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Sample records for coffee agroforestry systems

  1. Spatial pattern and ecological process in the coffee agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-01

    The coffee agroforestry system provides an ideal platform for the study of spatial ecology. The uniform pattern of the coffee plants and shade trees allows for the study of pattern generation through intrinsic biological forces rather than extrinsic habitat patchiness. Detailed studies, focusing on a key mutualism between an ant (Azteca instabilis) and a scale insect (Coccus viridis), conducted in a 45-ha plot in a coffee agroforestry system have provided insights into (1) the quantitative evaluation of spatial pattern of the scale insect Coccus viridis on coffee bushes, (2) the mechanisms for the generation of patterns through the combination of local satellite ant nest formation and regional control from natural enemies, and (3) the consequences of the spatial pattern for the stability of predator-prey (host-parasitoid) systems, for a key coccinelid beetle preying on the scale insects and a phorid fly parasitoid parasitizing the ant.

  2. Potential Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineral of Soil in Coffee Agroforestry System with Various Shading Trees

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    Purwanto .

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of shading trees in coffee farms has been well understood to establish suitable condition for the growth of coffee trees, on the other hand their role in nitrogen cycle in coffee farming is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of various legume shading trees on the concentration of soil mineral N (N-NH4 + and N-NO3-, potential nitrification and to study the controlling factors of nitrification under field conditions. This field explorative research was carried out in Sumberjaya, West Lampung. Twelve observation plots covered four land use systems (LUS, i.e. 1 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiasepium as shade trees; 2 Coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaas shade trees and Arachis pintoias cover crops; 3Coffee agroforestry with Paraserianthes falcataria as shade trees; and 4 Mixed/multistrata coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiaand other fruit crops as shade trees. Measurements of soil mineral-N concentration were carried out every three weeks for three months. Results showed that shade tree species in coffee agroforestry significantly affected concentrations of soil NH4 +, NO3- and potential nitrification. Mixed coffee agroforestry had the highest NH4+/N-mineral ratio (7.16% and the lowest potential nitrification (0.13 mg NO2-kg-1 hour -1 compared to other coffee agroforestry systems using single species of leguminous shade trees. Ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral increased 0.8—21% while potential nitrification decreased 55—79% in mixed coffee agroforestry compared to coffee agroforestry with Gliricidia or P. falcatariaas shade trees. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcatariaas shade trees had potential nitrification 53% lower and ratio of NH4 + /N-mineral concentration 20% higher than that with Gliricidia. Coffee agroforestry with P. falcataria as shade trees also had organic C content 17% higher, total N 40% higher, available P 112% higher than that with Gliricidia. The presence of A. pintoiin

  3. Soil aggregation and organic carbon of Oxisols under coffee in agroforestry systems

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    Gabriel Pinto Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensive land use can lead to a loss of soil physical quality with negative impacts on soil aggregates, resistance to root penetration, porosity, and bulk density. Organic and agroforestry management systems can represent sustainable, well-balanced alternatives in the agroecosystem for promoting a greater input of organic matter than the conventional system. Based on the hypothesis that an increased input of organic matter improves soil physical quality, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of coffee production systems on soil physical properties in two Red-Yellow Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelho-Amarelos in the region of Caparaó, Espirito Santo, Brazil. On Farm 1, we evaluated the following systems: primary forest (Pf1, organic coffee (Org1 and conventional coffee (Con1. On Farm 2, we evaluated: secondary forest (Sf2, organic coffee intercropped with inga (Org/In2, organic coffee intercropped with leucaena and inga (Org/In/Le2, organic coffee intercropped with cedar (Org/Ced2 and unshaded conventional coffee (Con2. Soil samples were collected under the tree canopy from the 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers. Under organic and agroforestry coffee management, soil aggregation was higher than under conventional coffee. In the agroforestry system, the degree of soil flocculation was 24 % higher, soil moisture was 80 % higher, and soil resistance to penetration was lower than in soil under conventional coffee management. The macroaggregates in the organic systems, Org/In2, Org/In/Le2, and Org/Ced2 contained, on average, 29.1, 40.1 and 34.7 g kg-1 organic carbon, respectively. These levels are higher than those found in the unshaded conventional system (Con2, with 20.2 g kg-1.

