean commercial varieties grown across a range of environments and seasons.

  20. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  1. Characterization of naturally occurring airborne diacetyl concentrations associated with the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee

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    Jennifer S. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diacetyl, a suspected cause of respiratory disorders in some food and flavorings manufacturing workers, is also a natural component of roasted coffee. We characterized diacetyl exposures that would plausibly occur in a small coffee shop during the preparation and consumption of unflavored coffee. Personal (long- and short-term and area (long-term samples were collected while a barista ground whole coffee beans, and brewed and poured coffee into cups. Simultaneously, long-term personal samples were collected as two participants, the customers, drank one cup of coffee each per h. Air sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with OSHA Method 1012. Diacetyl was detected in all long-term samples. The long-term concentrations for the barista and area samples were similar, and ranged from 0.013–0.016 ppm; long-term concentrations for the customers were slightly lower and ranged from 0.010–0.014 ppm. Short-term concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection (<0.0047 ppm–0.016 ppm. Mean estimated 8 h time-weighted average (8 h TWA exposures for the barista ranged from 0.007–0.013 ppm; these values exceed recommended 8 h TWA occupational exposure limits (OELs for diacetyl and are comparable to long-term personal measurements collected in various food and beverage production facilities. The concentrations measured based on area sampling were comparable to those measured in the breathing zone of the barista, thus exceedances of the recommended OELs may also occur for coffee shop workers who do not personally prepare coffee (e.g., cashier, sanitation/maintenance. These findings suggest that the practicality and scientific basis of the recommended OELs for diacetyl merit further consideration.

  2. Microclimate, development and productivity of robusta coffee shaded by rubber trees and at full sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vasconcellos Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are few studies about the shading of Robusta coffee with rubber trees. The aim of this study was evaluate the microclimate, development and yield of Coffea canephora grown at full sun and shaded by rubber trees. The experiment consisted of a Robusta coffee crop (Coffea canephora grown at under full sun and another coffee crop intercropped with rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber trees and coffee crop were planted in the East/West direction, in Jaguaré, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Was evaluated the luminosity, temperature and relative humidity, leaf nutrient concentrations; internodes of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches, leaf area; relative chlorophyll index, and tree yield of the coffee crops. The shading directly influenced the microclimate by reducing the air temperature in the summer and winter, as well as by increasing relative humidity. Luminosity in the summer had an average decrease of 905 lumens ft-2 throughout the day, which was equivalent to 72.49%, and luminosity in the winter had an average decrease of 1665 lumens ft-2, which was equivalent to 88.04%. The shading provided greater etiolation of the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches as well as greater leaf expansion as compared to the full sun. The leaf concentration of Fe and Mn were higher in the shaded coffee. Estimated chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were greater in the coffee crop grown at under full sun. The dense shading produced by rubber trees provided losses in the coffee crop yield, however, there is the formation of the rubber tree.

  3. Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-farm trials to determine the optimum combination of maize (Zea mays L.) density, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar and bean spatial arrangement to produce high yields of the intercrop combination were conducted in Chinyika Resettlement Area (CRA) and at Domboshava Training Centre (DTC) during the 1996/97 ...

  4. Bioindicators of soil quality in coffee organic cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of different coffee organic cultivation systems on chemical and biological soil characteristics, in different seasons of the year. The following systems were evaluated: coffee intercropped with one (CJ1, two (CJ2 or three (CJ3 pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan alleys; coffee planted under full sun (CS; area planted with sweet pepper and snap bean in a conventional tillage system (AC; and secondary forest area (FFR. Row spacing in CJ1, CJ2, CJ3 and CS was 2.0x1.0, 2.8x1.0, 3.6x1.0, and 2.8x1.0 m, respectively. Soil samples were collected at 10-cm depth, during the four seasons of the year. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and redundancy analysis. There was an increase in edaphic macrofauna, soil basal respiration, and microbial quotient in the summer. Total macrofauna density was greater in CJ2 followed by CJ3, CS, CJ1, AC and FFR; Coleoptera, Formicidae, and Isoptera were the most abundant groups. There are no significant differences among the areas for soil basal respiration, and the metabolic quotient is higher in CJ1, CJ3, and FFR. Microbial biomass carbon and the contents of K, pH, Ca+Mg, and P show greater values in AC.

  5. GCMS investigation of volatile compounds in green coffee affected by potato taste defect and the Antestia bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackels, Susan C; Marshall, Eric E; Omaiye, Angelica G; Gianan, Robert L; Lee, Fabrice T; Jackels, Charles F

    2014-10-22

    Potato taste defect (PTD) is a flavor defect in East African coffee associated with Antestiopsis orbitalis feeding and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) in the coffee. To elucidate the manifestation of PTD, surface and interior volatile compounds of PTD and non-PTD green coffees were sampled by headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis of the chromatographic data revealed a profile of surface volatiles distinguishing PTD from non-PTD coffees dominated by tridecane, dodecane, and tetradecane. While not detected in surface volatiles, IPMP was found in interior volatiles of PTD coffee. Desiccated antestia bugs were analyzed by GCMS, revealing that the three most prevalent volatiles were tridecane, dodecane, and tetradecane, as was found in the surface profile PTD coffee. Coffee having visible insect damage exhibited both a PTD surface volatile profile and IPMP in interior volatiles, supporting the hypothesis linking antestia bug feeding activity with PTD profile compounds on the surface and IPMP in the interior of the beans.

