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Sample records for coffee agroforestry systems

  1. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  2. Potential Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineral of Soil in Coffee Agroforestry System with Various Shading Trees

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    Purwanto .

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of shading trees in coffee farms has been well understood to establish suitable condition for the growth of coffee trees, on the other hand their role in nitrogen cycle in coffee farming is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of various legume shading trees on the concentration of soil mineral N (N-NH4 + and N-NO3-, potential nitrification and to study the controlling factors of nitrification under field conditions. This field explorative research was carried out in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Twelve observation plots covered four land use systems (LUS, i.e. 1 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiasepium as shade trees; 2 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaas shade trees and Arachis pintoias cover crops; 3Coffee agroforestry with Paraserianthes falcataria as shade trees; and 4 Mixed/multistrata coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaand other fruit crops as shade trees. Measurements of soil mineral-N concentration were carried out every three weeks for three months. Results showed that shade tree species in coffee agroforestry significantly affected concentrations of soil NH4 +, NO3- and potential nitrification. Mixed coffee agroforestry had the highest NH4+/N-mineral ratio (7.16% and the lowest potential nitrification (0.13 mg NO2-kg-1 hour -1 compared to other coffee agroforestry systems using single species of leguminous shade trees. Ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral increased 0.8—21% while potential nitrification decreased 55—79% in mixed coffee agroforestry compared to coffee agroforestry with Gliricidia or P. falcatariaas shade trees. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcatariaas shade trees had potential nitrification 53% lower and ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral concentration 20% higher than that with Gliricidia. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcataria as shade trees also had organic C content 17% higher, total N 40% higher, available P 112% higher than that with Gliricidia. The presence of A. pintoiin

  3. The coffee agroforestry system. Its importance for the agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador

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    Luciano Abelardo Ponce Vaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of coffee growing, Ecuador is characterized by planting two main commercial species of Coffea arabica L. (Arabica coffee, and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner (Robusta coffee, where small production units and agroforestry systems predominate. To overcome the low national production, which constitutes the central problem of coffee growing in the country, the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock of Ecuador, promoted the project «Reactivation of the Ecuadorian coffee industry», which contributes to food security and nutrition with integral approach. In these circumstances, the objective of this paper is to analyze the importance of coffee agroforestry systems for agro-alimentary and nutritional security in Ecuador. The proposal is born from the agro-economic diagnosis «case study», from the situation of the Coffee Production Units, from the Association of Peasants «Juntos Lucharemos» from the La Unión parish of the Jipijapa county, province of Manabí, in which they settled Main contributions to the agro-alimentary and nutritional security coming from the coffee agroforestry systems, this allowed to analyze characteristics related to the object of study. Based on the research results, gaps in national consumption needs were detected. This proposal contributed to articulate and promote the reactivation of coffee growing on agroecological bases, in harmony with the dimensions of sustainability in order to protect and conserve biodiversity and the coffee forest.

  4. Soil aggregation and organic carbon of Oxisols under coffee in agroforestry systems

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    Gabriel Pinto Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive land use can lead to a loss of soil physical quality with negative impacts on soil aggregates, resistance to root penetration, porosity, and bulk density. Organic and agroforestry management systems can represent sustainable, well-balanced alternatives in the agroecosystem for promoting a greater input of organic matter than the conventional system. Based on the hypothesis that an increased input of organic matter improves soil physical quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of coffee production systems on soil physical properties in two Red-Yellow Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos in the region of Caparaó, Espirito Santo, Brazil. On Farm 1, we evaluated the following systems: primary forest (Pf1, organic coffee (Org1 and conventional coffee (Con1. On Farm 2, we evaluated: secondary forest (Sf2, organic coffee intercropped with inga (Org/In2, organic coffee intercropped with leucaena and inga (Org/In/Le2, organic coffee intercropped with cedar (Org/Ced2 and unshaded conventional coffee (Con2. Soil samples were collected under the tree canopy from the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers. Under organic and agroforestry coffee management, soil aggregation was higher than under conventional coffee. In the agroforestry system, the degree of soil flocculation was 24 % higher, soil moisture was 80 % higher, and soil resistance to penetration was lower than in soil under conventional coffee management. The macroaggregates in the organic systems, Org/In2, Org/In/Le2, and Org/Ced2 contained, on average, 29.1, 40.1 and 34.7 g kg-1 organic carbon, respectively. These levels are higher than those found in the unshaded conventional system (Con2, with 20.2 g kg-1.

  5. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

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    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a

  6. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

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    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The role of coffee based agroforestry system in tree diversity conservation in Eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negawo, Worku Janka; Beyene, Dejene Nigatu

    2017-01-01

    Agroforestry farming system comprises considerable cultivated land area in the tropics. Despite the economic and social benefits of the system for farmers, it is also known to have an important role in the conservation of tree species. This study aims to evaluate the composition and distribution...... of indigenous tree species in coffee farms was lower than that of forest reserve. Similarly, tree species richness per plot, Shannon and Simpson diversity indexes of forest reserve were significantly (p

  8. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

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    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  9. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

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    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  10. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

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    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  11. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Cardoso, I.M.; Duarte, E.M.G.; Fernandes, R.B.A.; Gomes, L.C.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree

  12. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

    2011-01-26

    Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  13. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Kimberly Williams-Guillén

    Full Text Available Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae. In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  14. Profitability of Cedrela odorata L. in Agroforestry Systems with Coffee in Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica

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    Mariela González-Rojas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the production of cedar wood in agroforestry systems (AF with coffee, using a prediction model of the commercial volume obtained in the study area, as well as the profitability generated by the sale of coffee, wood and payment for environmental services (PPSA. The study was carried out in the canton of Pérez Zeledón, province of San José, Costa Rica. There were established 30 temporary sampling plots of 1000 m2 in AF with cedar between five and 17 years of age. The diameter growth (DBH and the commercial height (CH of the species were evaluated, as well as the management of the SAF (activities, inputs and yields and coffee production through the producer interview. The obtained models allowed to predict the commercial volume (m3 tree-1 according to age (R2 = 88.7%, DBH (R2 = 90.3% and CH (R2 = 97.2%. The average coffee production of the sampled sites was 26 fanegas ha-1 year-1. At the age of 17 years of the cedar, a production of 1.04 m3 tree-1 (92.13 m3 ha-1 of standing timber was obtained, which represented a financial contribution of 81% of the net present value (NPV of the AF in the analysis period. The estimated financial indicators allow concluding that the coffee-cedar AF is profitable since it generated a positive NPV of ₡ 8 198 601,5, an internal rate of return (IRR of 16% which was higher than the cost of money (discount rate of 6.1% and a B/C ratio of 1.34.

  15. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

  16. Root biomass, turnover and net primary productivity of a coffee agroforestry system in Costa Rica: effects of soil depth, shade trees, distance to row and coffee age.

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    Defrenet, Elsa; Roupsard, Olivier; Van den Meersche, Karel; Charbonnier, Fabien; Pastor Pérez-Molina, Junior; Khac, Emmanuelle; Prieto, Iván; Stokes, Alexia; Roumet, Catherine; Rapidel, Bruno; de Melo Virginio Filho, Elias; Vargas, Victor J; Robelo, Diego; Barquero, Alejandra; Jourdan, Christophe

    2016-08-21

    In Costa Rica, coffee (Coffea arabica) plants are often grown in agroforests. However, it is not known if shade-inducing trees reduce coffee plant biomass through root competition, and hence alter overall net primary productivity (NPP). We estimated biomass and NPP at the stand level, taking into account deep roots and the position of plants with regard to trees. Stem growth and root biomass, turnover and decomposition were measured in mixed coffee/tree (Erythrina poeppigiana) plantations. Growth ring width and number at the stem base were estimated along with stem basal area on a range of plant sizes. Root biomass and fine root density were measured in trenches to a depth of 4 m. To take into account the below-ground heterogeneity of the agroforestry system, fine root turnover was measured by sequential soil coring (to a depth of 30 cm) over 1 year and at different locations (in full sun or under trees and in rows/inter-rows). Allometric relationships were used to calculate NPP of perennial components, which was then scaled up to the stand level. Annual ring width at the stem base increased up to 2·5 mm yr -1 with plant age (over a 44-year period). Nearly all (92 %) coffee root biomass was located in the top 1·5 m, and only 8 % from 1·5 m to a depth of 4 m. Perennial woody root biomass was 16 t ha -1 and NPP of perennial roots was 1·3 t ha -1 yr -1 Fine root biomass (0-30 cm) was two-fold higher in the row compared with between rows. Fine root biomass was 2·29 t ha -1 (12 % of total root biomass) and NPP of fine roots was 2·96 t ha -1 yr -1 (69 % of total root NPP). Fine root turnover was 1·3 yr -1 and lifespan was 0·8 years. Coffee root systems comprised 49 % of the total plant biomass; such a high ratio is possibly a consequence of shoot pruning. There was no significant effect of trees on coffee fine root biomass, suggesting that coffee root systems are very competitive in the topsoil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. Shade tree diversity enhances coffee production and quality in agroforestry systems in the Western Ghats

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    Nesper, Maike; Kueffer, Christoph; Krishnan, Smitha; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G.; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of multispecies coffee agroforests reduces shade tree diversity with implications for tropical biodiversity. We investigated how tree biodiversity and its effects on coffee production and quality changes along a gradient of intensification (from diverse multispecies to Grevillea

  18. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

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    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  19. Coffee agroforestry for sustainability of Upper Sekampung Watershed management

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    Fitriani; Arifin, Bustanul; Zakaria, Wan Abbas; Hanung Ismono, R.

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of watershed management is to ensure the optimal hydrological and natural resource use for ecological, social and economic importance. One important adaptive management step in dealing with the risk of damage to forest ecosystems is the practice of agroforestry coffee. This study aimed to (1) assess the farmer's response to ecological service responsibility and (2) analyze the Sekampung watersheds management by providing environmental services. The research location was Air Naningan sub-district, Tanggamus, Lampung Province, Indonesia. The research was conducted from July until November 2016. Stratification random sampling based on the pattern of ownership of land rights is used to determine the respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that coffee farmers' participation in the practice of coffee agroforestry in the form of 38% shade plants and multiple cropping (62%). The logistic regression analysis indicated that the variables of experience and status of land ownership, and incentive-size plans were able to explain variations in the willingness of coffee growers to follow the scheme of providing environmental services. The existence of farmer with partnership and CBFM scheme on different land tenure on upper Sekampung has a strategic position to minimize the deforestation and recovery watersheds destruction.

  20. Mycorrhizal associations in agroforestry systems

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    Carvalho, de A.M.X.; Castro Tavares, de R.; Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Agroforestry systems can be a viable alternative to the preservation of natural resources while contributing to sustainable food production in the tropics. These perennial systems promote beneficial biological interactions between micro-organisms and plant species, especially those formed by

  1. Forgotten Forests? Food Potential of Ancient Coffee Forests and Agroforestry Systems in the Southwestern Ethiopian Mountains, Seen Through a Gender Lens

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    Sarah Marie Nischalke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in the provision of food and livelihoods across the globe. Thus, forest protection contributes to a diverse set of Sustainable Development Goals. The Yayu Coffee Forest Biosphere Reserve in the southwestern Ethiopian mountains (elevation 1100–2300 m above sea level hosts an ancient coffee forest with high biodiversity and a large nutritional potential. It is managed in zones, and smallholder farmers can still use forest resources in the buffer and transitional zones in a sustainable manner. The forest is rarely used as a food source, although a large majority of the population in this area suffers from micronutrient deficiencies. This article investigates whether sustainable use of forest resources can contribute to the achievement of different Sustainable Development Goals by looking, through a gender lens, at which forest ecosystem services the community uses; traditional coffee farmers' perceptions of wild edible plants, agricultural territories, and labor divisions; and the constraining factors for forest conservation and sustainable agroforestry on private forest plots. Data for this study were collected through ethnography, transect walks, a sex-disaggregated household survey (n = 334, 32 semistructured interviews, 40 focus groups, and 13 key stakeholder interviews. One reason for neglecting the forest as a food source is that forests are considered a male territory, while vegetable raising and nutrition are female responsibilities. In addition, the collection of wild foods is perceived as a last resort during a famine and as a practice of tribal groups. Because coffee production represents the traditional livelihood source, farmers accept the need to conserve the forest, which is necessary to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. While it may have negative implications for food security, the absence of a tradition of collecting wild plants is positive news for forest conservation.

  2. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  3. Leaf Area Index (LAI) in different type of agroforestry systems based on hemispherical photographs in Cidanau Watershed

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    Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Setiawan, Yudi; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2017-01-01

    Ecological functions of agroforestry systems have perceived benefit to people around Cidanau Watershed, especially in the protection of water quality. The main causes of the problems encountered in the Cidanau Watershed are associated with the human factors, especially encroachment and conversion of forest into farmland. The encroachment has made most forest in Cidanau Watershed become bare land. To preserve the ecological function of agroforestry systems in Cidanau Watershed, monitoring of the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems is really needed. High intensity thinning of crown density due to deforestation can change stand leaf area index dramatically. By knowing LAI, we can assess the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems. LAI in this research was obtained from Hemispherical Photographs analysis using the threshold method in HemiView Canopy Analysis Software. Our research results indicate that there are six types of agroforestry in Cidanau Watershed i.e. Sengon Agroforestry, Clove Agroforestry, Melinjo Agroforestry, Chocolate Agroforestry, Coffee Agroforestry, and Complex Agroforestry. Several factors potentially contribute to variations in the value of LAI in different types of agroforestry. The simple assumptions about differences ranges of LAI values on six types of agroforestry is closely related to leaf area and plant population density.

  4. Populações de minhocas em sistemas agroflorestais com café convencional e orgânico Earthworms populations in agroforestry systems with conventional and organic coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aquino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, determinar se as populações das minhocas são alteradas em função do manejo do café (Coffea arabica em Turrialba, CostaRica. Os seguintes sistemas de cultivo do café foram estudados: a pleno sol (PS e sombreado com eritrina, Erythrina poeppigiana (E; terminalia, Terminalia amazonia (T e cashá, Chloroleucon eurycyclum (Ab. A hipótese foi de que o manejo orgânico do café e o fornecimento da serapilheira de melhor qualidade favoreceria a diversidade, a densidade e a biomassa das minhocas. As populações das minhocas foram alteradas, em função do manejo com insumos sintéticos ou orgânicos , sendo a densidade menor no café a pleno sol. Entre as espécies utilizadas no sombreamento, a eritrina parece limitar a abundância das minhocas. Contudo, favorece a diversidade das mesmas, tendo sido registradas duas espécies de minhocas com papéis ecológicos diferenciados, Pontoscolex corethrurus, endogeica e Metaphire californica, anécica; ao contrário dos demais tratamentos, onde somente foi encontrada a primeira espécie, considerada cosmopolita com distribuição pantropical.The aim of this study was to determine whether the populations of the earthworms are altered by coffee systems in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The following coffee management systems were studied: the sun and shading with Erythrina poeppigiana; terminalia, Terminalia amazonia or cashá, Chloroleucon eurycyclum. The hypothesis was that the organic management of the coffee and the litter input of better quality would favor the diversity, the density and the biomass of the earthworms. The populations of earthworms were differentiated with the synthetic or organic input. However, the density was lower in the coffee under the sun anyone the used species in the agroforestry, the eritrina seems to limit the abundance of the earthworms, but it favors the diversity of the same ones, being registered two species of earthworms with differentiated

  5. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  6. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  7. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take

  8. Effects of shade and input management on economic performance of small-scale Peruvian coffee systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jezeer, Rosalien E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374336865; Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria Joao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571979; Boot, René G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069412928; Junginger, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Verweij, Pita A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843

    2018-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry systems provide a number of ecosystem services that might help sustain the production of multiple crops, improve farmers’ livelihoods and conserve biodiversity. A major drawback of agroforestry coffee systems is the perceived lower economic performance compared to high-input

  9. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  10. Cercosporiose progression in the agroforestry consortium coffee-rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Godoy Androcioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora coffeicola is one of the primary diseases that affect coffee plants. Studies indicate that shaded coffee plants reduce the incidence of this disease and that the management of trees and coffee plants arrangement influence in the dissemination of cercospora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of C. coffeicola at different distances from double rows of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell. arg. at two different sunlight exposures (north and south. This study was conducted in Londrina, Parana, between 2008 and 2010, with adult plants of the IAPAR 59 cultivar (Coffea arabica L. grown at a spacing of 2.5 m x 1.0 m. The distances between the double rows of rubber trees were 13, 16 and 22 m, compared to plants grown under full sun. The disease incidence was assessed monthly by using a non-destructive method. This analysis was conducted on coffee leaves from the third and fourth pairs of two plagiotropic branches, on eight plants per plot, with five replications. These data were used to calculate the area under the curve for the incidence of the brown eye spot. The highest disease incidence occurred in the coffee plants grown under full sun, whereas lowest disease occurred on plants located at up to two meters away from double rows of rubber trees. The incidence of Cercospora leaf spot increased with the distance from the double rows of rubber trees. The results demonstrate that the mapping of cercospora incidence in shaded coffee plants is essential to determinate the best spacing and plants arrangement.

  11. The Influence of Agroforestry on Soil Fertility in Coffee Cultivations : A Review and a Field Study on Smallholding Coffee Farms in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ekqvist, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is, together with cacao, the crop most commonly cultivated under shade trees in order to cope with physiological stress (as drought and sun radiation) and erosion as well as to generate additional income for the farmer. However, today this agroforestry coffee management is increasingly transformed into industrial plantation with little or no shade using varieties that tolerates full sun and can be planted with higher density. This conversion most often brings an intensified use of exte...

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with shade trees and Coffea arabica L. in a coffee-based agroforestry system in Bonga, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sewnet ,Tadesse Chanie; Tuju, Fassil Assefa

    2013-01-01

    In a first step to understand the interactions between Coffea arabica L. trees and mycorrhizae in Ethio¬pia, an investigation of the current mycorrhizal colonization status of roots was undertaken. We sampled 14 shade tree species occurring in coffee populations in Bonga forest, Ethiopia. Milletia fer¬ruginea, Schefflera abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, Ficus vasta, F. sur, Albizia gummifera, Olea capensis, Cordia africana, Ehretia abyssinica, Pouteria adolfi-friederici, Pavetta oliveriana, ...

  13. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... is fragmented and does often not integrate diverse ecosystem services into the assessment. To upscale existing case-study insights to the European level, we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem service provision and on biodiversity levels. From 53 publications we extracted...... a total of 365 comparisons that were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed an overall positive effect of agroforestry (effect size = 0.454, p agroforestry practices...

  14. Diversidade da comunidade de plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com café em Turrialba, Costa Rica Diversity of weed community in agroforestry systems with coffee in Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de plantas invasoras, em sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. e em cafezal a pleno sol, sob manejo orgânico e convencional. Foram avaliados 20 tratamentos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação entre sistemas agroflorestais e quatro níveis de manejo, baseados na intensidade das práticas e aplicação de insumos: alto e médio convencional, médio e baixo orgânico. Em julho de 2002 e setembro de 2005 foi realizado o levantamento de plantas invasoras. Determinaram-se a riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade. Observou-se redução nos valores médios de riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade, em que os menores valores foram encontrados no tratamento com manejo alto convencional. Houve redução na freqüência das trepadeiras, ciperáceas e espécies de folhas estreitas (má cobertura, e aumento das espécies de folhas largas (boa cobertura e gramíneas. Nas duas épocas, os maiores percentuais de pontos com solo descoberto foram encontrados no tratamento alto convencional, e os menores percentuais foram encontrados em todos os tratamentos com manejo médio e baixo orgânico, e em três dos sete tratamentos com manejo médio convencional. Tais resultados demonstram que onde há aplicação freqüente de herbicida, a presença de árvores não evita exposição do solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition of spontaneous species in coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivated in full sun and in agroforestry systems, under organic and conventional management. Twenty treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design, in a split plot in time, with three replicates. The treatments corresponded to combinations between types of agroforestry systems and four management system levels, based on practice intensity and

  15. Persea schiedeana : A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Bost

    2013-01-01

    Persea schiedeana , a close relative of avocado ( Persea americana ), is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene , coyo , and yas . Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI) in Oaxaca, ...

  16. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gómez-Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES, a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently, soil water content (R2 = 0.35 and water table level (R2 = 0.84. Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow

  17. Análise comparativa das características da serrapilheira e do solo em cafezais (Coffea arabica L. cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultura, na Zona da Mata MG Comparative analysis of litter and soil characteristics under coffee (Coffea arabica L. crop in agroforestry and monoculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Matoso Campanha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O aporte de serrapilheira em sistemas agroflorestais pode melhorar as características químicas e físicas do solo, diminuir a erosão e permitir a manutenção da umidade no solo por mais tempo. Isso faz dele um sistema alternativo de produção de café em regiões com solos propensos à degradação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise comparativa da quantidade e teor de nutrientes da serrapilheira e das características de fertilidade e do teor de umidade dos solos, em cafeeiros cultivados sob sistemas agroflorestal e solteiro. A pesquisa foi realizada na Zona da Mata mineira, durante o período compreendido entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2000. O sistema agroflorestal contribuiu com 6,1 Mg ha-1 ano-1 de matéria seca de serrapilheira, no entanto o solteiro aportou 4,5 Mg ha-1 ano-1, ressaltando-se que esta última apresentou teor mais elevado de macronutrientes. O solo do sistema agroflorestal exibiu maior teor de umidade de 20-40 cm, maior capacidade de troca de cátions e soma de bases trocáveis, maior teor de K, Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn em ambos os horizontes do solo e menor índice de saturação de alumínio e alumínio trocável na camada mais profunda do que o solo sob a monocultura. No cultivo solteiro, o solo apresentou maior teor de P e de matéria orgânica, tanto na camada superficial quanto na profunda.Coffee plants in agroforestry systems is an alternative to full sunlight cultivation, presenting the potential benefits of enhancing soil chemical and physical characteristics, reducing soil erosion, besides maintaining soil moisture for longer periods. This research aimed at comparing the quantity and nutrient concentration in the litter, soil fertility and soil moisture in coffee crops under full sunlight monocrop and in agroforestry systems, at the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research was carried out between January 1999 and May 2000. The agroforestry system, contributed with 6.1 Mg ha-1 year-1 of

  18. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  19. An assessment of agroforestry systems in the southern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. C. Zinkhan; D. Evan Mercer

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the southern USA, based on a survey of land-use professionalsand a review of theliterature, revealed that it is a diverse region with substantial potential for agroforestry to address a combination of problems and opportunities. The survey indicated that silvopastoml systems are the most common form of agroforestry in the region. Increased economic...

  20. Enhanced biodiversity and pollination in UK agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varah, Alexa; Jones, Hannah; Smith, Jo; Potts, Simon G

    2013-07-01

    Monoculture farming systems have had serious environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity and pollinator decline. The authors explain how temperate agroforestry systems show potential in being able to deliver multiple environmental benefits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P K Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 μm) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to

  2. Why institutional environments for agroforestry seed system matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; Harwood, C.; Derero, Abayneh

    2018-01-01

    Rethinking the logic of institutional environments aiming to facilitate agroforestry smallholders in economic development, this paper compares smallholder input supply systems for crop and tree seeds in Sub-Saharan Africa and reflects on two basic challenges: (i) how to develop a large number...... of relevant tree crops for different agroecologies; (ii) how to reach smallholders in rural areas. Policy options for improving agroforestry input supply systems are discussed, whereby our article concludes with suggestions how sectoral approaches for crop seed systems can be modified to agroforestry seed......-seedling systems. Biophysical differences have practical implications for how the logic of the ‘African green revolution’ would be translated into a corresponding revolution for agroforestry....

  3. Determinants of bacterial communities in Canadian agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samiran; Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bissett, Andrew; Richardson, Alan E; Siddique, Tariq; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change is one of the most important factors influencing soil microbial communities, which play a pivotal role in most biogeochemical and ecological processes. Using agroforestry systems as a model, this study examined the effects of land uses and edaphic properties on bacterial communities in three agroforestry types covering a 270 km soil-climate gradient in Alberta, Canada. Our results demonstrate that land-use patterns exert stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than soil zones in these agroforestry systems. Plots with trees in agroforestry systems promoted greater bacterial abundance and to some extent species richness, which was associated with more nutrient-rich soil resources. While Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla and subphyla across land uses, Arthrobacter, Acidobacteria_Gp16, Burkholderia, Rhodanobacter and Rhizobium were the keystone taxa in these agroforestry systems. Soil pH and carbon contents emerged as the major determinants of bacterial community characteristics. We found non-random co-occurrence and modular patterns of soil bacterial communities, and these patterns were controlled by edaphic factors and not their taxonomy. Overall, this study highlights the drivers and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities in agroforestry systems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  5. Model Bera dalam Sistem Agroforestri (Fallow Land Model in Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Suryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tree-based agroforestry model gives consequences to the space utilization dominated by trees. Farmers take action on this condition by conniving the fallow land. This research was aimed to know the fallow land model, find the key parameters of fallow land model, and formulating the management of fallow land. The spatial model of agroforestry used in this research were trees along border, alley cropping, alternate rows and mixer. The actual data obtained were tree height, tree diameter, crown diameter, land width, and light intensity; the calculated data were land extent, the percentage of crown cover and crown density. The analysis used to determining the percentage of crown cover to calculate the affective arable land area was zone system. Zonation system maked for four zone : 1 zone 1 interval 0-1 m ; 2 zone 2 interval 1-2 m; zone 3 interval 2-3 m; zone 4 interval 3-4m.Key words: agroforestry, fallow land, silviculture, land cover, resource sharing, crown dynamic

  6. Economic Evaluation of Pollination Services Comparing Coffee Landscapes in Ecuador and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Olschewski; Teja Tscharntke; Pablo C. Benítez; Stefan Schwarze; Alexandra-Maria Klein

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation through land-use systems on private land is becoming a pressing environmental policy issue. Agroforestry, such as shade-coffee production, contributes to biodiversity conservation. However, falling coffee prices force many coffee growers to convert their sites into economically more attractive land uses. We performed an economic evaluation of coffee pollination by bees in two distinct tropical regions: an area of low human impact with forests neighboring agroforestry...

  7. Agroforestry Systems in Nigeria: Review of Concepts and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other specified Agroforestry can also be defined e.g. apiculture (bees with trees), aquaculture (fishes with trees and shrubs) and multipurpose tree lots). Agroforetry is becoming recognized as a land use system which is capable of yielding both wood and food while at the same time conserving and rehabilitating ecosystems ...

  8. Agroforestry systems for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes are an important component of a biofuel strategy to develop energy independence. Agroforestry systems offer an opportunity to produce both food and biofuel feedstocks from the same land area. Such a strategy could improve numerous ecosystem services more so than either of t...

  9. Persea schiedeana: A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Bost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.

  10. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel; Md. Mujibur Rahman; Mohammad Shahjahan; Sayeeduz zaman

    2015-01-01

    Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both...

  11. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time.

  12. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  13. Scaling up agroforestry farming systems: Lessons from the Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the factors affecting agroforestry technology upscaling and identified gaps in scaling up approaches of agroforestry technologies. One hundred and sixty-four farmers in Malawi Agroforestry Extension (MAFE) project districts of Mzimba, Ntcheu and Mangochi were interviewed. Logistic model was used in ...

  14. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  15. Toward systems epidemiology of coffee and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2015-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.

  16. GROWTH OF NATIVE TREES IN TWO AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

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    Maria Luiza Franceschi Nicodemo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agroforestry systems with eucalyptus prevail in Central and Southeast Brazil, and little information is available about systems using native trees. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the development of seven native tree species grown under two agroforestry systems. The experiment was conducted starting in 2007 in 12-hectare area in the municipality of São Carlos, São Paulo state, Brazil. The tree species planted in the two systems (a silvopastoral system and an agrisilvicultural system were: 'capixingui' (Croton floribundus and 'mutambo' (Guazuma ulmifolia (tutors, 'jequitibá-branco' (Cariniana estrellensis, 'canafistula' (Peltophorum dubium and 'ipê felpudo' (Zeyheria tuberculosa (timber trees, and 'angico-branco' (Anadenanthera colubrina and 'pau-jacaré' (Piptadenia gonoacantha (N-fixing trees. Data were collected for 48 months. The results show differences among tree development, which was evaluated as growth in height and diameter, as well as sensitivity to insect and disease damage. The overall results show that the agrisilvicultural system allowed better tree development. The species with best performance in the two systems were capixingui, mutambo and canafístula. Ipê-felpudo and jequitibá-branco showed the worst results. The high variability among individuals of the same species indicates the possibility of high production advances with selective breeding of these species.

  17. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  18. Economics of Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...

  19. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both White (Corchorus capsularis L.cv. CVL-1 and Tossa (two popular cultivars, eg., Corchorus olitorius L. cv. O-9897, and cv. O-72 varieties were used for to evaluate the late jute seed production in cropland agroforestry in 2011- 2013. It was observed that 600 kg ha-1 to 725 kg ha-1 of jute seed was produced in different types of orchard plantation. Seeds from Litchi orchard showed the higher fiber yield (1051.11, 2511.11 and 3555.56 kg ha-1 at Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur, respectively than the mango orchard. Nutrient contents of soil in three sits were improved significantly due to the cultivation of late jute seed production. Moreover, late jute seed production in early stages of orchard plantation was more profitable and late jute can be produced economically for five to seven years depending on the plantations type and age.

  20. Selection of native trees for intercropping with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Cardoso, I.M.; Fernandes, J.M.; Garcia, F.C.P.; Bonfim, V.R.; Santos, A.C.; Carvalho, A.F.; Mendonca, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in establishing agroforestry systems is ensuring that farmers are interested in the tree species, and are aware of how to adequately manage these species. This challenge was tackled in the Atlantic Rainforest biome (Brazil), where a participatory trial with agroforestry coffee systems

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  2. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  3. Decomposition and nutrient release in leaves of Atlantic Rainforest tree species used in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, E.M.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Stijnen, T.; Mendonça, M.A.F.C.; Coelho, M.S.; Cantarutti, R.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Villani, E.M.A.; Mendonça, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to support the use of native species from the Atlantic Rainforest in local agroforestry systems, we analysed chemical and biochemical components related to leaf decomposition of Inga subnuda, Senna macranthera, Erythrina verna, Luehea grandiflora, Zeyheria tuberculosa, Aegiphila sellowiana,

  4. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  5. Productivity and Profitability of Jackfruit-Eggplant Agroforestry System in the Terrace Ecosystem of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abiar Rahaman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multistoried agroforestry systems as a form of jackfruit-eggplant based is increasingly recognized as a promising option to counteract the catastrophic effects of climate change through providing multifaceted benefits. Unfortunately, farmers of Bangladesh did not manage their jackfruit orchard in a scientific manner. Therefore, the present study was aimed to assess the productivity and profitability of jackfruit-eggplant based agroforestry system after modification from a traditional jackfruit orchard during the period of July 2012 to December 2013. Five treatments covering four orientations of jackfruit tree and an open field was used as a control treatment. To observe the growth and economic performance of the system; soil moisture and temperature, DBH, number of fruits per tree, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, total yield, BCR, and LER were calculated following different established methods. The yield of jackfruit dramatically increased by 81% in the agroforestry system in compared to sole cropping, while eggplant shows inverse trend. Soil moisture was high in agroforestry system than that of control plot while soil temperature shows reverse pattern. Indeed, agroforestry system had some negative effects on growth performance of understorey crops. Despite, net return and BCR from jackfruit based agroforestry system were 5.58 lakh and 4.56, which was 66 and 45%, respectively higher than sole cropping systems. The LER of jackfruit-eggplant based agroforestry system was 2.17. Considering the main findings, we can elucidate that jackfruit orchards can be transformed to agroforestry system for maximizing production, generating income and conserving environment.

  6. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types  preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained  in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.Keywords: agro-forestry, preferences, adoption, NPV

  7. Seasonal isotope hydrology of a coffee agroforestry watershed in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Unwala, K.; Boll, J.; Roupsard, O.

    2014-12-01

    Improved information of seasonal variations in watershed hydrology in the tropics can strengthen models and understanding of hydrology of these areas. Seasonality in the tropics produces rainy seasons versus dry seasons, leading to different hydrologic and water quality processes throughout the year. We questioned whether stable isotopes in water can be used to trace the seasonality in this region, despite experiencing a "drier" season, such as in a Tropical Humid location. This study examines the fluctuations of stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) in water balance components in a small (deep groundwater system contributes significantly to baseflow, although a shallow, spring-driven system also contributes to stream water within the watershed. During storm events, precipitation contributes to stormflow in the short-term, confirming the role of superficial runoff. These results indicate that isotopes are helpful to partition the water balance even in a Tropical Humid situation where the rainfall seasonality is weak.

  8. Selected bibliography of agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majisu, L.; Labelle, R.

    1982-01-01

    A successor to a preliminary bibliography by Teemba, L. and containing some of the same references. References (1953-1982) were selected from the 3000 reprints in the agroforestry collection in the ICRAF library, and from approximately 1500 monographs, reports etc. They are grouped in 7 main sections: Agroforestry general, including subsections on agroforestry in arid and semi-arid lands, in lowlands - humid tropics, and in highlands; Agroforestry land-use systems, including concepts from agriculture and forestry land-use systems, and agroforestry systems (cropping with trees, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); Plants and plant management, including multipurpose trees and shrubs; Physical and ecological aspects, (desertification and deforestation, agricultural meteorology, soils and soil management); social and economic aspects, including rural development and human ecology; Training and education; and Information sources and management. A list of information centres relevant to agroforestry is given, and there are subject, species and geographical indexes. 437 references

  9. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  10. Soil microbial biomass in an agroforestry system of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane C. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems (AFS are considered alternative land use options to help prevent soil degradation and improve soil microbial biomass and organic C status. However, it is unclear how different densities of babassu palm [Attalea speciosa (syn. Orbignya phalerata], which is an important tree in Northeast Brazil, affect the soil microbial biomass. We investigated the soil microbial biomass C and activity under AFS with different densities of babassu palm associated with Brachiaria brizantha grass. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC, soil microbial biomass N (MBN, MBC:total organic C ratio, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and dehydrogenase activity showed highest values in plots with high density of babassu palm. On the other hand, the respiratory quotient (qCO2 was significantly greater in plots without babassu palm. Brachiaria brizantha in monoculture may promote C losses from the soil, but AFS with high density of babassu palm may increase the potential of soils to accumulate C.Keywords: Enzyme activity, tropical soil, babassu palm, silvopastoral system, soil quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(341-48

  11. PROPOSAL OF A MINIMUM SET OF BIOPHYSICAL INDICATORS FOR MONITORING THE SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry Systems are considered sustainable alternatives to intensive production systems and due to the scarcity of research work related to the evaluation of sustainability of Agroforestry Systems, selection criteria are proposed which were applied to indicators already known in the pertinent literature. The objective of this paper comprised therefore the use of the smallest group of indicators which would be able to satisfy the requirements for monitoring environmental sustainability of Agroforestry Systems including or not the animal component. The main conclusions were: the category of endogenous resources involved the greatest number of indicators in the biophysical component; the greatest concentration of indicators in the category of endogenous resources is located in the fauna, flora and soil components; the element technical management showed the major occurrence of indicators in the category of operation of the system; all elements of the category of exogenous resources showed about the same number of indicators; the animal component of the Agroforestry Systems require greater number of indicators; the majority of the indicators suggested in this paper depend only upon the direct observations and only a small number need laboratorial analyses; most indicators suggested is cheap and easy to apply; Agroforestry Systems without the animal component are easier and cheapes to monitor.