  4. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a

  5. Biodiversity and key ecosystem services in agroforestry coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis reports the results of long-term experimentation (since 1993) of family farmers with agroforestry (AF) coffee systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region, a highly fragmented and threatened biodiversity hotspot. The farmers used native trees from forest fragments during a transiti

  6. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

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    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

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    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  8. Effect of shade on Arabica coffee berry disease development: Toward an agroforestry system to reduce disease impact.

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    Mouen Bedimo, J A; Njiayouom, I; Bieysse, D; Ndoumbè Nkeng, M; Cilas, C; Nottéghem, J L

    2008-12-01

    Coffee berry disease (CBD), caused by Colletotrichum kahawae, is a major constraint for Arabica coffee cultivation in Africa. The disease is specific to green berries and can lead to 60% harvest losses. In Cameroon, mixed cropping systems of coffee with other crops, such as fruit trees, are very widespread agricultural practices. Fruit trees are commonly planted at random on coffee farms, providing a heterogeneous shading pattern for coffee trees growing underneath. Based on a recent study of CBD, it is known that those plants can reduce disease incidence. To assess the specific effect of shade, in situ and in vitro disease development was compared between coffee trees shaded artificially by a net and trees located in full sunlight. In the field, assessments confirmed a reduction in CBD on trees grown under shade compared with those grown in full sunlight. Artificial inoculations in the laboratory showed that shade did not have any effect on the intrinsic susceptibility of coffee berries to CBD. Coffee shading mainly acts on environmental parameters in limiting disease incidence. In addition to reducing yield losses, agroforestry system may also be helpful in reducing chemical control of the disease and in diversifying coffee growers' incomes.

  9. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

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    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  10. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Cardoso, I.M.; Duarte, E.M.G.; Fernandes, R.B.A.; Gomes, L.C.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree

  11. Protective shade, tree diversity and soil properties in coffee agroforestry systems in the Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Cardoso, I.M.; Duarte, E.M.G.; Fernandes, R.B.A.; Gomes, L.C.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production and biodiversity conservation can be mutually supportive in providing multiple ecosystem services to farmers and society. This study aimed to determine the contribution of agroforestry systems, as tested by family farmers in the Brazilian Rainforest region since 1993, to tree

  12. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette

    2011-01-26

    Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices) across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  13. Ensemble composition and activity levels of insectivorous bats in response to management intensification in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Kimberly Williams-Guillén

    Full Text Available Shade coffee plantations have received attention for their role in biodiversity conservation. Bats are among the most diverse mammalian taxa in these systems; however, previous studies of bats in coffee plantations have focused on the largely herbivorous leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae. In contrast, we have virtually no information on how ensembles of aerial insectivorous bats--nearly half the Neotropical bat species--change in response to habitat modification. To evaluate the effects of agroecosystem management on insectivorous bats, we studied their diversity and activity in southern Chiapas, Mexico, a landscape dominated by coffee agroforestry. We used acoustic monitoring and live captures to characterize the insectivorous bat ensemble in forest fragments and coffee plantations differing in the structural and taxonomic complexity of shade trees. We captured bats of 12 non-phyllostomid species; acoustic monitoring revealed the presence of at least 12 more species of aerial insectivores. Richness of forest bats was the same across all land-use types; in contrast, species richness of open-space bats increased in low shade, intensively managed coffee plantations. Conversely, only forest bats demonstrated significant differences in ensemble structure (as measured by similarity indices across land-use types. Both overall activity and feeding activity of forest bats declined significantly with increasing management intensity, while the overall activity, but not feeding activity, of open-space bats increased. We conclude that diverse shade coffee plantations in our study area serve as valuable foraging and commuting habitat for aerial insectivorous bats, and several species also commute through or forage in low shade coffee monocultures.