  6. In depth study of acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting: role of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Göncüoğlu, Neslihan; Hamzalıoğlu, Aytül; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-09-01

    Coffee, as a source of acrylamide, needs to be investigated in depth to understand the contribution of different precursors. This study aimed to investigate the contributions of sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation on acrylamide formation in coffee during roasting. Coffee beans and model systems were used to monitor the accumulation of neo-formed carbonyls during heating through sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation. High resolution mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3,4-dideoxyosone, which were identified as the major sugar decomposition products in both roasted coffee and model systems. Among others, 2-octenal, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal were identified in relatively high quantities in roasted coffee. Formation and elimination of HMF in coffee during roasting had a kinetic pattern similar to those of acrylamide. Its concentration rapidly increased within 10 min followed by an exponential decrease afterward. The amount of lipid oxidation products tended to increase linearly during roasting. It was concluded from the results that roasting formed a pool of neo-formed carbonyls from sucrose decomposition and lipid oxidation, and they play certain role on acrylamide formation in coffee.

  7. Social and Ecological Drivers of the Economic Value of Pollination Services Delivered to Coffee in Central Uganda

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    Bin Mushambanyi Théodore Munyuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On-farm pollination experiments were conducted in 30 different small-scale coffee fields to determine monetary value attributable to pollination services in coffee production and to identify the degree of influences of various socio-ecological drivers in Uganda. Ecological-economic approaches were applied to determine the economic value of pollinating services. Economic value of bees increased significantly with increase in coffee farm size, bee diversity, and cover of seminatural habitats. The value of bees declined sharply (P<0.05 with forest distance and cultivation intensity. Economic values of pollinating services associated with coffee fields established in regions with low intensity were found to be high. Organically managed small-scale coffee fields were 2 times more profitable than commercially managed farms. The annual value of pollinating services delivered by wild bees oscillated between US$67.18 and US$1431.36. Central Uganda produces in total 0.401 million tons of coffee beans for an approximate economic value of US$214 million from which US$149.42 million are attributable to pollination services. Policy makers should strengthen environmental/agricultural extension service systems to better serve farmers. Farmers are recommended to protect/increase the cover of natural and semi-natural habitats in the vicinity of their coffee fields to receive high economic benefits from pollinating services delivered by bees.

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  9. Coffee Leaf Rust Epidemics ( Hemileia vastatrix ) in Montane Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty coffee trees were selected from each forest (three sites within a forest) coffee population to record incidence (percent rusted leaves), severity (percent leaf area damaged) and sporulated lesion density (number of lesion per leaf, SLD) from selected six branches per tree. An average of 10-12 leaves per branch was ...

  10. Coffee Berry Borer Resistance in Coffee Genotypes

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    Gustavo Hiroshi Sera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the coffee germplasm of the Paraná Agronomic Institute (IAPAR for resistance to the coffee-berry-borer. Preliminary field evaluation was performed in August 2004 and the fruits of less damaged genotypes in the field were evaluated under controlled condition with obligated and free choice experiments established in a randomized complete design with three replications. The genotypes were evaluated fifteen days after infestation with one borer per fruit in Petri dishes. The data were analyzed by the Scott-Knott means test at 1 % and by the χ2 test. Statistical analysis indicated that Coffea kapakata, Psilanthus bengalensis, C. eugenioides and genotypes with C. eugenioides genes were resistant. These genotypes presented low frequency of bored grains. C. eugenioides and C. kapakata could present resistance at epicarp level but not in the grain. P. bengalensis could present resistance also in the grains.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fontes de resistência genética a H. hampei em diferentes espécies de café do banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico do Paraná (IAPAR, Londrina, PR. Foram realizadas avaliações preliminares de campo, para posterior testes de confinamento e de livre escolha, em laboratório, instalados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os genótipos foram avaliados quinze dias após a infestação com uma broca por fruto em placas de petri. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de médias Scott-Knott a 1 % e pelo teste de χ2. Foi observado que C. eugenioides, C. kapakata e P. bengalensis constituem importantes fontes de resistência à broca, pois apresentaram menor freqüência de grãos brocados. Os dois primeiros podem apresentar substâncias voláteis antagônicas à broca na casca e a resistência de P. bengalensis pode estar também no grão.

  11. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  12. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and coffee production in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Muchugu, Eric; Vega, Fernando E; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin

    2011-01-01

    The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  13. [Coffee enema induced acute colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Jung; Song, Seung Kyun; Jeon, Jin Ho; Sung, Mi Kyung; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Kwang; Lee, Youn Soo

    2008-10-01

    Rectal enema used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes infrequently causes colitis. In medical practice, enemas are known to incidentally bring about colitis by mechanical, thermal, or direct chemical injuries. Coffee enema is told to ameliorate the constipation in alternative medicine. We hereby report a case of acute colitis resulting from coffee enema, which was presented with severe abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  14. Performance and risk assessment of Bambara beans grown on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Doku EV, Karikari SK (1971). Bambarra groundnut. Econ. Bot. 25: 225-. 262. Fargašovă A (2001). Phytotoxic effects of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Fe on. Sinapsis alba L. seedlings and their accumulation in roots and shoots. Biologia Plantarum 44: 471-473. GB 15199 – 94 (1994). National Standard of the People's Republic of.

  15. Avaliação do efeito do parcelamento da adubação e da época de início da irrigação sobre a produtividade do cafeeiro Evaluation of split fertilizer applications and irrigation starting time over coffee bean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marciano da Silva