  12. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-07

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  13. Weed competition with soybean in no-tillage agroforestry and sole-crop systems in subtropical Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed competition on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] growth and yield was expected to be different when managed in an agroforestry system as compared with solecropping without trees. Therefore agronomic practices to control weeds might need to be modified in agroforestry systems. We analyzed weed co...

  14. Energy dynamics in Populus deltoides G{sub 3} Marsh agroforestry systems in eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, O.P. [National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi (India); Das, D.K. [Rajendra Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Forestry, Bihar (India)

    2005-08-01

    Energy efficiency of Populus deltoides G{sub 3} Marsh agroforestry of a 3-year-old system with intercropping of maize-wheat in crop I and pigeonpea in crop II and of a 9-year-old system with turmeric, a shade loving crop was studied at Pusa, Bihar in eastern India. Energy fixation, storage, net allocation in agronomic yield and energy released and exit from the 9-year-old system was 1.53, 4.30, 0.43 and 3.37 times in crop I and 1.67, 4.60, 0.53 and 3.30 times in crop II of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy conservation efficiency in the 9-year-old system was higher (1.91%) as compared to crop I (1.24%) and crop II (1.15%) of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy accumulation ratio in the 9-year-old system was 2.82 and 2.77 times higher in crop I and crop II, respectively, of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The 3-year-old agroforestry system showed lower energy accumulation ratio resulting from less energy accumulation in perennial turnover in the form of leaf of tree and agricultural crops. The crop II system of the 3-year-old poplar agroforestry was more efficient system of management due to higher quanta of energy and higher cash return but one has to opt for shade loving intercrop turmeric with increase in age of the poplar plantation and more canopy closure. (Author)

  15. Energy dynamics in Populus deltoides G3 Marsh agroforestry systems in eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, O.P.; Das, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    Energy efficiency of Populus deltoides G 3 Marsh agroforestry of a 3-year-old system with intercropping of maize-wheat in crop I and pigeonpea in crop II and of a 9-year-old system with turmeric, a shade loving crop was studied at Pusa, Bihar in eastern India. Energy fixation, storage, net allocation in agronomic yield and energy released and exit from the 9-year-old system was 1.53, 4.30, 0.43 and 3.37 times in crop I and 1.67, 4.60, 0.53 and 3.30 times in crop II of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy conservation efficiency in the 9-year-old system was higher (1.91%) as compared to crop I (1.24%) and crop II (1.15%) of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy accumulation ratio in the 9-year-old system was 2.82 and 2.77 times higher in crop I and crop II, respectively, of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The 3-year-old agroforestry system showed lower energy accumulation ratio resulting from less energy accumulation in perennial turnover in the from of leaf of tree and agricultural crops. The crop II system of the 3-year-old poplar agroforestry was more efficient system of management due to higher quanta of energy and higher cash return but one has to opt for shade loving intercrop turmeric with increase in age of the poplar plantation and more canopy closure

  16. Indigenous methods of controlling termites in agroforestry systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Termites are one of the major agroforestry pests in the tropics causing substantial economic losses. Losses ranging from 50% to 100% have been reported. Control of termites has largely relied on insecticides. There are however serious limitations to these pesticides in terms of cost, pollution and destruction of non targets.

  17. Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

    2009-04-01

    The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was

  18. [Changes of soil physical properties during the conversion of cropland to agroforestry system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Gao, Peng Xiang; Liu, Bin; Zhong, Chong Gao; Hou, Lin; Zhang, Shuo Xin

    2017-01-01

    To provide theoretical basis for modeling and managing agroforestry systems, the influence of conversion of cropland to agroforestry system on soil physical properties was investigated via a walnut (Juglans regia)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) intercropping system, a wide spreading local agroforestry model in northern Weihe River of loess area, with the walnut and wheat monoculture systems as the control. The results showed that the improvement of the intercropping system on soil physical properties mainly appeared in the 0-40 cm soil layer. The intercropping system could prevent soil bulk density rising in the surface soil (0-20 cm), and the plow pan in the 20-40 cm soil layer could be significantly alleviated. The intercropping system had conti-nuous improvement on soil field capacity in each soil layer with the planting age increase, and the soil field capacity was higher than that of each monoculture system in each soil layer (except 20-40 cm soil layer) since the 5th year after planting. The intercropping system had continuous improvement on soil porosity in each soil layer, but mainly in the 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layer, and the ratio of capillary porosity was also improved. The soil bulk density, field capacity and soil porosity obtained continuous improvement during the conversion of cropland to agroforestry system, and the improvement on soil physical properties was stronger in shallow soil layer than in deep soil.

  19. Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

  20. Status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Varadharajan, Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Soil is a complex and dynamic biological system. Agroforestry systems are considered to be an alternative land use option to help and prevent soil degradation, improve soil fertility, microbial diversity, and organic matter status. An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The present study deals with the status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu. Eight soil samples were collected from different fields in agroforestry systems in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruvanamalai, and Erode districts, Tamil Nadu. The number of microorganisms and physico-chemical parameters of soils were quantified. Among different microbial population, the bacterial population was recorded maximum (64%), followed by actinomycetes (23%) and fungi (13%) in different samples screened. It is interesting to note that the microbial population was positively correlated with the physico-chemical properties of different soil samples screened. Total bacterial count had positive correlation with soil organic carbon (C), moisture content, pH, nitrogen (N), and micronutrients such as Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Similarly, the total actinomycete count also showed positive correlations with bulk density, moisture content, pH, C, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). It was also noticed that the soil organic matter, vegetation, and soil nutrients altered the microbial community under agroforestry systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Long-term above-ground biomass production in a red oak-pecan agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems have widely been recognized for their potential to foster long-term carbon sequestration in woody perennials. This study aims to determine the above-ground biomass in a 16-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra) - pecan (Carya illinoinensis) silvopastoral planting (141 and 53 trees ha-...

  2. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems may provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional agriculture cannot, e.g. potentially mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by enhancing nutrient cycling, since tree roots can capture nutrients not taken up by crops. However, greenhouse gas emission ...

  4. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  5. Management of agroforestry systems for enhancing resource use efficiency and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Agroforestry is a low-input system which combines trees with crops in various combinations or sequences. It is an alternative to intensive cropping systems, which rely on large inputs of manufactured fertilizers and other external inputs to sustain production. Agroforestry also has the potential to reduce risk through diversification of a variety of products, including food, fuelwood and animal fodder. Other perceived benefits include enhanced nutrient and water use efficiencies, reduced nutrient leaching to groundwater and improved soil physical and biological properties. The use of leguminous or actinorhizal trees may further enhance these benefits because of their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Depending on the type of agroforestry system and the management practices employed, a substantial portion of this fixed nitrogen can be transferred to companion crops and to the soil. In considering the overall productivity of agroforestry systems, it is essential to investigate the competition or complementarity in the capture and partitioning of resources between tree and crop components. This is especially true for nutrients and water, usually the two most limiting factors influencing crop growth. The focus of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to evaluate the efficacy of various agroforestry systems used in Member States in terms of crop productivity, resource use efficiency and improvements in soil properties. The use of isotopes and nuclear techniques was essential for understanding the dynamics of nutrients and water in agroforestry systems. The contribution of nitrogen from fertilizers and leguminous trees to soil and crops was studied using both direct and indirect 15 N labelling techniques. The cycling of carbon from trees or crops to soil was studied using natural variations in the 13 C signatures of the soils and the different species. The soil moisture neutron probe in conjunction with tensionics was used to monitor soil water status and

  6. Farmers' perceptions towards agroforestry systems in North and South Kordofanstates, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in North and South Kordofan States with objectives of to identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, to characterize major tree species in different agroforestry system, to prioritize major constraints on agroforestry systems in the region, and to study the current status of gum Arabic trees and their contribution on farmers livelihood. Data were collected through community meeting, individual interviews and direct field observation. The common agroforestry systems in the region are scatter trees on farm land, followed by wind breaks and boundary planting. The important trees in the study area are Acacia senegal83%, followed by Fadherbia albida 46%, Ziziphus spina- christia43% and Balanites aegyptiaca 41%. The most important field crops that cultivated in agroforestry system are groundnuts, millet, sorghum, sesame and roselle. The environmental benefits of trees in farm which was identified by the respondents include protection of farm against wind erosion, improvement of the soil properties, improvement of the micro-climate and providing a source for income which was indicated by the majority of respondents. Across all sites 93% of respondents showed that gum Arabic have a significant contribution to their family income. The study recommended that a multi-purpose tree species such as Acacia senegal should be maintained for amelioration of soils fertility and increase crop productivity in the fragile ecosystems such as that of the study sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12624 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 53-67

  7. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  8. Preliminary selected agroforestry bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teemba, L.

    1980-01-01

    The 173 references (1949-1980) are given in 10 sections: Agroforestry general, Farming systems; Food/Nutrition/Toxicology; Fuelwood, charcoal and energy; Land-use systems; Multipurpose trees; Rural development; Silvopastoral systems; Soils; and Tropical forests.

  9. Farmers’ perceptions towards agroforestry systems in Babanosa Area, West Kordofan State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Eltemada, Boli and Umghoghai villages at Babanosa area in El-salam locality, South Kordofan State during 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to (1 identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, (2 to investigate the main factors that affecting the sustainability of the systems, (3 to determine the important field crops that cultivated with trees and (4 to evaluate the effect of the agroforestry systems on the yield of the traditional field crops. For accomplishment of these study 80 questioners was designed and distributed in the selected villages. After the data collection data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic. The results showed that the most important agroforestry systems in the study area are parkland cropping system (58%, boundary planting (26%, wind-breaks (13% and alley cropping (3%.The most important forest trees in the study area are Acacia senegal (32%, Ziziphus spina- christia (28%, Balanites aegeyptiaca (26%, Sclerocary birrea and Guera senegalensis (3%. The main field crops in the study area are groundnut (44%, sorghum (35% and roselle (21%. The results showed that yield of groundnut and sorghum is higher under agroforestry systems compared with the mono-cropping system. The results showed that the majority of respondents (70% prefer to cultivate field crops in agroforestry system, while (30% prefer to cultivate the field crops in a mono-cropping system. The cultivation methods used in the study area include shifting cultivation (52%, mono-cropping (36% and intercropping (12%.The majority of respondents (94% showed that trees improve soil fertility in their farm land. The benefits from trees in farm land include improvement of soil properties (36%, protecting the farm land from wind erosion (28%, improvement of micro-climate (24% and source of income which was indicated by (12% of the respondents. The study recommended that modern agroforestry system such as improved fallow system

  10. A system identification approach for developing and parameterising an agroforestry system model under constrained availability of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Graves, A.; Werf, van der W.; Burgess, P.J.; Palma, J.; Dupraz, C.; Keulen, van H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a system identification approach to overcome the problem of insufficient data when developing and parameterising an agroforestry system model. Typically, for these complex systems the number of available data points from actual systems is less than the number of parameters in a

  11. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  12. Agroforestry systems with fine aroma cocoa cultivation: socio-economic and productive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Mata Anchundia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The agroforestry systems with cocoa are good for many purposes and they give many products to a diversity of soil users, among them, to the families of the producers in their environment. The objective of the research was to evaluate the socioeconomic and productive factors in agroforestry systems with fine aroma cocoa of export, in the El Vergel parish of the Valencia canton, county of Los Ríos, Ecuador. A survey to a random sample of 35 farmers of El Vergel parish was carried out, to evaluate socioeconomic and productivevariables. A descriptive analysis was applied to the data of the surveys. Most of the interviewed producers (71,4 % ignore on agroforestry systems. The farmers possess among 0,63 up to 10 hectares. 100 % of them cultivates the fine aroma cocoa, like main cultivation and other secondary cultivations where they stand out the forest species (48,6 %. The families are conformed by 49,5 % males and 50,5 % women. Most of the farmers (males and women are home bosses, with an age that fluctuates among 45 to 54 years. Alone 37 % of the members of the home is devoted to the work in the agriculture. 51 % of the farmers cohabits in free union and 38,3 % are single. The main monthly entrance oscillates from zero to $488. The monthly expenses of the farmers fluctuate among $101,00 up to $500,00. The analyzed social and productive indicators are not in the level required to achieve the sustainable development of these agroforestry systems.

  13. TYPOLOGY OF FAMILY PRODUCTION UNITS OF TRADICIONAL AGROFORESTY SYSTEM OF COFFEE-BANANA-CITRUS IN THE COUNTRY TLAPACOYAN, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cruz A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee production is one of the most important activities in the town of Tlapacoyan, Veracruz unfortunately, prices and technologies focused on the monoculture production system have reduced the activity. The study of family production units (FPU, with the construction of a typology and an agronomic characterization of producers, carried out in the traditional agroforestry system of coffee-banana-citrus contributes to further analysis in public policies. This study was conducted in six communities through field work, coffee producers records and open interviews with authorities. A census of 33 individuals was built and questionnaires were applied as a part of the survey, which used multivariate analysis to establish categories of UPF. Each category was described in agronomic terms based on incomes and costs. Three categories were determined according to surface size, labor work and technological level, including diversification of costs of incomes. As a conclusion, this study has contributed to rethink about new supporting strategies for coffee producers, and government policies and supporting programs which will mean a better family income that will take into account differences such as the size varying from 5 to 27 ha. Labor work available varies among categories and technification defines the type and number of vehicles, because it refers to an activity that generates beneficial incomes to producers. We conclude that this heads of the UPF have traditional management of the 3 components, integrating productive practical and the system is dependent on labor.

  14. Current extent and stratification of agroforestry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Herder, Michael; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    in the European Union. We classified agroforestry into three main types of agroforestry systems: arable agroforestry, livestock agroforestry and high value tree agroforestry. These three classes are partly overlapping as high value tree agroforestry can be part of either arable or livestock agroforestry....... Agroforestry areas were mapped using LUCAS Land Use and Land Cover data (Eurostat, 2015). By identifying certain combinations of primary and secondary land cover and/or land management it was possible to identify agroforestry points and stratify them in the three different systems. According to our estimate...... the largest area. High value tree agroforestry and arable agroforestry cover 1.1 and 0.3 million ha respectively. Spain (5.6 million ha), France (1.6 million ha), Greece (1.6 million ha), Italy (1.4 million ha), Portugal (1.2 million ha), Romania (0.9 million ha) and Bulgaria (0.9 million ha) have the largest...

  15. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree

  16. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  17. Drought effects on soil COcacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  18. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, A; Tandy, S; Andres, C; Chincheros Paniagua, J; Armengot, L; Schneider, M; Schulin, R

    2017-02-15

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management. Leaf, fruits and roots of two cultivars were sampled from each production system along with soil samples collected around these trees. Leaf, pod husk and bean samples were analysed for Cd, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), the roots for mycorrhizal abundance and the soil samples for 'total' and 'available' Cd, Fe and Zn as well as DGT-available Cd and Zn, pH, organic matter, texture, 'available' phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Only a small part of the variance in bean and pod husk Cd was explained by management, soil and plant factors. Furthermore, the production systems and cultivars alone had no significant influence on leaf Cd. However, we found lower Cd leaf contents in agroforestry systems than in monocultures when analysed in combination with DGT-available soil Cd, cocoa cultivar and soil organic matter. Overall, this model explained 60% of the variance of the leaf Cd concentrations. We explain lower leaf Cd concentrations in agroforestry systems by competition for Cd uptake with other plants. The cultivar effect may be explained by cultivar specific uptake capacities or by a growth effect translating into different uptake rates, as the cultivars were of different size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Gallerani

    Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

  20. Trichoderma ROLE IN AGROFORESTRY-CACAOTAL SYSTEMS AS AN ANTAGONAL AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula del Carmen López-Ferrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and cocoa agroforestry systems are important for food production and biodiversity conservation. Among this diversity there is a group of fungi of the genus Trichoderma that present antagonistic effects against phytopathogens and this action can be used as a form of biological control of plant pathogens. In the agroforestry-cacao system the diseases with the highest frequency and with the greatest impact on cocoa production (Theobroma cacao are black rot (Phytophthora spp., Broom broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri. The objective of this work was to perform an analysis of the main theoretical and practical aspects about the genus Trichoderma and its role in agriculture as an antagonistic agent. One of the microscopic features in the delimitation of the genus, especially by the presence of structures called phalid. The antagonistic mechanisms used by Trichoderma spp. Are described as competition, antibiosis and mycoparasitism. Mycoparasitism is having a relevance on the implications of extracellular enzymes such as chitinases, cellulases, β-1-3-glucanases and proteases that lyse or digest the walls of fungi, Moniliophthora roreri disease. This fungus can inhibit the growth of other fungi and bacteria by producing several volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. On the other hand, it participates in the production of regulators of growth and stimulation of the division, differentiation and cellular growth in the plant by the elicitor agent. Trichoderma species that are commercialized for biological control, growth promoter and biofertilizer are T. viride, T. polysporum and T. harzianum. The T. virens and T. harzianum species are most used for the antagonistic control of M. roreri, Phytophthora spp., and M. perniciosa in agroforestry-cacao systems (Theobroma cacao L. with optimal results to the inhibitory effect for these diseases.

  1. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration by agroforestry systems in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Moreira Miquelino Eleto; Jacovine, Laércio Antônio Gonçalves; Nolasco de Olivera Neto, Sílvio; Fraisse, Clyde William; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; de Castro Neto, Fernando; Ferreira, Lino Roberto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Lemes, Pedro Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    Agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems can increase carbon sequestration, offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce the carbon footprint generated by animal production. The objective of this study was to estimate GHG emissions, the tree and grass aboveground biomass production and carbon storage in different agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems in southeastern Brazil. The number of trees required to offset these emissions were also estimated. The GHG emissions were calculated based on pre-farm (e.g. agrochemical production, storage, and transportation), and on-farm activities (e.g. fertilization and machinery operation). Aboveground tree grass biomass and carbon storage in all systems was estimated with allometric equations. GHG emissions from the agroforestry systems ranged from 2.81 to 7.98 t CO 2 e ha -1 . Carbon storage in the aboveground trees and grass biomass were 54.6, 11.4, 25.7 and 5.9 t C ha -1 , and 3.3, 3.6, 3.8 and 3.3 t C ha -1 for systems 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The number of trees necessary to offset the emissions ranged from 17 to 44 trees ha -1 , which was lower than the total planted in the systems. Agroforestry systems sequester CO 2 from the atmosphere and can help the GHG emission-reduction policy of the Brazilian government.

  3. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  4. Determining bioclimatic space of Himalayan alder for agroforestry systems in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan alder species are proven to be very useful in traditional as well as contemporary agroforestry practice. These nitrogen-fixing trees are also useful in the land restoration. Therefore, understanding the distribution of Himalayan alder and the potential zone for plantation is meaningful in the agroforestry sector. Suitable climatic zones of Alnus spp. were modelled in MaxEnt software using a subset of least correlated bioclimatic variables for current conditions (1950–2000, topographic variables (DEM derived and Landuse Landcover (LULC data. We generated several models and selected the best model against random models using ANOVA and t-test. The environmental variables that best explained the current distribution of the species were identified and used to project into the future. For future projections, ensemble scenarios of climate change projection derived from the results of 19 Earth System Models (ESM were used. Our model revealed that the most favorable conditions for Alnus nepalensis are in central Nepal in the moist north-west facing slope, whereas for Alnus nitida they are in western Nepal. The major climatic factor that contributes to Alnus species distribution in Nepal appears to be precipitation during the warmest quarter for A. nepalensis and precipitation during the driest quarter for A. nitida. Future projections revealed changes in the probability distribution of these species, as well as where they need conservation and where they can be planted. Also, our model predicts that the distribution of Alnus spp. in hilly regions will remain unchanged, and therefore may represent sites that can be used to revitalize traditional agroforestry systems and extract source material for land restoration.

  5. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  6. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  7. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  8. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  9. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  10. Economic Evaluation of Pollination Services Comparing Coffee Landscapes in Ecuador and Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Olschewski

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation through land-use systems on private land is becoming a pressing environmental policy issue. Agroforestry, such as shade-coffee production, contributes to biodiversity conservation. However, falling coffee prices force many coffee growers to convert their sites into economically more attractive land uses. We performed an economic evaluation of coffee pollination by bees in two distinct tropical regions: an area of low human impact with forests neighboring agroforestry in Indonesia and an area of high human impact with little remaining forest in Ecuador. We evaluated bee pollination for different forest-destruction scenarios, where coffee yields depend on forests to provide nesting sites for bees. We used two novel approaches. First, we examined how coffee net revenues depend on the pollination services of adjacent forests by considering berry weight in addition to fruit set, thereby providing a comprehensive evaluation. Second, we determined the net welfare effects of land-use changes, including the fact that former forestland is normally used for alternative crops. In both regions, crop revenues exceeded coffee pollination values, generating incentives to convert forests, even if owners would be compensated for pollination services. The promotion of certified "biodiversity-friendly" coffee is a feasible option to maintain shade-coffee systems. This is of special importance in high-impact areas where only small forest fragments remain. We conclude that a comprehensive economic analysis is necessary to adequately evaluate rainforest preservation for the enhancement of ecosystem services, such as pollination.

  11. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao (Theobromacacao L. and to achieve additional services. Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions. Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate growth rates and leaf area indices of the four commercial timber species: Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia rosea in conjunction with incidence of insect attacks and (2 to compare growth rates of four Venezuelan Criollo cacao cultivars planted under the shade of these four timber species during the first 36 months after establishment. Parameters monitored in timber trees were: survival rates, growth rates expressed as height and diameter at breast height and leaf area index. In the four Cacao cultivars: height and basal diameter. C. thaisiana and C. odorata had the fastest growth and the highest survival rates. Growth rates of timber trees will depend on their susceptibility to insect attacks as well as to total leaf area. All cacao cultivars showed higher growth rates under the shade of C. odorata. Growth rates of timber trees and cacao cultivars suggest that combinations of cacao and timber trees are a feasible agroforestry strategy in Venezuela.

  12. Sweet chestnut agroforestry systems in North-western Spain: Classification, spatial distribution and an ecosystem services assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Roces-Diaz

    2018-05-01

    Research highlights: The relevance of the C. sativa agroforestry systems from ES point of view was pointed out in this work, but also their declining dynamic. Further analysis, based on temporal trends, could help to a better understanding of their status and to define conservation and management strategies.

  13. Projecting the long-term biogeochemical impacts of a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Paul, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Annual, monoculture cropping systems have become the standard agricultural model in the Midwestern US. Unintended consequences of these systems include surface and groundwater pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, loss of biodiversity, and soil erosion. Diverse agroforestry (DA) systems dominated by fruit and nut trees/shrubs have been proposed as an agricultural model for the Midwestern US that can restore ecosystem services while simultaneously providing economically viable and industrially relevant staple food crops. A DA system including six species of fruit and nut crops was established on long-time conventional agricultural land at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2012, with the conventional corn-soybean rotation (CSR) as a control. Initial field measurements of the nitrogen and water cycles during the first two years of transition have indicated a significant decrease in N losses and modification of the seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) pattern. While these early results suggest that the land use transition from CSR to DA can have positive biogeochemical consequences, models must be utilized to make long-term biogeochemical projections in agroforestry systems. Initial field measurements of plant phenology, net N2O flux, nitrate leaching, soil respiration, and soil moisture were used to parameterize the DA system within the DayCENT biogeochemical model as the "savanna" ecosystem type. The model was validated with an independent subset of field measurements and then run to project biogeochemical cycling in the DA system for 25 years past establishment. Model results show that N losses via N2O emission or nitrate leaching reach a minimum within the first 5 years and then maintain this tight cycle into the future. While early ET field measurements revealed similar magnitudes between the DA and CSR systems, modeled ET continued to increase for the DA system throughout the projected time since the trees would continue to grow larger. These modeling

  14. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance.

  15. Water use of grasslands, agroforestry systems and indigenous forests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) during winter (May to August). At a catch- ment scale ... of the system in one or other of its equilibrium or stable states. .... and not soil moisture is the main factor limiting evaporation. ..... solution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in.

  16. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  17. Carbon sequestration potential in agroforestry system in India: an analysis for carbon project

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, R.; Sanjeev, K.; Chauhan, D. K.; Tripathi, Abishek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2016), s. 631-644 ISSN 0167-4366 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Agroforestry * Biophysical and practical potential * Carbon sequestration * Poplar based agroforestry * Institutional mechanism Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  18. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  19. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  20. Users Integrity Constraints in SOLAP Systems. Application in Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Bensalloua Charef

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available SpatialData Warehouse and Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing are decision support technologies which offer the spatial and multidimensional analysis of data stored in multidimensional structure. They are aimed also at supporting geographic knowledge discovery to help decision-maker in his job related to make the appropriate decision . However, if we don’t consider data quality in the spatial hypercubes and how it is explored, it may provide unreliable results. In this paper, we propose a system for the implementation of user integrity constraints in SOLAP namely “UIC-SOLAP”. It corresponds to a methodology for guaranteeing results quality in an analytical process effectuated by different users exploiting several facts tables within the same hypercube. We integrate users Integrity Constraints (IC by specifying visualization ICs according to their preferences and we define inter-facts ICs in this case. In order to validate our proposition, we propose the multidimensional modeling by UML profile to support constellation schema of a hypercube with several fact tables related to subjects of analysis in forestry management. Then, we propose implementation of some ICs related to users of such a system.

  1. Soil hydrology of agroforestry systems: Competition for water or positive tree-crops interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjets, Rowena; Richter, Falk; Jansen, Martin; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In dry periods during the growing season crops may suffer from severe water stress. The question arises whether the alternation of crop and tree strips might enhance and sustain soil water resources available for crops during drought events. Trees reduce wind exposure, decreasing the potential evapotranspiration of crops and soils; additionally hydraulic lift from the deep roots of trees to the drier top soil might provide additional water for shallow-rooted crops. To understand the above and belowground water relations of agroforestry systems, we measured soil moisture and soil water potential in crop strips as a function of distance to the trees at varying depth as well as meteorological parameters. At the agroforestry site Reiffenhausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, two different tree species are planted, each in one separated tree strip: willow breed Tordis ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis) and poplar clone Max 1 (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii). In between the tree strips a crop strip of 24 m width was established with annual crop rotation, managed the same way as the reference site. During a drought period in May 2016 with less than 2 mm rain in four weeks, an overall positive effect on hydrological conditions of the agroforestry system was observed. The results show that trees shaded the soil surface, lowering the air temperature and further increasing the soil moisture in the crop strips compared to the reference site, which was located far from the trees. At the reference site the crops took up water in the upper soil (sunlight. The two tree species behaved differently. The poplar strips showed more marked diurnal changes in soil water potential, with fast drying during daytime and rewetting during nighttime. We suppose that the rewetting during nighttime was caused by hydraulic lift, which supports passively the drier upper soil with water from the wetter, lower soil layers. This experimental study shows the importance of above- and

  2. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  3. Bound by debt: Nutmeg trees and changing relations between farmers and agents in a Moluccan agroforestry systems

    OpenAIRE

    Messalina Lovenia Salampessy; Indra Gumay Febryano; Dini Zulfiani

    2017-01-01

    Agroforestry is a land management system long practiced by communities in the Moluccas. The practice is commonly known as "Dusung", where one cash crop in particular, nutmeg, is interspersed throughout farmer groves. Farmers have faced a number of challenges in recent years, especially concerning a system of debt bondage inflicting undue losses upon them. This study aims to explain the involvement of farmers within the debt bondage system, otherwise known as the tree mortgage system. We utili...

  4. Bound by Debt: Nutmeg Trees and Changing Relations Between Farmers and Agents in a Moluccan Agroforestry Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salampessy, Messalina Lovenia; Febryano, Indra Gumay; Zulfiani, Dini

    2017-01-01

    Agroforestry is a land management system long practiced by communities in the Moluccas. The practice is commonly known as "Dusung", where one cash crop in particular, nutmeg, is interspersed throughout farmer groves. Farmers have faced a number of challenges in recent years, especially concerning a system of debt bondage inflicting undue losses upon them. This study aims to explain the involvement of farmers within the debt bondage system, otherwise known as the tree mortgage system. We utili...

  5. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera from cacao agroforestry systems in northeastern Brazil, with two new species of Trigonalys Westwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Trigonalidae from cacao (Theobroma cacao L. agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is conducted. A total of 65 specimens were studied, and three species are recognized. Trigonalys melanoleuca Westwood is diagnosed and illustrated. Two new species are described and illustrated. Trigonalys erythrocephala sp. n. has most of head reddish brown; metasomal armature in sternum III conspicuous, Y-shaped; supra-antennal elevation conspicuous; hind coxa with sharp lateral angles, its dorso-mesal portion strigate; legs entirely dark brown; and fore wing lightly infuscate, darker towards anterior margin. Trigonalys gotica sp. n. with body blackish or dark brown and with pale yellow marks; mesopleuron with an oblique mark; female armature absent; frons and vertex punctate-areolate; supra-antennal elevation subtle; propodeal foramen V-shaped; and fore wing vein M arising distinctly basad to 1cu-a.

  6. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterial populations trapped from soils under agroforestry systems in the Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Duque Jaramillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important grain-producing legume that can forego nitrogen fertilization by establishing an efficient symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Although inoculating strains have already been selected for this species, little is known about the genotypic and symbiotic diversity of native rhizobia. Recently, Bradyrhizobium has been shown to be the genus most frequently trapped by cowpea in agricultural soils of the Amazon region. We investigated the genetic and symbiotic diversity of 148 bacterial strains with different phenotypic and cultural properties isolated from the nodules of the trap species cowpea, which was inoculated with samples from soils under agroforestry systems from the western Amazon. Sixty non-nodulating strains indicated a high frequency of endophytic strains in the nodules. The 88 authenticated strains had varying symbiotic efficiency. The SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development index (indirect measurement of chlorophyll content was more efficient at evaluating the contribution of symbiotic N2-fixation than shoot dry matter under axenic conditions. Cowpea-nodulating bacteria exhibited a high level of genetic diversity, with 68 genotypes identified by BOX-PCR. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed a predominance of the genus Bradyrhizobium, which accounted for 70 % of all strains sequenced. Other genera identified were Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Paenibacillus, Bosea, Bacillus, Enterobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. These results support the promiscuity of cowpea and demonstrate the high genetic and symbiotic diversity of rhizobia in soils under agroforestry systems, with some strains exhibiting potential for use as inoculants. The predominance of Bradyrhizobium in land uses with different plant communities and soil characteristics reflects the adaptation of this genus to the Amazon region.

  7. Agrosocial analysis of the family farmers’ perception on agroforestry systems in northeastern Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemê Gomes Amaral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 a case study was undertaken in agroforestry systems as practiced by family farmers in the Arapuã-Simeira colonization project, municipality of Garrafão do Norte, Pará state, in northern Brazil, with the purpose of describing and systematizing the agrosocial characteristics of the family farmers and their experiences and perceptions of agroforestry systems. The methodology consisted of field research, application of standard questionnaires, observation and discussion in group. Farmers gave preference to some perennial cultures and forest species for intercropping, and the main explication for the introduction of species in their fields was economic gain and social behavior. Multifaceted thinking is seen in the choice of agriculture products and management options, resulting in each property having a combination of different agricultural systems that are adapted to local conditions. The farmer knows better than anyone else how to determine the ideal combination for his agricultural system. The study shows the agrosocial and socialcultural trajectory of the farmers and hypothesis are advanced on what would imply the adoption of agroforestry systems in family agriculture. A systemic approach can be very useful in understanding the relationships and social processes that are important aspects of the rural and agrarian question.

  8. The Role of Soil Biological Function in Regulating Agroecosystem Services and Sustainability in the Quesungual Agroforestry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, S.; Pauli, N.; Rousseau, L.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Barrios, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Quesungual agroforestry system from western Honduras has been increasingly promoted as a promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in tropical dry forest regions of the Americas. Improved residue management and the lack of burning in this system can greatly impact soil biological functioning and a number of key soil-based ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes has not been thoroughly integrated to understand system functionality as a whole that can guide improved management. To address this gap, we present a synthesis of various field studies conducted in Central America aimed at: 1) quantifying the influence of the Quesungual agroforestry practices on soil macrofauna abundance and diversity, and 2) understanding how these organisms influence key soil-based ecosystem services that ultimately drive the success of this system. A first set of studies examined the impact of agroecosystem management on soil macrofauna populations, soil fertility and key soil processes. Results suggest that residue inputs (derived from tree biomass pruning), a lack of burning, and high tree densities, lead to conditions that support abundant, diverse soil macrofauna communities under agroforestry, with soil organic carbon content comparable to adjacent forest. Additionally, there is great potential in working with farmers to develop refined soil quality indicators for improved land management. A second line of research explored interactions between residue management and earthworms in the regulation of soil-based ecosystem services. Earthworms are the most prominent ecosystem engineers in these soils. We found that earthworms are key drivers of soil structure maintenance and the stabilization of soil organic matter within soil aggregates, and also had notable impacts on soil nutrient dynamics. However, the impact of earthworms appears to depend on residue management practices, thus indicating the need for an integrated approach for

  9. Agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems: an alternative to achieve food security and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, J.; Martín, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to offer considerations about agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems. At present, worldwide, marked by a group of hazards that threaten human existence, there is a challenge mainly in the rural context: how can the coexistence of agroenergy, food security and environmental protection be achieved?, in the presence of climate changes, environmental degradation, food crises and the growing biofuels vs food contradiction, generated by a senseless policy for obtaining first-generation agrofuels from large extensions of food monocrops, which is morally rejectable. Biofuels are also considered an ecological alternative to fossil fuels, because of their reduction capacity in the emission of greenhouse gasses and because they promote the development of rural communities in southern countries; this is enhanced in integrated agroforestry systems, in which biofuels, of first as well as second generation, can be produced, especially with the application of the concept of biorefinery which allows converting biomass into many products, which total added value can be higher than the one generated by fossil fuels. International projects, which promote integrated and sustainable food and energy production in the context of agroforestry integrated systems, at local scale, contribute to this purpose. The authors consider that the execution of projects and experiences about agroenergy has the main objective of achieving energetic sustainability and food security at local scale, in rural areas, taking into account environmental protection. (author)

  10. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have

  11. Chemical and structural characterization of soil humic substances under agroforestry and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislane M. de Moraes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have proven that the agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the State of Ceará, Brazil, induce an increase in soil organic C levels. Notwithstanding, there is no information if this increase also results in qualitative changes in different pools of soil organic matter. The objective of this study was to verify the possible chemical and structural alterations in fulvic and humic acids of a Luvisol in areas adopting agroforestry, traditional intensive cultivation and native forest in a long-term experiment conducted in the semi-arid region of Ceará State, Brazil. The study was conducted in an experimental area of the National Goat Research Center (Embrapa in Sobral, CE. The following treatments were evaluated: agrosilvopasture (AGP, silvopasture (SILV, intensive cultivation under fallow (ICF, and areas with native forest (NF. Soil fulvic and humic acids fractions were extracted from the 0-6 and 6-12 cm layers and characterized by elemental composition, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy analyses. The elemental composition analysis of humic acids confirmed the data found for fulvic acids, showing reduction in the C, H and N levels, followed by an increase in O contents in the AGP and ICF treatments over SILV and NF. In all treatments, except to SILV in the 0-6 cm layer, the percentage of mass loss was highest (300-600 °C for humic acids in the thermally most stable region. Despite the similarity between infrared spectra, soil fulvic acids in the SILV treatment extracted from 6-12 cm depth decrease the absorption bands at 1708 and 1408 cm-1 followed by an increase in the absorption band at 1608 cm-1 attributed to aromatic C=C groups. This behavior suggests an increase in the aromatic character of the structure. The AGP and ICF treatments, which increase the soil tilling, favored the maintenance of humic substances with a more aromatic character in the soil than SILV and NF. The less aromatic humic substances in the SILV

  12. The potential of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) in agroforestry system based on silk tree (Albizia chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, D.; Budiastuti, M. S.; Sakya, A. T.; Cholid, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant. In Indonesia, it is generally cultivated in village home gardens. Famers conducted very simpple cultivation method of turmeric, without specific maintenance and below varies tree. The experiment was conducted by cultivating turmeric below silk trees as in agroforetry system. The experiment was arranged split plot design, the first factor was three level of irradiation (turmeric monoculture/full irradiation, turmeric below silktree with pruning canopy, and turmeric below silk tree no pruning). The second factor was fertilizer NPK 15-15-15 with three levels of doses (100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivating turmeric in agroforestry system based on silk tree which were one year old and not yet needed pruning, application of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer 100 kg ha-1 was enough. The rhizome yield of turmeric 3 months age reaches 139 g per plant (fresh weight). Litter fall from a silk tree one year old in one year is 30 kg per tree per year.