  14. [Temporal and spatial distribution of ants in a light gradient, in a coffee agroforestry system, Turrialba, Costa Rica].

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    Varón, Edgar H; Hanson, Paul; Longino, John T; Borbón, Olger; Carballo, Manuel; Hilje, Luko

    2007-01-01

    Shade trees are frequently present in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) agroforestry systems of Mesoamerica. These systems can harbor a rich entomofauna, including ants, which could be predators of key pests in these systems. However, the role of shade on the distribution and abundance of these ants is unknown, yet such knowledge could suggest guidelines for manipulating certain environmental conditions of their habitat, thereby achieving their conservation and increase. Therefore, we studied the effect of shade on the spatial and temporal distribution of three ant species (Solenopsis geminata, Pheidole radoszkowskii and Crematogaster curvispinosa) that may prey on the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). To do this, abundance was evaluated across a sun-shade gradient in a coffee plantation with four alternate plots (from pure sun to total shade) in Turrialba, Costa Rica. In the community that was studied 28 species of ants were collected, of which S. geminata was the dominant species (79% of the total individuals), followed by P. radoszkowskii (16 %). S. geminata and C. curvispinosa preferred sunny areas, while P. radoszkowskii showed no defined preference. Likewise, with respect to location, S. geminata predominated in the soil, while P. radoszkowskii and C. curvispinosa predominated in coffee bushes.

  15. Interactive effects among ecosystem services and management practices on crop production: pollination in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Boreux, Virginie; Kushalappa, Cheppudira G; Vaast, Philippe; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2013-05-21

    Crop productivity is improved by ecosystem services, including pollination, but this should be set in the context of trade-offs among multiple management practices. We investigated the impact of pollination services on coffee production, considering variation in fertilization, irrigation, shade cover, and environmental variables such as rainfall (which stimulates coffee flowering across all plantations), soil pH, and nitrogen availability. After accounting for management interventions, bee abundance improved coffee production (number of berries harvested). Some management interventions, such as irrigation, used once to trigger asynchronous flowering, dramatically increased bee abundance at coffee trees. Others, such as the extent and type of tree cover, revealed interacting effects on pollination and, ultimately, crop production. The effects of management interventions, notably irrigation and addition of lime, had, however, far more substantial positive effects on coffee production than tree cover. These results suggest that pollination services matter, but managing the asynchrony of flowering was a more effective tool for securing good pollination than maintaining high shade tree densities as pollinator habitat. Complex interactions across farm and landscape scales, including both management practices and environmental conditions, shape pollination outcomes. Effective production systems therefore require the integrated consideration of management practices in the context of the surrounding habitat structure. This paper points toward a more strategic use of ecosystem services in agricultural systems, where ecosystem services are shaped by the coupling of management interventions and environmental variables.

  16. Seasonal contrasts in the response of coffee ants to agroforestry shade-tree management.

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    Teodoro, A V; Sousa-Souto, L; Klein, A-M; Tscharntke, T

    2010-12-01

    In many tropical landscapes, agroforestry systems are the last forested ecosystems, providing shade, having higher humidity, mitigating potential droughts, and possessing more species than any other crop system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of shade and associated humidity in agroforestry enhance coffee ant richness more during the dry than rainy season, comparing ant richness in 22 plots of three coffee agroforestry types in coastal Ecuador: simple-shade agroforests (intensively managed with low tree species diversity), complex-shade agroforests (extensively managed with intermediate tree species diversity) and abandoned coffee agroforests (abandoned for 10-15 yr and resembling secondary forests). Seasonality affected responses of ant richness but not composition to agroforestry management, in that most species were observed in abandoned coffee agroforests in the dry season. In the rainy season, however, most species were found in simple-shade agroforests, and complex agroforestry being intermediate. Foraging coffee ants species composition did not change differently according to agroforestry type and season. Results show that shade appears to be most important in the dry seasons, while a mosaic of different land-use types may provide adequate environmental conditions to ant species, maximizing landscape-wide richness throughout the year.