    2003-12-01

    fertilizantes, seja via água de irrigação ou aplicação manual, proporcionaram melhores resultados sobre a produtividade total, 82,3 sc/ha e 81,3 sc/ha, respectivamente.The effect of starting the irrigation season at different dates and the effect of multiple fertilizer applications, through fertigation and traditional fertilizer hand spreading, were evaluated in an experiment conducted in a 12 years old 'Catuaí' coffee orchard, with plants in a 3.5 by 0.8 m spacing, located at the Múquem Farm - FAEPE/UFLA in Lavras, MG. An experimental design with 3 completely randomized blocks was used. Each block was split in 4 randomized portions submitted to four different fertilization treatments: fertigation with three different numbers of multiple applications (P4 = 36; P3 = 24; P2 = 12 and multiple (P1=12 fertilizer applications by hand spread. Each one of the plots corresponding to a fertilization treatment was subdivided, without randomization, in 4 subplots: a non irrigated control (D treatment receiving an even 4way fertilizer split application and three irrigated subplots with the irrigation season starting at different dates (A =06/01; B = 07/15; C = 09/01 and D correspond to the. Crop yield (97/98 harvest season was analyzed considering the amount of coffee picked by harvest manual in the cloth, coffee picked in the ground and the sum of both methods. Measured weight values were submitted to variance analysis and test of averages. The analysis of variance showed a significant effect of irrigation timing over all parameters, the amount of coffee picked in the ground was affected by fertigation, interaction between irrigation and fertilization split affected coffee picked by harvest manual in the cloth the total amount of picked coffee. The test of averages showed that the A parcel (irrigated starting in 06/01 presented the best yield results, 56.6 bags/ha of coffee picked by harvest manual in the cloth and a total of 67.7 bags/ha, that represents a 73% increase on coffee

  16. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfia Marcenaro

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the

  17. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  18. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, ‘INTA Rojo’. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar ‘INTA Rojo’ and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  19. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  20. Evaluation of physiological changes in coffee seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out at three locations with different vegetation in Nigeria between 1996 and 1998 to determine the physiological changes in coffee intercropped with maize, cassava and plantain. There were four intercropping treatments comprising coffee/maize, coffee/cassava, coffee/plantain and ...

  1. Genetic Diversity of Croatian Common Bean Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudija Carović-Stanko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the majority of the common bean production is based on local landraces, grown by small-scale farmers in low input production systems. Landraces are adapted to the specific growing conditions and agro-environments and show a great morphological diversity. These local landraces are in danger of genetic erosion caused by complex socio-economic changes in rural communities. The low profitability of farms and their small size, the advanced age of farmers and the replacement of traditional landraces with modern bean cultivars and/or other more profitable crops have been identified as the major factors affecting genetic erosion. Three hundred accessions belonging to most widely used landraces were evaluated by phaseolin genotyping and microsatellite marker analysis. A total of 183 different multi-locus genotypes in the panel of 300 accessions were revealed using 26 microsatellite markers. Out of 183 accessions, 27.32% were of Mesoamerican origin, 68.31% of Andean, while 4.37% of accessions represented putative hybrids between gene pools. Accessions of Andean origin were further classified into phaseolin type II (“H” or “C” and III (“T”, the latter being more frequent. A model-based cluster analysis based on microsatellite markers revealed the presence of three clusters in congruence with the results of phaseolin type analysis.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Croatian Common Bean Landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Liber, Zlatko; Vidak, Monika; Barešić, Ana; Grdiša, Martina; Lazarević, Boris; Šatović, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    In Croatia, the majority of the common bean production is based on local landraces, grown by small-scale farmers in low input production systems. Landraces are adapted to the specific growing conditions and agro-environments and show a great morphological diversity. These local landraces are in danger of genetic erosion caused by complex socio-economic changes in rural communities. The low profitability of farms and their small size, the advanced age of farmers and the replacement of traditional landraces with modern bean cultivars and/or other more profitable crops have been identified as the major factors affecting genetic erosion. Three hundred accessions belonging to most widely used landraces were evaluated by phaseolin genotyping and microsatellite marker analysis. A total of 183 different multi-locus genotypes in the panel of 300 accessions were revealed using 26 microsatellite markers. Out of 183 accessions, 27.32% were of Mesoamerican origin, 68.31% of Andean, while 4.37% of accessions represented putative hybrids between gene pools. Accessions of Andean origin were further classified into phaseolin type II ("H" or "C") and III ("T"), the latter being more frequent. A model-based cluster analysis based on microsatellite markers revealed the presence of three clusters in congruence with the results of phaseolin type analysis.

  3. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  4. Qualitative properties of roasting defect beans and development of its classification methods by hyperspectral imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Seok; Bae, Hyung-Jin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative properties of roasting defect coffee beans and their classification methods were studied using hyperspectral imaging (HSI). The roasting defect beans were divided into 5 groups: medium roasting (Cont), under developed (RD-1), over roasting (RD-2), interior under developed (RD-3), and interior scorching (RD-4). The following qualitative properties were assayed: browning index (BI), moisture content (MC), chlorogenic acid (CA), trigonelline (TG), and caffeine (CF) content. Their HSI spectra (1000-1700nm) were also analysed to develop the classification methods of roasting defect beans. RD-2 showed the highest BI and the lowest MC, CA, and TG content. The accuracy of classification model of partial least-squares discriminant was 86.2%. The most powerful wavelength to classify the defective beans was approximately 1420nm (related to OH bond). The HSI reflectance values at 1420nm showed similar tendency with MC, enabling the use of this technology to classify the roasting defect beans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antithrombotic effects of pyridinium compounds formed from trigonelline upon coffee roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaska, Bartlomiej; Piotrowski, Lukasz; Leszczynska, Agnieszka; Michalowski, Bartosz; Kramkowski, Karol; Kaminski, Tomasz; Adamus, Jan; Marcinek, Andrzej; Gebicki, Jerzy; Mogielnicki, Andrzej; Buczko, Wlodzimierz

    2014-04-02

    Coffee may exert a preventive effect on arterial thrombosis. Trigonelline is one of the most abundant compounds in coffee that undergoes pyrolysis upon roasting of coffee beans. The aim of the present study was to identify pyridinium compounds formed upon trigonelline pyrolysis and coffee roasting and to investigate the effect of three of them, i.e., 1-methylpyridine and 1,3- and 1,4-dimethylpyridine, on experimentally induced arterial thrombosis in rats. 1,3- and 1,4-dimethylpyridine but not 1-methylpyridine inhibited arterial thrombus formation. 1,3-Dimethylpyridine inhibited platelet aggregation and reduced fibrin formation in platelet-rich plasma, whereas 1,4-dimethylpyridine increased the plasma level of 6-keto-PGF1α. 1,4-Dimethylpyridine slightly increased rat tissue plasminogen activator plasma activity. In summary, we demonstrated that pyridinium compounds display mild antithrombotic properties due to stimulation by prostacyclin release (1,4-dimethylpyridine) and inhibition of platelet aggregation (1,3-dimethylpyridine). Those pyridinium compounds may, to some extent, be responsible for the beneficial effects of coffee drinking.