  13. Analysis of phosphorus by 31PNMR in Oxisols under agroforestry land conventional coffee systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Meer, van der P.; Oenema, O.; Janssen, B.H.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the primary limiting nutrient for crop production in highly weathered tropical soils. The deficiency is mainly caused by strong adsorption of H2PO4¿ to Al- and Fe-(hydr)oxides, which turns large proportions of total P into a form that is unavailable to plants. Soil management

  14. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGROFORESTRY TREE PRODUCTS TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    philiph

    contribution of agro-forestry tree products to the livelihood of rural farmers was high and accounted for ... systems in which trees are grown with ... livelihood of farmers in rural areas and .... pulp, the seed are boiled in water and dried .... treatment of fracture/dislocation of bones. Some agroforestry trees that provides the rural ...

  15. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  16. Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Piou, Cyril; Tadu, Zéphirin; Babin, Régis

    2018-06-06

    The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.

  17. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  18. Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed.

  19. THE THEORY OF REAL OPTIONS in investment ANALYSIS of agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Santos Joaquim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compared the values generated by traditional economic analysis (Net Present Value - NPV with Real Options Method. The objective was to apply the method proposed by Copeland & Antikarov for rainbow options, due to three stochastic variables selected with decision of abandonment if the project value with flexibility was less than the value of the underlying stock. It enabled the flexibility value generation in order to entrepreneurs to have more confidence in their decision when they are investing in a project with Agroforestry System, with different scenarios visualization in a single analysis. The results evidenced that the economic viability analysis, using Real Options, provided the best view of the possible scenarios, within a range generated by the prices volatility. The Net Present Value adopted as the underlying stock value was R$ 5,684.32, using the discount rate (WACC of 9.95% and risk-free interest rate of 7.5%. To determine the volatility were calculated: the logarithmic return standard deviation (27.06, the average (0.0883, upward movements values (u (1.3107 with 61.34% of probability and downward movements values (d(0.7628 with 38.66%  of probability. The option value in case of abandonment was R$ 2,059.01/ha positive. The results showed that the NPV overestimated the project return and that it would be viable to abandon it.

  20. IMPACT OF AGROFORESTRY PARKLAND SYSTEM ON MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN EASTERN HIGHLANDS OF KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Ndlovu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried on farms at Kyeni South in Eastern highlands of Kenya. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the effects of identified common tree species on growth and yield of maize on farms. The selected tree species found to be prevalently growing on farms were Croton macrostachyus Hochst. Ex Delile, Cordia africana Lam. and Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Growth in basal diameter, height, leaf chlorophyll content and final grain yield was assessed on maize plants selected from the plots under the trees and control plots (away from trees. The maize plants in G. robusta plots had significantly lower mean basal diameter of 1.67 cm at 6 weeks after crop emergence (WACE and 1.96 cm at 9 WACE. No significant differences were observed in plant height in plots under different tree species. Significant suppression of chlorophyll development in maize (indicated by SPAD readings was observed in all the plots under the identified tree species at 6 WACE (P < 0.01. G. robusta plots had significantly lower grain yield of 1.57 t ha-1 compared to the control plots that had the highest mean yield of 2.21 t ha-1. Proper crown management is necessary in agroforestry systems.

  1. A common framework for GHG assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: connecting via GRACEnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are technical and financial advantages for pursuing agroforestry-derived mitigation and adaptation services simultaneously, with a recognition that carbon (C) payments could assist in supporting the deployment of adaptation strategies (Motocha et al. (2012). However, we lack the repeated/repea...

  2. Genetic bottlenecks in agroforestry systems: results of tree nursery surveys in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, A.G.; Jaenicke, H.; Dawson, I.K.

    2005-01-01

    Seedlings sourced through tree nurseries are expected to form an important component of future tree cover on farms. As such, the genetic composition of nursery seedlings is expected to impact on the productivity and sustainability of agroforestry ecosystems. By surveying current practices of nursery

  3. How is agroforestry perceived in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García de Jalón, Silvestre; Burgeaa, Paul J.; Graves, Anil

    2018-01-01

    aspects of agroforestry. By contrast, increased labour, complexity of work, management costs and administrative burden were seen as the most important negative aspects. Overall, improving the environmental value of agriculture was seen as the main benefit of agroforestry, whilst management and socio-economic...... and environmentalists perceive the implementation and expansion of agroforestry in Europe. Meetings were held with 30 stakeholder groups covering different agroforestry systems in 2014 in eleven EU countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom......). In total 344 valid responses were received to a questionnaire where stakeholders were asked to rank the positive and negative aspects of implementing agroforestry in their region. Improved biodiversity and wildlife habitats, animal health and welfare, and landscape aesthetics were seen as the main positive...

  4. Planning for agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budd, W.W.; Duchhart, I.; Hardesty, L.N.; Steiner, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this book a selection of contributions to the international symposium "Planning for agroforestry", held at Washington State University on April 24-27, 1989, is published. First the planning for agroforestry and agroforestry diagnosis and design is viewed over. Then the planning for and

  5. Traditional Agroforestry Systems and Food Supply under the Food Sovereignty Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Yazzur Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensive production systems have damaged many natural ecosystems and have altered their capacity to provide ecosystem services such as climate regulation, soil fertility, and vector-borne disease control. Therefore, these agroecosystems are unsustainable and poorly resilient. However, traditional agroforestry systems (TAS contribute to the conservation of biodiversity and to the provision of inputs for the maintenance of local populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the TAS in the food supply under the food sovereignty (FSv approach in three different ethnic groups. The study was conducted in three communities of different origin in the State of Campeche, one Maya Tseltal-Chol, the other Mestizo, and the third Yucatec Mayan. The theoretical-methodological framework of this research was based on agroecology. Ethnographic methods and participatory research activities were carried out to describe and analyze the factors that strengthen FSv using five indicators. Our results present a description and analysis of resource access, current production models, patterns of consumption and food security, commercialization and participation in decision-making of these communities. Traditional agroecological management practices are still preserved and native species are still being cultivated. Farmers obtain about 55% of their food from TAS. The consumption of food is influenced by the culture, the purchasing power linked to economic activities and government support. TAS have played a strategic role for the survival of families but to ensure their contribution to FSv, it is necessary to articulate the actions of the sectors that share the same objective and encourage the active participation of communities in agricultural policies.

  6. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels resembling those of local forest environments, thus contributing to the maintenance of soil integrity and to the reduction of Hg and nutrient mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Supply of wood-based bioenergy sources by means of agro-forestry systems; Bereitstellung von holzartigen Bioenergietraegern durch Agroforstsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christian; Quinkenstein, Ansgar; Freese, Dirk [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenschutz und Rekultivierung; Baerwolff, Manuela [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Because of the initiated energy revolution and the associated increasing demand for woody biomass in Germany, the production of woody crops on agricultural sites is increasingly gaining in importance. In this context, agroforestry systems provide a promising option to cultivate simultaneously fast growing tree species and annual crops on the same field and to produce woody biomass and conventional products at the same time. Agroforestry systems in which hedgerows of fast growing tree species are established on agricultural sites in a regular pattern are called as alley cropping systems (ACS). These can be managed as low input systems and thus provide several ecological benefits. The cultivation of trees results in an enhanced humus accumulation in the soil and affects the quality of surface as well as percolating waters in a positive way. Additionally, ACS alter the microclimatic conditions at the site, from which the conventional crops cultivated in the alleys between the tree stripes benefit. However, from an economic point of view the production of woody crops with ACS is not generally preferable to conventional agriculture. The positive effects of ACS are most pronounced on marginal sites and, consequently, ACS are currently economically unfavorable compared to conventional agriculture on fertile soils. However, on unfertile, dry sites, such as can be found at a large scale in the Lusatian post-mining landscapes, ACS can be an ecologically and economically promising land-use alternative.

  9. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Massolino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

  10. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-28

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging.

  11. Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Coq-Huelva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava, and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

  12. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  13. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  14. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  15. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  16. Water and coffee: a systems approach to improving coffee harvesting work in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.

  17. Carbon dynamics under a maize-Faidherbia albida agroforestry system in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengwe, Jones; Chipatela, Floyd; Amalia, Okky; Lungu, Obed; De Neve, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    Continued crop residue removal for other competing uses such as livestock or household has exacerbated the decline of soil organic matter. Foliar litter from indigenous agroforestry trees such as Faidherbia albida (F. albida) can be a source of organic matter input in resource constrained farmers' fields to mitigate the declining fertility status of many Zambian soils. A controlled incubation study was conducted to evaluate the short term degradability of F. albida litter and maize plant residue. Further, we assessed the effect of F. albida litter and maize residue amendments on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and enzyme activity. Soils were collected from outside and under the canopies of F. albida trees from six sites with 8, 9, 11, 15, and two sites with > 35-year old trees. Soils from under the canopies were amended with F. albida+maize residue (FMU), F. albida litter (FU), maize residue (MU) and controls were not amended (CTRU). The soils from outside the canopy were amended with maize residue (MO) and controls were not amended (CTRO). These were adjusted to 50% WFPS and incubated for twelve weeks at 27°C to assess C mineralization, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and enzyme activity (Dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase activity). The material used as amendment in the incubation experiment had two pools of carbon: a labile and a recalcitrant pool. The mixed amendment FMU had a significantly (pmineralization compared to the other amendments for all incubated soils. The treatment MU had a higher net C mineralized than FU. However, C mineralization from FU treatment was generally higher in the first 20 days of the incubation period but declined thereafter for all the soils. The net C mineralized from MU did not significantly differ with MO in all except soil from 11-year old trees. Enzyme activity and MBC consistently increased due to amendments for all soils. Enzyme activity was significantly (pmineralized and microbial activity were high in FMU

  18. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    , reducing soil erosion as well as insect pests and associated diseases, while improves the yield of the main crop. The integration of legume in agroforestry systems offers an alternative and resilient strategy to increase N availability without increasing mineral N additions. As such, we present a case study of a forest-based system under intensive agriculture regime and propose an alternative sustainable system - the agroforestry system - by intercropping legumes, thus ensuring the sustainability of a cash crop sector both in terms of food security and soil resources. Results obtained from this case-study will therefore be important to demonstrate the global importance of agroforestry systems as key strategy for land use planning, sustainability of the agricultural systems as well as the preserving the environment of smallholder farms in the sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Microbial inputs in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) production systems, southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Muleta, Diriba

    2007-01-01

    Arabica coffee is the key cash crop and top mainstay of the Ethiopian economy and requires sustainable production methods. Southwestern natural forests, the site of this study, are believed to be the centre of origin and diversity for Coffea arabica and still harbour wild Arabica coffee that may serve as an important gene pool for future breeding. Cost reductions, sustainability and quality improvement are now the major priorities in coffee production systems and require organic growing of co...

  20. PERFORMANSI SISTEM AGROFORESTRI TRADISIONAL DI DESA TELAGA LANGSAT, KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adistina Fitriani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The study aims to learn: (1 study the system and process of formation of agroforestri, (2 study management system which includes the Division of labor, working time and work as well as the institusional system, and (3 figure out the composition and structure of plants with agroforestry system. The object of the research is the agroforestry system has been developed by the community in the Sungai Langsat village, Banjar Regency in which consists of a type and composition that forms a system. The results showed that the system agroforestry in the Sungai Langsat village consists of one system of agroforestry, agrisilvikultur system, with two sub system, i.e. the sub system agroforestri rubber garden and Orchard blend. The history of the development of the process of formation of agroforestry system in location research in the beginning was the natural forest or scrub. Then opened by the community for the annual crop of shifting cultivation. As time goes by, in addition to the annual planting crops, also grow fruits and plants producing wooden resin (rubber. In its development the plant fruits into orchards mixture that consists of a variety of fruit trees are scattered at random and irregular, while rubber plantations were planted in irregular and tend to even aged. Keywords: Performance, Traditional, Agroforestry System ABSTRAK.  Penelitan ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari : (1 mempelajari sistem dan proses terbentuknya agroforestri, (2 Mendiskripsikan sistem pengelolaan yang meliputi pembagian kerja, waktu kerja dan sistem kerja serta kelembagaannya, dan (3 mengetahui komposisi dan struktur tanaman dengan sistem agroforestri. Obyek penelitian ini adalah sistem agroforestry yang telah dikembangkan oleh masyarakat di desa Sungai Langsat Kabupaten Banjar yang di dalamnya terdiri atas jenis dan komposisinya yang membentuk suatu sistem. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem agroforestri yang terdapat di desa Sungai Langsat terdiri dari

  1. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged.

  2. Chemical attributes of soil in agroforestry system of gliricidia intercropped with spineless cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iza de Arruda Sarmento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to assess the chemical attributes of a soil fertilized with organic matter, in an agroforestry system. The experiment was carried out at the Miguel Arraes agricultural experiment station of the National Semiarid Institute (INSA, located in Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. Experimental design consisted of a randomized block with four replications. We applied four treatments of organic fertilization: (HS Humic Substances; (SW Seaweeds; (B Bokashi; and (C control treatment, without fertilization. Soil samples were collected at 0-20 cm depth, placed in plastic bags and taken to laboratory for the following chemical analysis: pH, potassium (K+, sodium (Na+, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca2+, magnesium (Mg2+, soil organic matter (SOM, sum of bases (SB, cation exchange capacity (CEC, base saturation (V% and Soil Quality Index (SQI. Organic fertilizers applied to the soil did not affected pH, P, K+, Na+, Al3+ and CEC. Humic substances treatment increased the availability of Mg2+, while seaweeds treatment increased the Ca2+, SB, V% and SOM levels.Atributos químicos do solo em sistema agroflorestal de gliricídia consorciado com palma forrageiraResumo: Objetivou-se avaliar os atributos químicos de um solo adubado com matéria orgânica, em um sistema agroflorestal. Para isso foi conduzido um experimento na Estação Experimental da Fazenda Miguel Arraes, situada na área sede do Instituto Nacional do Semiárido (INSA, Unidade de Pesquisa do Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI, localizada no município de Campina Grande, Paraíba. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos aplicados foram quatro tipos de adubação orgânica: (SH Substancia Húmicas; (AM Algas Marinhas; (B Bokashi; e (T tratamentos controle, sem adubação. As amostras foram coletadas na profundidade de 0-20 cm, acondicionadas em sacolas plásticas e levadas ao Laboratório de Análise de Solos,

  3. Land use and rainfall effect on soil CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the largest C reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in regulating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and soil controls the balance of C in soils. The CO2 fluxes may be influenced by climate conditions and land use and cover change especially in the upper soil organic layer. Understanding C dynamics is important for maintaining C stocks to sustain and improve soil quality and to enhance sink C capacity of soils. This study focuses on the response of the CO2 emitted to rainfall events from different land uses (i.e. forest, abandoned cultivated soils and winter cereal cultivated soils) in a representative Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystem in the central part of the Ebro basin, NE Spain (30T 4698723N 646424E). A total of 30 measurement points with the same soil type (classified as Calcisols) were selected. Soil CO2 flux was measured in situ using a portable EGM-4 CO2 analyzer PPSystems connected to a dynamic chamber system (model CFX-1, PPSystems) weekly during autumn 2016. Eleven different rainfall events were measured at least 24 hours before (n=7) and after the rainfall event (n=4). Soil water content and temperature were measured at each sampling point within the first 5 cm. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) content using a LECO RC-612. The mean SOC for forest, abandoned and cultivated soils were 2.5, 2.7 and 0.6 %, respectively. The results indicated differences in soil CO2 fluxes between land uses. The field measurements of CO2 flux show that before cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in the abandoned soils varying from 56.1 to 171.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 whereas after cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in cultivated soils ranged between 37.8 and 116.2 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 indicating the agricultural impact on CO2 fluxes. In cultivated soils, lower mean CO2 fluxes were measured after direct seeding

  4. Individual tree size inequality enhances aboveground biomass in homegarden agroforestry systems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-01-01

    Individual tree size variation, which is generally quantified by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and height in isolation or conjunction, plays a central role in ecosystem functioning in both controlled and natural environments, including forests. However, none of the studies have been conducted in homegarden agroforestry systems. In this study, aboveground biomass, stand quality, cation exchange capacity (CEC), DBH variation, and species diversity were determined across 45 homegardens in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand quality and CEC, via tree size inequality and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. The SEM accounted for 26, 8, and 1% of the variation in aboveground biomass, species diversity and DBH variation, respectively. DBH variation had the strongest positive direct effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.49), followed by the non-significant direct effect of species diversity (β=0.17), stand quality (β=0.17) and CEC (β=-0.05). There were non-significant direct effects of CEC and stand quality on DBH variation and species diversity. Stand quality and CEC had also non-significant indirect effects, via DBH variation and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. Our study revealed that aboveground biomass substantially increased with individual tree size variation only, which supports the niche complementarity mechanism. However, aboveground biomass was not considerably increased with species diversity, stand quality and soil fertility, which might be attributable to the adaptation of certain productive species to the local site conditions. Stand structure shaped by few productive species or independent of species diversity is a main determinant for the variation in aboveground biomass in the studied homegardens. Maintaining stand structure through management practices could be an effective approach for enhancing aboveground biomass in these dry

  5. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the present work was to verify the viability of briquette production using the biomass waste obtained by zero harvest system. The treatments were composed of briquetting process: 1 coffee rind; 2 mixture of branches and leaves; 3 25% of coffee rind + 75% of branches and leaves; 4 75% of coffee rind + 25% of branches and leaves; 5 50% of coffee rind + 50% of branches and leaves; 6 40% of coffee rind + 60% of branches and leaves. The mixtures were realized in v/v base, milled to produce 5-10 mm particles and were briqueted with 12% of humidity. The C-teor of briquettes produced ranged from 41.85 to 43. 84% and sulphur teor was below 0.1%. The calorific value of briquettes produced ranged from 3,359 to 4, 028 Kcal/ kg and the ashes were below 6%. The isolated use of coffee rind or branches and leaves, as well the mixtures of coffee rind with 50% or more of branches and leaves allow the production of briquettes with calorific value around 4,000 Kcal/ kg which is within the quality parameters. The briquetting of coffee crop wastes is viable and sustainable energetically.

  7. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system – combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cardinael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia  ×  nigra and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil – leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation – and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha−1 yr−1 down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha−1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to

  8. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system - combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Guenet, Bertrand; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Dupraz, Christian; Cozzi, Thomas; Chenu, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC) inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia × nigra) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil - leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation - and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha-1 yr-1) down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha-1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to store large amounts of carbon, especially at depth. Deep

  9. POTENTIAL OF CARBON STORAGE OF RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis MÃœLL. ARG. PLANTATIONS IN MONOCULTURE AND AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration potential of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations was estimated in two production systems: monoculture and agroforestry system with copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum, on farms of Florencia, El Doncello and Belén de los Andaquíes, in northeastern Colombian Amazon, department of Caquetá. The plantations were classified into three age classes, according to their productive stage: 1-7, 8-20 and > 20 years. The carbon storage was estimated using the methodology proposed by Andrade and Ibrahim (2003 and recommended by IPCC (2003. Tree carbon sinks were evaluated: above and below ground biomass, and necromass. The highest proportion of carbon storage was found in biomass, with 95 and 92% in monoculture plantations and agroforestry systems, respectively. In both types of production systems, carbon storage is a function of tree age and density. The carbon stored in monoculture plantations was higher than in agroforestry systems, due to a greater density of rubber trees in the first production system. This study confirms that rubber plantations have potential to capture and store atmospheric carbon. With this information, the issue of participating in carbon markets of the rubber production chain can be addressed, and therefore strengthen in the region’s competitiveness and sustainability.

  10. Activity of some isoenzymatic systems in stored coffee grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Saath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Agroforestry and Conventional System on Yield and Yield Components of Barley Hordeum vulgare L. (and Wheat Triticum

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    monir nazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low sustainability, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility in conventional systems are the major threats to the agricultural production systems. These threats leads researchers towards more attention to different agroforestry systems including alley cropping as a solution in different regions of the world. Agroforestry has attracted considerable attentions because of its potential to maintain or increase productivity in areas with high energy input in which large scale agricultural systems are impractical. It is often assumed that appropriate agroforestry systems can provide the essential ecological functions needed to ensure sustainability and maintain microclimatic and other favorable influences, and that such benefits may outweigh their enhanced use of water in areas of limited water availability. Evidences suggest that diversity in agroecosystems, in particular the integration of different perennial crops or trees (agroforestry, augments nutrient capture and cycling processes; processes that in turn lead to reduced reliance on nutrient or water inputs, abatement of air and water pollution, and enhancement of other ecosystem services across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Agroforestry is viewed as providing ecosystem services, has many environmental benefits and economic advantages as part of a multifunctional agroecosystem. Conventional cultivation of barley and wheat systems in Saman Region has many problems about sustainability of production, erosion of soil, yield stability and soil nutrient properties. On the other hand, planting of Almond is a good option for farmers to make orchards, in compare to Nut. Although some farmers do Agroforestry as an innovative practice, but studying the advantages of these systems and finding their rewards, because of its unique benefits in dry, poor and endangered areas, could help farmers to increase their cultivation area as they wish, particularly in Saman region. Materials and

  12. [Ants’ higher taxa as surrogates of species richness in a chronosequence of fallows, old-grown forests and agroforestry systems in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Gutiérrez, Jhonatan Andrés; Roussea, Guillaume Xavier; Andrade-Silva, Joudellys; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles

    2017-03-01

    Deforestation in Amazon forests is one of the main causes for biodiversity loss worldwide. Ants are key into the ecosystem because act like engineers; hence, the loss of ants’ biodiversity may be a guide to measure the loss of essential functions into the ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil ant’s richness and to estimate whether higher taxa levels (Subfamily and Genus) can be used as surrogates of species richness in different vegetation types (fallows, old-growth forests and agroforestry systems) in Eastern Amazon. The samples were taken in 65 areas in the Maranhão and Pará States in the period 2011-2014. The sampling scheme followed the procedure of Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF). Initially, the vegetation types were characterized according to their age and estimated species richness. Linear and exponential functions were applied to evaluate if higher taxa can be used as surrogates and correlated with the Pearson coefficient. In total, 180 species distributed in 60 genera were identified. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in intermediate fallows (88) and old secondary forest (76), and was lower in agroforestry systems (38) and mature riparian forest (35). The genus level was the best surrogate to estimate the ant’s species richness across the different vegetation types, and explained 72-97 % (P agroforestry systems may contribute in the conservation of Eastern Amazon ant community.

  13. Bound by debt: Nutmeg trees and changing relations between farmers and agents in a Moluccan agroforestry systems

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    Messalina Lovenia Salampessy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is a land management system long practiced by communities in the Moluccas. The practice is commonly known as "Dusung", where one cash crop in particular, nutmeg, is interspersed throughout farmer groves. Farmers have faced a number of challenges in recent years, especially concerning a system of debt bondage inflicting undue losses upon them. This study aims to explain the involvement of farmers within the debt bondage system, otherwise known as the tree mortgage system. We utilize a case study methodology, whereby data were collected through interviews and participant observation and results analyzed using principal agent theory. Findings highlight that nutmeg farmers, what we call the Principal, incur high risks when debt bondage is applied by an Agent that has the increasing ability to deny and change the terms of an agreement. This occurs when Agents exploit information unavailable to farmers about nutmeg marketing prospects, which weakens farmer negotiating positions. Improving institutional support for contracts in the tree mortgage system could help to ensure a more equitable arrangement, improving the terms for nutmeg farmers, meanwhile also encouraging the continued preservation of the dusung system, which has long helped to manage forest resources sustainably.

  14. Chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion effects on the cognitive function and antioxidant system of rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Renata Viana; Silva-Oliveira, Eliane Moretto; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Moraes-Santos, Tasso

    2011-10-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage consumed worldwide and its effect on health protection has been well studied throughout literature. This study investigates the effect of chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion on cognitive behavior and the antioxidant system of rat brains. The paradigms of open field and object recognition were used to assess locomotor and exploratory activities, as well as learning and memory. The antioxidant system was evaluated by determining the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content. Five groups of male rats were fed for approximately 80 days with different diets: control diet (CD), fed a control diet; 3% coffee diet (3%Co) and 6% coffee diet (6%Co), both fed a diet containing brewed coffee; 0.04% caffeine diet (0.04%Ca) and 0.08% caffeine diet (0.08%Ca), both fed a control diet supplemented with caffeine. The estimated caffeine intake was approximately 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, for the 3%Co-0.04%Ca and 6%Co-0.08%Ca treatments, respectively. At 90 days of life, the animals were subjected to the behavioral tasks and then sacrificed. The results indicated that the intake of coffee, similar to caffeine, improved long-term memory when tested with object recognition; however, this was not accompanied by an increase in locomotor and exploratory activities. In addition, chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion reduced the lipid peroxidation of brain membranes and increased the concentration of reduced-glutathione. The activities of the GR and SOD were similarly increased, but no change in GPx activity could be observed. Thus, besides improving cognitive function, our data show that chronic coffee consumption modulates the endogenous antioxidant system in the brain. Therefore, chronic coffee ingestion, through the protection of the antioxidant system, may play an important role in preventing age-associated decline in the cognitive

  15. [Effect of mixed edaphic bacterial inoculants in the early development of improved cocoa cultivars (Theobroma cacao L.) in a traditional agroforestry system of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Romero, E; Carcaño-Montiel, M G; Ramos-Prado, J M; Vázquez-Cabañas, E A; López-Reyes, L; Ricaño-Rodríguez, J

    Cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) is native from South America and it represents one of the most significant "bio-cultural" resources of Mesoamerica, since it is a region where it was domesticated and had a relevance as ritual drink and as currency in many pre-hispanic cultures until the arrival of the Spaniards who spread its use worldwide, and became it one of the most consumed commodity goods. Through this research, an alternative is proposed to address the problem of cultivars through the introduction of a wide variety of cocoa plants in traditional agroforestry systems, in synergy with the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and insoluble phosphor solubilizing edaphic bacterial consortia. Four cultivars of improved grafted cocoa plants were introduced in a traditional agroforestry plot and three fertilization treatments were applied: application of biofertilizer, application of chemical fertilizer and control. Measurements of height, stem diameter, number of leaves and branches were recorded at 2 and 12 months after planting and rhizosphere microbial populations were characterized. Growth results showed good potential for all studied cultivars and it was observed that biofertilization foresees significant effects in some of the growth indicators of cocoa plant. Thereby, plant associations in an agroforestry system could be favorable to promote fruit development and resistance to pests and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Analisis Vegetasi Sebagai Dasar Pengembangan Agroforestri di DAS Mikro Desa Tukad Sumaga, Kecamatan Gerokgak, Kabupaten Buleleng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN GEDE WIRYANTARA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetations Analysis As A Basic ForAgroforestry Development In Micro Watershed TukadSumaga Village, Gerokgak District, Buleleng Regency.Forest changed to agricultural hasconsciousness can effected many problems such as soil degradations, erosion, flora and fauna extinctions,floods, dryness, and even global environmental change. Agroforestry is one of solutions to protect thebiodiversity. The research was held at Micro Watershed Tukad Sumaga Village, Gerokgak District,Buleleng Regency which consist of intercropping agroforestry system, alley cropping agroforestry system,and the trees for soil conservations agroforestry system. The purpose of this research is to discoverbiodiversity and composition of vegetations species in each agroforestry system and also to find out theagroforestry management level at Micro Watershed Tukad Sumaga Village. The research result showsthat the biggest Important Value Index (INP in intercropping agroforestry system is in trees level bymango at 59.46%, scrubs and sapling level by teak at 80.13%, seddling level by gosh bean at 49.57%.The biggest INP in Alley Cropping Agroforestry System is in trees level by cashew at 150.33%, scrubsand saplings level by lamtoro at 95.26%, seedling level by legetan at 84,93%. The biggest INP in TheTrees for Soil Conservations Agroforestry System is in trees level by tamarind at 165,35%, %, scrubsand saplings level by india apple at 114.09%, seedling level by legetan at 83.98%. The calculations ofspecies biodiversity which as species variety, prevalent index, and domination index can separated themanagement level in each agroforestry system. The best management is Intercropping AgroforestrySystem. The second is The Trees for Soil Conservations Agroforestry System. The last is Alley CroppingAgroforestry System. The development of Intercropping Agroforestry System is needed because thissystem is the best. Monitoring, evaluations, and technical learning about forest and agricultural

  18. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of legume based swards are affected by light intensity in a Mediterranean agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giovanni Antonio; Piluzza, Giovanna; Sanna, Federico; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Sulas, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    In Mediterranean grazed woodlands, microclimate changes induced by trees influence the growth and development of the understory, but very little is known about its polyphenolic composition in relation to light intensity. We investigated the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of different legume-based swards and variations due to full sunlight and partial shade. The research was carried out in a cork oak agrosilvopastoral system in Sardinia. The highest values of DPPH reached 7 mmol TEAC 100 g -1 DW, total phenolics 67.1 g GAE kg -1 DW and total flavonoids 7.5 g CE kg -1 DW. Compared to full sunlight, partial shade reduced DPPH values by 29 and 42%, and the total phenolic content by 23 and 53% in 100% legume mixture and semi natural pasture. Twelve phenolic compounds were detected: chlorogenic acid in 80% legume mixture (partial shade) and verbascoside in pure sward of bladder clover (full sunlight) were the most abundant. Light intensity significantly affected antioxidant capacity, composition and levels of phenolic compounds. Our results provide new insights into the effects of light intensity on plant secondary metabolites from legume based swards, underlining the important functions provided by agroforestry systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in traditional agricultural and agroforestry systems in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Amorim Silva do Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the semiarid region of Brazil, inadequate management of cropping systems and low plant biomass production can contribute to reduce soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N stocks; therefore, management systems that preserve C and N must be adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in soil C and N stocks that were promoted by agroforestry (agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral and traditional agricultural systems (slash-and-burn clearing and cultivation for two and three years and to compare these systems with the natural Caatinga vegetation after 13 years of cultivation. The experiment was carried out on a typical Ortic Chromic Luvisol in the municipality of Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. Soil samples were collected (layers 0-6, 6-12, 12-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm with four replications. The plain, convex and concave landforms in each study situation were analyzed, and the total organic C, total N and densities of the soil samples were assessed. The silvopastoral system promoted the greatest long-term reductions in C and N stocks, while the agrosilvopastoral system promoted the smallest losses and therefore represents a sustainable alternative for soil C and N sequestration in these semiarid conditions. The traditional agricultural system produced reductions of 58.87 and 9.57 Mg ha-1 in the organic C and total N stocks, respectively, which suggests that this system is inadequate for these semiarid conditions. The organic C stocks were largest in the concave landform in the agrosilvopastoral system and in the plain landform in the silvopastoral system, while the total N values were highest in the concave landform in the native, agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems.

  20. Storage of soil organic carbon in coffee (Coffea arabica L. production systems in the municipality of Líbano, Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade Castañeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase in greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources has resulted in climate change, which affects all living beings. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations, in monoculture or together with timber species such as salmwood (Cordia alliodora, mitigate climate change due to fixation of atmospheric CO2 that is deposited in biomass and soils. This study was carried out in the municipality of Líbano, Tolima, Colombia with the objective of defining which of the following coffee production systems store more soil organic carbon (SOC: 1 monoculture, 2 agroforestry systems (AFS with salmwood, and 3 AFS with plantain. Farms with those systems that are the most dominant in the study zone were selected. From each system, five repetitions were identified to be analyzed with a completely randomized design. In each plot or repetition, five samples for bulk density (BD using the cylinder method and a composite sample for concentration of SOC were taken and analyzed using the Walkley and Black approach. The systems of production did not significantly (p > 0.05 affect either the BD or the concentration of SOC. However, AFS with plantain tended to have less BD than monoculture and AFS with salmwood (0.83 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.03 vs 0.92 ± 0.04 g·cm-3, respectively. These systems of production stored between 50 and 54 t·ha-1 of SOC in the top 30 cm, which indicates their capacity for climate change mitigation.

  1. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  2. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhiza in the rhizosphere of Cajeput in agroforestry system with different fertilizer management of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwi; Pudjiasmanto, B.; Purnomo, D.; Cahyani, VR

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhiza in rhizosphere of cajeput with different fertilizer management of maize. This research was conducted by observation on cajeput agroforestry system in Ponorogo that have different fertilizer management of maize: conventional management (CM), universal management (UM) and alternative management (AM1, AM2, and AM3). The result showed that the highest infection of arbuscular mycorrhiza was observed in the plot of AM3, while the lowest colonization was observed in the plot of CM. Infection of arbuscular mycorrhiza in roots cajeput from five fertilizer management, ranging from 32.64% - 63.33%. In all fertilizer management, there were eight species of arbuscular mycorrhiza which five species were Glomus genus, one species was Acaulospora genus and two species were Gigaspora genus. Glomus constrictum was the dominant species in all fertilizer management. Acaulospora favoeta was found only in the plot of AM3. Spore density varies between 150-594 / 100g of soil. The highest spore density was observed in the plot of AM3, while the lowest spore density was observed in the plot of AM1. The highest diversity index value of arbuscular mycorrhiza (Species richness and Shannon-Wiener) was observed in the plot of AM3.

  3. Agroforestry techniques in tropical countries: potential and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combe, J.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed scheme is proposed for classifying agroforestry systems on the basis of: the kinds of associated agricultural products (agrisilvicultural, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); the major function of the forest component (productive or protective); the spatial distribution of the trees (regular or irregular); and the duration of the combination (temporary or permanent). Eight important tropical agroforestry systems are described and classified according to the scheme. The potential social, economic and ecological advantages of agroforestry systems are discussed and priorities for future research suggested. (Refs. 12).