  17. Linking deforestation scenarios to pollination services and economic returns in coffee agroforestry systems.

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    Priess, J A; Mimler, M; Klein, A M; Schwarze, S; Tscharntke, T; Steffan-Dewenter, I

    2007-03-01

    The ecological and economic consequences of rain forest conversion and fragmentation for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and ecosystem services like protection of soils, water retention, pollination, or biocontrol are poorly understood. In human-dominated tropical landscapes, forest remnants may provide ecosystem services and act as a source for beneficial organisms immigrating into adjacent annual and perennial agro-ecosystems. In this study, we use empirical data on the negative effects of increasing forest distance on both pollinator diversity and fruit set of coffee to estimate future changes in pollination services for different land use scenarios in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Spatially explicit land use simulations demonstrate that depending on the magnitude and location of ongoing forest conversion, pollination services are expected to decline continuously and thus directly reduce coffee yields by up to 18%, and net revenues per hectare up to 14% within the next two decades (compared to average yields of the year 2001). Currently, forests in the study area annually provide pollination services worth 46 Euros per hectare. However, our simulations also revealed a potential win-win constellation, in which ecological and economic values can be preserved, if patches of forests (or other natural vegetation) are maintained in the agricultural landscape, which could be a viable near future option for local farmers and regional land use planners.

  18. Mycorrhizal associations in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, de A.M.X.; Castro Tavares, de R.; Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Agroforestry systems can be a viable alternative to the preservation of natural resources while contributing to sustainable food production in the tropics. These perennial systems promote beneficial biological interactions between micro-organisms and plant species, especially those formed by arbuscu

  19. Leaf Area Index (LAI) in different type of agroforestry systems based on hemispherical photographs in Cidanau Watershed

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    Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Setiawan, Yudi; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2017-01-01

    Ecological functions of agroforestry systems have perceived benefit to people around Cidanau Watershed, especially in the protection of water quality. The main causes of the problems encountered in the Cidanau Watershed are associated with the human factors, especially encroachment and conversion of forest into farmland. The encroachment has made most forest in Cidanau Watershed become bare land. To preserve the ecological function of agroforestry systems in Cidanau Watershed, monitoring of the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems is really needed. High intensity thinning of crown density due to deforestation can change stand leaf area index dramatically. By knowing LAI, we can assess the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems. LAI in this research was obtained from Hemispherical Photographs analysis using the threshold method in HemiView Canopy Analysis Software. Our research results indicate that there are six types of agroforestry in Cidanau Watershed i.e. Sengon Agroforestry, Clove Agroforestry, Melinjo Agroforestry, Chocolate Agroforestry, Coffee Agroforestry, and Complex Agroforestry. Several factors potentially contribute to variations in the value of LAI in different types of agroforestry. The simple assumptions about differences ranges of LAI values on six types of agroforestry is closely related to leaf area and plant population density.

  20. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  1. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

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    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  2. Forecasting the Performance of Agroforestry Systems

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    Luedeling, E.; Shepherd, K.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry has received considerable attention from scientists and development practitioners in recent years. It is recognized as a cornerstone of many traditional agricultural systems, as well as a new option for sustainable land management in currently treeless agricultural landscapes. Agroforestry systems are diverse, but most manifestations supply substantial ecosystem services, including marketable tree products, soil fertility, water cycle regulation, wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration. While these benefits have been well documented for many existing systems, projecting the outcomes of introducing new agroforestry systems, or forecasting system performance under changing environmental or climatic conditions, remains a substantial challenge. Due to the various interactions between system components, the multiple benefits produced by trees and crops, and the host of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that shape agroforestry systems, mechanistic models of such systems quickly become very complex. They then require a lot of data for site-specific calibration, which presents a challenge for their use in new environmental and climatic domains, especially in data-scarce environments. For supporting decisions on the scaling up of agroforestry technologies, new projection methods are needed that can capture system complexity to an adequate degree, while taking full account of the fact that data on many system variables will virtually always be highly uncertain. This paper explores what projection methods are needed for supplying decision-makers with useful information on the performance of agroforestry in new places or new climates. Existing methods are discussed in light of these methodological needs. Finally, a participatory approach to performance projection is proposed that captures system dynamics in a holistic manner and makes probabilistic projections about expected system performance. This approach avoids the temptation to take