  6. Discrimination of organic coffee via Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet

    2012-08-30

    Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Calories from beverages purchased at 2 major coffee chains in New York City, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-10-01

    Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and 73 Dunkin' Donuts stores during the spring of 2007. For each purchase, we obtained the calorie content from the company's Web site; these values were adjusted to account for self-reported customization of the drink. We included 1,127 beverage purchases at Starbucks and 1,830 at Dunkin' Donuts in our analyses. Brewed coffee or tea averaged 63 kcal, and blended coffee beverages averaged 239 kcal. Approximately two-thirds of purchases at Starbucks and one-fourth of purchases at Dunkin' Donuts were blended coffee beverages. Calories in blended coffee beverages are high; on average, customers bought 12% of a 2,000-kcal diet. Policy changes to provide for calorie posting at the point of purchase could increase customer awareness of the calories in these beverages; modifying standard formulations of blended coffee beverages, such as using low-fat milk or smaller serving sizes, would also reduce calorie content.

  8. [Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekschoten, M V; van Cruchten, S T J; Kosmeijer-Schuil, T G; Katan, M B

    2006-12-30

    To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. Observational. In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major supermarkets resulting in a total of 30 samples of coffee pads. The levels of cafestol and kahweol were determined by gas chromatography. As controls, the diterpene levels in filtered and unfiltered coffee were also measured. Coffee prepared using coffee pads contained on average 0.76 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 0.69-0.82) and 0.85 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 0.77-0.94). Filtered coffee contained 0.76 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 0.63-0.88) and 0.81 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 0.63-0.99). Unfiltered coffee contained 72.5 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 48.5-96.4) and 71.5 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 45.0-98.1). Coffee prepared using coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine contained minute levels of diterpenes comparable to those of filtered coffee. Its effect on serum-cholesterol levels is therefore likely to be negligible.

  9. Nitrogen fertilization of coffee: organic compost and Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Silva Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the response of coffee to organic fertilizers is scarce. This study evaluates the effect of different doses of compost and Crotalaria juncea L. on growth, production and nitrogen nutrition of coffee trees. The treatments consisted of compost at rates of 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended fertilization, with or without the aerial part of C. juncea. C. juncea was grown with NH4-N (2% 15N and applied to coffee. The use of C. juncea increased growth in height and diameter of the coffee canopy. In the first year, the percentage of N derived from C. juncea reached 8.5% at seven months and 4.1% at fifteen months after fertilization. In the second year, the percentage of N derived from C. juncea reached 17.9% N at the early harvest, five months after fertilization. Increased rates of compost increased pH , P , K , Ca , Mg , sum of bases , effective CEC, base saturation and organic matter and reduced potential acidity. 15N allowed the identification of the N contribution from C. juncea with percentage of leaf N derived from Crotalaria juncea from 9.2 to 17.9%.

  10. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  11. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  12. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  13. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes (GEC such as climate change (CC and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011, and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  14. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  15. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  16. Key Success Factors in the Brazilian Coffee Agrichain: Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Florêncio de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee production has grown 100% in volume over the past 30 years, accounting for 144 million coffee bags produced in 2015. Brazil responded to 42% of this production, along with Vietnam (19%, Colombia (9%, Indonesia (8%, and Ethiopia (4% (OIC, 2016. Following this pace, the consumption expanded not only in such traditional markets as the United States (4.2 kg/year, Germany (6.9 kg/year, and France (5.7 kg/year but also in tea-driven markets, such as Japan, Korea, Russia, and China (CECAFE, 2013. In 2015, Brazil harvested 43.2 million 60-kg bags of green coffee, 32 million of which were of Arabica coffee and 11.2 million of a Conilon species (CONAB, 2016. The planted area in Brazil is 2.3 million hectares, and there are about 287,000 producers, predominantly mini- and small farmers. Having continental dimensions, the country presents a variety of climates, reliefs, altitudes, and latitudes that allow the production of a wide range of types and qualities of coffee (MAPA, 2016. This research aimed to clarify present and future challenges for the Brazilian coffee agrichain, considering the growing demand and also competitiveness between the coffee countries’ producers. To capture the vivid perception of the actors in the coffee chain, a qualitative approach was employed. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 10 coffee specialists were interviewed to identify the coffee sector’s main milestones for Brazil over the next 30 years. The findings culminated in eight key success factors for coffee-farming management. Finally, in the second phase, the results of phase two were submitted for analysis by 39 coffee farmers through three discussion panels held in the major producing regions: Sul de Minas (corresponding to 25% of the national production, Cerrado Mineiro (with 10%, and Matas de Minas (with 16% (MAPA, 2016. The third phase comprised the data analysis, aggregating the patterns by regions and by critical factors. The

  17. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  18. Influence of 2-Weeks Ingestion of High Chlorogenic Acid Coffee on Mood State, Performance, and Postexercise Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Goodman, Courtney L; Capps, Christopher R; Shue, Zack L; Arnot, Robert