  4. Analysis and prediction of pest dynamics in an agroforestry context using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Marcela; Malard, Julien; Adamowski, Jan; Carrera, Jaime Luis; Maas, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    While it is known that climate change will impact future plant-pest population dynamics, potentially affecting crop damage, agroforestry with its enhanced biodiversity is said to reduce the outbreaks of pest insects by providing natural enemies for the control of pest populations. This premise is known in the literature as the natural enemy hypothesis and has been widely studied qualitatively. However, disagreement still exists on whether biodiversity enhancement reduces pest outbreaks, showing the need of quantitatively understanding the mechanisms behind the interactions between pests and natural enemies, also known as trophic interactions. Crop pest models that study insect population dynamics in agroforestry contexts are very rare, and pest models that take trophic interactions into account are even rarer. This may be due to the difficulty of representing complex food webs in a quantifiable model. There is therefore a need for validated food web models that allow users to predict the response of these webs to changes in climate in agroforestry systems. In this study we present Tiko'n, a Python-based software whose API allows users to rapidly build and validate trophic web models; the program uses a Bayesian inference approach to calibrate the models according to field data, allowing for the reuse of literature data from various sources and reducing the need for extensive field data collection. Tiko'n was run using coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella) and associated parasitoid data from a shaded coffee plantation, showing the mechanisms of insect population dynamics within a tri-trophic food web in an agroforestry system.

  5. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  6. Entomofauna Associated with Agroforestry Systems of Timber Species and Cacao in the Southern Region of the Maracaibo Lake Basin (Mérida, Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazón, Marina; Sánchez-Angarita, Daniel; Díaz, Francisco A; Gutiérrez, Néstor; Jaimez, Ramón

    2018-04-20

    Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. A randomized block design with two replicates was used, each block having 16 plots which included all 16 possible combinations of four native timber trees ( Cordia thaisiana , Cedrela odorata , Swietenia macrophylla , and Tabebuia rosea ) and four Criollo cacao cultivars (Porcelana, Guasare, Lobatera and Criollo Merideño). Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49,538 individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species. Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. Significant differences in insects’ assemblages were found both in parasitoid Hymenoptera and Coleoptera families associated to every shade tree, with the families Eulophidae and Lycidae being indicators for Cordia , and Chalcididae for Swietenia . The entomofauna relationship with the cacao cultivar was barely significant, although Scydmaenidae and Scarabaeidae were indicators for Lobatera and Merideño, respectively. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela odorata and Cordia

  7. Entomofauna Associated with Agroforestry Systems of Timber Species and Cacao in the Southern Region of the Maracaibo Lake Basin (Mérida, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mazón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. A randomized block design with two replicates was used, each block having 16 plots which included all 16 possible combinations of four native timber trees (Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla, and Tabebuia rosea and four Criollo cacao cultivars (Porcelana, Guasare, Lobatera and Criollo Merideño. Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49,538 individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species. Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. Significant differences in insects’ assemblages were found both in parasitoid Hymenoptera and Coleoptera families associated to every shade tree, with the families Eulophidae and Lycidae being indicators for Cordia, and Chalcididae for Swietenia. The entomofauna relationship with the cacao cultivar was barely significant, although Scydmaenidae and Scarabaeidae were indicators for Lobatera and Merideño, respectively. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela odorata

  8. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA e aspectos fisiológicos em cafeeiros cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e a pleno sol Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and physiological aspects of coffee conducted in agroflorestal system and at full sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Andrade Bonfim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em cafeeiros cultivados a pleno sol e consorciado com grevíleas em Vitória da Conquista (BA, em duas estações: seca e chuvosa, com objetivo de verificar a influência da arborização dos cafezais e da disponibilidade hídrica sobre a densidade de Fungos Micorrízicos Arbusculares (FMA e ainda relacionar tais fatores com aspectos fisiológicos do cafeeiro. O experimento foi realizado em campos de observação com dois tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste t (pThe work was performed aiming to check the influence of the agroforestry system and water availability on the density of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF, and to correlate these factors with physiological aspects of coffee. This study was conducted in a full sun coffee field, where coffee plants were associated with grevilea during dry and rainy seasons. The experiment had two treatments and six replicates, and the resulting averages were compared by a t test at 5% of probability, comparing the systems and seasons. There was a rise in spore number in the dry season. Also the rate of root colonization of AMF was higher in intercropped cultivation but it did not differ between seasons. The shading of coffee plants in dry season promoted a raise of leaf Spad index. In the rainy season the leaf water potential had higher absolute value.

  9. Simulation of the dynamic behavior of the coffee fruit-stem system using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lúcio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical harvesting can be considered an important factor to reduce the costs in coffee production and to improve the quality of the final product. Coffee harvesting machinery uses mechanical vibrations to accomplish the harvesting. Therefore, the determination of the natural frequencies of the fruit-stem systems is an essential dynamic parameter for the development of mechanized harvesting system by mechanical vibrations. The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the coffee fruit-stem systems, considering different fruit ripeness. Moreover, it was carried out a theoretical study, using the finite element three-dimensional model, based on the linear theory of elasticity, for determining the generated stress in a coffee fruit-stem system, during the harvesting process by mechanical vibration. The results showed that natural frequencies decrease as the ripeness condition of the fruit increases. Counter-phase mode shape can provide better detachment efficiency considering the stress generation on coffee fruit-stem system during the harvesting by mechanical vibrations and presented a difference greater than 40 Hz between the natural frequencies of the green and ripe fruit.

  10. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  11. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in croplands converted to walnut-based agroforestry systems and orchards in southeastern Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sen; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Yin, Changjun; Sun, Shiyou

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of agroforestry system practices on soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China. Over the last decade, a vegetation restoration project has been conducted in this area by converting cropland into tree-based agroforestry systems and orchards to combat soil erosion and degradation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in southeastern Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: walnut intercropping system (AF), walnut orchard (WO), and traditional cropland (CR). After 7 years of continual management, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50-cm depths for three treatments, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. Results showed that compared with the CR and AF treatments, WO treatment decreased both SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-50-cm soil profile. However, similar patterns of SOC and TN concentrations were observed in the AF and CR treatments across the entire profile. The SOC stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 5.42, 5.52, and 4.67 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. The calculated TN stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 0.63, 0.62, and 0.57 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. This result demonstrated that the stocks of SOC and TN in WO were clearly lower than those of AF and CR and that the walnut-based agroforestry system was more beneficial than walnut monoculture in terms of SOC and TN sequestration. Owing to the short-term intercropping practice, the changes in SOC and TN stocks were slight in AF compared with those in CR. However, a significant decrease in SOC and TN stocks was observed during the conversion of cropland to walnut orchard after 7 years of management. We also found that land use types had no significant effect on soil C/N ratio. These findings demonstrated that intercropping between walnut rows can potentially maintain

  12. TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Casas, Alejandro

    2016-07-22

    Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts. We hypothesized that biodiversity in AFS is related to that of forests types associated and the vigour of TEK and management. We conducted studies in a matrix of environments and human cultures in the Tehuacán Valley. In addition, we reviewed, systematized and compared information from other regions of Mexico and the world with comparable socio-ecological contexts in order to explore possible general patterns. Our study found from 26 % to nearly 90 % of wild plants species richness conserved in AFS, the decreasing proportion mainly associated to pressures for intensifying agricultural production and abandoning traditional techniques. Native species richness preserved in AFS is influenced by richness existing in the associated forests, but the main driver is how people preserve benefits of components and functions of ecosystems. Elements of modern agricultural production may coexist with traditional management patterns, but imposition of modern models may break possible balances. TEK influences decisions on what and how modern techniques may be advantageous for preserving biodiversity, ecosystem integrity in AFS and people's wellbeing. TEK, agroecology and other sciences may interact for maintaining and improving traditional AFS to increase biodiversity

  13. Timber tree-based contour hedgerow system on sloping acid upland soils: the use of 15N in quantifying tree-crop interaction in agroforestry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, Crispina M.; Pailagao, Charmaine; Grafia, Alfonso O.; Rivera, Faye G.; Mercado, Agustin R. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    As the population pressures in the upland increase, agroforestry is inevitably the most appropriate technology to enhance the productive and protective functions of farming systems to benefit both the people living inside and outside the watersheds in a suitable manner. Contour hedgerow is one of the agroforestry systems suitable for sloping uplands where farmers grow tree crops as hedgerows and food crops as alleycrops. Smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia have begun farming timber trees in association with food crops on infertile soils as the dominant enterprise using their own capital resources. A collaborative study between the International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF) and Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) was established to evaluate the performance of fast growing timber trees as hedgerows on subsistence cereal based farming systems, and the role of N-fixing trees as interplant in enhancing the growth of the trees as well as the cereal crops. There were 4 fast growing timber trees being compared: Acacia mangium (N-fixing), Gmelina arborea (non-N-fixing), Euclyptus deglupta (non-N-fixing), and Swietenia macrophylla (non-N-fixing). A mangium was also used as interplant to determine its influence on the growth of the non-N-fixing trees as well as to the cereal crops. Ammonium sulfate enriched with 10.12 15 N atom percent was applied in solution to the upland rice, as alleycrop, at the rate of 69 kgN/ha in the isotope subplot in 2 splits: 30 days after emergence and at panicle initiation stage. This study was conducted in acid upland soil in Claveria, Misamis Oriental. Acacia mangium grew faster compared with G. arborea, E. deglupta, while S. macrophylla grew lower. The growth of E. deglupta and G. arborea was positively affected by N-fixing interplant in low soil fertility environment. G. arborea and A. mangium produced the highest lateral pruning biomass supplying organic nutrients to the associated annual crops. The amount of

  14. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  15. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  16. Klasifikasi Sistem Agroforestry Berbasis Salak di Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Idasari; Rauf, Abdul; Rahmawaty

    2016-01-01

    Most of the salak farmers in Tapanuli Selatan District apply the agroforestry system in their farm land. This study aimed to classify agroforestry system based-salak into several types and sub-types based on their constituent components. This study employed survey methods. The results of this study showed that agroforestry system salak-based consist of agrisilvicultural type with combination of trees, plantation crops, and fruit trees (ASCkpb) and combination of trees, plantation crops, fruit...

  17. Apple based agroforestry in Dendi Woreda, Oromiya Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In agri-horticulture agroforestry approach apple trees were integrated with vegetables at ... activities incorporating their own farm resources to minimize input costs. ... Keywords: Agri-horticulture system; Apple tree adoption; Household income ...

  18. Productivity of coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.) in conversion to the organic production system

    OpenAIRE

    Malta, Marcelo Ribeiro; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Chagas, Sílvio Júlio de Rezende; Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais - EPAMIG; Guimarães, Rubens José; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Lavras, MG, to verify the productivity of coffee crop (Coffea arabica L.) in conversion to the organic production system. The experiment was set in a six-year old coffee crop of the cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 86, with spacing of 4,0 x 0,6 m, previously cultivated under the conventional system. In the organic treatments a 4 x 4 balanced lattice design with 5 replications in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme was used, besides 4 additional treatments. The f...

  19. Effect of Organic and Conventional Fertilization on the Growth and Production of Theobroma Cacao L. Under an Agroforestry System in Rivera (Huila, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faver Álvarez Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of organic fertilizing schemes on the cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. growth and production under agroforestry systems (AFS has been scarcely studied. In this sense, in Rivera (Huila-Colombia, the effect of different management strategies for amendment application in cocoa under agroforestry systems was evaluated. Four treatments were considered: i conventional fertilizing or farmer fertilizing (chemical, T1; ii Potassium sulfate (chemical, T2; iii eco-cocoa + Super 4 (ECO-S4 (organical, T3; and iv the mixture of among the treatments with potassium sulfate + eco-cocoa (SP-ECO (chemical + organical, T4. Variance analysis, Fisher test (p<0.05 and principal components analysis (PCA were used for data comparisons. For the height of cocoa plants, there was an average increase of 22.5 cm, while for stem diameter was 4.71 cm, with significant differences between the treatments. In general, an effect of the fertilizing scheme on the agronomic parameters of cocoa evaluated was found —especially for some important variables such as number of grains per pod and average weight of the grain—. There were similar parameters between the chemical and the organic treatments. This demonstrates that organic schemes of fertilizing could be an important alternative for improving cocoa production.

  20. Phosphorous fractions in soils of rubber-based agroforestry systems: Influence of season, management and stand age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenggang; Jin, Yanqiang; Liu, Changan; Tang, Jianwei; Wang, Qingwei; Xu, Mingxi

    2018-03-01

    Rubber-based agroforestry system is a vital management practice and its productivity is often controlled by soil phosphorus (P) nutrient, but little information is available on P fractions dynamics in such system. The aim of this study was to examine the seasonal, management and stand age effects on P fractions, acid phosphatase activity, microbial biomass P, other physical-chemical properties and litter and roots in four systems: 10-year-old rubber mono- (YM) and intercropping (YI) with N-fixing species (NFS), 22-year-old mono- (MM) and intercropping (MI) in Xishuangbanna, Southwestern China. Most P fractions varied seasonally at different depths, with highest values in the fog-cool season (i.e. labile P at 5-60cm, non-labile P and total P at 30-60cm). By contrast, moderately labile P varied little over time, except in MI that had lower values in the rainy season. Compared with their monoculture counterparts, YI doubled resin-P i concentration but decreased NaHCO 3 -extractable P, HCl-P i and residual-P o at the 0-30cm depth, whereas MI had hardly any changes in P species at the 60-cm depth. Surprisingly, residual-P o was enriched down to the deepest soil (30-60cm) in both YI and MI in the fog-cool season. All P fractions, except NaOH 0.1 -P i , were greatly reduced with increasing stand age. In addition to plants uptake, these changes can be explained by seasonality in soil environments (e.g. moisture, temperature, pH and microbial activity) and decomposition of litter and roots. Moreover, YI decreased labile P o stock, but MI increased moderately labile P i at the 60-cm depth across seasons. The results imply that a large amount of residual-P o exists in acidic Oxisol from China and that they can be reasonably exploited to reduce the application of P fertilizers, highlighting the importance of P o pool. Taken together, intercropping mature rubber plantation with NFS appears to be an effective way to enhance productivity while maintaining adequate soil P

  1. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  2. Agroforestry suitability analysis based upon nutrient availability mapping: a GIS based suitability mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoz Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has drawn the attention of researchers due to its capacity to reduce the poverty and land degradation, improve food security and mitigate the climate change. However, the progress in promoting agroforestry is held back due to the lack of reliable data sets and appropriate tools to accurately map and to have an adequate decision making system for agroforestry modules. Agroforestry suitability being one special form of land suitability is very pertinent to study in the current times when there is tremendous pressure on the land as it is a limited commodity. The study aims for applying the geo-spatial tools towards visualizing various soil and environmental data to reveal the trends and interrelationships and to achieve a nutrient availability and agroforestry suitability map. Using weight matrix and ranks, individual maps were developed in ArcGIS 10.1 platform to generate nutrient availability map, which was later used to develop agroforestry suitability map. Watersheds were delineated using DEM in some part of the study area and were evaluated for prioritizing it and agroforestry suitability of the watersheds were also done as per the schematic flowchart. Agroforestry suitability regions were delineated based upon the weight and ranks by integrated mapping. The total open area was identified 42.4% out of which 21.6% area was found to have high suitability towards agroforestry. Within the watersheds, 22 village points were generated for creating buffers, which were further evaluated showing its proximity to high suitable agroforestry sites thus generating tremendous opportunity to the villagers to carry out agroforestry projects locally. This research shows the capability of remote sensing in studying agroforestry practices and in estimating the prominent factors for its optimal productivity. The ongoing agroforestry projects can be potentially diverted in the areas of high suitability as an extension. The use of ancillary data in GIS

  3. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  4. Mulching as a strategy to improve soil properties and reduce soil erodibility in coffee farming systems of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stroosnijder, L.; Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    In Rwanda, mulch is applied in coffee fields to control soil erosion. The objective of this paper is to quantify the effects of different types of mulch on soil properties and soil erodibility in coffee farming systems in three different agro-ecological zones of the highlands of Rwanda. The

  5. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  6. REGIONAL DRAINWATER MANAGEMENT: SOURCE CONTROL, AGROFORESTRY, AND EVAPORATION PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Posnikoff, Judith F.; Knapp, Keith C.

    1996-01-01

    Source control is one way to address salinity and drainage problems in irrigated agriculture, and reuse of drainage flows on salt-tolerant crops or trees in agroforestry production is another. A regional model of agricultural production with drainwater reuse and disposal is developed. Deep percolation flows are controlled through choice of crop areas, irrigation systems, and applied-water quantities. Crop drainwater may by reused in agroforestry production, and residual emissions are disposed...

  7. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia monoculture system (JRMS, a wheat (Triticum aestivum monoculture system (TAMS, and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  8. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  9. Effects of habitat management on different feeding guilds of herbivorous insects in cacao agroforestry systems

    OpenAIRE

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Macedo-Reis, Luiz E.; DaRocha, Wesley D.; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractHuman pressure on natural habitats increases the importance of agroforests for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cacao traditional cultivation system (CTCS) on the conservation of the herbivorous insect community when compared with a monodominant rubber agroforest, a type of agricultural system for cacao cultivation. The insects were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: native forests, CTCS and rubber agroforests. In...

  10. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  11. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O' Neill; Harry W. Godwin

    2008-01-01

    Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial...

  12. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management

    OpenAIRE

    Gramlich, A.; Tandy, S.; Andres, C.; Chincheros Paniagua, J.; Armengot, L.; Schneider, M.; Schulin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium(Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on C...

  13. Effects of habitat management on different feeding guilds of herbivorous insects in cacao agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Samuel M A; Macedo-Reis, Luiz E; DaRocha, Wesley D; Neves, Frederico S

    2016-06-01

    Human pressure on natural habitats increases the importance of agroforests for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cacao traditional cultivation system (CTCS) on the conservation of the herbivorous insect community when compared with a monodominant rubber agroforest, a type of agricultural system for cacao cultivation. The insects were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: native forests, CTCS and rubber agroforests. In each habitat, 18 plots of 10 m2 were established, and the structural measures were collected and herbivorous insects were sampled with a Malaise/window trap. The diversity of folivorous decreased with the simplification of vegetation structure, but species composition was similar among habitats. In addition to a decrease in the availability of resources in monodominant rubber agroforests, the latex present in these systems have limited the occurrence of species that cannot circumvent latex toxicity. The diversity of sap-sucking insects was similar among habitats, but species composition was similar only in the CTCS and native forest, and it was different in the rubber agroforest. We observed turnover and a higher frequency of individuals of the family Psyllidae in the rubber agroforest. The biology and behavior of Psyllids and absence of natural enemies enable their diversity to increase when they are adapted to a new host. We observed a shift in the composition of xylophagous insects in the rubber agroforest compared to that in other habitats. Moreover, this agroforest has low species richness, but high individual abundance. Latex extraction is likely an important additional source of volatile compounds discharged into the environment, and it increases the attraction and recruitment of coleoborers to these sites. We concluded that CTCS has an herbivorous insect community with a structure similar to the community found in native forests of the region, and they present a more

  14. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  15. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes (GEC such as climate change (CC and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011, and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  16. DINAMIKA AGROFORESTRY TEGALAN DI PERBUKITAN MENOREH, KULON PROGO, DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Hani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land management in agroforestry systems requires species selection and proper silviculture. Selection of species and silvicultural treatments aimed at maintaining competition in obtaining a light, water and nutrients. Farmers choose the species based on the economical factor. This study aims to determine the composition of plant species in dry land agroforestry in Menoreh Hill, Kulon Progo District. Research done by survey method. Plot observation was divided into three level of light intensity: : a early agroforestry (light intensity >50%, b middle agroforestry, (light intensity 30-50%, c further agroforestry (light intensity <30%. Four planting plots were made as repetition, so that there were 12 plots observation. Observations and measurements of vegetation are done with census (100%. The Result show five important value index in early Agroforestry,: sengon (77.84, coconut (50.04, and cacao (25.47, tree density was 482 trees/hectare and basal area 5.48 m2/ha, in middle agroforestry were: sengon (88.15, mahogany (49.51, and clove (45.03, with tree density was 595 trees/ha, and basal area was 6.70 m2/ha, further agroforestry were: clove (72.37%, sengon (50.61, and coconut (37.02, tree density was 650 trees/ha, basal area was 6.78 m2/ha.Keywords: Composition of plant species, dry land agroforestry, Menoreh Hill

  17. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside...... the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher...... under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate...

  18. Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J; Birks, H John B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    As rates of deforestation continue to rise in many parts of the tropics, the international conservation community is faced with the challenge of finding approaches which can reduce deforestation and provide rural livelihoods in addition to conserving biodiversity. Much of modern-day conservation is motivated by a desire to conserve 'pristine nature' in protected areas, while there is growing recognition of the long-term human involvement in forest dynamics and of the importance of conservation outside protected areas. Agroforestry -- intentional management of shade trees with agricultural crops -- has the potential for providing habitats outside formally protected land, connecting nature reserves and alleviating resource-use pressure on conservation areas. Here we examine the role of agroforestry systems in maintaining species diversity and conclude that these systems can play an important role in biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes.

  19. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  20. Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, Siddig El Tayeb

    2008-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is diffraction's which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical environmental problems facing the world is one of the main causes of diffraction's. Between the years 1990 and 2005 Sudan lost about 8.8 millions hectares of forests, which represents 11%, of its forests mainly because of subsistence activities such as overgrazing, trees cutting and expansion of traditional agriculture. One of the areas that are very much affected by diffraction's is Northern Kordofan State. To rescue the situation the government of Sudan, with assistance from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and some donors, implemented a project that aimed primarily at restocking Acacia Senegal trees in Northern Kordofan State. This study is intended to explore the factors that caused differential rate of farmers' adoption rate of the Acacia Senegal based agroforestry farming system. The study data was collected from a clustered random sample of 300 farmers, through face to face interviews using a questionnaire that was pre-tested and validated. Frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It has been found that farmers' adoption of agroforestry farming system in Northern Kordofan state was significantly affected by the farmers' level of formal education, contact with extension agents, level of environmental awareness, cosmopoliteness, total area of owned land and extent of social participation. (author)

  1. Pruning cycles and nitrogen fertilization of coffee fields conducted in the “safra zero” system

    OpenAIRE

    Japiassú, Leonardo Bíscaro; Fundação Procafé; Garcia, André Luiz Alvarenga; Fundação Procafé; Guimarães, Rubens José; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA; Padilha, Lílian; Embrapa Café; Carvalho, Carlos Henrique Siqueira; Embrapa Café

    2010-01-01

    Modern, competitive and cost effective coffee production requires plants with high productivity that are more adapted to mechanical and manual harvesting. “Safra Zero” is a cultivation system designed to limit plant height and eliminate the need for expensive harvesting during years of low productivity, which usually follow years of high productivity. This system is based on pruning cycles, nitrogen fertilization and different management methods. To evaluate the “Safra Zero&...

  2. Peasant coffee in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: A critical evaluation of sustainable intensification and market integration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cristina de la Vega-Leinert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production of low-input, shaded coffee in the Los Tuxtlas UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (LTBR, Veracruz, Mexico, an economically marginalized but ecologically rich region, was strongly affected by the collapse in international prices and the reconfiguration of the Mexican coffee sector in the 1990s. This place-based study used qualitative methods to investigate local strategies to reactivate coffee cultivation and improve market integration. Ninety-five producers, processors and cooperative representatives were interviewed to: 1 characterize the different actors in the local coffee commodity chain; 2 explore how producers, organized or not, shape and are constrained by the local coffee sector, and 3 evaluate whether producers land use strategies may be compatible with conservation in the LTBR. We combine the Land Sparing and Sharing framework with the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve zonation system to conceptualize how coffee plantations can be spatially integrated in protected areas and facilitate synergies between local livelihoods and conservation. Our empirical study illustrates the complexity and dynamism of the LTBR coffee sector. It highlights the resourcefulness of producers in adapting their cultivation systems, but also the narrow maneuvering room farmers have to exploit textbook synergies between conservation and fair trade and / or certified organic markets. In principle, coffee cultivation can be expanded and intensified without affecting remaining primary forest (Land Sparing and contribute to maintain a diverse landscape matrix in productive agroforestry systems (Land Sharing. However, few producers have the means required to successfully achieve profitable and long-term market integration. Future research on sustainable land use management in, and around, protected areas needs to explicitly address local, sectoral and market dynamics as drivers of land use at the local level. Although these dynamics may create windows of opportunity

  3. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tomé, M.

    2014-01-01

    Poster Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer ...

  4. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  5. Modeling and Mapping Agroforestry Aboveground Biomass in the Brazilian Amazon Using Airborne Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi Chen; Dengsheng Lu; Michael Keller; Maiza dos-Santos; Edson Bolfe; Yunyun Feng; Changwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Agroforestry has large potential for carbon (C) sequestration while providing many economical, social, and ecological benefits via its diversified products. Airborne lidar is considered as the most accurate technology for mapping aboveground biomass (AGB) over landscape levels. However, little research in the past has been done to study AGB of agroforestry systems...

  6. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract more…

  7. Computer-based tools for decision support in agroforestry: Current state and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Ellis; G. Bentrup; Michelle M. Schoeneberger

    2004-01-01

    Successful design of agroforestry practices hinges on the ability to pull together very diverse and sometimes large sets of information (i.e., biophysical, economic and social factors), and then implementing the synthesis of this information across several spatial scales from site to landscape. Agroforestry, by its very nature, creates complex systems with impacts...

  8. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Vindas, Allan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m 2 . The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney

  9. Designing a neurofeedback device to quantify attention levels using coffee as a reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kok Suen; Lee, Jun Xiang; Lee, Poh Foong

    2018-05-09

    Work performance is closely related to one's attention level. In this study, a brain-computer interface (BCI) device suitable for office usage was chosen to quantify the individual's attention levels. A BCI system was adopted to interface brainwave signals to a coffee maker via three ascending levels of laser detectors. The preliminary test with this prototype was to characterize the attention level through the collected coffee amount. Here, the preliminary testing was comparing the correlation between the attention level and the participants' cumulative grade point average (CGPA) and scores from the 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) and the attentional control scale (ACS) using ordinal regression. It was assumed that a greater CGPA would generate a greater attention level. The generated coffee amount from the BCI system had a significant positive correlation with the CGPA (p = 0.004), mild depression (p = 0.019) and mild and extremely severe anxiety (p = 0.044 and p = 0.019, respectively) and a negative correlation with the ACS score (p = 0.042). This simple and cost-effective prototype has the potential to enable everyone to know their immediate attention level and predict the possible correlation to their mental state.

  10. Tea Polyphenols as Inhibitors of Furan Formed in the Maillard Model System and Canned Coffee Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, K H; Zhang, L; Qiao, X G; Xu, Z X

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the effects of sugars and amino acids on furan formation via the Maillard reaction in low-moisture model systems were investigated. Glucose and alanine are important furan precursors, and the effects of the heating temperature, heating time, and molar ratio of glucose to alanine on furan formation were studied in glucose/alanine model system by response surface methodology. The heating temperature greatly affected furan formation. The maximum furan concentration was obtained with a glucose-to-alanine molar ratio of 0.83:1.00, by heating at 151 °C for 41 min. Tea polyphenols effectively inhibited furan formation in the glucose/alanine model and a canned coffee model. A high inhibition rate of 42.4% ± 1.5% was obtained in the canned coffee model during sterilization procedure with addition of 84 mg (the mass fraction is 12.1%) of tea polyphenols (99%). However, the content of aromatic components in the canned coffee model was significantly reduced at the same time. This study provides evidence for a good furan inhibitor that can be used in food processing. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Impact of Organic and Conventional Systems of Coffee Farming on Soil Properties and Culturable Microbial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken with an objective of evaluating the long-term impacts of organic (ORG) and conventional (CON) methods of coffee farming on soil physical, chemical, biological, and microbial diversity. Electrical conductivity and bulk density were found to increase by 34% and 21%, respectively, in CON compared to ORG system, while water holding capacity was found decreased in both the systems. Significant increase in organic carbon was observed in ORG system. Major nutrients, nitrogen and potassium, levels showed inclination in both ORG and CON system, but the trend was much more pronounced in CON system. Phosphorus was found to increase in both ORG and CON system, but its availability was found to be more with CON system. In biological attributes, higher soil respiration and fluorescein diacetate activity were recorded in ORG system compared to CON system. Higher soil urease activity was observed in CON system, while dehydrogenase activity does not show significant differences between ORG and CON systems. ORG system was found to have higher macrofauna (31.4%), microbial population (34%), and microbial diversity indices compared to CON system. From the present study, it is accomplished that coffee soil under long-term ORG system has better soil properties compared to CON system.

  12. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coffee product Coffee Slender (Med-Eq Ltd., Tonsberg, Norway), lose an average of 2.5 to 3. ... might increase the risk of experiencing serious or life-threatening side effects such as high blood pressure, ...

  13. From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murniati,

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem, Agroforestry, Imperata cylindrica , pioneer, mycorrhizae, inter-cropping, tree architecture, biomass, functional branching analysis

    Conversion of an Imperata cylindrica ecosystem into an agroforestry

  14. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  15. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical

  16. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and 2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby

  17. Developmental contradictions in Ethiopian coffee trade system: The case of Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX)

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Elias Nahusenay

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is Africa’s biggest coffee exporter nation with deep history. Coffee discovered in Ethiopia and it continues to be pivotal for the country in many fronts till to date. The coffee linkage with Ethiopia is deep-rooted many historians believe back in 9th century coffee discovered by Kaldi, a goat herder. He discovered it after noticing coffee’s energizing effect on his goats. The word coffee itself also derived from place called ‘Kaffa’ where the trees blossomed. Coffee gradually became...

  18. Early growth of promising rubber tree clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. in an agroforestry system in Caquetá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Sterling Cuéllar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the early growth of three rubber tree clones (Hevea brasiliensis (FX 4098, FDR 5788, and control IAN 873 in four planting systems with cupuasu (Theobroma grandiflorum and banana trees (Musa AAB at two localities in Caquetá (Colombian Amazonia. A completely randomized block design with three replications and split-plot arrangement, analyzed with a general linear mixed model, was used at each locality. Total height (AT, trunk circumference (CT, canopy area (AC and leaf area index (IAF were evaluated one and two years after establishment of rubber trees. Trunk circumference was the variable most correlated with different growth indices (r ≥ 0.94. Four growth indices were strongly influenced by temporal and clonal variation and by planting system (p < 0.01. The only significant differences between the two localities were for AC (p < 0.05. System x clone interaction was significant for IAF (p < 0.01. After two years, the highest growth indices were observed in rubber tree clone FX 4098 (AT = 4.43 m; CT = 13.00 cm, AC = 4.62 m2; LAI = 1.37, and in two of the three agroforestry systems (AT ≥ 4.08 m, CT ≥ 11.43 cm, AC ≥ 4.01 m2; IAF ≥ 1.54 compared with the control system (monoculture.

  19. The role of Italian agro-forestry system in controlling the carbon dioxide and methane balance in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, G.; La Mantia, T.

    1992-01-01

    After the EEC decision to stabilize the carbon dioxide emissions by year 2000 at the 1990 level, a study has been financed by the Italian Ministry of Environment in order to define what targets could be set by the year 2005 and what strategies could be implemented in Italy in order to achieve consistent carbon dioxide reductions. The results of the research indicate the possibility for Italy to reduce the CO 2 emissions by 25% compared to the 1990 level. In this paper the options to use biomass in order to increase the sink of carbon in Italy are analyzed. The role of forestry, agricultural wastes and residues, urban wastes, energy crops and organic soil matter has been considered. In a climate stabilization scenario, it could be possible to avoid the emissions (or to capture) a yearly quantity of carbon of 18 millions of tons. The potential reduction of methane emissions from the agro-forestry sector on urban wastes disposal is also presented. (author)

  20. Agroforestry systems of the lowland alluvial valleys of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve: an evaluation of their biocultural capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Mariana; Casas, Alejandro; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Hernández-Ordoñez, Omar; Tellez, Oswaldo; Dávila, Patricia

    2015-02-19

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) are valuable production systems that allow concealing benefits provision with conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analysed AFS of the zone of alluvial valleys of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (TCV), Mexico, the most intensive agricultural systems within a region recognized for harbouring one of the most ancient agricultural experience of the New World. We hypothesized that the biodiversity conservation capacity of AFS would be directly related to traditional agricultural features and inversely related to management intensity. Agricultural practices, use frequency of machinery and chemical inputs, and proportion of forest and cultivated areas were described in 15 AFS plots in alluvial valleys of the Salado River in three villages of the region. With the information, we constructed a management intensity index and compared among plots and villages. We documented the reasons why people maintain wild plant species and traditional practices. Perennial plant species were sampled in vegetation of AFS (15 plots) and unmanaged forests (12 plots 500 m(2)) in order to compare richness, diversity and other ecological indicators in AFS and forest. In all studied sites, people combine traditional and intensive agricultural practices. Main agroforestry practices are ground terraces and borders surrounding AFS plots where people maintain vegetation. According to people, the reasons for maintaining shrubs and trees in AFS were in order of importance are: Beauty and shade provision (14% of people), fruit provision (7%), protection against strong wind, and favouring water and soil retention. We recorded 66 species of trees and shrubs in the AFS studied, 81% of them being native species that represent 38% of the perennial plant species recorded in forests sampled. Land tenure and institutions vary among sites but not influenced the actions for maintaining the vegetation cover in AFS. Plant diversity decreased with increasing

  1. FeedbackBetweenHumanActivitiesAndTerrestrialCarbonCyclesInSystemsOfShadeCoffeePro ductionInMexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Del Valle, A. E.; Perez-Samayoa, I. A.

    2007-12-01

    Coffee production in Mexico is carried out within a strong natural context. Coffee is grown under a canopy of several native and introduced tree species. This fact ensures a greater diversity of natural resources and environmental services available for local inhabitants to sustain their livelihoods. However, the lack of opportunities for coffee farmers is increasing the demand over the remaining forest areas by exacerbating non- sustainable timber extraction practices and promoting conversion of forests to pasture lands. This situation hampers the landscapes equilibrium and threatens the wellbeing of rural livelihoods. To understand the interactions between human activities and ecological functions associated with shaded coffee systems, this research has explored the extent to which socio-economic and cultural factors have influenced the use and management of natural resources sustaining coffee livelihoods. At the same time, it examines how customary patterns of resource use have induced changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle at the local level. The empirical study was carried out in a coffee-growing region in Mexico. It involved substantial fieldwork, use of satellite imagery, and participatory research methods in order to gauge a variety of biophysical and socio- economic factors, including forest cover, land use, and carbon balances, as well as, farming practices and off- farming strategies. In addition, a livelihood perspective was applied to approach the linkages between the management of natural resources, the environmental goods and services, and the socio-economic conditions in the coffee-growing region. The empirical evidence from the research marks out shade coffee systems as important supporters for broader natural systems as suppliers of environmental services. However, it also suggests that non-climatic factors might have significant impacts on the local environment and therefore on the terrestrial carbon cycle. According to the research estimations

  2. Revisiting bora fallow agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous fallow agroforestry systems play an important role in Amazonian livelihoods by providing food security, cash income, and overall risk mitigation. However, the substantial contribution of fruits, construction materials, handicraft inputs, and myriad other fallow products are not only...... observations, and free list data. The research represents an important follow-up to Denevan and Padoch’s approximately thirty-year old qualitative description of Bora fallow management in the same area. Results highlight the importance of agroforestry environments (primarily fallows) for providing well over...... %, for a total income share of 34 %. Chambira (Astrocaryum chambira) handicrafts alone contribute 16 % of household cash income (9 % of total income) in surveyed villages. When considering cash and subsistence importance, plant products harvested from agroforestry environments contribute more than double...