  3. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

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    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  4. Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

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    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  5. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human-elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P; Nath, C D; Nanaya, K M; Kushalappa, C G; Garcia, C

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  6. Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

    2011-05-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  7. Erratum: Erratum to: Elephants Also Like Coffee: Trends and Drivers of Human-Elephant Conflicts in Coffee Agroforestry Landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, P.; Nath, C. D.; Nanaya, K. M.; Kushalappa, C. G.; Garcia, C.

    2011-08-01

    Kodagu district produces 2% of the world's coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human-elephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.

  8. Coffee water use in agroforestry system with rubber trees Uso da água em sistema agroflorestal com café e seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Abbud Righi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Water uptake and use by plants are essentially energy processes that can be largely modified by percentage of soil cover, plant type; foliage area and its distribution; phenological stage and several environmental factors. Coffee trees (Coffea arabica - cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 in Agrforestry System (AFS spaced 3.4x0.9m apart, were planted inside and along rows of 12- year-old rubber trees (Hevea spp. in Piracicaba-SP, Brazil (22 42'30" S, 47 38'00" W - altitude: 546m. Sap flow of one-year-old coffee plants exposed to 35; 45; 80; 95 and 100% of total solar radiation was estimated by the heat balance technique (Dynamax Inc.. Coffee plants under shade showed greater water loss per unit of incident irradiance. On the other hand, plants in monocrop (full sun had the least water loss per unit of incident irradiance. For the evaluated positions average water use was (gH2O.m-2Leaf area.MJ-1: 64.71; 67.75; 25.89; 33.54; 27.11 in Dec./2002 and 97.14; 72.50; 40.70; 32.78; 26.13 in Feb./2003. This fact may be attributed to the higher stomata sensitivity of the coffee plants under more illuminated conditions, thus plants under full sun presented the highest water use efficiency. Express transpiration by leaf mass can be a means to access plant adaptation to the various environments, which is inaccessible when the approach is made by leaf area.A absorção e uso da água pelas plantas são processos essencialmente energéticos que podem ser grandemente modificados pela porcentagem de cobertura do solo, tipo de plantas, área foliar e sua distribuição, estágio fenológico e diversos fatores ambientais. Cafeeiros (Coffea arabica - cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 em Sistema Agroflorestal (AFS espaçados de 3.4 x 0.9 m foram plantados dentro e ao lado de um seringal de 12 anos de idade (Hevea spp. em Piracicaba, SP, Brasil (22 42'30"S, 47 38'00" W - altitude: 546 m. O fluxo de seiva dos cafeeiros com 1 ano de idade expostos a 35, 45, 80, 95 e 100% da radiação solar

  9. Selected readings on agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.; Raintree, J.B.; Huxley, P.A.; Leyton, L.; Bentley, W.R.; Hegde, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    A collection of papers published elsewhere is presented: Agroforestry concepts and practices; Methodology for diagnosis and design of agroforestry land management systems; The role of trees in agroforestry: some comments; Crop water use: principles and some considerations for agroforestry; Agroforestry - a strategy for research and action in India; Agroforestry: experiences of BAIF; and Leucaena (leucocephala) for agroforestry.