    2018-01-01

    This study measured the influence of 2-weeks ingestion of high chlorogenic acid (CQA) coffee on postexercise inflammation and oxidative stress, with secondary outcomes including performance and mood state. Cyclists (N = 15) were randomized to CQA coffee or placebo (300 ml/day) for 2 weeks, participated in a 50-km cycling time trial, and then crossed over to the opposite condition with a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected pre- and postsupplementation, and immediately postexercise. CQA coffee was prepared using the Turkish method with 30 g lightly roasted, highly ground Hambela coffee beans in 300 ml boiling water, and provided 1,066 mg CQA and 474 mg caffeine versus 187 mg CQA and 33 mg caffeine for placebo. Plasma caffeine was higher with CQA coffee versus placebo after 2-weeks (3.3-fold) and postexercise (21.0-fold) (interaction effect, p coffee versus placebo (p = .01). No differences between CQA coffee and placebo were found for postexercise increases in plasma IL-6 (p = .74) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (9 + 13 HODEs) (p = .99). Total mood disturbance (TMD) scores were lower with CQA coffee versus placebo (p = .04). 50-km cycling time performance and power did not differ between trials, with heart rate and ventilation higher with CQA coffee, especially after 30 min. In summary, despite more favorable TMD scores with CQA coffee, these data do not support the chronic use of coffee highly concentrated with chlorogenic acids and caffeine in mitigating postexercise inflammation or oxidative stress or improving 50-km cycling performance.

  19. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

  20. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  1. Mobilizing labour for the global coffee market: profits from an unfree work regime in colonial Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee has been grown on Java for the commercial market since the early eighteenth century, when the Dutch East India Company began buying from peasant producers in the Priangan highlands. What began as a commercial transaction, however, soon became a system of compulsory production. This book shows

  2. IN BEANS TO COMMON BLIGHT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-12

    , Beebe, S.E. and Correa,. F.J. 1981. Comparing two inoculation techniques for evaluating resistance in beans to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. Proceedings 5th International conference of. Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

  3. Effect of service quality on coffee based economic cluster development on farmers and other stakeholders satisfaction in Bondowoso district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Aklimawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic cluster approach can be used to enhance economic growth of a region by optimizing local resources. Coffee is one of plantation commodity which is developed in Bondowoso district through economic cluster model. Low quality coffee beans and inefficiency marketing system were the basic problems at farmer level that pushed for developing economic coffee cluster. The aim of this research was to analyze the effect of service quality on economic coffee cluster development toward farmers and stakeholders satisfaction. This research was carried out at Bondowoso District, East Java. Direct observation and interviews coffee farmers and stakeholders using closed questions was conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data. The number of respondents were 47 stakeholders consisted of 5 bank officers, 5 officers from district plantation service, 2 officers from foresty company and 35 farmers. Respondens selection was based on convenience sampling method. Primary data was analyzed by using correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that the relationship between dimensions of service quality with each other varies from weak to strong. Stakeholders satisfaction (included farmers on economic coffee cluster implementation was influenced significantly by tangible. While reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy had no effect on stakeholders satisfaction.

  4. Evaluation of coffee roasting degree by using electronic nose and artificial neural network for off-line quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Santina; Cevoli, Chiara; Fabbri, Angelo; Alessandrini, Laura; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    An electronic nose (EN) based on an array of 10 metal oxide semiconductor sensors was used, jointly with an artificial neural network (ANN), to predict coffee roasting degree. The flavor release evolution and the main physicochemical modifications (weight loss, density, moisture content, and surface color: L*, a*), during the roasting process of coffee, were monitored at different cooking times (0, 6, 8, 10, 14, 19 min). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of sensors data set (600 values per sensor). The selected PCs were used as ANN input variables. Two types of ANN methods (multilayer perceptron [MLP] and general regression neural network [GRNN]) were used in order to estimate the EN signals. For both neural networks the input values were represented by scores of sensors data set PCs, while the output values were the quality parameter at different roasting times. Both the ANNs were able to well predict coffee roasting degree, giving good prediction results for both roasting time and coffee quality parameters. In particular, GRNN showed the highest prediction reliability. Actually the evaluation of coffee roasting degree is mainly a manned operation, substantially based on the empirical final color observation. For this reason it requires well-trained operators with a long professional skill. The coupling of e-nose and artificial neural networks (ANNs) may represent an effective possibility to roasting process automation and to set up a more reproducible procedure for final coffee bean quality characterization. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Variance in the chemical composition of dry beans determined from UV spectral fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine varieties of dry beans representing 5 market classes were grown in 3 states (Maryland, Michigan, and Nebraska) and sub-samples were collected for each variety (row composites from each plot). Aqueous methanol extracts were analyzed in triplicate by UV spectrophotometry. Analysis of variance-p...

  6. Actual and potential nitrogen fixation in pea and field bean as affected by combined nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, van M.

    1981-01-01

    Actual nitrogen fixation of pea and field-bean plants, grown in soil in the open air, was determined as the acetylene reduction of nodulated roots. During the major part of the vegetative growth of these plants, actual nitrogen fixation was equal to the potential maximum nitrogenase activity of the

  7. Zapata Coffee Roasting Company

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Pardo, Paula Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Zapata Coffee Roasting Company es un pequeño negocio de tostión y comercialización de café gourmet, ubicado en la ciudad de Bothell, Washington, al norte del área de Seattle, al noroeste de Estados Unidos. Fue fundada por María V. Zapata, quien proviene de cuatro generaciones de amor y pasión por el café, ya que su familia ha cosechado y tostado café por casi un siglo en el suroccidente de los Andes Colombianos. La compañía compite con otros pequeños tostadores y con grandes empresas con m...