  3. Variabilidad espacial y diaria del contenido de humedad en el suelo en tres sistemas agroforestales Spatial and daily variability of soil moisture content in three agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rivera Peña

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En seis puntos de tres transectos (102 m paralelos (9 m en tres sistemas de uso del terreno (Quesungual menor de dos años, SAQThe objective of this study was to determine the level of soil spatial variability in an area consisting of the land uses: Quesungual slash and mulch agroforestry system with less than two years (QSMAS<2, Slash-and-burn traditional system (SB and Secondary forest (SF. Soil samples were taken in three parallel transects of 102 m in length, separated 9 meters. The profile was sampled in the depths from 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm in 6 points (09, 11 am and 05 during 9 days. Coefficient of variation for soil properties varied for bulk density (0.76 and 15.1%, organic carbon (30.4 and 54.3%, volumetric moisture (9.5 and 23.5%, sand (12.8 and 22.5% and clay (14.0 and 29.2%. The geo-statistical analysis showed that the random component of the spatial dependence was predominant over the nugget effect. The functions of semivariograms, structured for each variable were used to generate maps of interpolated contours at a fine scale. The Moran (I autocorrelation indicated that sampling ranges less than 9 m would be adequate to detect spatial structure of the volumetric moisture variable.

  4. Foliar morphometric indicators for early detection of water stress in Gmelina arborea Roxb. in agroforestry systems of Santafé de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Melo-Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf asymmetry was assessed in individuals of Gmelina arborea Roxb. growing under different soil water conditions in a dry forest agroforestry system (AFS, in Santafé de Antioquia. Leaf asymmetry was correlated with additional morphometric parameters, such as angle of insertion of the petiole in the leaf in mature individuals and the ratio of the number of teeth on the edge of the blade in juvenile leaves to propose new indicators of early stage stress. The models generated had R2 values of above 75 %, which support their use in identifying developmental instability as an early indicator of water stress. Similarly, leaf diversity was assessed between the two phenotypes of leaves (ML and JL, with conventional morphometric variables (length of the midrib, leaf perimeter, specific leaf area and dry matter, because they are characters related to leaf form and function. There were marked differences in form and behavior between the two types of leaf indicating a further source of instability evident from leaf ontogeny. The results of this work will allow the optimization of management strategies of G. arborea in the AFS as an early indicator of water stress.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta . However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta , notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  6. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  7. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Coffee Commodity Chain in the World-Economy: Arrighi's Systemic Cycles and Braudel's Layers of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of coffee in the modern world-economy, w;ing an analyticalframework synthesized from Arrighi's concept of systemic cycles of accumulation and Braudel'snotion of three levels of economic analysis: material life, the market economy, and capitalism. Ittakes the commodity chain as the unit of analysis, and argues that this choice helps to illuminatethe caw;al connections between Braudel 's three layers. The method of incorporated comparisonis w;ed to compare restructurings of the coffee commodity chain with the restructurings of thelarger world-economy during each of Arrighi 's systemic cycles.

  9. AGROFORESTRY KALIWU IN SUMBA: A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiyanto Dwi Prasetyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is one of the popular land management systems in Indonesia. The system helps the farmers to increase agricultural production, social life, and ecological stability. Traditional community in Sumba had been implementing agroforestry for a long time, known as Kaliwu and as a part of the indigenous knowledge. Kaliwu as a system is constructed socially through an intensive interaction between local people and its environment and transmitted from generation to generation. This study aimed to asses sociological aspects in behind Kaliwu practices, which allegedly become key factor the sustainability of this system socially, exist until now. The study was conducted for a year in 2009 in the Waimangura Village, Sumba Island. As social research, data was collected through social survey on 30 respondents, in-depth interview, observation, and literature review. Data was analyzed by using quantitative and qualitative procedures. The results indicated that sociologically, Kaliwu as an authentic knowledge of land management system passed on from generation to generation and constructed along with the socio-historical practices by the local people of Sumba. Social norms (adherence to traditional values, arrangement of labour systems, conflict management and social institution of farmer group became social factors that play significant role to make kaliwu sustainable.

  10. Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptive Measures for the Factors Affecting Marketing of Coffee ( Coffea robusta ... of coffee in the study area was poor pricing and marketing systems; this is as a ... of quality control and relevant information on improved coffee technologies.

  11. Integrated assessment of silvoarable agroforestry at landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    InEurope, agroforestry systems have been used mainly in traditional agriculture toprovide a variety of agricultural and tree products. However, during the last three centuries, the agricultural landscape

  12. Intercropping and agroforestry in China – Current state and trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Yu; Heerink, Nico; Jin, Shuqin; Berentsen, Paul; Zhang, Lizhen; Werf, van der Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Intercropping and agroforestry are mixed plant species cultivation systems that can potentially reduce pressure on land and water resources by generating higher crop yields and by increasing resource use efficiencies through exploitation of complementarities between species. While it is

  13. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described

  14. Yield-SAFE: A parameter-sparse process-based dynamic model for predicting resource capture, growth and production in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der W.; Keesman, K.J.; Burgess, P.J.; Graves, A.R.; Pilbeam, D.; Incoll, L.D.; Metselaar, K.; Mayus, M.M.; Stappers, R.J.J.; Keulen, van H.; Palma, J.H.N.; Dupraz, C.

    2007-01-01

    1. Silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) is the cultivation of trees and arable crops on the same parcel of land. SAF may contribute to modern diversified land use objectives in Europe, such as enhanced biodiversity and productivity, reduced leaching of nitrogen, protection against flooding and erosion,

  15. Multi-scale measurements show limited soil greenhouse GAS emissions in Kenyan smallholder coffee-dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Gonzalo, Daniel; de Neergaard, Andreas; Vaast, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    the three main cropping systems found in the area: 1) coffee (Coffea arabica L.); 2) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum); and 3) maize intercropped with beans (Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris). Within these fields, chambers were allocated on fertilised and unfertilised locations to capture spatial...

  16. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-04

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  17. POLA AGROFORESTRI DAN POTENSI KARBON KEBUN CAMPURAN DI DESA TELAGA LANGSAT KECAMATAN TAKISUNG KABUPATEN TANAH LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Prihatiningtyas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry classification will help to analyze agroforest implementation in order to optimize benefits and function for society. Carbon sequestration potential in certain area can be predicted by measuring biomass in it. In this research, we measure the carbon stock in trees. This research aimed to evaluate supporting components in mixed garden Telaga Langsat Village; observe complexity of agroforestry; and estimate the carbon stock in tree stand. Methods applied by using plot samples represent agroforest types; record the species, benefits, stand age of all components in plot; measuring Tree base area and tree crown width in plot; then describe them horizontally and vertically. Carbon stock measurement approached by using non-destructive method, applying allometric equation. Agroforestry System evaluation and the planting pattern occupied by observing the entities of afforded commodity. The Result shows that supporting components in mixed garden Telaga Langsat Village are: woody components such as rubber and mahogany; annual crops such as eggplant, corn, string bean, chili, kangkung and chives; and the pastoral components are cows and goats. Agroforestri pattern that applied in Telaga Langsat Village are agrisilviculture and silvopastoral, and included in particular agroforestry practise. Total carbon stock estimation per unit land management is 0,511 kg/m2. Pengklasifikasian agroforestri dapat membantu analisis bentuk implementasi agroforestri untuk mengoptimalkan fungsi dan manfaatnya bagi masyarakat. Potensi serapan karbon suatu kawasan dapat diprediksi dengan mengukur besarnya biomassa yang terdapat di dalamnya. Potensi yang dihitung dalam penelitian ini adalah potensi tegakan berkayu saja. Tujuan penelitian adalah melakukan evaluasi komponen penyusun dalam kebun campuran di Desa Telaga Langsat; mengetahui kompleksitas bentuk agroforestri yang dilaksanakan, dan mengetahui cadangan karbon dari tegakan yang ada di lokasi penelitian. Metode

  18. Energy and water fluxes above a cacao agroforestry system in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, indicate effects of land-use change on local climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.; Oltchev, A.; Kreilein, H.; Merklein, J.; Gravenhorst, G. [Inst. of Bioclimatology, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); June, T. [Inst. Pertanian Bogor, BIOTROP-ICSEA, Bogor (Indonesia); Rauf, A. [Univ. Tadulako, Palu (Indonesia)

    2005-04-01

    Rapid conversion of tropical rainforests to agricultural land-use types occurs throughout Indonesia and South-East Asia. We hypothesize that these changes in land-use affect the turbulent heat exchange processes between vegetation and the atmosphere, and the radiative properties of the surface, and therefore, induce an impact on local climate and water flows. As part of the international research project (SFB 552, Stability of Rainforest Margins in Indonesia, STORMA) the turbulent heat fluxes over a cacao agroforestry system (AFS) were investigated, using the eddy covariance technique. These first heat flux observations above a cacao AFS showed an unexpectedly large contribution of the sensible heat flux to the total turbulent heat transport, resulting in an averaged day-time Bowen ratio of {beta} = H/{lambda}E {approx} 1. Seasonality of {beta} did mainly coincide with the seasonal course of precipitation, which amounted to 1970 mm yr{sup -1} during the investigated period. The findings are compared to investigations at four neotropical rain forests where daytime {beta} were substantially smaller than 1. All discussed sites received similar incident short wave radiation, however, precipitation at the neotropical sites was much higher. Our first observations in a nearby Indonesian upland rain forest where precipitation was comparable to that at the cacao AFS showed an intermediate behaviour. Differences in {beta} between the cacao AFS and the tropical forests are discussed as a consequence of differing precipitation amounts, and albedo. From these comparisons we conclude that conversion from tropical forests to cacao AFS affects the energy fluxes towards increased heating of the day-time convective boundary-layer. (orig.)

  19. Disentangling the effects of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation on aboveground biomass in dry zone homegarden agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-11-15

    The biodiversity - aboveground biomass relationship has been intensively studied in recent decades. However, no consensus has been arrived to consider the interplay of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation in driving aboveground biomass, after accounting for the effects of plot size heterogeneity, soil fertility and stand quality in natural forest including agroforests. We tested the full, partial and no mediations effects of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation on aboveground biomass by employing structural equation models (SEMs) using data from 45 homegarden agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka. The full mediation effect of either species diversity or intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation was rejected, while the partial and no mediation effects were accepted. In the no mediation SEM, homegarden size had the strongest negative direct effect (β=-0.49) on aboveground biomass (R 2 =0.65), followed by strong positive direct effect of intraspecific tree size variation (β=0.32), species diversity (β=0.29) and interspecific tree size variation (β=0.28). Soil fertility had a negative direct effect on interspecific tree size variation (β=-0.31). Stand quality had a significant positive total effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.28), but homegarden size had a significant negative total effect (β=-0.62), while soil fertility had a non-significant total effect on aboveground biomass. Similar to the no mediation SEM, the partial mediation SEMs had explained almost similar variation in aboveground biomass because species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation had non-significant indirect effects on aboveground biomass via each other. Our results strongly suggest that a multilayered tree canopy structure, due to high intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation, increases light capture and efficient utilization of resources among component species, and

  20. Agroforestry: a sustainable environmental practice for carbon sequestration under the climate change scenarios-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Farhat; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Fahad, Shah; Cerdà, Artemi; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farhad, Wajid; Ehsan, Sana; Bakhat, Hafiz Faiq

    2017-04-01

    Agroforestry is a sustainable land use system with a promising potential to sequester atmospheric carbon into soil. This system of land use distinguishes itself from the other systems, such as sole crop cultivation and afforestation on croplands only through its potential to sequester higher amounts of carbon (in the above- and belowground tree biomass) than the aforementioned two systems. According to Kyoto protocol, agroforestry is recognized as an afforestation activity that, in addition to sequestering carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to soil, conserves biodiversity, protects cropland, works as a windbreak, and provides food and feed to human and livestock, pollen for honey bees, wood for fuel, and timber for shelters construction. Agroforestry is more attractive as a land use practice for the farming community worldwide instead of cropland and forestland management systems. This practice is a win-win situation for the farming community and for the environmental sustainability. This review presents agroforestry potential to counter the increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 by sequestering it in above- and belowground biomass. The role of agroforestry in climate change mitigation worldwide might be recognized to its full potential by overcoming various financial, technical, and institutional barriers. Carbon sequestration in soil by various agricultural systems can be simulated by various models but literature lacks reports on validated models to quantify the agroforestry potential for carbon sequestration.

  1. Agroforestry management in vineyards: effects on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Virginie; Nowak, Virginie; Guilland, Charles; Gontier, Laure; Dufourcq, Thierry; Guenser, Josépha; Grimaldi, Juliette; Bourgade, Emilie; Ranjard, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    Some vineyard practices (tillage, chemical weeding or pest management) are generally known to impact the environment with particular negative effects on the diversity and the abundance of soil microorganisms, and cause water and soil pollutions. In an agro-ecological context, innovative cropping systems have been developed to improve ecosystem services. Among them, agroforestry offers strategies of sustainable land management practices. It consists in intercropping trees with annual/perennial/fodder crop on the same plot but it is weakly referenced with grapevine. The present study assesses the effects of intercropped and neighbouring trees on the soil of three agroforestry vineyards, in south-western France regions. More precisely soils of the different plots were sampled and the impact of the distance to the tree or to the neighbouring trees (forest) on soil microbial community has been considered. Indigenous soil microbial communities were characterized by a metagenomic approach that consisted in extracting the molecular microbial biomass, then in calculating the soil fungi/bacteria ratio - obtained by qPCR - and then in characterizing the soil microbial diversity - through Illumina sequencing of 16S and 18S regions. Our results showed a significant difference between the soil of agroforestry vineyards and the soil sampled in the neighbouring forest in terms of microbial abundance and diversity. However, only structure and composition of bacterial community seem to be influenced by the implanted trees in the vine plots. In addition, the comparison of microbial co-occurrence networks between vine and forest plots as well as inside vine plots according to distance to the tree allow revealing a more sensitive impact of agroforestry practices. Altogether, the results we obtained build up the first references for concerning the soil of agroforestry vineyards which will be interpreted in terms of soil quality, functioning and sustainability.

  2. IDENTIFIKASI POLA AGROFORESTRI YANG DIIMPLEMENTASIKAN MASYARAKAT PADA LAAHN MARJINAL DI LAMPUNG UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The large of marginal land in North Lampung will require careful planning towards to succeeded of the rehabilitation program. The first step that should be done is research on the identification of existing agroforestry pattern. All research results that consider to community tree preferences should be put as basis on description of objectives of next steps or further development program. Nine tree-based agroforestry patterns that applied by community at those marginal land in North Lampung namely : Clonal rubber – hedge tree, Monoculture clonal rubber, Clonal rubber- mix wood/trees, rubber forest- Phitecellobium lobatum (jengkol, Palm oil as hedge grow, Monoculture palm oil, Cacao-coffee-fruits-wood, Teak-food crops, Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan – legum-food crops

  3. Identifying Gender-Sensitive Agroforestry Options: Methodological Considerations From the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is seen as a promising set of land use practices that can lead to increased ecological integrity and sustainable benefits in mountain areas. Agroforestry practices can also enhance smallholder farmers' resilience in the face of social and ecological change. There is a need for critical examination of existing practices to ensure that agroforestry recommendations for smallholder farmers are socially inclusive and grounded in local experience, knowledge, and perceptions. In this paper, we present a transdisciplinary systems approach to the identification and analysis of suitable agroforestry options, which takes into account gendered perceptions of the benefits and values of natural resources. The 4-step approach consists of an appraisal of local perceptions of the social-ecological context and dynamics, an inventory of existing agroforestry practices and species, a gendered valuation of agroforestry practices and species, and the development of locally adapted and gender-sensitive agroforestry options. In a study using this approach in the Peruvian Andes, data were collected through a combination of participatory tools for gender research and ethnobotanical methods. This paper shares lessons learned and offers recommendations for researchers and practitioners in the field of sustainable mountain development. We discuss methodological considerations in the identification of locally adapted agroforestry options, the understanding of local social-ecological systems, the facilitation of social learning processes, engagement in gender research, and the establishment of ethical research collaborations. The methodology presented here is especially recommended for the exploratory phase of any natural resource management initiative in mountain areas with high environmental and sociocultural variability.

  4. Adoption of Agroforestry Innovations in the Tropics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer

    2004-01-01

    The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental...

  5. Effect of coffee processing on ecological integrity of river systems in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legesse, W.

    2005-01-01

    Jimma Zone in Southwestern Ethiopia is known for its coffee production and the landscape is dotted by a number of coffee processing industries. In order to assess the effect of coffee wastewater on the ecological integrity of the receiving water bodies, a longitudinal study has been initiated in January 2003 and is still in progress. The preliminary results of physicochemical parameters such as BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) indicated that the coffee effluent is characterized by a remarkable polluting potential during the wet coffee-processing season. In general, a corresponding decline of bottom dwelling river fauna has been noted in many sampling locations. If business-as-usual scenario is followed, the economic gains accrued, as a result of coffee export, will be undone due to the ensuing water quality degradation and aquatic ecosystem disturbance. Although further study is required to fix the problem, provision of intervention strategies appear to be mandatory in order to avert quality deterioration of the rivers and streams flowing through the coffee producing region. (author)

  6. Emergía de tres sistemas agroforestales en el sur del municipio de Lempira, Honduras Emergy of tree agroforestry systems in southern Lempira, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    óscar I. Ferreira C.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron el uso de recursos y la sostenibilidad de tres sistemas agroforestales (bosque secundario- BS, tala y quema-TQ y sistema conservacionista Quesungual-SAQ. Se utilizaron datos de 15 parcelas de 200 m² ubicadas entre 14° 05' N y 88° 30' W y transformicidades reportadas en otros estudios. Los mayores valores de emergía se presentaron en la variable Lluvia (1.35E15 sej/ha por año y las mayores diferencias de emergía entre sistemas se observaron en suelo erosionado, especialmente en TQ, BS y SAQ tuvieron mayor Razón de Carga Ambiental que TQ (0.63, 0.14 y 0.02, respectivamente. El sistema TQ presenta el valor más alto del índice de Huella Ecológica seguido por SAQ y BS. El índice de Sostenibilidad de Emergía del sistema TQ fue 34.8, el de SAQ = 135.6 y el de BS = 4123.8, con mayores valores de sostenibilidad en el SAQ y el BS, lo cual indica que son sistemas que favorecen el uso de recursos renovables y locales.Resource use and sustainability of three agroforestry systems (Secondary Woods - BS; Fell and Burn - TQ; and Quesungal Conservation mode - SAQ were evaluated by analyzing data from fifteen 200 m² plots (14° 05' N; 88° 30' W, making use of transformity values reported in other related studies. The highest emergy values were observed for the variable rain (1.35E15 sej/ha per year; and the largest emergy differences were found in eroded soils, especially those of TQ. BS and SAQ exhibited a greater Environmental Load Ratio than TQ (0.63, 0.14 and 0.02, respectively. TQ showed the largest Ecological Footprint Index value, followed by SAQ and BS. Emergy Sustainability Index for TQ was 34.8, whereas SAQ and BS reached respective values of 135.6 and 4,123.8. The latter two data, as compared to the former, reveal how these systems (SAQ and BS favor the use of local renewable resources.

  7. Evaluation of a treatment system type septic tank - filter anaerobic of upward flow for the residual waters of the ecological benefit of the coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez C, Jose Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    Colombia is the first country in the production of soft coffee in the world. The benefit for humid way it makes that this quality of coffee is obtained; however, the high consumption of water in the process and the later discharge to the superficial or underground sources, they have generated an environmental problem of great magnitude. Also, the sources of water that they have been contaminated with the discharges of the liquid waste that come from benefit of coffee they present, among other, serious inconveniences to be used as supplying sources of drinkable water. In time of crop, the coffee areas and their superficial sources of water usually register high indexes of contamination like consequence of the discharges of residual waters that come from the benefit of the coffee. In the Departments of Quindio, Valle, Caldas, Antioquia, etc., they have been come executing investigations of the residuals treatment that are derived of the pulp removal of the coffee (via humid), for anaerobic methods with satisfactory results. This project had the collaboration of the Departmental Committee of Coffee of Antioquia and the Environmental Engineering of the Antioquia University and it is formulated toward the evaluation of a Anaerobic filter of Ascendant flow, FAFA, preceded of a septic tank (biological sedimentation), as a treatment system of the coffee residual waters, with a waste native of a ecological benefit area. The obtained results were satisfactory although the generated waste is very intermittent and in times that are not of coffee crop it doesn't take place; what hinders more the application of biological systems for its treatment

  8. Ecosystem services in smallholder coffee farming systems: a case study in Uganda using chemical soil indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Walther; Mentler, Axel; Okalany, Emmanuel; Probst, Lorenz; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Farmers in coffee producing countries may not be aware of the economic, social and ecological benefits available through organic agriculture. At a local, regional and global scale, smallholder coffee farmers can discover that organic production methods are linked to provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting ecosystem services. It is assumed that organic agriculture has a significant influence on soil parameters, and by association, on ecosystem services. Differences between farming sy...

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A.; Rio, J.A. del

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  11. Relationship Between Soil Characteristics and Rate of Soil Loss on Coffee Base-Farming System at Sumberjaya, West Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    DARIAH, AI; AGUS, F; ARSYAD, S; SUDARSONO,; MASWAR,

    2003-01-01

    The current public perception concerning land use change is, whenever forest is converted to agricultural land, the forest functions would drasticaly decrease. Studies have shown that soil loss in coffee based systems varied widely and it could be much lower than the tolerable soil loss level, depending on soil properties. This research was conducted to determine the dominant factors of soil properties in influencing soil loss. This analysis was based on data collected from a 3-site (Laksana,...

  12. Carbon sink potential of multistrata agroforestry systems at Atlantic Rain Forest Potencial de sistemas agroflorestais multiestrata para sequestro de carbono em áreas de ocorrência de Floresta Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Maranhão Froufe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Carbon storage of agroforestry systems, regenerated areas, conventional agriculture and pasture was evaluated at Alto Ribeira Valley region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in different compartments of Land-use systems (LUS. In soil, classified as Entisols and Inceptisols, we found similarities among all LUS, dued to their low contents of organic carbon, and similar values of bulk density. The total carbon stocked on land-use systems, greater amounts were determined on regenerated areas (115.78 Mg ha-1, followed by agroforestry systems (75.38 Mg ha-1, agriculture (47.07 Mg ha-1, and pasture (36.01 Mg ha-1. Despite their conservative characteristic, the silvicultural practices of multistrata agroforestry systems have to be improved for forest production and carbon sequestration.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.143

    Foi avaliado o estoque de carbono no solo, serapilheira, biomassa arbórea e biomassa herbácea de SAFs multiestratos, em comparação a capoeiras em diferentes estágios de regeneração, sistemas agrícolas convencionais e pastagem, todos na região do Alto Vale do Ribeira, SP. Nos Neossolos e Cambissolos, com baixos teores de carbono orgânico e similaridade dos valores de densidade aparente, as capoeiras contribuíram com 115,78 Mg ha-1 de carbono total estocado, seguidas dos SAFs (75,37 Mg ha-1, das áreas agrícolas (47,07 Mg ha-1 e das pastagens (36,01 Mg ha-1. Apesar do grande potencial de sequestro de carbono dos SAFs, há necessidade de melhoria em suas práticas silviculturais.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.143

  13. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  14. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  15. Eco-sustainable systems based on poly(lactic acid), diatomite and coffee grounds extract for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Mori, Stefano; Cherubini, Valeria; Nanni, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    In the food packaging sector many efforts have been (and are) devoted to the development of new materials in order to reply to an urgent market demand for green and eco-sustainable products. Particularly a lot of attention is currently devoted both to the use of compostable and biobased polymers as innovative and promising alternative to the currently used petrochemical derived polymers, and to the re-use of waste materials coming from agriculture and food industry. In this work, multifunctional eco-sustainable systems, based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as biopolymeric matrix, diatomaceous earth as reinforcing filler and spent coffee grounds extract as oxygen scavenger, were produced for the first time, in order to provide a simultaneous improvement of mechanical and gas barrier properties. The influence of the diatomite and the spent coffee grounds extract on the microstructural, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of the produced films was deeply investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniaxial tensile tests, O 2 permeabilimetry measurements. An improvement of both mechanical and oxygen barrier properties was recorded for systems characterised by the co-presence of diatomite and coffee grounds extract, suggesting a possible synergic effect of the two additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  18. Soybean supplementation increases the resilience of microbial and nematode communities in soil to extreme rainfall in an agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Pan, Kaiwen; Li, Zilong; Wang, Sizhong; Tariq, Akash; Olatunji, Olusanya Abiodun; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Weiyu; Wu, Xiaogang

    2018-06-01

    A current challenge for ecological research in agriculture is to identify ways in which to improve the resilience of the soil food web to extreme climate events, such as severe rainfall. Plant species composition influence soil biota communities differently, which might affect the recovery of soil food web after extreme rainfall. We compared the effects of rainfall stress up on the soil microbial food web in three planting systems: a monoculture of the focal species Zanthoxylum bungeanum and mixed cultures of Z. bungeanum and Medicago sativa or Z. bungeanum and Glycine max. We tested the effect of the presence of a legume on the recovery of trophic interactions between microorganisms and nematodes after extreme rainfall. Our results indicated that all chemical properties of the soil recovered to control levels (normal rainfall) in the three planting systems 45 days after exposure to extreme rain. However, on day 45, the bulk microbial community differed from controls in the monoculture treatment, but not in the two mixed planting treatments. The nematode community did not fully recover in the monoculture or Z. bungeanum and M. sativa treatments, while nematode populations in the combined Z. bungeanum and G. max treatment were indistinguishable from controls. G. max performed better than M. sativa in terms of increasing the resilience of microbial and nematode communities to extreme rainfall. Soil microbial biomass and nematode density were positively correlated with the available carbon and nitrogen content in soil, demonstrating a link between soil health and biological properties. This study demonstrated that certain leguminous plants can stabilize the soil food web via interactions with soil biota communities after extreme rainfall. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic profitability in conventional and irrigated coffee production systems in three municipalities in the Marilia region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Nogueira Turco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of coffee cultivation, with a focus on the distinction between conventional and irrigated coffee production systems. For the development of the study, the various productive systems were delineated from the data provided by a sample of producers to generate a matrix of average technical coefficients. The methodology used to estimate the operating cost of production is the one used by the Instituto de Economia Agrícola (IEA. Profitability indicators were also evaluated. Results indicated that the effective operational cost (EOC incurred in the irrigated production system is higher than that in the conventional system. As regards the cost composition, in the conventional coffee production system, the largest cost incurred is on fertilizers among all inputs, whereas in the irrigated production system, the largest cost incurred is on machinery and equipment that are mainly used in harvesting, for the period 2013-2015. Profitability index of the conventional coffee production system in 2015 was 44.8%, and that of the drip irrigated production system was 49.7%. In 2014, profitability rates were negative for both the conventional (-13.9% and irrigated coffee production systems (-8.6%. The most preferable choice was found to be the irrigated production system, as it allows reducing the risk of loss in production during prolonged periods of water shortage as well as greater yields due to a larger production of grains.

  20. Firewood deficit in coffee communities of Chenalhó, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ramírez López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Firewood is the main energy source for many indigenous communities in Mexico. We studied the relationship between consumption and availability of firewood in a group of coffee producers and describe their strategies developed to meet the shortfall in supply of firewood in eight coffee communities of Chenalho, Chiapas. The analysis included participatory workshops, interviews, direct measurement of consumption, collection and botanical identification of plant material of species used for firewood. The consumption of firewood varied between 3.7 ± 1.5 to 3.9 ± 2.7 kg person -1 days-1. In general, families with more members optimize the use of fuel to reduce the rate of consumption per capita, families with 10 to 12 members take up to 55% less in relation to families of 2-4 people. The loss of original vegetation cover has resulted in a dearth of species traditionally used for firewood (eg., oaks as now used species from agroforestry systems to meet the demand for firewood. Actions to reduce consumption are limited to keep the fire off when not in use in food preparation and use of devices to reduce the time of preparation of “tortillas”. Although some families have adopted theuse of saving stoves as a strategy to reduce consumption found not found significant differences (p> 0.05 in relation to consumption using the traditional stove (4.1 ± 1.7 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5 kg person-1 days-1, respectively. Although the coffeeplantations are ongoing source of supply of firewood, they do not meet the demands, so that some families must buy investing $1631 ± 1203 Mexican pesos yearly. It is envisaged that the firewood deficit will worsen in coming years giventhe increase in population density, the floristic impoverishment, continued deforestation and forest fragmentation. There is low potential for wood energy plantations in current areas of coffee production, while they do not outweigh the economic benefits obtained from the coffee.

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on research methodologies and applications for Pacific Island agroforestry; July 16-20, 1990; Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Raynor; Roger R. Bay

    1993-01-01

    Includes 19 papers presented at the workshop, covering such topics as sampling techniques and statistical considerations, indigenous agricultural and agroforestry systems, crop testing and evaluation, and agroforestry practices in the Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Palau, and American Samoa.

  2. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non

  3. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non-agricultural income

  4. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  5. A renewed perspective on agroforestry concepts and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquebiau, E F

    2000-11-01

    Agroforestry, the association of trees with farming practices, is progressively becoming a recognized land-use discipline. However, it is still perceived by some scientists, technicians and farmers as a sort of environmental fashion which does not deserve credit. The peculiar history of agroforestry and the complex relationships between agriculture and forestry explain some misunderstandings about the concepts and classification of agroforestry and reveal that, contrarily to common perception, agroforestry is closer to agriculture than to forestry. Based on field experience from several countries, a structural classification of agroforestry into six simple categories is proposed: crops under tree cover, agroforests, agroforestry in a linear arrangement, animal agroforestry, sequential agroforestry and minor agroforestry techniques. It is argued that this pragmatic classification encompasses all major agroforestry associations and allows simultaneous agroforestry to be clearly differentiated from sequential agroforestry, two categories showing contrasting ecological tree-crop interactions. It can also contribute to a betterment of the image of agroforestry and lead to a simplification of its definition.

  6. Soil health indicators: A case study with smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Pohl, Walther; Okalany, Emmanuel; Probst, Lorenz; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Schomakers, Jasmin

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to determine soil health indicators of 46 coffee smallholder farmers in the area of Mbale, Mount Elgon region (1200m ~ 1900m) in the southeast of Uganda. Forty of these farmers are working under an organic farmers association and are certified. They are compared to six conventional coffee production systems. The organic farms are agroforestry systems, whereas the conventional coffee farms have nearly no shading trees. Topsoil and subsoil samples, in a depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm were collected from each farm and analyzed. The following parameters were determined: pH (H2O), electric conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4) , sulfate (SO4) carbonate, dissolved total nitrogen (TN), plant available phosphorus (PO4 CAL), plant available potassium (K CAL) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These parameters were used as indicators for soil health. A set of 33 quantitative and qualitative indicators was exclusively developed for coffee farmers to best describe a functioning ecosystem through social, economic and ecological indicators. These ecosystem-indicators were assessed through a questionnaire, carried out parallel to the soil sampling and further transformed into a scoring matrix where a scoring system from 0 to 100 points was used to normalize the collected data. There is a significant difference between the soil health indicators of organic and conventional coffee producers. The soil samples of conventional farms show higher pH values than those of organic farming systems referring to high turnover rates of the organic material. DOC release is on average higher in organic production systems. A major difference in the system is the higher plant available phosphate content, as well as a higher CEC in organic systems, which is due to the high organic matter input. The soil health indicator systems allowed to differentiate and to evaluate organic farms. Outlook Through the different management

  7. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  8. LOCAL COMMUNITY’S ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN THE SELECTION OF SHADING TREESFOR TRADITIONAL AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM (NUTMEG “DUSUNG” IN AMBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messalina Lovenia Salampessy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Local ecological knowledge is closely linked to decision-making process for planting tree. The aims of this study are to describe and explain local community’s decision-making process in the selection of shading trees on their lands according to their understanding and knowledge. This study used case study approach. Data was collected through in-depth interviews and observations. The results of the study showed that to manage traditional agroforestry, the community planted nutmeg (Myristica fragrans as the main crop species and selected the covering trees, such as walnuts (Canarium sp. and durian (Durio sp.. The reasons in selecting shading trees were as follows: the suitability of biophysical condition; supporting nutmeg growth; ease of maintenance and harvesting activities; parental inheritance; yield diversity; and ease of marketing activities. Learning from the study, the government and relevant stakeholders are expected touse local ecological knowledge to support the development of community forestry.

  9. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  10. Prospect of Milicia excelsa (Welw. C. Berg for Multi-Tree Species Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ossai Onefeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The population of most of our economically indigenous tree species in Nigeria is declining. Human activities and agricultural practices have been the ultimate contributors to this decrease. In order to ameliorate the conflict between agriculture and forestry, agroforestry was introduced. However, most of the practiced agroforestry is based on single tree species. Agroforestry practiced using single tree species have been reported to be ecologically staggered and therefore it is pertinent that phytosociology of trees with agroforestry potential is studied in order to improve the sustainability of human livelihood. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the University of Ibadan’s campus forest. The data were collected on Milicia excelsa (Welw. C. Berg by enumerating the tree species and also by identifying and enumerating the tree species associated with the subject tree (Milicia excelsa. Statistical analysis was done using percentages, Chi-square and charts. Results: A total of 49 individual Milicia excelsa were encountered in the study area. The results show 31 woody tree species associated with Milicia excelsa. Of all the associates Azadirachta indica A.Juss. happened to be the best one, having an average distance of 5.4 m to the subject tree. The sex ratio of Milicia excelsa was discovered to be approximately 1:1. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results of this research it may be concluded that Milicia excelsa has the prospect of being used in agroforestry in multi-tree species systems.

  11. Traditional agroforestry practices in Atlantic Nicaragua promote biodiversity and natural resource diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, S.; Roddy, A. B.; Williams, N. E.; Kramer, D.; Stevens, K.; Allison, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of forest to pasture and other agricultural uses has increased interest in the role that small-scale agroforestry systems can play in linking sustainable agriculture to biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. Complementing the provisioning of natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems tend to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. We studied the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforest, and secondary forest: three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity. No significant relationships were found between plant diversity and the soil properties assessed; however higher species richness and phylodiversity was positively correlated with natural resource

  12. The Impact of Coffee on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Quantificação de erosão em sistemas agroflorais e convencionais na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Evaluation of erosion under agroforestry and conventional systems in Zona de Mata de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silveira Franco

    2002-11-01

    de 1998/1999. As perdas totais de solo, carbono orgânico e nutrientes dos sistemas convencionais, estimadas para um ano, foram significativamente maiores que as dos sistemas agroflorestais, o que indica a maior sustentabilidade ecológica destes últimos e comprova que eles são capazes de conservar os recursos naturais, evidenciando a importância da conversão dos sistemas convencionais em sistemas ecologicamente sustentáveis.Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais is characterized by steep slopes, weathered soils with low natural fertility and precipitation capable to sustain a forest vegetation. Most of the land owners are small farmers, who suffer the consequences of modern agricultural technology, which demands intensive use of the land, causing soil, water and nutrient losses due to erosion. One of the alternatives proposed for the reduction of the erosive losses is to implement alternative agroforestry systems. The objective of this study is to compare losses due to erosion in agroforestry systems established in small farms under conventional systems. The systems were established as experimental units of observation under the existing environmental conditions, using participatory methodologies. It was difficult to quantify erosion using conventional methodologies. The management dynamics used by the farmers hinders the use of methods that require permanent equipment. Besides, methods demanding isolation of sample areas cause border effects that disturb the results, when compared with the open systems used by the farmers. Thus, a water and soil collector was developed to overcome these limitations. The equipment is composed by a "board" that is inserted in the soil, coupled to a mobile gutter that sustains a bag. The water and the soil collected in the bag are quantified and analyzed. This device was installed in 25 observation units, 14 under conventional and 11 under agroforestry systems. The energy of the erosive events was calculated from pluviograms to estimate

  14. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  15. What every dentist should know about coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging.