  10. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  11. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  12. Diversidade da comunidade de plantas invasoras em sistemas agroflorestais com café em Turrialba, Costa Rica Diversity of weed community in agroforestry systems with coffee in Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de plantas invasoras, em sistemas agroflorestais com cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. e em cafezal a pleno sol, sob manejo orgânico e convencional. Foram avaliados 20 tratamentos no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação entre sistemas agroflorestais e quatro níveis de manejo, baseados na intensidade das práticas e aplicação de insumos: alto e médio convencional, médio e baixo orgânico. Em julho de 2002 e setembro de 2005 foi realizado o levantamento de plantas invasoras. Determinaram-se a riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade. Observou-se redução nos valores médios de riqueza, abundância, diversidade e eqüitabilidade, em que os menores valores foram encontrados no tratamento com manejo alto convencional. Houve redução na freqüência das trepadeiras, ciperáceas e espécies de folhas estreitas (má cobertura, e aumento das espécies de folhas largas (boa cobertura e gramíneas. Nas duas épocas, os maiores percentuais de pontos com solo descoberto foram encontrados no tratamento alto convencional, e os menores percentuais foram encontrados em todos os tratamentos com manejo médio e baixo orgânico, e em três dos sete tratamentos com manejo médio convencional. Tais resultados demonstram que onde há aplicação freqüente de herbicida, a presença de árvores não evita exposição do solo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition of spontaneous species in coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivated in full sun and in agroforestry systems, under organic and conventional management. Twenty treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design, in a split plot in time, with three replicates. The treatments corresponded to combinations between types of agroforestry systems and four management system levels, based on practice intensity and

  13. Carbon stock assessment of three selected agroforestry systems in Bukidnon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred M. Labata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, caused by global warming, is a phenomenon partly resulting from abundance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.It is the most pressing environmental problem of the world today. It persists, and it cannot be stopped. Rather, it can be mitigated. Agroforestrysystems as land use can reduce the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study therefore aimed to generate data on the carbonstocks of three selected agroforestry systems located within the Province of Bukidnon. The methodologies used include measurement of treesat diameter breast height (dbh and sampling of herbaceous vegetation, litter, and soil for carbon content determination and farmer interview.Results showed that carbon accumulation of agroforestry systems goes along with the following order: taungya agroforestry system (174 MgCha-1 > mixed multistorey system (162 MgC ha-1 > falcata-coffee multistorey system (92 MgC ha-1. Carbon was stored in the various pools inthe following order of magnitude: soil (77-92% > trees (7-22% > herbaceous vegetation and litter (1%. Compared with natural forests, theseselected agroforestry systems represents 23-44% of the total carbon stock. Policy programs promoting the establishment of agroforestry systemsin idle lands in Bukidnon should be considered.

  14. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    and ecosystem services assessed. Erosion control, biodiversity, and soil fertility are enhanced by agroforestry while there is no clear effect on provisioning services. The effect of agroforestry on biomass production is negative. Comparisons between agroforestry types and reference land-uses showed that both...... silvopastoral and silvoarable systems increase ecosystem service provision and biodiversity, especially when compared with forestry land. Mediterranean tree plantation systems should be especially targeted as soil erosion could be highly reduced while soil fertility increased. We conclude that agroforestry can...

  15. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Delgado, F.; Roupsard, O.; Le Maire, G.; Taugourdeau, S.; Pérez, A.; van Oijen, M.; Vaast, P.; Rapidel, B.; Harmand, J. M.; Voltz, M.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Imbach, P.; Moussa, R.

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES), a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes) in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently), soil water content (R2 = 0.35) and water table level (R2 = 0.84). Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow and 25% as evapotranspiration, while the remaining 11% is probably explained by deep