  8. Remoção de sólidos em suspensão na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro em filtros constituídos por pergaminho de grãos de café submetido a compressões Removal of suspended solids in the wastewater of the coffee shrub cherry pulping by filters constituted by parchment of the coffee beans subjected to compressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A remoção de sólidos em suspensão é fundamental para que se possa aplicar a água residuária gerada na despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC na fertirrigação de culturas agrícolas. Dentre as opções disponíveis para efetuar a remoção de SS da ARC, está o uso de filtros orgânicos. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grau de compressão na redução do volume e na eficiência do pergaminho, utilizado como material filtrante, na remoção de sólidos em suspensão (SS na ARC. Numa primeira etapa, foram realizados ensaios nos quais corpos-de-prova de pergaminho triturado (retido entre as peneiras de 2,5 e 3 mm e não-triturado (na condição em que é produzido foram submetidos a diferentes compressões para a redução do volume das colunas filtrantes em 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 28%. Numa segunda etapa, os corpos-de-prova foram utilizados como material filtrante da ARC para a avaliação da sua capacidade de remoção de SS presentes nessa água residuária. O pergaminho triturado ofereceu maior resistência à compressão e proporcionou, para as mesmas reduções volumétricas no material filtrante, maior eficiência na remoção de SS da ARC do que o pergaminho não-triturado. Reduções na faixa de 10% a 15% no volume do filtro constituído por pergaminho triturado foram suficientes para obter satisfatórias eficiências na remoção de SS da ARC, enquanto, para filtros constituídos de pergaminho não-triturado, as reduções de volume devem ser superiores a 25%.The removal of suspended solids (SS is fundamental to apply the wastewater from the coffee shrub cherry pulping (ARC on agricultural crops fertigation. Among the available options for the removal of SS from ARC is the use of organic filters. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the compression degree on either volume reduction or parchment efficiency, when used as medium filter for the removal of suspended solids (SS in

  9. Coffee consumption and incident dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Tiemeier, Henning; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2014-10-01

    Coffee consumption has been frequently reported for its protective association with incident dementia. However, this association has mostly been reported in studies with short follow-up periods, and it remains unclear to what extent reverse causality influences this association. Studying the long-term effect of coffee consumption on dementia with stratified follow-up time may help resolve this issue. In the population-based Rotterdam Study, coffee consumption was assessed in 1989-1991 (N = 5,408), and reassessed in 1997-1999 (N = 4,368). Follow-up for dementia was complete until 2011. We investigated the association of coffee consumption and incident dementia for the two examination rounds separately using flexible parametric survival models. We studied the entire follow-up period as well as stratified follow-up time at 4 years. For both examination rounds, we did not find an association between coffee consumption and dementia over the entire follow-up. In contrast, for both examination rounds, a protective association was observed only in the follow-up stratum of 0-4 years. Our data suggest that coffee consumption is not associated with incident dementia during long-term. The protective association observed in the short-term might be driven by reverse causality.

  10. Is coffee a functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa Helena M

    2005-06-01

    Definitions of functional food vary but are essentially based on foods' ability to enhance the quality of life, or physical and mental performance, of regular consumers. The worldwide use of coffee for social engagement, leisure, enhancement of work performance and well-being is widely recognised. Depending on the quantities consumed, it can affect the intake of some minerals (K, Mg, Mn, Cr), niacin and antioxidant substances. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown positive effects of regular coffee-drinking on various aspects of health, such as psychoactive responses (alertness, mood change), neurological (infant hyperactivity, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metabolic disorders (diabetes, gallstones, liver cirrhosis), and gonad and liver function. Despite this, most reviews do not mention coffee as fulfilling the criteria for a functional food. Unlike other functional foods that act on a defined population with a special effect, the wide use of coffee-drinking impacts a broad demographic (from children to the elderly), with a wide spectrum of health benefits. The present paper discusses coffee-drinking and health benefits that support the concept of coffee as a functional food.

  11. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  12. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  13. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  14. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  16. Studies of acrylamide level in coffee and coffee substitutes: influence of raw material and manufacturing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A

  17. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  18. Bioactive Compounds from Mexican Varieties of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: Implications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As Mexico is located within Mesoamerica, it is considered the site where the bean plant originated and where it was domesticated. Beans have been an integral part of the Mexican diet for thousands of years. Within the country, there are a number of genotypes possessing highly diverse physical and chemical properties. This review describes the major bioactive compounds contained on the Mexican varieties of the common bean. A brief analysis is carried out regarding the benefits they have on health. The effect of seed coat color on the nutraceutical compounds content is distinguished, where black bean stands out because it is high content of anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin. This confers black bean with an elevated antioxidant capacity. The most prominent genotypes within this group are the “Negro San Luis”, “Negro 8025” and “Negro Jamapa” varieties. Conversely, the analyzed evidence shows that more studies are needed in order to expand our knowledge on the nutraceutical quality of the Mexican bean genotypes, either grown or wild-type, as well as their impact on health in order to be used in genetic improvement programs or as a strategy to encourage their consumption. The latter is based on the high potential it has for health preservation and disease prevention.

  19. Sowing time affecting the development of common bean cultivars in Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique

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    Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The demonstration of yield potential of crops depends on genetic factors, favorable conditions of envi ronment, and management. The sowing time can significantly affect the common bean grain yield. The aim of this research was to study the behavior of Brazilian cultivars and sowing times on the yield components and grain yield of common bean grown in the environmental conditions of Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique. The field trial was performed for two growing seasons, using the experimental as a randomized block in factorial 5 × 3 × 2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of five common bean cultivars (BRS Pontal, BRS Agreste, Perola, and BRS Requinte, developed by Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, and a local variety, Encarnada with three sowing dates (beginning of the rainy season, and 15 and 30 days after, during two growing seasons. The Brazilian cultivar of common beans BRS Pontal was the most productive in all sowing times, followed by BRS Agreste, which was not the most productive only in the second sowing time of 2013/2014 growing season. The cultivar Encarnada, from Mozambique, was the less productive cultivar in all sowing times and in all growing seasons. The best sowing time for common bean cultivars is in the beginning of the rainy season. The use of technologies such as use of seeds of new cultivars, proper sowing time, fertilization, and control of weeds allow significant increase of common bean grain yield in Lichinga, Mozambique.