  16. Agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems: an alternative to achieve food security and environmental protection; Producción de agroenergía a partir de biomasa en sistemas agroforestales integrados: una alternativa para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la protección ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suárez, J.; Martín, G. J., E-mail: jesus.suarez@indio.atenas.inf.cu [Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey» Central España Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to offer considerations about agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems. At present, worldwide, marked by a group of hazards that threaten human existence, there is a challenge mainly in the rural context: how can the coexistence of agroenergy, food security and environmental protection be achieved?, in the presence of climate changes, environmental degradation, food crises and the growing biofuels vs food contradiction, generated by a senseless policy for obtaining first-generation agrofuels from large extensions of food monocrops, which is morally rejectable. Biofuels are also considered an ecological alternative to fossil fuels, because of their reduction capacity in the emission of greenhouse gasses and because they promote the development of rural communities in southern countries; this is enhanced in integrated agroforestry systems, in which biofuels, of first as well as second generation, can be produced, especially with the application of the concept of biorefinery which allows converting biomass into many products, which total added value can be higher than the one generated by fossil fuels. International projects, which promote integrated and sustainable food and energy production in the context of agroforestry integrated systems, at local scale, contribute to this purpose. The authors consider that the execution of projects and experiences about agroenergy has the main objective of achieving energetic sustainability and food security at local scale, in rural areas, taking into account environmental protection. (author)

  17. Efficiency of removal of bod5 and ss in sedimentation tanks and filters in wastewater treatment systems for coffee bean (Coffea arabica processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available n order to evaluate the current operating conditions of wastewater treatment systems of small scale coffee growers in the south of Huila a lab-scale prototype (S 1:25 was constructed. It was composed of both a sediment tank and a filter fit in series, simulating similar operating conditions used by coffee producers. Removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD5 and suspended solids (SS was performed in wastewater from coffee bean processing. A 23 factorial experimental design for the evaluation of the type of sedimentation tank, type of filter and hydraulic retention time (HRT in the sedimentation tank was employed. The results showed high removal efficiencies of suspended solid concentrations (more than 95%, and low removal efficiencies in BOD5 (about 20%. The combination of tank type 1 (square with a lower area, filter type 1 (upflow anaerobic filter – UAF and HRT of 30 hours had the highest removal efficiency.

  18. Análise econômica de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia ocidental, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO Economic analysis of agroforestry systems in eastern Amazonia, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise financeira e a simulação de risco de investimento em sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs implantados em 1987, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Rondônia, localizado no município de Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. A análise financeira foi realizada mediante os métodos de avaliação de projetos florestais, e para a análise de risco utilizou-se a técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, mediante o programa @RISK. Entre os arranjos testados, o SAF T1 Castanha-do-brasil-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu apresentou o melhor desempenho financeiro em relação aos SAFs T2 Freijó-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu e T3 Pupunha-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu . Os custos com tratos culturais e colheita representaram mais de 70% da composição dos custos totais, e a participação da mão-de-obra foi superior a 50% nas fases de preparo da área e de manutenção (tratos culturais dos SAFs. A simulação da análise de risco indicou que as variáveis que afetaram o Valor Presente Líquido no Horizonte Infinito (VPL*, de acordo com a ordem de importância (R, foram: taxa de desconto, preço do fruto de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, custo de colheita, preço da madeira de castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa e o custo de tratos culturais. Apesar do alto custo de implantação e manutenção, o SAF T1 apresentou uma probabilidade de 15% de os valores do Valor Presente Líquido (VPL se concentrarem em torno de R$35.000 ha-1.ano-1.The objective of this study was to carry out the financial analysis and the risk of investment simulation in agroforestry systems (AFSs established in 1987 in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Rondônia, located in the County of Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. Financial analysis was made through the evaluation of results from the forestry enterprise evaluation methods, and the risk analysis was carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation technique by @RISK software. Among the arrangements

  19. Adaptive capacity and social-environmental change: theoretical and operational modeling of smallholder coffee systems response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A; Monterde Diaz, Rafael; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  20. Adaptive Capacity and Social-Environmental Change: Theoretical and Operational Modeling of Smallholder Coffee Systems Response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Diaz, Rafael Monterde; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  1. Tree culture of smallholder farmers practicing agroforestry in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the types of agroforestry system that exist in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia in order to characterize the differences in their basic structure and associated crop plant diversity. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisal, field observation and focus...

  2. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  3. An overview of palms in SE Asian Agroforestry and home gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    Throughout SE Asia palms constitute an important component in agroforestry systems and home gardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on their physical or nutritional properties. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products...

  4. Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiema, A.

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry parkland in semi-arid West Africa is a rural land use system, which allows farmers to grow annual crops in combination with useful trees. In addition to cereals, tree products such as vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, firewood, fodder, and medicines are obtained from the parklands.

  5. Projecting the bird community response resulting from the adoption of shelterbelt agroforestry practices in Eastern Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A., II Pierce; D. T. Farrand; W. B. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Evolving agricultural policies have influenced management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for many species of wildlife. Enhancing wildlife habitat has become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus, there is renewed focus on field borders and the use of shelterbelt agroforestry systems to achieve conservation goals in...

  6. Valuing soil conservation benefits of agroforestry: contour hedgerows in the Eastern Visayas, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhrendu Patanayak; D. Evan Mercer

    1998-01-01

    Trecs can he considered as investments made by economic agents to prevent depreciation of natural assets such as stocks of top soil and water. In agroforestq systems farmers use trees in this manner by deliberately combining them with agricultural crops on the same unit of land. Although advocates of agroforestry have asserted that soil conservation is one of its...

  7. Knowledge gaps and research needs concerning agroforestry's contribution to sustainable development goals in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbow, C.; Noordwijk, van M.; Prabhu, R.; Simons, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses the role of agroforestry in the links between food security and agricultural sustainability in Africa. We illustrate that the products and services flowing from the integration of trees within farming systems can contribute to food security, farmer livelihoods and environmental

  8. Methodological approach for the assessment of enviromental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Mayus, M.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Silvoarable agroforestry, the deliberate combined use of trees and arable crops on the same area of land, has been proposed in order to improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems in Europe. Based on existing models and algorithms, we developed a method to predict the environmental

  9. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  10. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  11. Coffee Production in Kavre and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Kumar Karki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea spp is an important and emerging cash crop having potential to provide farmers employment and income generation opportunities. This crop is well adapted to the climatic conditions of mid-hills of Nepal. Thus, majority of the farmers are attracted towards cultivation of coffee because of demands in national and international market. Coffee is now becoming integral part of farming system in rural areas. However, information on performance of coffee and farmers response has not been well documented. Therefore, we undertook the present work to analyze demography, ethnicity, household occupation, literacy status, average land holding, coffee cultivation area, livelihood and sources of income of coffee growers, production and productivity, pricing, cropping pattern of the coffee and problesm faced by them in mid hill district of Kavrepalanchowk (hereafter ‘Kavre’ and Lalitpur Districts. All the samples were taken randomly and selected from coffee producing cooperative of Kavre and Lalitpur. Our analysis showed that the male farmer dominant over female on adopting coffee cultivation in both districts with higher value in Kavre. Brahmin and Chetri ethnic communities were in majority over others in adopting the coffee cultivation. Literate farmers were more dominant over illiterates on adopting the coffee cultivation, The mean land holding was less, ranging from 0.15 to 2.30 ha for coffee cultivation, the history of coffee cultivation in Kavre showed that highest number of farmers were engaged in coffee farming from last 16 years. The mean yield of fresh cherry was 1027.20 kg/ha in Kavre, while it was 1849.36 kg/ha in Lalitpur. The study revealed that majority of the coffee plantations were between 6-10 years old. The major problems facing by coffee farmers were diseases spread, lack of irrigation facility and drying of plants. Despite of that the coffee farming was one of the rapidly emerging occupations among the farmers in both

  12. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  13. Shade tree diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems: implications for REDD+ implementation in a West African cacao landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoe, Evans; Asante, Winston; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Bosu, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa. Biomass of cacao and shade trees was determined using allometric equations. One thousand four hundred and one (1401) shade trees comprising 109 species from 33 families were recorded. Total number of species ranged from 34 to 49. Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniacea) was the most frequently occurring specie and constituted 43.2 % of all shade trees. The most predominant families were Sterculiaceae and Moraceae (10 species each), followed by Meliaceae and Mimosaceae (8 species each) and Caesalpiniacaea (6 species). Shannon diversity indices (H', H max and J') and species richness were low compared to other similar studies. Shade tree densities ranged from 16.2 ± 3.0 to 22.8 ± 1.7 stems ha -1 and differed significantly between sites. Carbon stocks of shade trees differed between sites but were similar in cacao trees. The average C stock in cacao trees was 7.45 ± 0.41 Mg C ha -1 compared with 8.32 ± 1.15 Mg C ha -1 in the shade trees. Cacao landscapes in Ghana have the potential of contributing to forest carbon stocks enhancement by increasing the stocking density of shade trees to recommended levels.

  14. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Household surveys were conducted in the three administrative cells ... In order to be more concise, only those villages (settlements) within 5-10 km radius .... Market. 3. 1.9. Firewood collection from public land consumed a lot of time from ... in order to assess the extent of agroforestry practice so as to guide in planning.

  15. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels.

  16. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  17. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  18. A systematic map of ecosystem services assessments around European agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    the knowledge field and provide the first systematic synthesis of ecosystem services research in relation to European agroforestry. We reviewed 71 scientific publications from studies conducted in farmland and forest ecosystems with various types of agroforestry management. Each publication was systematically......, typical clusters of similar research approaches were identified. The results show that ecosystem service assessment of European agroforestry is currently focused on the spatially extensive wood pastures in the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and Continental agricultural mosaic landscapes. A specific emphasis has...

  19. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  20. Business Process Reengineering of Sustainable Teak Forest at Agroforestry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alkaff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest destruction both in the form of deforestation and degradation continues. Forest management on the basis of partnership with the community is also one of forest management methods to tackle deforestation. Agroforestry company has a commitment to support legal teak supplies and support teak forest afforestation. Plant breeding efforts were being undertaken all national agroforestry company and implemented in cooperation with BPPT as a partner to obtain superior teak plants. A problem in producing a superior teak seedling is the high cost of seed production. Because of this, teak seedlings produced. Materials used for the study were obtained from questionnaires carried out by employees. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, structured equation model and value stream analysis tools. The results reveal that the main factors affecting the production process of teak seedlings are transportation, process, human, material and machine. The improvement of production system teak seedlings will be applied in the following order of priority: transportation with 60.8% influential level, motion with 49.5% effective level, defect with 3.8% influential level, and inventory with 2.5% influential level.

  1. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  2. Mirmecofauna asociada con sistemas agroforestales en el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano en Tabasco, México Mirmecofauna associated with agroforestry systems in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A. González-Valdivia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la riqueza, la abundancia y la distribución de hormigas como indicadores para monitoreo ecológico en los sistemas agroforestales en 3 regiones dentro del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano en Tabasco, México. Los sistemas agroforestales (SAF analizados fueron de árboles en linderos (AL y de árboles dispersos en potreros (ADP. El estudio establece una línea de base para evaluar el estado de conservación de este grupo biológico en SAF de las regiones prioritarias para el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano (municipios de Huimanguillo, Tacotalpa y Tenosique. Se recolectaron 52 792 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 131 especies, asignadas a 7 subfamilias. Se presentan 32 especies como nuevos registros y 7 morfoespecies catalogadas como affinis para Tabasco. La riqueza total para ADP consistió en 16 (±6 especies en Tenosique, 19 (±6 en Huimanguillo y 20 (±4 en Tacotalpa. La riqueza de especies para AL fue de 20 (±5 especies en Tenosique, 21 (±5 en Huimanguillo y 21 (±4 en Tacotalpa. La diversidad de la mirmecofauna en ADP fue de 1.52 (±0.36 en Tenosique, 0.84 (±0.49 en Huimanguillo y de 1.35 (±0.44 en Tacotalpa. La diversidad en AL se estimó en 1.87 (±0.36 en Tenosique, 1.06 (±0.55 en Huimanguillo y 1.33 (±0.45 en Tacotalpa. La dominancia de especies tanto en AL como ADP de las 3 regiones fue D > 0.26. Las comunidades no se distribuyeron equitativamente y la mayor homogeneidad fue alcanzada en Tenosique (J≥ 0.57 en ADP y 0.63 en AL, respectivamente. La composición de hormigas difirió entre sistemas y regiones. Ninguna especie se detectó como indicadora, ya que éstas utilizan ampliamente todos estos agroecosistemas.Myrmecofaunal richness, abundance and distribution were studied as indicators for ecological monitoring of agroforestry systems (SAF in 3 regions in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor of Tabasco, Mexico. The agroforestry systems analyzed were linearly arranged trees (AL and scattered trees on pastures (ADP

  3. Air conditioning total system for a coffee house. Groundwater as a supplier for heat and coldness; Klimatechnisches Gesamtsystem fuer ein Cafe. Grundwasser als Waerme- und Kaelte-Lieferant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, Gerald [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Stutensee (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The new building of a coffee-house of the land baker's shop Ihle on the outskirts of Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was not only a new way of the baker's shop in the catering trade, but also in the conception of the building and its technical equipment. The linkage of heating, climate, ventilation and commercial refrigeration systems to a highly efficient total system succeeded in outstanding way.

  4. Comparative effect of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on memory and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad

    2018-04-13

    The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.

  5. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  7. Fitossociological inventory in a multistrata agroforestry system as a tool for legal reserve execution Levantamento fitossociológico comparativo entre sistema agroflorestal multiestrato e capoeiras como ferramenta para a execução da reserva legal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Maranhão Froufe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The legal reserve (RL is by the Brazilian Forest Code a portion of the total area of a farm where the use of the natural resources is to be done on a sustainable basis aiming the ecological processes, and biodiversity conservation and the shelter and protection of native fauna and flora.  The existence of RL has been criticized since its creation, specially by the allegation that it interferes on productive processes and
    for regarding the difficulties of its implantation. The multistrata agroforestry systems (AFS are widely accepted as a conservative management practice, even in Brazilian legislation, and it is an alternative technique for the  implantation of the RL. This work, carried altogether in small farms containing multistrata AFS and natural forests regeneration tracts (some of them already registered as RL showed that this AFS, although productive systems, hold similar number and diversity of species to the renenerating forest , satisfying the legal minimum requisites expected in RL and thus suitable to be used as a technology for recovering and managing the RL. Moreover, as its management is agroecological, it was observed the recolonization of several
    native species, corroborating the potential use of these AFS in ecological restiration processes. Those agroforestry systems, however, need additional silvicultural practices
    to improve forestry production and sustainability.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.203

    A reserva legal (RL, normatizada pelo Novo Código Florestal,  Lei 4.771/65, vem sendo alvo de críticas, desde sua criação,  sobretudo sob a alegação de que interfere nos processos   produtivos da propriedade rural e apresenta dificuldade na sua  execução. Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAF multiestrato são práticas de manejo conservacionista do solo já aceitos pela legislação brasileira como uma alternativa técnica para a execução da RL. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a

  8. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  9. Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

  10. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...

  11. Study on agroforestry practices in Abak Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the various agroforestry practices in Abak Local Government Area (LGA) of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires, physical observations and oral interview were used to collect data from agroforestry farmers (respondents) in the four clans (Abak, Otoro, Midim and ...

  12. Secagem de café em combinação A combined system for coffee drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilio F. de Lacerda Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar um sistema de secagem de café, com meia-seca em leito fixo e complementação da secagem em secador de lotes, intermitente, de fluxos concorrentes, em um experimento instalado na Área de Pré-processamento e Armazenamento de Produtos Vegetais, DEA-UFV. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Fez-se a colheita pelo método de derriça sobre o chão. Os frutos foram pré-processados por via seca, secando-se os frutos verdes, cerejas e passas. Na meia-seca, a umidade inicial dos frutos variou entre 68,9 e 71,3% b.u. e a final entre 44,0 e 47,5% b.u. Na complementação da secagem a umidade final variou entre 12,2 e 13,8% b.u. A temperatura do ar, no secador de leito fixo, variou entre 50,4 e 76 °C, e no de fluxos concorrentes, entre 87,2 e 110 °C. A entalpia específica no secador de leito fixo variou entre 8,4 e 9,1 MJ kg-1 e no de fluxos concorrentes, entre 7,1 e 16,9 MJ kg-1. Relativamente às testemunhas, a qualidade final do produto apresentou melhores características comerciais. Concluiu-se que a meia-seca em leito fixo e a secagem em secador de fluxos concorrentes, além de reduzir o tempo de operação, poderá contribuir para melhor preservar as qualidades que o produto adquire no campo.The general objective of this study was the evaluation of a system for coffee drying, using partial drying in fixed bed dryer and complementary drying in an intermittent concurrent flow batch dryer. The experiment was carried out in the Vegetable Products Processing Area, DEA-UFV. The drying tests were accomplished in completely randomized design. The coffee was harvested on the ground by manual striping process. The fruits were pre-processed by drying of ripe, overripe and greenish cherries. For the preliminary drying, the initial coffee moisture content varied from 68.9 to 71.3% w.b. with the drying being interrupted with moisture content between 44.0 and 47.5% w.b. In the complementary drying phase the final moisture

  13. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeta A Sistla

    Full Text Available Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber, agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity, and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast

  14. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  15. Effects of Trigonelline, an Alkaloid Present in Coffee, on Diabetes-Induced Disorders in the Rat Skeletal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folwarczna, Joanna; Janas, Aleksandra; Pytlik, Maria; Cegieła, Urszula; Śliwiński, Leszek; Krivošíková, Zora; Štefíková, Kornélia; Gajdoš, Martin

    2016-03-02

    Diabetes increases bone fracture risk. Trigonelline, an alkaloid with potential antidiabetic activity, is present in considerable amounts in coffee. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of trigonelline on experimental diabetes-induced disorders in the rat skeletal system. Effects of trigonelline (50 mg/kg p.o. daily for four weeks) were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of trigonelline administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg i.p.) or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg i.p.). Serum bone turnover markers, bone mineralization, and mechanical properties were studied. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with significant worsening of bone mineralization and bone mechanical properties. Streptozotocin after nicotinamide induced slight glycemia increases in first days of experiment only, however worsening of cancellous bone mechanical properties and decreased vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) were demonstrated. Trigonelline decreased bone mineralization and tended to worsen bone mechanical properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated rats, trigonelline significantly increased BMD and tended to improve cancellous bone strength. Trigonelline differentially affected the skeletal system of rats with streptozotocin-induced metabolic disorders, intensifying the osteoporotic changes in streptozotocin-treated rats and favorably affecting bones in the non-hyperglycemic (nicotinamide/streptozotocin-treated) rats. The results indicate that, in certain conditions, trigonelline may damage bone.

  16. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Agroforestry parkland species diversity : uses and management in semi-arid West-Africa (Burkina Faso)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiema, A.

    2005-01-01

    Agroforestry parkland in semi-arid West Africa is a rural land use system, which allows farmers to grow annual crops in combination with useful trees. In addition to cereals, tree products such as vegetables, fruits, vegetable oil, firewood, fodder, and medicines are obtained from the parklands. However the multiple function of the parkland system can only be fulfilled if parkland species diversity is adequately managed.This thesis is focused on assessing the woody species diversity in the pa...

  18. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  19. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  20. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  1. Phytosociology in agroforestry systems of different ages in the town of Medicilândia, Pará, Brazil = Fitossociologia em sistemas agroflorestais com diferentes idades de implantação no município de Medicilândia, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Miranda Leão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are emerging as an alternative to the degradation of natural resources, since they allow for harmony between agriculture and forest species, guaranteeing environmental sustainability. The aim of this work was to evaluate floristic composition and compare the structure of three agroforestry systems of 20, 30 and 40 years of age, in the town of Medicilândia, in the State of Pará. For the floristic and structural analysis, a forest census was carried out of the three agroforestry systems, recording all tree individuals with a diameter at breast height >10 cm. In analysing the horizontal structure, the absolute and relative phytosociological parameters of density and dominance were considered. The absolute and relative parameters of sociological position and natural regeneration were calculated when analysing the vertical structural of the systems. For the analysis of the Expanded Importance Value Index (IVIA, all the relative vertical and horizontal parameters were added together. The agroforestry systems displayed an inverted-J diametric distribution. As they are key species when planting forests, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia impetignosa were the most important in each agroforestry system. Natural regeneration favoured the establishment of species with commercial value that were not part of the initial arrangement of the AFSs, such as Bagassa Guianenses, Tabebuia serratifolia, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata, demonstrating the economic and ecological sustainability of these systems. = Os sistemas agroflorestais surgem como alternativa à degradação dos recursos naturais, pois possibilitam a harmonia entre agricultura e espécies florestais, garantindo a sustentabilidade ambiental. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a composição florística e comparar a estrutura de três sistemas agroflorestais com idades de 20, 30 e 40 anos no Município de Medicilândia, PA. Para análise florística e

  2. Increased soil organic carbon stocks under agroforestry: A survey of six different sites in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Cambou, Aurélie; Beral, Camille; Barthes, Bernard; Dupraz, Christian; Kouakoua, Ernest; Chenu, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Agroforestry systems are land use management systems in which trees are grown in combination with crops or pasture in the same field. In silvoarable systems, trees are intercropped with arable crops, and in silvopastoral systems trees are combined with pasture for livestock. These systems may produce forage and timber as well as providing ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation. Carbon (C) is stored in the aboveground and belowground biomass of the trees, and the transfer of organic matter from the trees to the soil can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Few studies have assessed the impact of agroforestry systems on carbon storage in soils in temperate climates, as most have been undertaken in tropical regions. Methods: This study assessed five silvoarable systems and one silvopastoral system in France. All sites had an agroforestry system with an adjacent, purely agricultural control plot. The land use management in the inter-rows in the agroforestry systems and in the control plots were identical. The age of the study sites ranged from 6 to 41 years after tree planting. Depending on the type of soil, the sampling depth ranged from 20 to 100 cm and SOC stocks were assessed using equivalent soil masses. The aboveground biomass of the trees was also measured at all sites. Results: In the silvoarable systems, the mean organic carbon stock accumulation rate in the soil was 0.24 (0.09-0.46) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a depth of 30 cm and 0.65 (0.004-1.85) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the tree biomass. Increased SOC stocks were also found in deeper soil layers at two silvoarable sites. Young plantations stored additional SOC but mainly in the soil under the rows of trees, possibly as a result of the herbaceous vegetation growing in the rows. At the silvopastoral site, the SOC stock was significantly greater at a depth of 30-50 cm than in the control. Overall, this study showed the potential of agroforestry systems to store C in both soil and biomass in

  3. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  4. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  5. Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qi; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Sun, Hongquan; Su, Zhicheng; Zhang, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Trees are the dominant species in agroforestry systems, profoundly affecting the performance of understory crops. Proximity to trees is a key factor in crop performance, but rather little information is available on the spatial distribution of yield and yield components of crop species under the

  6. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  7. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  8. Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-03-01

    1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey.

  9. evaluating the performance of leucaena accessions for agroforestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    The performance of Leucaena accessions on acid soils in eastern coast Tanzania for ... Plant tree parameters assessed were fodder yield and plant stem ... adapted and potential in improving soil fertility and are recommended for agroforestry.

  10. Contributions of agroforestry to ecosystem services in the miombo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Biodiversity, carbon sequestration, deforestation, fire, soil erosion. INTRODUCTION .... This has led to little appreciation of the environmental benefits of agroforestry, and ...... Poster presented at the ZIL Annual. Conference, 12th ...

  11. Lessons from the Malawi Agroforestry Extension Project Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study examined the factors affecting agroforestry technology upscaling and .... This means that farmers whose main source of income is crop sales are .... depended on the performance and commitment of the agricultural extension staff in.

  12. Woodlot Agroforestry in the Lower Volta Basin, Ghana: Contribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study site constitutes part of the post dam floodplains of the lower ... agroforestry policy, in particular, woodlot management once encouraged as part of .... measurements of the vegetation ..... (WARN); the Forestry and Fire Component.

  13. Os sistemas agroflorestais como alternativa de sustentabilidade em ecossistemas de várzea no Amazonas The Agroforestry systems as an alternative of sustainable land use in várzea (floodplain ecosystems in Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2009-01-01

    , especially when it is refereed to the forest management, to the products diversity, and the incomes. This study has objective to understand the different ways of appropriation and management of natural resources through SAFs in the different subsystems as clearing, home garden, and lakes as a sustainability component of families’ farmers from Costa da Terra Nova located in the Careiro da Várzea County (Amazon. The methodology used was the case study with the questionnaires applied, interviews and participant observation. The families’ production in the Costa da Terra Nova is represented for agroforestry systems accordingly with the subsystem: farm, home garden and lakes that provide products for their subsistence as much as much for local commercialization. The local communities established the agriculture as a fundamental activity. The main product is obtained from the vegetables grown during the receding water period in the field subsystem in the communities São Francisco and Nossa Senhora da Conceição; and the extrativismo fishing boat on subsystem lake in water period, predominant in community São José. The animal raising is used only for self-subsistence, being the birds and the pigs the mainly domestic animals raising in the three communities. Thus, the traditional agroforestry systems combined with the forest subsystem, clearing, home garden, and lakes are responsible for social-economics sustainability for the studied area, and could be used as an alternative agriculture better adapted for the local conditions at the Amazonian floodplain areas.

  14. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  15. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  16. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  17. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  18. Produktivitas Talas (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott di Bawah Tiga Jenis Tegakan dengan Sistem Agroforestri di Lahan Hutan Rakyat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sudomo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott is a functional food plant. Based on Permenhut P.35/2007 with regard to Non Wood Forest Product, taro is categorized as a starch plant. According to the knowledge of local people, the agroforestry of taro has been applied on dry land of private forest. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth and productivity of taro under three tree species of the private forest using agroforestry system. Survey and field observation were conducted in this research. Agroforestry systems were observed on sengon+taro, jabon+taro, manglid+taro, and monoculture of taro as a control. Growth and production of taro plants were measured, including height growth, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of leaves and stems. Wet and dry weight of tuber were recorded to calculate the taro production. Tree species showed significant effects on growth and production of taro plant in agroforestry system. The highest biomass of taro (366.57 g/plant was found under jabon species, followed by sengon (266.15 g/plant, manglid (175.64 g/plant, and taro monoculture (182.98 g/plant, respectively. The light intensity under jabon tree in agroforestry system was 41.17%. The highest production of wet and dry weight of taro tuber were 2,333.0 g/plant and 884.3 g/plant, which was resulted under jabon stands, followed by under sengon stands (1,597.0 g/plant and 535.7 g/plant, under manglid stands (607.6 g/plant and 213.6 g/plant and monoculture (739.4 g/plant and 256.3 g/plant, respectively.

  19. Analysis of the carbon sequestration costs of afforestation and reforestation agroforestry practices and the use of cost curves to evaluate their potential for implementation of climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Arturo Balderas [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO), Tlaquepaque CP (Mexico); Technology and Sustainable Development Section, Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, University of Twente/CSTM, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Marchant, Rob; Smart, James C.R. [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lovett, Jon C. [Environment Department, University of York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Technology and Sustainable Development Section, Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, University of Twente/CSTM, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tipper, Richard [Ecometrica, Edinburgh, EH9 1PJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Carbon sequestration in forest sinks is an important strategy to remove greenhouse gases and to mitigate climate change; however its implementation has been limited under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol which has not created the incentives for widespread implementation. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sequestration costs of agroforestry afforestation and reforestation projects (ARPs) following a partial market equilibrium using average cost curves and economic break even analysis to identify the supply costs. The modelling done in this work contrasts the voluntary and clean development mechanism transaction costs. Data is based on the voluntary project, Scolel Te, being implemented in Mexico. Cost curves are developed for seven different sequestration options considering transaction and implementation costs; information from agricultural production in Chiapas Mexico is used to integrate opportunity costs of two agroforestry practices suggesting that sequestration costs may follow a 'U' shape, with an initial reduction due to economies of scale and a subsequent increase caused by high opportunity costs. The widespread implementation of agroforestry options not requiring complete land conversion (e.g. living fences and coffee under shade) might be cost effective strategies not generating high opportunity costs. Results also suggest that payments in the early years of the project and lower transaction costs favour the development of ARPs in the voluntary market especially in marginal rural areas with high discount rates. (author)

  20. Coffee and gastrointestinal function: facts and fiction. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of coffee on the gastrointestinal system have been suggested by patients and the lay press, while doctors tend to discourage its consumption in some diseases. METHODS: The literature on the effects of coffee and caffeine on the gastrointestinal system is reviewed with emphasis on

  1. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  2. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  3. THE VIEWS OF FOREST OUTSKIRT COMMUNITY ON AGROFORESTRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Oka Suparwata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, development of agroforestry has been focused on the people living near forest. Positive views from community may have a good impact on agroforestry development program. This research aims to study the views of the forest outskrit community on the agroforestry development program in Dulamayo Barat village, Telaga Sub District, Gorontalo Regency, Gorontalo Province. The study used survey approach and focus group discussion (FGD method. Respondents were all the members of agroforestry farmer group. The entire population were taken for interview (10 respondents while FGD was attended by 26 participants. Data were analyzed descriptively. The result showed that 100% of the respondents want the program to be sustainable, although from the socio economic point of view the impact has not contributed significantly. From the respondents views of its benefit, 50% believe that the program is for critical land rehabilitation, 30% have a view for the improvement of environmental service, 10% view to increase community economy, and 10% view that the program is to eliminate erosion. These indicate that the community is concerned with agroforestry development, therefore, continuous facilitation is needed. Furthermore, the community expects to be actively involved in the agroforestry development program.

  4. Evolving and Strengthening the Cooperative Approach for Agroforestry Farmers in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned from the Shimogo Cooperative in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Kamrul Islam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although an agro-based country, the farmers of Bangladesh do not receive significant returns from their products, due to some obstacles blocking the achievement of this ultimate goal. This study tries to identify the major challenges of the agroforestry product supply chains in Bangladesh, and offer an alternative solution through the involvement and experiences of farmer cooperatives within a Japanese cooperative model. The objectives were outfitted by two case studies, and the Bangladesh case clearly showed that the involvement of many intermediaries in agroforestry product supply chains was one of the main obstacles that stunted the outcomes of the agroforestry programs. The intermediaries have maximized their profit by buying the farmer products at low prices and selling them back at higher prices, which resulted in high marketing margins. Meanwhile, the Japanese case study had articulated that the farmer-driven cooperative approach, with its good marketing strategies and service functions, could successfully eliminate the intermediaries’ involvement in farmer products, and make a cooperative a strong economic organization. Despite a few challenges, the farmer-driven Japanese cooperative approach would be a good solution that could tackle the middleman problem, and make agroforestry a sustainable production system in Bangladesh.

  5. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  6. Chronic coffee consumption and respiratory disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo

    2018-03-01

    The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Apple Coffee Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/applecoffeecake.html Apple Coffee Cake To use the sharing features on ... time: 50 minutes Number of Servings: 20 Tart apples and raisins make for a moist, delicious cake. ...

  8. Developing a Coffee Yield Prediction and Integrated Soil Fertility Management Recommendation Model for Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and quantitative system for coffee yield estimation and nutrient input advice, so as to address the problem of declining annual coffee production in Tanzania (particularly in its Northern coffee zone), which is related to declining soil fertility. The

  9. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  10. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who

  11. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the

  12. PENGELOLAAN DAN PENERIMAAN SOSIAL AGROFORESTRI TRADISIONAL DUKUH DI KABUPATEN BANJAR KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizianor Hafizianor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banjar District, one of which district that most peoples working as farmer in between gardening fruit, and present the results from the orchard began to decline. The purpose of this study is: (1 The Management of traditional agroforestry dukuh in The Banjar District (2 Knowing the social acceptance of the existence of an orchard with traditional agroforestry dukuh in the district of Banjar (3 Knowing the factors that influence the social acceptance of the existence of the orchard.  Obtain data used 2 methods primer and secondary data. Population of this study used purposive sampling. As for knowing the factors that influence people's  social acceptance of the existence of an orchard  used Multiple Linear Regression  Analysis, processed through Statistical Program for Social  Sciences. Obtained by calculating an index score of each elements of the social acceptance of  such participation, attitudes and values, it is mean peoples still have high levels of social acceptance the orchard. The results showed the traditional management system of dukuh consist of the local community wisdom value .  The contribution that given by the traditional agroforestry dukuh from the economic sector is siginificant enough amount of 33% of the community income totally in a year so that the performance of traditional agroforestry is good for the side of productivity, sustainability, justice and eficiency showing the good condition.  Level social acceptance of existence the orchard with traditional agroforestry dukuh, according to the analysis of data obtained has high acceptance rate, is 82.86. As for factors that affected, the results of multiple linear regression analysis of testing is known that  the  seven  factors  affected  social acceptance,  there are  three  factors that significantly influence social acceptance,  namely  income, production,  and marketing.

  13. Measuring the socio-economic impacts of agroforestry projects in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Mercer; Belita Vega; Hermie Francisco; Robin Maille

    1994-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that agroforestry projects can provide both ecological and economic benefits. Most agroforestry project evaluations, however, have failed to adequately assess the soci0-economic impacts. For example, a review of 108 agroforestry project impact evaluations by Sara Scherr of IFPRJ reported that only 8% assessed economic costs or benefits, 5%...

  14. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  15. Land Use Change on Coffee Farms in Southern Guatemala and its Environmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggar, Jeremy; Medina, Byron; Aguilar, Rosa Maria; Munoz, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Changes in commodity prices, such as the fall in coffee prices from 2000 to 2004, affect land use decisions on farms, and the environmental services they provide. A survey of 50 farms showed a 35 % loss in the area under coffee between 2000 and 2004 below 700 m with the majority of this area (64 %) being coffee agroforest systems that included native forest species. Loss of coffee only occurred on large and medium-scale farms; there was no change in area on cooperatives. Coffee productivity declined below 1,100 m altitude for sun and Inga shade coffee, but only below 700 m altitude for agroforest coffee. Coffee productivity was 37-53 % lower under agroforests than other systems. Increases in rubber and pasture were related to low altitude large-scale farms, and bananas and timber plantations to mid-altitude farms. Average aboveground carbon stocks for coffee agroforests of 39 t C ha-1 was similar to rubber plantations, but one-third to one half that of natural forest and timber plantations, respectively. Coffee agroforests had the highest native tree diversity of the productive systems (7-12 species ha-1) but lower than natural forest (31 species ha-1). Conversion of coffee agroforest to other land uses always led to a reduction in the quality of habitat for native biodiversity, especially avian, but was concentrated among certain farm types. Sustaining coffee agroforests for biodiversity conservation would require targeted interventions such as direct payments or market incentives specifically for biodiversity.