  20. Cyanogenesis of Wild Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) Is an Efficient Direct Defence in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D.

    2009-01-01

    In natural systems plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus have evolved multiple defence strategies. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) is a model plant for studies of inducible indirect anti-herbivore defences including the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). In contrast, studies on direct chemical defence mechanisms as crucial components of lima beans' defence syndrome under natural conditions are nonexistent. In this study, we focus on the cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic glycosides) as a crucial parameter determining lima beans' cyanogenesis, i.e. the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide from preformed precursors. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in a natural population of wild lima bean in Mexico was significantly correlated with missing leaf area. Since existing correlations do not by necessity mean causal associations, the function of cyanogenesis as efficient plant defence was subsequently analysed in feeding trials. We used natural chrysomelid herbivores and clonal lima beans with known cyanogenic features produced from field-grown mother plants. We show that in addition to extensively investigated indirect defences, cyanogenesis has to be considered as an important direct defensive trait affecting lima beans' overall defence in nature. Our results indicate the general importance of analysing ‘multiple defence syndromes’ rather than single defence mechanisms in future functional analyses of plant defences. PMID:19424497

  1. Spontaneous coffee senna poisoning in cattle: report on 16 outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M.S. Carmo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen outbreaks of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna that occurred in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were reviewed. The great majority (75% of the outbreaks occurred in adult cattle at pasture during the autumn and winter months with 50% in May, evidencing a striking seasonality. Mortality rates varied from 4.2% to 55.2% and cattle died 2 days up to 2 weeks after showing clinical signs that included dry feces (occasionally diarrhea, muscle weakness, reluctance to move, tachypnea, instability of the hind limbs with dragging of the toes, tremors in muscles of the thighs, neck, and head, ear dropping, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency and death. Myoglobinuria characterized by a dark red or black discolored urine was a consistent finding in cattle affected at pasture but not in those poisoned by ration contaminated with coffee senna beans. Creatine phosphokinase serum activity was marked ly elevated. Main gross changes observed in 23 necropsies involved skeletal muscles of the hind limbs. These changes consisted of varying degrees of paleness of muscle groups. Subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages were present in the hearts of all affected cattle. Histologically a segmental degenerative myopathy of striated muscles was present in every case and had a multifocal polyphasic or monophasic character. Myocardial (3/23, hepatic (3/13, renal (3/10, and splenic (1/6 microscopic lesions were observed occasionally. Myocardial lesions were mild and consisted of vacuolation of cardiomyocytes or focal fibrosis. Hepatic changes consisted of diffuse hepatocelular vacuolation, cytosegrosomes within hepatocytes, and individual hepatocellular necrosis. Kidneys had vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium associated with acidophilic casts (proteinosis within tubular lumina. In the spleen there was marked necrosis of lymphocytes of the white pulp. No histological changes were found in the brains of 13 affected cattle. The data of this

  2. Extraction of coffee silverskin to convert waste into a source of antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangguh, Patrick; Kusumocahyo, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is a thin layer of coffee bean, and is regarded as a waste during coffee roasting process. In this work, coffee silverskin was extracted by three types of method: conventional extraction (CE) with agitation, conventional extraction (CE) without agitation and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the extract were analyzed. It was found that the type of extraction method, the extraction time and the extraction temperature strongly influenced the total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the extract. Comparison between conventional extraction (CE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) were statistically analyzed using 3-way ANOVA test. The optimum extraction time and temperature for each method were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA test. It was found that the optimum condition to obtain a high antioxidant activity of 68.9% was by using CE with agitation with the extraction time and temperature of 60 minutes and 60˚C, respectively.

  3. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-03-13

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices.

  4. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) [1]. Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS835) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  5. Discrimination of Complex Mixtures by a Colorimetric Sensor Array: Coffee Aromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslick, Benjamin A.; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures presents a difficult challenge even for modern analytical techniques, and the ability to discriminate among closely similar such mixtures often remains problematic. Coffee provides a readily available archetype of such highly multicomponent systems. The use of a low-cost, sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of coffee aromas is reported. The color changes of the sensor array were used as a digital representation of the array response and analyzed with standard statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA revealed that the sensor array has exceptionally high dimensionality with 18 dimensions required to define 90% of the total variance. In quintuplicate runs of 10 commercial coffees and controls, no confusions or errors in classification by HCA were observed in 55 trials. In addition, the effects of temperature and time in the roasting of green coffee beans were readily observed and distinguishable with a resolution better than 10 °C and 5 min, respectively. Colorimetric sensor arrays demonstrate excellent potential for complex systems analysis in real-world applications and provide a novel method for discrimination among closely similar complex mixtures. PMID:20143838

  6. Effect of Roasting Conditions on Concentration in Elements of Vietnam Robusta Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Tran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam Robusta Coffee was roasted at different roasting degree and roasting temperature and 9 element concentrations (K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Pb of roasted coffee were analyzed by Flame atomic absorption method (FAAS in this study. The results showed that the concentrations were ranged in 1447.97 ~ 1342.10 (mg/100g, 768.22 ~ 1259.44 (μg/g,10.35 ~ 13.15 (μg/g, and 17.38 ~ 20.97 (μg/g for element of K, Ca, Cu and Mn in green and roasted coffee beans, respectively. All determined elements were the smallest value in green coffee, then increased with increasing roasting level and reached the highest value in Spain roast (roasting temperature of 250°C. Mg concentration ranged in 682.70 ~ 3647.73 (μg/g; Fe concentration ranged in 37.20 ~ 53.44 (μg/g; Zn concentration ranged in 5.97 ~ 6.89 (μg/g and Pb concentration ranged in 2.18 ~ 15.04 (μg/100g. Concentrations of all determined elements didn’t change with the increased roasting process.