  16. Environmental services from tropical agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Casanova-Lugo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta revisión es discutir el papel de los sistemas agroforestales en la prestación de servicios ambientales, incluyendo producción agrícola más diversificada y sostenible, aumento de reservas de carbono, conservación de la biodiversidad, mejora de la fertilidad del suelo, mitigación de emisiones de metano y calidad del agua y aire. Existe evidencia de que los sistemas agroforestales juegan un papel importante en la prestación de servicios ambientales, ya que aproximadamente 20 % de la población mundial, sobre todo las zonas rurales y urbanas de los países en desarrollo, depende directamente de los productos agroforestales. La adopción de sistemas agroforestales contribuye a reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (dióxido de carbono y metano, disminuye la presión sobre los ecosistemas vulnerables y mejora las condiciones de vida de las comunidades rurales.

  17. Caracterização de lavouras cafeeiras cultivadas sob o sistema orgânico no sul de Minas Gerais Characterization of coffee crops cultivated on organic system in the south of Minas Gerais

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    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As exigências do mercado por cafés de melhor qualidade estão sendo responsáveis pela difusão e adoção de novas tecnologias de produção e preparo de café. Entre os cafés especiais, o café orgânico é um dos que mais vem se destacando neste segmento. Desta forma, objetivou-se nesse trabalho, a avaliação das características agronômicas de lavouras cafeeiras (Coffea arabica L. sob o sistema orgânico de produção, localizadas no Município de Poço Fundo, sul de Minas Gerais. Foram caracterizadas em 21 lavouras cafeeiras orgânicas as cultivares utilizadas, a população cafeeira, o tipo de colheita e secagem adotadas, a produtividade e qualidade do café, a fertilidade do solo e o estado nutricional do cafeeiro. Através dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que os cafeeiros conduzidos sob o sistema orgânico de produção apresentam potencial para produzirem cafés de boa qualidade. Em relação à fertilidade do solo, os baixos valores de pH e o desequilíbrio das relações entre K, Ca e Mg observados na maioria dessas lavouras, sugerem que esses fatores podem afetar o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção dos cafeeiros submetidos ao manejo orgânico do sul de Minas Gerais.The market demands for coffee of better quality are being responsible for diffusion and adoption of new production technologies and coffee preparation. Among the special coffee, the organic coffee is one of the most important in this group. So, this paper had the aim of evaluating the agronomical traits of coffee crops (Coffea arabica L. on organic system production, located in Poço Fundo district, South of Minas Gerais. One obtained information about the management of 21 organic coffee crops, like: cultivars, coffee tree population, harvest and drying adopted systems, yield and coffee quality, soil fertility and coffee nutritional status. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that coffee trees conducted under organic system

  18. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  19. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  20. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

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    Álvarez Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampling points within the system of treatment and four replications were made at different times and with different amounts of coffee cherry. We evaluated the parameters of temperature, pH, settleable solids, total suspended solids, fixed and volatile, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. The temperature of wastewater entering the system has recorded 16.5 o C, increasing during the treatment process at 17.5 °C and record the output is 16.5 ºC. The pH increased from 4.51 to 6.04 which occurred at the last two gaps oxygenation and not in the neutralization tank. Settleable solids (SS increased from 0.1 mg / L to 0.15 mg / L, which was recorded at the lakes of oxygen, is attributed to the drag of fine gravel. Total suspended solids (TSS have been reduced from 1927.5 mg / L to 299 mg / L gradually throughout the treatment process. Fixed suspended solids (SSF were reduced from 137.5 mg / L to 58.5 mg / L. Volatile suspended solids (VSS were reduced from 1790 mg / L to 240.5 mg / L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD was reduced from 6102.5 mg O2 / L to 1245 mg O2 / L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD was reduced from 9800 mg O2 / L to 1658.75 mg O2 / L. Dissolved oxygen (DO increased from 0 to 2.4 mg O2 / L, in the last two gaps in oxygenation, due to the reduction of solids and chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen. Of the nine parameters measured, six meet the maximum permissible values for download in source receptor (stream

  1. Development of a Time-Intensity Evaluation System for Consumers: Measuring Bitterness and Retronasal Aroma of Coffee Beverages in 106 Untrained Panelists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotow, Naomi; Moritani, Ami; Hayakawa, Yoshinobu; Akutagawa, Akihito; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu

    2015-06-01

    In order to develop products that are acceptable to consumers, it is necessary to incorporate consumers' intentions into products' characteristics. Therefore, investigation of consumers' perceptions of the taste or smell of common beverages provides information that should be useful in predicting market responses. In this study, we sought to develop a time-intensity evaluation system for consumer panels. Using our system, we performed time-intensity evaluation of flavor attributes (bitterness and retronasal aroma) that consumers perceived after swallowing a coffee beverage. Additionally, we developed quantitative evaluation methods for determining whether consumer panelists can properly perform time-intensity evaluation. In every trial, we fitted an exponential function to measured intensity data for bitterness and retronasal aroma. The correlation coefficients between measured time-intensity data and the fitted exponential curves were greater than 0.8 in about 90% of trials, indicating that we had successfully developed a time-intensity system for use with consumer panelists, even after just a single training trial using a nontrained consumer. We classified participants into two groups based on their consumption of canned coffee beverages. Significant difference was observed in only AUC of sensory modality (bitterness compared with retronasal aroma) among conventional TI parameters using two-way ANOVA. However, three-way ANOVA including a time course revealed significant difference between bitterness and retronasal aroma in the high-consumption group. Moreover, the high-consumption group more easily discriminated between bitterness and retronasal aroma than the low-consumption group. This finding implied that manufacturers should select consumer panelists who are suitable for their concepts of new products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com cupuaçuzeiro no município de Presidente Figueiredo (Amazonas, Brasil Weedy plants in agroforestry systems with cupuassu in the municipality of Presidente Figueiredo (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ferreira de Sousa

    2003-01-01

    . This work have undertaken a survey and phytosociological analysis of some aspects of weed species that occur in agroforestry systems with cupuassu. The treatments consisted of three crops arrangements (cassava+fruit trees; annuals crops+fruit trees; passion fruit+fruit trees, and three fertilizer management (NPK+OM, with Phosphorus and Phosphorus+leguminous. Three harvests of weed plants were accomplished, being six samples of 0,25 m² per plot. The identification of the species of the weed plants were carried out in the laboratory. The 55 weed species identified were distributed in 23 botanical families, being 43 of dicotyledonous species, 11 of monocotyledonous, and one of pteridophyta. The families Poaceae (monocotyledonous and Asteraceae (dicotyledonous were the most frequent and with large number of individuals. The most frequent species and with large number of plants per m² were Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius (area A and Homolepis aturensis (Kunth Chase (area B of the Poaceae family; Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Asteraceae family, presented the largest density. The similarity coefficients varied among the areas studied, being the largest indexes observed in the treatments that received fertilizers with organic matter (NPK+OM, particularly in the system cassava+fruit trees. The agricultural practices and the soil and crops management systems, had a great influence to the flora composition and in the weed plants communities size in each local area. The number of monocotyledonous was smaller in the treatment with NPK+OM than in the other treatments.

  3. Transfer of Knowledge on Agroforestry Management Practices: the Structure of Farmer Advice Networks

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    Marney E. Isaac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to knowledge on farm management practices is essential for the maintenance of productive agroforestry systems. Farmers who lack the means to acquire farming knowledge from formal sources often rely on information within their informal social networks. However, little research has explored the explicit structure of farmer communication patterns. We examined advice network structures by using farmer attributes, i.e., kin relationships, community involvement, and imitation, to characterize structural positions and investigated the consequences of such structure on farming practices in cocoa agroforestry systems in Ghana, West Africa. Furthermore, we used a multicommunity approach; we constructed networks for four communities to increase replication and enhance the generality of our conclusions. A high density of advice ties occurred among a small group of farmers, indicating a core-periphery structure. Settler farmers composed 73% of core position members, suggesting that social proximity did not control the formation of informal advice structures. Because core farmers were highly participative in community activities, the promotion of community involvement may facilitate the movement of knowledge and social exchange to strengthen informal networks. Farmers in both core and peripheral structural positions indicated that they observed fellow farmers and subsequently adopted their practices. Of highly sought farmers, 84% used external information, predominately from government institutions, thus functioning as bridging links between formal and informal networks. Both external and farmer-derived sources of knowledge of agroforestry practices were transferred through informal advice networks, providing available information throughout the farming community, as well as a foundation for community-based adaptive management.

  4. Why Promote Improved Fallows as a Climate-Smart Agroforestry Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa?

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    Samuel T. Partey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, a lot is discussed about how agroforestry can achieve the mitigation, adaptation and productivity goals of climate-smart agriculture (CSA. However, this may be relatively too broad to assess the trade-offs and synergies of how specific agroforestry technologies or practices achieve the three pillars of CSA. Here, we provide an overview of how improved fallows (an agroforestry technology consisting of planting mainly legume tree/shrub species in rotation with cultivated crops may achieve the goals of climate-smart agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Our review showed that improved fallow systems have real potential to contribute to food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation in SSA. Under proper management, improved fallows can increase maize yields to about 6 t ha−1, which is comparable to conventional maize yields under fertilization. This is attributed to improved soil fertility and nutrient use efficiency. Although data was generally limited, the growing literature showed that improved fallows increased soil carbon sequestration and reduced greenhouse emissions. Further, as a multiple output land use system, improved fallows may increase fodder availability during dry periods and provide substantial biomass for charcoal production. These livelihood options may become important financial safety nets during off seasons or in the event of crop failures. This notwithstanding, the adoption of improved fallows is mainly in Southern and Eastern Africa, where over 20,000 farmers are now using Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii, and Cajanus cajan in two-year fallows followed by maize rotations. Land tenure issues, lack of social capital, and improved germplasm and accessions of fallow species have been cited as constraints to scaling up. However, development of seed orchards, nursery development, and the willingness of policy makers to create a policy environment that addresses market failures and alleviates

  5. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  6. Design Guidelines for Coffee Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidermeier, Tim; Burghardt, Manuel; Wolff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walk-up-and-use-systems such as vending and self-service machines request special attention concerning an easy to use and self-explanatory user interface. In this paper we present a set of design guidelines for coffee vending machines based on the results of an expert-based usability evaluation of thirteen different models.

  7. A real options model to assess the role of flexibility in forestry and agroforestry adoption and disadoption in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Robert C. Abt

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to restore the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley’s forests have not achieved desired levels of ecosystem services production.We examined how the variability of returns and the flexibility to change or postpone decisions (option value) affects the economic potential of forestry and agroforestry systems to keep private land in production while still providing...

  8. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  10. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  11. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  12. Influence of leafy biomass transfer of agroforestry trees with nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of leguminous tree crops and biomass transfer is the main possibility for soil enrichment with nutrients, especially with nitrogen and play alternative role as source of organic fertilizer. This study investigated the influence of leafy biomass transfer of Albizia lebbeck and Parkia biglobosa leguminous agroforestry ...

  13. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  14. Integrating agroforestry and sheep feed in Mali | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Sheep herding plays a significant role in the livelihoods of rural households in Mali and other semi-arid countries of West Africa. Although sheep herding could improve the incomes of rural women, its potential is not being realized because a lack of feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry ...

  15. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero and Nakasongola districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry projects in Madagascar that promote fruit trees address social and environmental threats to rainforests by reducing farmers' reliance on rice cultivation as long as fruit production is a more economically efficient option. This study aims to understand farmer planting preferences for fruit trees around Ranomafana ...

  17. Evaluating the performance of Leucaena accessions for agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Leucaena accessions on acid soils in eastern coast Tanzania for agroforestry was evaluated for three years. Plant tree parameters assessed were fodder yield and plant stem height, stem girth, the number of total branches and poles production. Also, Leucaena psyllid, a common pest threatening the ...

  18. Mycorrhizal association of some agroforestry tree species in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycorrhizal colonization of different agroforestry tree species in two social forestry nurseries was investigated. Percentage of Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) infection, number of resting spores and AM fungi species varies both in tree species as well as in two different nurseries. This variation is attributed to various factors such ...

  19. Exploring gender and forest, tree and agroforestry value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverhals, Merel; Ingram, V.J.; Elias, M.; Basnett, Bimbika Sijapati; Petersen, S.

    2016-01-01

    •This systematic review of literature on gender and value chains of forest, tree and agroforestry (FTA) products examined gender differences and inequalities in FTA value chains, factors that influence these differences, and interventions to foster greater gender equity.
    •There is limited

  20. Mycorrhizal association of some agroforestry tree species in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-05

    May 5, 2011 ... Key words: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, agroforestry tree species. INTRODUCTION ... plant growth hormones, protection of host roots from pathogens .... interactions between fungal strains and soil than between the fungus ... phosphorus and drought stress on the growth of Acacic nilotica and. Leucaena ...

  1. Willingness to pay for ecosystem benefits of Agroforestry driven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the Willingness To Pay (WTP) for ecosystem benefits derivable from Agroforestry (AF) driven green growth practice in Ogun state, Nigeria. The environmental service functions of AF were valued. Multi-stage sampling procedure involving purposive and simple random sampling was adopted in ...

  2. Agroforestry for landscape restoration and livelihood development in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U. Djanibekov; Klara Dzhakypbekova; James Chamberlain; Horst Weyerhaeuser; Robert Zomer; G. Villamor; J. Xu

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how the adoption of agroforestry for ecosystem and livelihood improvement in Central Asian countries can be enhanced. First, it describes how previous and current developments lead to changing environmental conditions, and how these changing conditions consequently affected the welfare of people. Environmental issues on a global level, such as...

  3. Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A participative approach to develop sustainability indicators for dehesa agroforestry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, M; Díaz-Caro, C; Mesias, F J

    2018-05-29

    This paper provides a list of specific indicators that will allow the managers of dehesa farms to assess their sustainability in an easy and reliable way. To this end a Delphi analysis has been carried out with a group of experts in agroforestry systems and sustainability. A total of 30 experts from public institutions, farming, research bodies, environmental and rural development associations, agricultural organizations and companies took part in the study which intended to design a set of sustainability indicators adapted to dehesa agroforestry systems. The experts scored 83 original indicators related to the basic pillars of sustainability (environmental, social and economic) through a two-round procedure. Finally, 24 indicators were selected based on their importance and the consensus achieved. From an environmental point of view, and in line with its significance for dehesa ecosystems, it has been observed that "Stocking rate" is the indicator with greater relevance. Within the economic pillar, "Farm profitability" is the most important indicator, while regarding the technical indicators "Percentage of animal diet based on grazing" is the one that got the highest score. Finally, the "Degree of job satisfaction" and the "Generational renewal" were the most relevant labor indicators. It is considered that the Delphi approach used in this research settles some of the flaws of other sustainability models, such as the adaptation to the system to be studied and the involvement of stakeholders in the design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the International coffee market conditions

    OpenAIRE

    FISAKOVA O.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes analysis of coffee market and its conditions for coffee companies. Also, coffee export amounts and prices are compared and analyzed. Statistics were collected over few last years to present accurate research

  6. Producción de agroenergía a partir de biomasa en sistemas agroforestales integrados: una alternativa para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la protección ambiental Agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems: an alternative to achieve food security and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Suárez

    2010-09-01

    agroforestry systems. At present, worldwide, marked by a group of hazards that threaten human existence, there is a challenge mainly in the rural context: how can the coexistence of agroenergy, food security and environmental protection be achieved?, in the presence of climate changes, environmental degradation, food crises and the growing biofuels vs food contradiction, generated by a senseless policy for obtaining first-generation agrofuels from large extensions of food monocrops, which is morally rejectable. Biofuels are also considered an ecological alternative to fossil fuels, because of their reduction capacity in the emission of greenhouse gasses and because they promote the development of rural communities in southern countries; this is enhanced in integrated agroforestry systems, in which biofuels, of first as well as second generation, can be produced, especially with the application of the concept of biorefinery which allows converting biomass into many products, which total added value can be higher than the one generated by fossil fuels. International projects, which promote integrated and sustainable food and energy production in the context of agroforestry integrated systems, at local scale, contribute to this purpose. The authors consider that the execution of projects and experiences about agroenergy has the main objective of achieving energetic sustainability and food security at local scale, in rural areas, taking into account environmental protection.

  7. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  8. Bird communities in sun and shade coffee farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.

  9. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  10. Integrated production of warm season grasses and agroforestry for biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Omielan, J. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste, Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada); Girouard, P.; Henning, J. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Increased research on C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} perennial biomass crops is generating a significant amount of information on the potential of these crops to produce large quantities of low cost biomass. In many parts of North America it appears that both C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species are limited by water availability particularly on marginal soils. In much of North America, rainfall is exceeded by evaporation. High transpiration rates by fast growing trees and rainfall interception by the canopy appear to indicate that this can further exacerbate the problem of water availability. C{sub 4} perennial grasses appear to have distinct advantages over C{sub 3} species planted in monoculture systems particularly on marginal soils. C{sub 4} grasses historically predominated over much of the land that is now available for biomass production because of their adaptation to low humidity environments and periods of low soil moisture. The planting of short rotation forestry (SRF) species in an energy agroforestry system is proposed as an alternative production strategy which could potentially alleviate many of the problems associated with SRF monocultures. Energy agroforestry would be complementary to both production of conventional farm crops and C{sub 4} perennial biomass crops because of beneficial microclimatic effects.

  11. Agroforestry and Management of Trees in Bunya County, Mayuge District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kyarikunda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant resources continue to disappear in anthropogenic landscapes in Uganda. To slow down further loss of these resources requires the collaboration of farmers in tree planting in agroforestry systems. Tree planting interventions with the collaboration of farmers require a good understanding of tree management practices as well as trees that best satisfy farmers’ needs. We carried out this research to determine (1 the most preferred tree species and reasons why they are preferred, (2 the species conservation statuses, and (3 existing tree management practices and challenges to tree planting. Fourteen priority species valued because they yield edible fruits and timber have been prioritised in this study. Farmers are interested in managing trees but are constrained by many factors, key among which is scarcity of land and financial capital to manage tree planting. Trees are managed in crop fields and around the homestead. From farmers’ reports, the highly valued species are increasing in the landscape. In conclusion, the potential to manage trees in agroforestry systems exists but is hampered by many challenges. Secondly, the liking of trees that supply edible fruits seems to support the welfare maximisation theory which ideally states that rural people manage trees with the aim of having regular access to products that satisfy their household needs and not for income generation.

  12. Radioactivity in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, C.; Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Rongoni, A.; Saetta, D.

    2013-01-01

    This research was dedicated to the study of the background levels of 210 Po and natural gamma emitters as 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi in coffee powder and in coffee beverage; also the artificial 137 Cs was determined. In the coffee powder the mean 210 Po activity resulted 7.25 ± 2.25 x 10 -2 Bq kg -1 . 40 K showed a mean activity of 907.4 ± 115.6 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, indicators of 226 Ra, given as mean value of the two radionuclides, resulted 10.61 ± 4.02 Bq kg -1 . 228 Ac, 228 Ra indicator, showed a mean activity concentration of 13.73 ± 3.20 Bq kg -1 . The mean activity concentration of 212 Pb, 224 Ra indicator, was 8.28 ± 2.88 Bq kg -1 . 208 Tl, 224 Ra indicator, presented a mean activity concentration of 11.03 ± 4.34 Bq kg -1 . In all samples, the artificial 137 Cs resulted below the detection limit (2.0 Bq kg -1 ). The arithmetical mean value of percentage of 210 Po extraction in coffee beverage resulted 20.5 ± 6.9. The percentage of transfer of gamma emitters, 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb, 208 Tl resulted of 80.0, 33.5, 24.7, 30.0, 35.1 and 53.5 % for 40 K, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 208 Tl respectively. (author)

  13. Whose Knowledge, Whose Development? Use and Role of Local and External Knowledge in Agroforestry Projects in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Johanna; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Gambon, Helen; Rist, Stephan; Altieri, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity. Projects based predominantly on external knowledge tended to promote a single combination of tree and crop species and targeted mainly financial capital, whereas projects with a local or mixed knowledge base tended to focus on food security and increased natural capital (e.g., soil restoration) and used a higher diversity of trees and crops than those with an external knowledge base. The integration of different forms of knowledge can enable farmers to better cope with new challenges emerging as a result of climate change, fluctuating market prices for cash crops, and surrounding destructive land use strategies such as uncontrolled fires and aerial fumigation with herbicides. However, many projects still tended to prioritize external knowledge and undervalue local knowledge-a tendency that has long been institutionalized in the formal educational system and in extension services. More dialogue is needed between different forms of knowledge, which can be promoted by strengthening local organizations and their networks, reforming agricultural educational institutions, and working in close interaction with policymakers.

  14. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  15. Whose Knowledge, Whose Development? Use and Role of Local and External Knowledge in Agroforestry Projects in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Johanna; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Gambon, Helen; Rist, Stephan; Altieri, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity. Projects based predominantly on external knowledge tended to promote a single combination of tree and crop species and targeted mainly financial capital, whereas projects with a local or mixed knowledge base tended to focus on food security and increased natural capital (e.g., soil restoration) and used a higher diversity of trees and crops than those with an external knowledge base. The integration of different forms of knowledge can enable farmers to better cope with new challenges emerging as a result of climate change, fluctuating market prices for cash crops, and surrounding destructive land use strategies such as uncontrolled fires and aerial fumigation with herbicides. However, many projects still tended to prioritize external knowledge and undervalue local knowledge—a tendency that has long been institutionalized in the formal educational system and in extension services. More dialogue is needed between different forms of knowledge, which can be promoted by strengthening local organizations and their networks, reforming agricultural educational institutions, and working in close interaction with policymakers.

  16. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  17. Biological systems coupled for treating wastewater from processing coffee cherries: I – Removal of organic matter - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of upflow anaerobic filters followed by constructed wetlands (CW were evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from processing coffee cherries (WCP. The filters (F were made up of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and SACs were made of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed with HDPE geomembranes and filled with gravel ‘zero’. WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 100/5/1. As a result, the values of influent and effluent pH remained within the range appropriate to the biological degradation of organic material. The system could not bear the shock of the organic load, which reduced the organic matter removal efficiency. Based on the analysis of performance and operating conditions employed, only the system that received the lowest organic load (F1+CW1 on the third phase, was effective in removing organic matter.  

  18. Morphometric of four species in agroforestry systems in the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. = Morfometria de quatro espécies florestais em sistemas agroflorestais no munícipio de Porto Velho, Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Monteiro Condé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the morphometry of Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, Brasil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa HBK, Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. and simulate the vital space for it to grow without competition in agroforestry plantations. Data were collected in 20 agroforestry (SAF’s considered productive age (16.5 years of Project RECA (Economic Reforestation Consortium and Compacted, the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. The deployment of the SAF’s occurred through the removal of vegetation through the process of clearing and burningof native forests. Morphometric data were collected randomly from individuals with DBH > 10 cm of four tree species in onehectare of each farm, for a total sample area of 20 ha (20 properties. The sample was composed by 25 individuals of Andiroba,40 of Brasil nut tree, 23 of Copaíba and 46 of Mogno. Andiroba was very similar to Mogno in relation to Cup Percentage (PC,Coverage Index (AI and Cup Form (FC, both showed potential for higher density plantations with timber purposes. The Brasilnut tree and Copaíba had the highest values of the FC (1.66, 1.79 and Crown Area (92.60, 57.51, respectively, showing frondscrowns, silvicultural interesting features for the extraction of seeds. Was simulated living space for the four species developwithout competition between cups. It was concluded that the four species have potential for planting for extraction of timberand non-timber forest in areas subject to degradation and deforestation in the Amazon.ResumoO presente estudo visa descrever a morfometria das espécies Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, Castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. e simular o espaço vital para que as mesmas cresçam sem concorrência em plantios agroflorestais. Os dados foram coletadosem vinte sistemas agroflorestais (SAF’s em idade considerada

  19. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  20. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C.

  1. Pengaturan Hasil Agroforestry Jabon (Neolamarckia Cadamba Miq.) dan Kapulaga (Amomum Compactum) di Kecamatan Pakenjeng, Garut, Jawa Barat

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajaya, Yonky; Siarudin, M

    2015-01-01

    Agroforestry dapat berkontribusi pada pendapatan petani, baik jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang. Pola agroforestry jabon-kapulaga telah banyak diterapkan oleh petani di Pakenjeng, Garut, Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis manajemen optimal agroforestry jabon-kapulaga menggunakan metode modeling bioekonomik yang dimodifikasi dari model Faustmann. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: 1) daur optimal agroforestry jabon-kapulaga sesuai daur biologis tegakan jabon adalah lima tahun; 2) d...

  2. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CAFÉ CEREZA EMPLEANDO TÉCNICAS DE VISIÓN ARTIFICIAL AN ARTIFICIAL VISION SYSTEM FOR CLASSIFICATION OF COFFEE BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Liliana Sandoval Niño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de visión artificial para la clasificación de frutos de café en once categorías dependiendo de su estado de madurez. Para la descripción de la forma, el color y la textura de cada fruto de café se extrajeron 208 características. La reducción del conjunto de características de 208 a 9 se hizo con base en los resultados de dos métodos de selección de características, uno univariado y otro multivariado. Las características seleccionadas corresponden a 4 características de textura, 3 de color y 2 de forma. Este conjunto final de características se evaluó en dos técnicas de clasificación: Bayesiano y redes neuronales. Con el clasificador Bayesiano se obtuvo un error de clasificación del 5,43% y requirió un tiempo de clasificación de 5,5 ms, mientras que usando redes neuronales el error de clasificación fue de 7,46%, pero disminuyó el tiempo de clasificación a 0,8 ms.An artificial vision system for classification of coffee beans, in eleven categories, according to its state of maturity was developed. The description of the coffee beans was done by using 208 characteristics (form, color and texture characteristics. The reduction of the set of characteristics from 208 to 9 was done by using two methods of characteristic selection. The final set of characteristics is composed by 4 texture characteristics, 3 color characteristics and 2 shape characteristics. This final set was evaluated in two classifiers: The Bayesian and a neuronal networks classifier. The classification error obtained by the Bayesian classifier was 5,43%, it required 5,5 ms for the classification process, while the error obtained by neuronal networks classifier was 7,46% and the classification time decreased to 0,8 ms.

  3. Sistemas agroflorestais em áreas de agricultores familiares em Igarapé-Açu, Pará: caracterização florística, implantação e manejo Agroforestry systems in areas of smallholder agriculture in Igarapé-Açu, Pará: floristic characterization, implantation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Almeida Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os Sistemas Agroflorestais-SAF comerciais multiestratificados de agricultores familiares de Igarapé-Açu, bem como identificar as espécies que compõem os sistemas agroflorestais. A partir de entrevistas foram catalogadas as espécies de maior interesse dos agricultores familiares e por meio de inventário florístico foram avaliados os SAF produtivos. Os cultivos de pimenta-do-reino, mandioca, feijão, cupuaçu, caju, açaí, pupunha, mogno e o nim indiano foram os mais freqüentes pelos agricultores. Os SAF são manejados na sua maioria de forma tradicional.This paper aimed to evaluate the multistrata agroforestry systems of small farmers of Igarapé-Açu, as well as to identify the species that compose of they interest. Through interviews were listed the interest species of small farmers and from inventory floristic were evaluated the productive AFS. The species: pepper-of-kingdom, cassava, beans, cupuaçu, caju, açai palm, pupunha palm, mahogany and indian neem were the most cultivated by these farmers. Most of the AFS are managed in the traditional manner.

  4. Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Karnosky, D.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of agroforestry crops is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular, plantations characterised by high yields such as short rotation forestry (SRF) are becoming popular worldwide for biomass production and their role acknowledged in the Kyoto Protocol. While their contribution to climate change mitigation is being investigated, the impact of climate change itself on growth and productivity of these plantations needs particular attention, since their management might need to be modified accordingly. Besides the benefits deriving from the establishment of millions of hectares of these plantations, there is a risk of increased release into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted in large amounts by most of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation. This might represent a negative feedback, especially in regions already characterized by elevated ozone level. - Growth and management of agroforestry plantations will be influenced by climate change.

  5. Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfapietra, C., E-mail: carlo.calfapietra@ibaf.cnr.i [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Gielen, B. [University of Antwerpen, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Karnosky, D. [Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Ceulemans, R. [University of Antwerpen, Campus Drie Eiken, Department of Biology, Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Scarascia Mugnozza, G. [Department of Agronomy, Forestry and Land Use (DAF), Agricultural Research Council of Italy (CRA), Via del Caravita 7/a 00186 Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The use of agroforestry crops is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular, plantations characterised by high yields such as short rotation forestry (SRF) are becoming popular worldwide for biomass production and their role acknowledged in the Kyoto Protocol. While their contribution to climate change mitigation is being investigated, the impact of climate change itself on growth and productivity of these plantations needs particular attention, since their management might need to be modified accordingly. Besides the benefits deriving from the establishment of millions of hectares of these plantations, there is a risk of increased release into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted in large amounts by most of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation. This might represent a negative feedback, especially in regions already characterized by elevated ozone level. - Growth and management of agroforestry plantations will be influenced by climate change.

  6. GIS-based multi-criteria analysis for Arabica coffee expansion in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Nzeyimana

    Full Text Available The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha-1, and 70% has a low yield potential (<1.0 t coffee ha-1. Only 9% of the country has a high yield potential of 1.6-2.4 t coffee ha-1. Those areas are found near Lake Kivu where the dominant soil Orders are Inceptisols and Ultisols. Moderate yield potential is found in the Birunga (volcano, Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (<1 t ha-1 occur in the eastern semi-dry lowlands, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, Buberuka Highlands, and Mayaga zones. The weighted overlay analysis and ordinary kriging indicated a large spatial variability of potential productivity indices. Increasing the area and productivity of coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential.

  7. Czech traditional agroforestry: historic accounts and current status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krčmářová, Jana; Jeleček, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 6 (2017), s. 1087-1100 ISSN 0167-4366 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15716S Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Agroforestry * Czech republic * Land use changes * Franciscan cadastre * Multifactorial analysis * Agriculture industrialisation Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  8. Qualidade sensorial do café de lavouras em conversão para o sistema de produção orgânico Cup quality of traditional crop coffee converted to organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a qualidade sensorial do café de lavouras em conversão para o sistema de produção orgânico, foi instalado este experimento, no município de Lavras (MG. O experimento foi instalado em 2004, em uma lavoura de café Catuaí Amarelo IAC 86, espaçamento de 4,0 x 0,6 m, com seis anos de idade, anteriormente cultivada no sistema convencional. Nos tratamentos orgânicos, empregou-se o delineamento látice balanceado 4 x 4, com cinco repetições em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, mais quatro tratamentos adicionais. O fatorial constou da utilização de três fontes de matéria orgânica (farelo de mamona, cama de frango e esterco bovino, com ou sem aplicação de casca de café e de adubação verde com feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.. Os quatro tratamentos adicionais consistiram de: 1- esterco bovino + casca de café + moinha de carvão + sulfato duplo de potássio e magnésio; 2 - farelo de mamona + casca de café + farinha de rocha; 3 - casca de café e 4 - adubação verde. Para efeito de comparação, manteve-se no mesmo talhão uma lavoura com manejo convencional. Não foram observadas diferenças de qualidade de bebida entre os cafés submetidos aos diferentes tratamentos orgânicos, nem entre esses e a testemunha no primeiro ano de conversão. No segundo ano, observou-se superioridade das bebidas de cafés de alguns tratamentos orgânicos em relação ao da lavoura desenvolvida no sistema convencional. Verificou-se efeito positivo da utilização do esterco bovino isoladamente ou associado com a casca de café e adubação verde na qualidade sensorial do café.The main purpose of this study was to evaluate sensorial attributes of coffee grown under a transition cultivation system, from conventional to organic, in Lavras (MG. The experiment was established in 2004, in a conventional field with 6 year-old Catuaí Amarelo IAC86 coffee plants, planted using 4,0 X 0,6 m spacing system. The experimental

  9. Payments for environmental services – Carbon finance options for smallholders’ agroforestry in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 25 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are caused by deforestation, and Indonesia is the third largest greenhouse gas emitter worldwide due to land use change and deforestation. On the island of Sulawesi in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, many smallholders contribute to conversion processes at the forest margin as a result of their agricultural practices. Specifically the area dedicated to cocoa plantations has increased from zero (1979 to nearly 18,000 hectares (2001. Some of these plots have been established inside the 220,000 hectares of the LLNP. An intensification process is observed with a consequent reduction of the shade tree density. This study assesses which impact carbon sequestration payments for forest management systems have on the prevailing land use systems. Additionally, the level of incentives is determined which motivates farmers to desist from further deforestation and land use intensification activities. Household behaviour and resource allocation is analysed with a comparative static linear programming model. As these models prove to be a reliable tool for policy analysis, the output can indicate the adjustments in resource allocation and land use shifts when introducing compensation payments. The data was collected in a household survey in six villages around the LLNP. Four household categories are identified according to their dominant agroforestry systems. These range from low intensity management with a high degree of shading to highly intensified systems with no shade cover. At the plot level, the payments required for inducing the adoption of more sustainable land use practices are the highest for the full shade cocoa agroforestry system, but with low carbon prices of €5 tCO2e-1 these constitute 5 percent of the cocoa gross margin. Focusing on the household level, however, an increase up to 18 percent of the total gross margin can be realised. Furthermore, for

  10. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsen Yılmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this consideration, in Abyssinia, coffee was consumed with bread; it was then pulped and brought to Yemen, and Yemeni people started to cultivate coffee. The word “kahve” in Turkish does not mean the coffee plant like its synonym in Arabic but means the beverage made by boiling. Turkish coffee is a blend of high-quality Arabic-type coffee beans, originating from Brazil and Central America and moderately roasted and ground finely. The way it is prepared differentiates Turkish coffee from others. This coffee was called Turkish coffee because of a new method of preparation invented by Turkish people where it is boiled in copper coffee pots. Turkish coffee that has spread around the world with this name has been an indispensable part of the cultural and social history of Turks.

  11. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  12. Evaluation of physiological changes in coffee seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were carried out at three locations with different vegetation in Nigeria between 1996 and 1998 to determine the physiological changes in coffee intercropped with maize, cassava and plantain. There were four intercropping treatments comprising coffee/maize, coffee/cassava, coffee/plantain and ...

  13. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  14. Characterization of Woodchips for Energy from Forestry and Agroforestry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Picchio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the particle-size distribution, the fiber, the bark and the leaves content, the heating value, the CNH and the ash content of a wide sample of wood chips, collected from 10 forestry and 10 agroforestry production sources. This sampling focused on two main production types: forestry (Full Tree System—FTS—and logging residues—LR and agroforestry (Short Rotation Coppice—SRC. For the forestry production wood chips from coniferous and broadleaf species were considered. For the agroforestry production wood chips from poplar plantations were examined (different clones with two different harvesting intervals. Overall, we collected 400 samples. Particle size distribution was determined with an automatic screening device on 200 samples. The higher heating value was determined on 200 subsamples using an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The CNH and the ash content was ascertained on another 200 subsamples. FTS and SRC (with three year old sprouts offered the best quality, with high fiber content (71%–80%, favorable particle-size distribution and good energetic parameters. On the contrary, both logging residues and SRC (with two year old sprouts presented a high bark content (18%–27% and occasionally a mediocre particle-size distribution, being often too rich in fines (6%–12%, but the energetic parameters are in the normal range.

  15. Use of headspace gas chromatographic/FTIR for the monitoring of volatiles in commercial brand coffees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Senja V.; Compton, David A.