  7. USING HOT WIRE TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INFUSIONS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gordillo-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The technique of hot wire, a versatile method of low cost and high accuracy for measuring the thermal conductivity of fluids through the increasing temperature of a wire that is immersed into the liquid and between its ends a potential difference is abruptly applied. Using well-known conductivity liquids: water, ethylene glycol and glycerine, the system was tested and calibrated. In this work, this procedure was used to measure the thermal conductivity of the infusion samples of organic and conventional coffee. The same roast degree of the beans was verified with a colorimeter and the preparation was made by pressing 22g of coffee powder in 110mL of water. The obtained data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and this confirmed that the differences in the thermophysical parameter in the two samples are significant with a confidence level of 95\\%. On this way, it was proved that the thermal conductivity value of the coffee infusion allows differentiate between organic and conventional coffee.

  8. Mathematical Model for the Mexican Coffee Market

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Gustavo Guerra; Moss, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that the production of quality coffee is more expensive than the production of coffee of less quality, also that market failures in the transmission of quality signals to producer lower the average quality of coffee produced industry. Used its simultaneous equations in three stage lest square we have found that some variable were significant; the size of the producer affects the share of sold cherry, the quality affects the international green coffee price of México and the qua...

  9. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  10. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus

  11. Management zones in coffee cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João L. Jacintho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to apply precision agriculture techniques in coffee production, using correlation analysis in the definition of management zones. This work was carried out in a 22-ha area of coffee (Coffea arabica L., cv. ‘Topázio MG 1190’, which was sampled on a regular grid, using a topographic GPS, totaling 64 georeferenced samples (on average, 2.9 points per ha. Descriptive analysis was used in the data, followed by Pearson’s correlation analysis at 0.05 significance between soil chemical attributes, agronomic characteristics of the plants and altitude. It was possible to verify the correlation of soil chemical attributes, agronomic characteristics of the plants and altitude with coffee yield. Altitude was the variable most correlated with coffee yield through correlation analysis. Therefore, it was chosen as the best variable to define management zones and thematic maps capable to support coffee farmers. Three maps were generated to characterize the area in two, three and four management zones. There was a direct influence on mean yield.

  12. Coffee consumption and disease correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcen, Büşra Başar; Şanlier, Nevin

    2017-08-30

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. It has primarily consumed due to its stimulant effect and unique taste since the ancient times. Afterwards, its consumption has been historically associated with a lower risk of some diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease and some type of cancer and thus it has also consumed due to health benefits. It contains many bioactive compounds such as caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenoid alcohols which have so far been associated with many potential health benefits. For example, caffeine reduces risk of developing neurodegenerative disease and chlorogenic acids (CGA) and diterpene alcohols have many health benefits such as antioxidant and chemo-preventive. Coffee also have harmful effects. For example, diterpenoid alcohols increases serum homocysteine and cholesterol levels and thus it has adverse effects on cardiovascular system. Overall, the study that supports the health benefits of coffee is increasing. But, it is thought-provoking that the association with health benefits of coffee consumption and frequency at different levels in each study. For this reason, we aimed to examine the health effect of the coffee and how much consumption is to investigate whether it meets the claimed health benefits.

  13. Photochemical oxidants potentiate yield losses in snap beans attributable to sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, H E; Bennett, J H

    1981-08-28

    Field-grown snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were given recurring midday exposures to sulfur dioxide in open-top field chambers containing ambient photochemical oxidants. There was a linear correlation (correlation coefficient = -.99) between increasing concentrations of sulfur dioxide and the yields of snap beans. Synergism was indicated for the mixtures of ambient ozone plus sulfur dioxide, leading to threefold greater yield losses in nonfiltered air than in charcoal-filtered air (to remove the ozone). Even the lowest sulfur dioxide dose in nonfiltered air reduced the yields of Astro, a cultivar that exhibited no visible pollutant-induced foliar injury.

  14. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa; Marisa Vieira de Queiroz; Arnaldo Chaer Borges; Celia Alencar de Moraes; Elza Fernandes Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10² to 2.8 x 10³ CFU g-1 of fresh weight. ...

  15. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaedtke, Stephanie M; Caproni, Leonardo; Klauck, Julia; de la Grandville, Paul; Dutartre, Martin; Stassart, Pierre M; Chable, Véronique; Negri, Valeria; Raggi, Lorenzo

    2017-02-28

    Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective.

  16. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  17. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Boehm, Nadine; Janzowski, Christine; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Franz W; Stiebitz, Herbert; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence increasingly suggests coffee consumption to be correlated to prevention or delay of degenerative diseases connected with oxidative cellular stress. In an intervention study comprising 33 healthy volunteers, we examined DNA-protective and antioxidative effects exerted in vivo by daily ingestion of 750 mL of freshly brewed coffee rich in both green coffee bean constituents as well as roast products. The study design encompassed an initial 4 wk of wash-out, followed by 4 wk of coffee intake and 4 wk of second wash-out. At the start and after each study phase blood samples were taken to monitor biomarkers of oxidative stress response. In addition, body weight/composition and intake of energy/nutrients were recorded. In the coffee ingestion period, the primary endpoint, oxidative DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay (± FPG), was markedly reduced (penergy (pcoffee exerts health beneficial effects, as evidenced by reduced oxidative damage, body fat mass and energy/nutrient uptake. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  19. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  1. CoffeeScript application development

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ian

    2013-01-01

    CoffeeScript Application Development is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. Follow the smooth and easy tutorial approach, covering examples that build in complexity. By the final chapter you'll be wondering why you didn't try CoffeeScript sooner.If you are a JavaScript developer who wants to save time and add power to your code, then this is the book that will help you do it. With minimal fuss you will learn a whole new language which will reduce your application development time from weeks to days.

  2. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  3. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic imp