    1989-12-01

    Recently, the area of food analysis and product safety has become of major concern to consumers. Therefore, companies involved in the quality assurance of theirproducts have been encouraged to perform extensive analyses to guarantee safety and satisfaction. One of the largest consumer products in the beverage marketplace is coffee. Much emphasis has been placed upon the safety of the decaffeination processes used by various manufacturers; these involve extraction of the caffeine by a solvent system that may be aqueous or organic, and is sometimes,super-critical. Additionally, aroma (fragrance) of brewing coffee has been found to be of major concern to the individual by the marketing departments of the coffee companies. The heads ace analysis of coffees can be used to discover the species retained after the decaffeination of coffee, as well as to distinguish the volatile species released upon treatment of the coffee at boiling water temperatures.

  16. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...

  17. Assessing farmers' interest in agroforestry in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and management of agroforestry technologies differs among farms in Rwanda and needs to be documented as a basis for shaping future research and development programs. The objective of this study was to investigate current agroforestry practices, farmers’ preferences, tree management and

  18. Integrating environmental and economic performance to assess modern silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Werf, van der W.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental and economic performance of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe is highly variable. Multi-criteria analysis, using the PROMETHEE outranking approach, was used to evaluate the integrated performance of silvoarable agroforestry on hypothetical farms in nineteen landscape test sites in

  19. Participatory data collection and monitoring of agricultural pest dynamics for climate-resilient coffee production using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop agroecological food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Malard, J. J.; Adamowski, J. F.; Tuy, H.

    2016-12-01

    climate variability impacts. Preliminary results of a study currently being conducted in a coffee agroforestry system in El Quebracho, Guatemala, will be presented, where the data was directly collected by farmers during eight consecutive months. Finally, future recommendations from lessons learnt during this study will be discussed.

  20. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  1. Automated high resolution mapping of coffee in Rwanda using an expert Bayesian network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukashema, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Vrieling, A.

    2014-12-01

    African highland agro-ecosystems are dominated by small-scale agricultural fields that often contain a mix of annual and perennial crops. This makes such systems difficult to map by remote sensing. We developed an expert Bayesian network model to extract the small-scale coffee fields of Rwanda from very high resolution data. The model was subsequently applied to aerial orthophotos covering more than 99% of Rwanda and on one QuickBird image for the remaining part. The method consists of a stepwise adjustment of pixel probabilities, which incorporates expert knowledge on size of coffee trees and fields, and on their location. The initial naive Bayesian network, which is a spectral-based classification, yielded a coffee map with an overall accuracy of around 50%. This confirms that standard spectral variables alone cannot accurately identify coffee fields from high resolution images. The combination of spectral and ancillary data (DEM and a forest map) allowed mapping of coffee fields and associated uncertainties with an overall accuracy of 87%. Aggregated to district units, the mapped coffee areas demonstrated a high correlation with the coffee areas reported in the detailed national coffee census of 2009 (R2 = 0.92). Unlike the census data our map provides high spatial resolution of coffee area patterns of Rwanda. The proposed method has potential for mapping other perennial small scale cropping systems in the East African Highlands and elsewhere.

  2. [Coffee can protect against disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, Kasper; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Tjønneland, Anne Marie

    2012-09-24

    A moderate daily intake of 3-4 cups of coffee has convincing protective effects against development of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The literature also indicates that moderate coffee intake reduces the risk of stroke, the overall risk of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, suicide and depression. However, pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety disorder and persons with a low calcium intake should restrain from moderate or high intake of coffee due to uncertainty regarding potential negative effects on pregnancy, anxiety and risk of osteoporosis, respectively.

  3. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coffee and lychee above the currently emphasized citrus fruits. RÉSUMÉ ... have vanished from all but the steepest slopes by 2025 (Green and Sussman 1990). ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of Indian Ocean e-Ink.

  4. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  5. Avaliação de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento, utilizados na cafeicultura Evaluation of trickle irrigation systems used in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís O. C. de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de agosto a outubro de 1999, com o objetivo de avaliar os sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento utilizados na cafeicultura irrigada do norte do Espírito Santo e nas áreas de cerrado de Minas Gerais e caracterizar a porcentagem de área molhada (PAM nesses sistemas de irrigação. Foram realizadas medidas das dimensões do bulbo molhado para determinação da porcentagem de área molhada. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que, dos valores de coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição determinados, apenas um sistema apresentou valor abaixo de 70%, refletindo uma uniformidade ruim. No que se refere aos demais resultados, dez sistemas indicaram valores de uniformidade de distribuição entre 70 e 80%, oito sistemas mostraram valores entre 80 e 90% e doze sistemas apontaram valores acima de 90%, indicando uniformidade razoável, boa e excelente, respectivamente. Dos valores determinados, a maioria dos sistemas que apresentaram uniformidade de boa a excelente estava situada na região de cerrado de Minas Gerais. Com relação à PAM, os valores determinados variaram na faixa de 19 a 100% e apenas um sistema apresentou valor abaixo do limite mínimo recomendado para regiões úmidas, que é de 20%.This study was carried out over the period from August to October 1999, aiming the evaluation of trickle irrigation systems used in coffee crop in the northern part of Espírito Santo State and the savannah areas of Minas Gerais State, as well as to characterize the percentage of wetted area (PWA of these irrigation systems. The wetted bulb dimensions measurements were accomplished for determining the percent wetted area. According to the results, just one system presented a value lower than 70% for the distribution uniformity coefficient, reflecting a bad uniformity. Concerning to the other results, ten systems showed the distribution uniformity values ranging from 70 to 80%, whereas for eight systems, it

  6. Coffee Shop Youth Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shalchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a review on the third zone coffee shop youth life style and looks forward to note the features of this group’s life style. Some of the other objective of this article are notifying the importance of different elements in life, consumption norms and the types of leisure. The results of this research shows that in this social atmosphere, post modern lifestyle features are seen as fashion, hybrid taste, interaction among local and global affairs, the importance of hobbies, consumption and the necessity of leisure. The study on this group of Iranian youth foretells how difficult. Complicated and fragile cultural policy is. Therefore, cultural affecting on the youth generation is not possible only through addrssing the values in surface.

  7. The Potential Use of Agroforestry Community Gardens as a Sustainable Import-Substitution Strategy for Enhancing Food Security in Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Oelbermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of food insecurity experienced by northern First Nations partially results from dependence on an expensive import-based food system that typically lacks nutritional quality and further displaces traditional food systems. In the present study, the feasibility of import substitution by Agroforestry Community Gardens (AFCGs as socio-ecologically and culturally sustainable means of enhancing food security was explored through a case study of Fort Albany First Nation in subarctic Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry is a diverse tree-crop agricultural system that has enhanced food security in the tropics and subtropics. Study sites were selected for long-term agroforestry research to compare Salix spp. (willow-dominated AFCG plots to a “no tree” control plot in Fort Albany. Initial soil and vegetative analysis revealed a high capacity for all sites to support mixed produce with noted modifications, as well as potential competitive and beneficial willow-crop interactions. It is anticipated that inclusion of willow trees will enhance the long-term productive capacity of the AFCG test plots. As an adaptable and dynamic system, AFCGs have potential to act as a more reliable local agrarian system and a refuge for culturally significant plants in high-latitude First Nation socio-ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable to rapid cultural, climatic, and ecological change.

  8. Community Participation in Agroforestry Systems Research and Extensión: The CONARBUS Methodology Case Participación comunitaria en investigación y extensión en sistemas agroforestales: el caso de la metodología Conarbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello Arias Heliodoro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Community participation into agroforestry systems research and extensión is a barrier for the practical development of this type of projects. The incorporation of the tree component has been traditionally took in account just as a reforestation or soil conservation strategy. Although trees can ofter other direct beneficts, from medium to short time, these often are ignored. In the same way, the tree production programs have not involved community participation. They are focusing in the massive production at the nursery level, under total or partial subsidies, but in almost all situations far from the community participation. The CONARBUS project work identified mechanisms to stimulate tree plantation, into the various agroforestry systems, through a reduced off intervention. This project was done in a central area of the Cundinamarca department, supported by the International Oevelopment Research Center (IDRC from Canada, involving both, in a direct way 84 and in a indirect way almost 400 farms, on an area of 9.300 hectáreas. The tested mechanisms were divided in technical and participatives. In the first case, four types matching with four production systems present in the area were used. These mechanisms were helped with four off subsidy levels. As participative mechanisms were developed activities addressed to both, adult and young population in order to stimulaté an attitude change neccessary to increase their interest in tree plantation.La participación comunitaria, dentro de la investigación y extensión en sistemas agroforestales, constituye una barrera para el desarrollo práctico de este tipo de proyectos. La incorporación del componente arbóreo ha sido tradicionalmente abordada. Como medio de reforestar o conservar suelos. Aunque los árboles pueden ofrecer otros beneficios directos a mediano y corto plazo, éstos son tradicionalmente ignorados, así mismo, los programas de producción de árboles han carecido de la participaci

  9. Turkish cultural heritage: a cup of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Birsen Yılmaz; Nilüfer Acar-Tek; Saniye Sözlü

    2017-01-01

    Setting out a fabulous journey from a tiny bean, coffee is the stimulant of the heart and mind and a mysterious plant that strengthens friendship and also takes your tiredness away during the day. Although information on how and where the coffee came from is not clear, Sheikh Şazeli is regarded as the “father” by coffee makers. The word coffee originates from “Kaffa”, a primary coffee production center in Abyssinia, Africa, which can be considered the homeland of coffee. According to this con...

  10. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande so Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  11. lon beam analysis of Brazilian coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Ramos, M.M.; Souza, V.S.; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide. Consumers can make the beverage from different types of coffee such as ground coffee, instant coffee or grinding roasted coffee beans. Each type of coffee leads to different characteristics in flavor and scent. The aim of this work is to perform an elemental analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. To that end, eight popular Brazilian ground coffee brands have been chosen to make a comparative study among brands. One of these brands was selected for a complete study of the beverage preparation process. This same brand offers packages of roasted coffee beans, which allowed the elemental comparison between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. Roasted coffee beans were ground with a pestle and mortar. The beverage was prepared using a typical coffee pot. The spent and liquid coffees were submitted to a heat treatment and subsequently homogenized and pressed into pellets. The filters used in the coffee pot were analyzed as well. For micro-PIXE studies, coffee beans were cut in different parts for analysis. Samples of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans (grind) were analyzed by PIXE, while light elements like C, O and N were analyzed by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry). The roasted coffee beans were analyzed by micro-PIXE to check the elemental distribution in the beans. The elements found in powder coffee were Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. Potassium is the element with higher concentration, while Ti and Zn are trace elements. AI, Si and Ti showed the same concentration for all brands. Potassium and chlorine have high solubility, and about 80% of their concentration is transferred from the powder to the beverage during the infusion. Mg, P, CI, K, Mn, Fe, Zn and Rb showed significant variation between ground coffee and roasted coffee beans. The elemental maps show that potassium and phosphorus are correlated, and iron appears in particular

  12. The effect of dewaxing of green coffee on the coffee brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, G.H.D. van der

    1979-01-01

    The two commercially most important mild treatments for green coffee are the steam treatment and the dewaxing process. In the former treatment the green coffee is just steamed. In the dewaxing process the waxy layer is extracted from the green coffee with an organic solvent, after which this coffee

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF COFFEE MARKET AND CHANGES IN COFFEE CONSUMPTION AMONG POLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Chudy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a survey concerning coffee consumption together with results of visual and instrumental coffee analyses. The investigations focused on the type of additives used when preparing coffee. Based on the survey it was found that 58.3% respondents use sweeteners and 92.7% coffee whiteners (mainly milk with 3.2% fat content.

  14. Evidence from The Rwandan Coffee Sector.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the coffee value chain and to promote the production of speciality coffee. A research team ... exporters and the installation of several parchment mills by companies ..... use a Simple linear regression model was used to explain the total quantity.

  15. Influência de diferentes sistemas de colheita na qualidade do café (Coffea arabica L. Influence of different harvest systems on quality of coffee (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio de Carvalho Júnior

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da colheita na qualidade do café, foram estudados seis diferentes sistemas. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Rancho Fundo, município de Campos Gerais, MG, no Departamento de Ciência dos Alimentos da UFLA e no Centro Tecnológico do Sul de Minas da EPAMIG. Em uma lavoura da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado, foram sorteadas, ao acaso, dezoito parcelas com trinta metros de comprimento. A colheita foi realizada quando a lavoura apresentava aproximadamente 20% de frutos verdes. Um terço do café derriçado de cada parcela era formado pela mistura de frutos provenientes da lavoura. O restante do café foi lavado e separado em frutos-bóia e verde/cereja. Os diferentes tipos de café foram colocados no terreiro de secagem até atingirem o teor de água de 11% (b.u.. Após a secagem, o café foi beneficiado e submetido às seguintes avaliações: polifenóis, açúcares totais, redutores e não-redutores, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável total e prova de xícara. Analisando os resultados obtidos, apesar de terem sido observadas diferenças significativas entre os valores médios de polifenóis, açúcares, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável para os diferentes sistemas de colheita, não foi possível estabelecer uma associação definida entre sistema de colheita e composição química. Não foi possível também distinguir, a partir da prova de xícara, diferenças na qualidade do café em função do sistema de colheita, pois, todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram bebida classificada como mole, apenas mole e dura.Aiming to evaluating the influence of the harvest on coffee quality, six harvest systems with different mechanization level were studied. The present work was developed on the Rancho Fundo farm, Campos Gerais town, MG, in the Food Science Department of the UFLA and in the “Centro Tecnológico do Sul de Minas” of EPAMIG. In a crop of the Acaiá Cerrado cultivars were randomized

  16. Avaliação da fertilidade dos solos de sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. em Lavras-MG Evaluation of soil fertility in agroforest systems with coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. in Lavras-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grandi Salgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a fertilidade dos solos em um sistema agroflorestal composto por cafeeiros (Coffea arábica L. - Mundo Novo, ingazeiros (Inga vera Willd e grevíleas (Grevilea robusta A. Cunn, situado em Lavras, Minas Gerais, foi instalado o presente experimento. Usou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram: a cafeeiros a pleno sol, b cafeeiros consorciados com ingazeiros e c cafeeiros consociados com grevílea. Os espaçamentos dos cafeeiros nos três sistemas foi 4 x 1 m, para o ingazeiro 8 m x 15 m e para a grevílea 12 m x 10 m. Aos 15 anos de idade do cafeeiro e do ingazeiro e aos 9 anos da grevílea foram avaliadas as seguintes características dos solos, pH, acidez potencial (H+Al, alumínio trocável (Al+3, bases trocáveis (Ca+2 e Mg+2, potássio disponível (K+, fósforo disponível(P, enxofre (S, CTC efetiva (T, soma de bases (SB, saturação de bases (V e matéria orgânica (MO. Os resultados foram submetidos à analise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. Após a análise dos dados, concluiu-se que, embora tenha havido diferenças entre alguns elementos estudados, as características químicas dos solos nos três sistemas não foram severamente afetadas.The objective of this wark was to evaluat e the soil fertility in an agroforest system using coffee trees (Coffea arabica L - Mundo Novo, inga trees (Inga vera Wild and grevillea trees (Grevillea robusta A Cunn situated in Lavras, Minas Geris. A completely randomized experimental design with tree treatments and seven replicates was utilized. The treatments were : a coffee trees in full sunshine; b coffee trees mixed with inga trees and c coffee trees mixed with grevillea trees. Tree spacings in the three systems were 4 x 1m for coffee, 8 m x 15 m for inga and 12 x 10 m for grevillea. With coffee and inga trees at 15 years of age and grevillea trees at 9 years of age

  17. Markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma : Classic Coffee Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia markkinointiviestintäsuunnitelma kalenterivuodelle 2016 vuosikellon muodossa, toimintansa jo vakiinnuttaneelle Classic Coffee Oy:lle. Classic Coffee Oy on vuonna 2011 perustettu, Tampereella toimiva kahvila-alan yritys joka tarjoaa lounaskahvilatoiminnan lisäksi laadukkaita konditoria-palveluita, yritys- ja kokoustarjoiluja sekä tilavuokrausta. Classic Coffee Oy:llä on yksi kahvila, Classic Coffee Tampella. Kahvila sijaitsee Tampellassa, Tampereen keskustan vä...

  18. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  19. Good news for coffee addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    Whether it's a basic Mr. Coffee or a gadget that sports a snazzy device for grinding beans on demand, the office coffee machine offers a place for serendipitous encounters that can improve the social aspect of work and generate new ideas. What's more, a steaming cup of joe may be as good for your health as it is for the bottom line, says Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the CEO of Partners Community HealthCare. Fears of coffee's carcinogenic effects now appear to be unfounded, and, in fact, the brew might even protect against some types of cancer. What's more, coffee may guard against Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia and somehow soften the blow of a heart attack. Of course, its role as a pick-me-up is well known. So there's no need to take your coffee with a dollop of guilt, especially if you ease up on the sugar, cream, double chocolate, and whipped-cream topping.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF METALS IN ROASTED INDIGENOUS COFFEE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box. 1176, Addis .... cultivation region of Ethiopian coffee by elemental analysis. ... health regulatory limits of the metals in coffee to provide guideline information on the .... Procedures tested for digestion of roasted coffee samples. No.

  1. How Competitive is the Dutch Coffee market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); F. Verboven

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWorld coffee bean prices have shown large fluctuations during the past years. Consumer prices for roasted coffee, in contrast, have varied considerably less. This article investigates whether the weak relationship between coffee bean and consumer prices can be explained by a lack of

  2. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  3. Long-Term Coffee Monoculture Alters Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingyun; Xiong, Wu; Xing, Yizhang; Sun, Yan; Lin, Xingjun; Dong, Yunping

    2018-04-17

    Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping. Principal coordinate analysis suggested monoculture time was a major determinant of bacterial and fungal community structures. Relative abundances of bacterial Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospira and fungal Ascomycota phyla decreased over time. At genus level, potentially beneficial microbes such as Nitrospira and Trichoderma, significantly declined over time and showed positive relationships with coffee plant growth in pots. In conclusion, continuous coffee cropping decreased soil pH, organic matter content, potentially beneficial microbes and increased soil EC, which might lead to the poor growth of coffee plants in pots and decline of coffee yields in fields. Thus, developing sustainable agriculture to improve soil pH, organic matter content, microbial activity and reduce the salt stress under continuous cropping system is important for coffee production in China.

  4. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  5. Gut feelings about smoking and coffee in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkinderen, Pascal; Shannon, Kathleen M; Brundin, Patrik

    2014-07-01

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests that smokers and coffee drinkers have a lower risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The explanation for this finding is still unknown, and the discussion has focused on two main hypotheses. The first suggests that PD patients have premorbid personality traits associated with dislike for coffee-drinking and smoking. The second posits that caffeine and nicotine are neuroprotective. We propose an alternative third hypothesis, in which both cigarette and coffee consumption change the composition of the microbiota in the gut in a way that mitigates intestinal inflammation. This, in turn, would lead to less misfolding of the protein alpha-synuclein in enteric nerves, reducing the risk of PD by minimizing propagation of the protein aggregates to the central nervous system, where they otherwise can induce neurodegeneration. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. A simplified description of the three-dimensional structure of agroforestry trees for use with a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, S.

    1998-01-01

    To simulate transmitted radiation in agroforestry systems, radiative transfer models usually require a detailed three-dimensional description of the tree canopy. We propose here a simplification of the description of the three-dimensional structure of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium). The simplified tree description was tested against the detailed one for five-year-old wild cherry. It allowed accurate simulation of transmitted radiation and avoided tedious measurements of tree structure. The simplified description was then applied to older trees. Allometric relationships were used to compute the parameters not available on free-grown trees. The transmitted radiation in an agroforestry system was simulated at four different ages: 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. The trees were planted on a 5 m square grid. Two row orientations, chosen to provide different transmitted radiation patterns, were tested: north/south and north- east/south-west. The simulations showed that the daily mean transmitted radiation was reduced from 92% of incident radiation under five-year-old trees to 37% under 20-year-old trees. The variability of transmitted radiation increased with tree growth. The row orientation had only small effects on the shaded area at the beginning and end of the day when solar elevation was low. (author)

  7. CoffeeScript application development

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ian

    2013-01-01

    CoffeeScript Application Development is a practical, hands-on guide with step-by-step instructions. Follow the smooth and easy tutorial approach, covering examples that build in complexity. By the final chapter you'll be wondering why you didn't try CoffeeScript sooner.If you are a JavaScript developer who wants to save time and add power to your code, then this is the book that will help you do it. With minimal fuss you will learn a whole new language which will reduce your application development time from weeks to days.

  8. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  9. The Status of Agroforestry in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Christian Zinkhan; D. Evan.  Mercer

    1997-01-01

    Southern agroforestty has emerged as a significant research topic. Research results indicate that agroforestty can address such sustainability problems as erosion and water pollution, while improving economic performance in selected situatiOII& Silvopastoral systems are the most commonly adopted agroforestty application in the region; le!6-common alley-cropping...

  10. Analysis of acrylamide in coffee and dietary exposure to acrylamide from coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Fagt, Sisse

    2004-01-01

    An analytical method for analysing acrylamide in coffee was validated. The analysis of prepared coffee includes a comprehensive clean-up using multimode solid-phase extraction (SPE) by automatic SPE equipment and detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray...... in the positive mode. The recoveries of acrylamide in ready-to-drink coffee spiked with 5 and 10 mug l(-1) were 96 +/- 14% and 100 +/- 8%, respectively. Within laboratory reproducibility for the same spiking levels were 14% and 9%, respectively. Coffee samples (n = 25) prepared twice by coffee machines and twice...... by a French Press Cafetiere coffee maker contained 8 +/- 3 mug l(-1) and 9 +/- 3 mug l(-1) acrylamide. Five ready-to-drink instant coffee prepared twice contained 8 +/- 2 mug l(-1). Hence, the results do not show significant differences in the acrylamide contents in ready-to-drink coffee prepared by coffee...

  11. Coffee and spent coffee extracts protect against cell mutagens and inhibit growth of food-borne pathogen microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Cid, C. (Concepción); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Arbillaga, L. (Leire); Vitas, A.I. (Ana Isabel); Bravo, J. (Jimena); Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Coffee consumption decreases the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The by-product obtained after brewing process (spent coffee) also has antioxidant capacity. Spent coffee and coffee brews (filter and espresso) extracts were obtained from Arabica and Robusta coffees, respectively. Spent coffee showed slightly high amounts in chlorogenic acids, but caffeine content was similar to their respective coffee brew. All samples exhibited strong protection activity against indirect acting mut...

  12. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Is Coffee Consumption associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Kumari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between coffee consumption and risk of systemic diseases; however, there is paucity of data in relation to coffee consumption and risk of eye diseases.  This study aims to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and diabetic retinopathy (DR in multiethnic population of Singapore.   Materials and MethodsWe analyzed the data from 4121 study participants from the Singapore Prospective Study Program to examine the relationship of coffee to prevalence of AMD and DR.  A standardized questionnaire that included information about the habitual amount of coffee consumed was completed by all study participants.  Presence and severity of AMD and DR was assessed on fundus photographs using the Mutiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Grading Protocol. ResultsThe prevalence of AMD and DR in our population was 5.4% and 32.0%, respectively. A positive history of coffee consumption was present in 77.5% of AMD population and 76.1% of DR population with majority of participants consuming 1-2 cups of coffee daily.  No statistically significant association was observed between coffee consumption and odds of AMD or DR after adjusting for confounding factors [AMD: Odds Ratio (OR = 1.27, Confidence Interval (CI = 0.88-1.83, p = 0.20; DR: OR = 1.36, CI = 0.69-2.69, p = 0.37.  ConclusionThis epidemiological study of a large multiethnic population data set do not support the hypothesis that habitual intake of coffee and caffeine is associated with an altered risk of AMD and DR among Asians.

  14. Say goodbye to coffee stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eral, Burak; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2012-01-01

    Discussing ideas over a mug of coffee or tea is the lifeblood of science, but have you ever thought about the stains that can be inadvertently left behind? H Burak Eral, Dirk van den Ende and Frieder Mugele explain how these stains, which can be a major annoyance in some biology techniques, can be

  15. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  16. Double Coffee opens in China

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes

  17. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  18. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, C; Gielen, B; Karnosky, D; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia Mugnozza, G

    2010-04-01

    The use of agroforestry crops is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular, plantations characterised by high yields such as short rotation forestry (SRF) are becoming popular worldwide for biomass production and their role acknowledged in the Kyoto Protocol. While their contribution to climate change mitigation is being investigated, the impact of climate change itself on growth and productivity of these plantations needs particular attention, since their management might need to be modified accordingly. Besides the benefits deriving from the establishment of millions of hectares of these plantations, there is a risk of increased release into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted in large amounts by most of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation. This might represent a negative feedback, especially in regions already characterized by elevated ozone level. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Progresso da cercosporiose (Cercospora coffeicola Berkeley & Cooke em cafeeiros sob cultivos orgânico e convencional Progress of brown eye spot (Cercospora coffeicola Berkeley & Cooke in coffee trees in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florisvalda da Silva Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o progresso da cercosporiose em cafeeiros sob sistemas de produção orgânico e convencional no município de Santo Antônio do Amparo, MG, entre novembro/2003 e novembro/2005. As lavouras, que são vizinhas, encontravam-se sob condições similares de clima, solo e relevo e eram formadas por cafeeiros cv. Acaiá MG-474-19, de dez anos. A doença foi mais intensa no sistema de produção convencional, cuja média de dois anos consecutivos de avaliações demonstrou área abaixo da curva de progresso da cercosporiose maior (3,905 do que o orgânico (2,529. Isso ficou demonstrado também pela incidência máxima nas folhas, equivalente a 28% em 2004 e 29% em 2005, enquanto no sistema orgânico foi de 9% e 12%, respectivamente. Nos frutos, a incidência foi de 18,2% em 2004 e 22% em 2005, enquanto no orgânico foi de 11,5% e 15%, respectivamente. A maior suscetibilidade dos cafeeiros à cercosporiose no sistema convencional coincidiu com menores teores de cálcio e magnésio foliares nas fases de granação e maturação dos frutos comparados ao orgânico, conseqüência da maior carga pendente que resultou em uma produtividade superior em 26,8 sc/ha ao orgânico em 2004 (alta carga pendente. Em 2005 a produtividade foi estatisticamente semelhante em ambos os sistemas. Houve menor alternância entre a produtividade das duas safras consecutivas no sistema orgânico (34% menor em 2005 quando comparada à convencional (64% menor sugerindo uma tendência de menor efeito da doença sobre a safra seguinte dos cafeeiros no sistema orgânico de produção, comparado ao convencional.The progress of brown eye spot in coffee trees in both organic and conventional crop systems was evaluated in two neighboring fields, in Santo Antônio do Amparo city, MG, between nov./2003 and nov./2005. The fields are under similar weather, soil and relief conditions and made up of ten-year-old coffee trees cv. Acaiá MG-474-19. The incidence of brown eye spot was

  1. Associação micorrízica e teores de nutrientes nas folhas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana de um sistema agroflorestal em Manaus, Amazonas Arbuscular mycorrhizal association and foliar nutrient concentrations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum and guaraná (Paullinia cupana plants in an agroforestry system in Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As micorrizas arbusculares podem ser importantes na nutrição das plantas em solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, como são os da Amazônia de modo geral. Avaliaram-se a colonização radicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs nativos e os teores de nutrientes em cupuaçuzeiro e guaranazeiro em um sistema agroflorestal no município de Manaus, Amazonas. Dez plantas de cada espécie foram selecionadas, das quais foram coletadas amostras de raiz, folha e solo durante o período seco e chuvoso da região de Manaus. Os guaranazeiros e os cupuaçuzeiros apresentaram maior colonização radicular por FMAs na época chuvosa. Os teores foliares de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu e Mn nas duas espécies não foram influenciados pelas épocas de amostragem. O teor de Fe nas folhas dos cupuaçuzeiros foi maior na época chuvosa, enquanto o dos guaranazeiros, na época seca. A colonização micorrízica correlacionou-se com a concentração foliar de Ca, Mg, P e Cu nos cupuaçuzeiros e com a de Ca, Fe, Zn e Cu nos guaranazeiros.Arbuscular mycorrhiza can be important for plant nutrition in acid and low fertility soils such as those of the Amazon. The present study evaluated the mycorrhizal colonization by native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nutrient concentrations of cupuassu and guarana leaves in an agroforestry system in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Ten plants of each species were selected, of which the roots, soil and leaves were sampled during the rainy and dry seasons. Guarana and cupuassu trees presented higher levels of AMF colonization during the rainy season. Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations in both species were not affected by the season. Fe concentration was higher during the rainy season in the cupuassu leaves, but higher in the dry season in the guarana leaves. Mycorrhizal colonization correlated with Ca, Mg, P, and Cu concentrations in cupuassu plants and with Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in guarana plants.

  2. Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Aklimawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem identification at farmer’s level. This research was carried out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data, as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physical quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholders consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one duty officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection were based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical quality of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4—6 (fair to poor quality, while broken beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted to be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of land ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900—1,000 kg green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limited accessibility to financing and technology. Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora

  3. Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Regine; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Lachmuth, Susanne; Hensen, Isabell; Rist, Stephan

    2013-12-20

    Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration. Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models. The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g.Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees,loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge. Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses.For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in agroforestry. These native species should be ecologically

  4. Knowledge and valuation of Andean agroforestry species: the role of sex, age, and migration among members of a rural community in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Agroforestry is a sustainable land use method with a long tradition in the Bolivian Andes. A better understanding of people’s knowledge and valuation of woody species can help to adjust actor-oriented agroforestry systems. In this case study, carried out in a peasant community of the Bolivian Andes, we aimed at calculating the cultural importance of selected agroforestry species, and at analysing the intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants according to peasants’ sex, age, and migration. Methods Data collection was based on semi-structured interviews and freelisting exercises. Two ethnobotanical indices (Composite Salience, Cultural Importance) were used for calculating the cultural importance of plants. Intracultural variation in the cultural importance and knowledge of plants was detected by using linear and generalised linear (mixed) models. Results and discussion The culturally most important woody species were mainly trees and exotic species (e.g. Schinus molle, Prosopis laevigata, Eucalyptus globulus). We found that knowledge and valuation of plants increased with age but that they were lower for migrants; sex, by contrast, played a minor role. The age effects possibly result from decreasing ecological apparency of valuable native species, and their substitution by exotic marketable trees, loss of traditional plant uses or the use of other materials (e.g. plastic) instead of wood. Decreasing dedication to traditional farming may have led to successive abandonment of traditional tool uses, and the overall transformation of woody plant use is possibly related to diminishing medicinal knowledge. Conclusions Age and migration affect how people value woody species and what they know about their uses. For this reason, we recommend paying particular attention to the potential of native species, which could open promising perspectives especially for the young migrating peasant generation and draw their interest in

  5. Predictive model of Amorphophallus muelleri growth in some agroforestry in East Java by multiple regression analysis

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    BUDIMAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Budiman, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2012. Predictive model of Amorphophallus muelleri growth in some agroforestry in East Java by multiple regression analysis. Biodiversitas 13: 18-22. The aims of this research was to determine the multiple regression models of vegetative and corm growth of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume in some age variations and habitat conditions of agroforestry in East Java. Descriptive exploratory research method was conducted by systematic random sampling at five agroforestries on four plantations in East Java: Saradan, Bojonegoro, Nganjuk and Blitar. In each agroforestry, we observed A. muelleri vegetative and corm growth on four growing age (1, 2, 3 and 4 years old respectively as well as environmental variables such as altitude, vegetation, climate and soil conditions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to compare A. muelleri habitat in five agroforestries. Meanwhile, the influence and contribution of each environmental variable to the growth of A. muelleri vegetative and corm were determined using multiple regression analysis of SPSS 17.0. The multiple regression models of A. muelleri vegetative and corm growth were generated based on some characteristics of agroforestries and age showed high validity with R2 = 88-99%. Regression model showed that age, monthly temperatures, percentage of radiation and soil calcium (Ca content either simultaneously or partially determined the growth of A. muelleri vegetative and corm. Based on these models, the A. muelleri corm reached the optimal growth after four years of cultivation and they will be ready to be harvested. Additionally, the soil Ca content should reach 25.3 me.hg-1 as Sugihwaras agroforestry, with the maximal radiation of 60%.

  6. The performances of coffee processors and coffee market in the Republic of Serbia

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    Nuševa Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of coffee processors and coffee market in Serbia based on the market concentration analysis, profitability analysis, and profitability determinants analysis. The research was based on the sample of 40 observations of coffee processing companies divided into two groups: large and small coffee processors. The results indicate that two large coffee processors have dominant market share. Even though the Serbian coffee market is an oligopolistic, profitability analysis indicates that small coffee processors have a significant better profitability ratio than large coffee processors. Furthermore, results show that profitability ratio is positively related to the inventory turnover and negatively related to the market share.

  7. Approximation to a model of sustainable fertilization in coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    In the actuality famous investigators of the agriculture think that the non-equilibrium and inconvenient inherent the chemical fertilizers are the result of the disorder produced by the high entropy of these fertilizers. In spite of that, much investigation's works increment the result without to decrease the chemical fertilizer doses in crops. The present work continues an investigation begun in 1994 in la Union town Department of Narino Colombia, about an organic fertilization alternative system and improvement of soils of coffee, with the purpose to find low doses of chemical fertilizers in combination with organic manures able to compete with the chemical conventional system. In the experiment found that low-middle doses of coffee pulp and production's fertilizers correspondent to 3 kg/coffee pulp/small boxes and 35 g/17-6-18-2/plant, produced 68 % more than the full doses of the module 2 of Cenicafe. The before result indicates that it's possible to decrease costs, to improve the quality and to increase significantly the coffee production, inclusive it can improve the environmental supply or history production, without high doses of chemical fertilizer

  8. Antioxidant effect of Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica L) blended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants (GSH, vitamins C and E) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in mice administered. Arabian coffee ... cancer [9,10]. In addition ... HFD alone. IV. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom. V. HFD + Arabian coffee + cardamom + cloves.

  9. Coffee Production in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Profitability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers processed at CPU gained about TZS 1350/kg as coffee improvement gain. Coffee production ... explored, keeping in mind the theories put forth in the theoretical ... Information used in the gross margin analysis encompass total coffee ...

  10. Influence of coffee/water ratio on the final quality of espresso coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Andueza, S. (Susana); Vila, M.A. (María A.); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de; Cid, C. (Concepción)

    2007-01-01

    Espresso coffee is a polyphasic beverage in which the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics obviously depend on both the selection of ground roasted coffee and the technical conditions of the percolation process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the coffee/water ratio on the physico-chemical and sensory quality of espresso coffee. Furthermore, the influence of botanical varieties (Arabica and Robusta) and the type of roast (conventional and torrefacto) on the selec...

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  12. Interaction between household and field characteristics in generation of ecosystem services from coffee agro-ecosystem of Llano Bonito, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Allinne, Clementine; Avelino, Jacques; Gary, Christian; Rossing, Walter; Tittonell, Pablo; Rapidel, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Agro-ecosystems are major sources of ecosystem services (ESs). Coffee, originally a shade crop, is an important export cash crop for Costa Rica and other Latin America countries. Coffee grown under shades of diverse natural shade tree species ("rustic" systems) has potential to provide numerous ESs. However, coffee systems in Costa Rica have gone through transformation that involved sparse or absence of shade and intensive production systems with higher external input, favouring short term fi...