  16. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gómez-Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water. In order to foster the provision and payment for Hydrological Environmental Services (HES, a quantitative assessment of the impact of specific land uses on the functioning of drainage-basins is required. The present paper aims to study the water balance partitioning in a volcanic coffee agroforestry micro-basin (1 km2, steep slopes in Costa Rica, as a first step towards evaluating sediment or contaminant loads. The main hydrological processes were monitored during one year, using flume, eddy-covariance flux tower, soil water profiles and piezometers. A new Hydro-SVAT lumped model is proposed, that balances SVAT (Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer and basin-reservoir routines. The purpose of such a coupling was to achieve a trade-off between the expected performance of ecophysiological and hydrological models, which are often employed separately and at different spatial scales, either the plot or the basin. The calibration of the model to perform streamflow yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe (NS coefficient equal to 0.89 for the year 2009, while the validation of the water balance partitioning was consistent with the independent measurements of actual evapotranspiration (R2 = 0.79, energy balance closed independently, soil water content (R2 = 0.35 and water table level (R2 = 0.84. Eight months of data from 2010 were used to validate modelled streamflow, resulting in a NS = 0.75. An uncertainty analysis showed that the streamflow modelling was precise for nearly every time step, while a sensitivity analysis revealed which parameters mostly affected model precision, depending on the season. It was observed that 64% of the incident rainfall R flowed out of the basin as streamflow

  17. Agroforestry Systems in Zimbabwe: Promoting Trees in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasin, Helen L., Ed.

    Agroforestry has been defined as a sustainable crop management system which combines the production of forest crops with field crops. In June, 1987, an agroforestry workshop took place in Nyanga, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. This document was prepared to share the information presented at this workshop with other non-government organizations around the…

  18. Análise comparativa das características da serrapilheira e do solo em cafezais (Coffea arabica L. cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultura, na Zona da Mata MG Comparative analysis of litter and soil characteristics under coffee (Coffea arabica L. crop in agroforestry and monoculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Matoso Campanha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O aporte de serrapilheira em sistemas agroflorestais pode melhorar as características químicas e físicas do solo, diminuir a erosão e permitir a manutenção da umidade no solo por mais tempo. Isso faz dele um sistema alternativo de produção de café em regiões com solos propensos à degradação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise comparativa da quantidade e teor de nutrientes da serrapilheira e das características de fertilidade e do teor de umidade dos solos, em cafeeiros cultivados sob sistemas agroflorestal e solteiro. A pesquisa foi realizada na Zona da Mata mineira, durante o período compreendido entre janeiro de 1999 e maio de 2000. O sistema agroflorestal contribuiu com 6,1 Mg ha-1 ano-1 de matéria seca de serrapilheira, no entanto o solteiro aportou 4,5 Mg ha-1 ano-1, ressaltando-se que esta última apresentou teor mais elevado de macronutrientes. O solo do sistema agroflorestal exibiu maior teor de umidade de 20-40 cm, maior capacidade de troca de cátions e soma de bases trocáveis, maior teor de K, Ca, Mg, Cu e Zn em ambos os horizontes do solo e menor índice de saturação de alumínio e alumínio trocável na camada mais profunda do que o solo sob a monocultura. No cultivo solteiro, o solo apresentou maior teor de P e de matéria orgânica, tanto na camada superficial quanto na profunda.Coffee plants in agroforestry systems is an alternative to full sunlight cultivation, presenting the potential benefits of enhancing soil chemical and physical characteristics, reducing soil erosion, besides maintaining soil moisture for longer periods. This research aimed at comparing the quantity and nutrient concentration in the litter, soil fertility and soil moisture in coffee crops under full sunlight monocrop and in agroforestry systems, at the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research was carried out between January 1999 and May 2000. The agroforestry system, contributed with 6.1 Mg ha-1 year-1 of

  19. Enhanced biodiversity and pollination in UK agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varah, Alexa; Jones, Hannah; Smith, Jo; Potts, Simon G

    2013-07-01

    Monoculture farming systems have had serious environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity and pollinator decline. The authors explain how temperate agroforestry systems show potential in being able to deliver multiple environmental benefits.

  20. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P K Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    Investments in agroforestry research during the past three decades-albeit modest-have yielded significant gains in understanding the role of trees on farmlands, and the ecological and economic advantages of integrated farming systems. While early research focused mostly on farm or local levels, broader-level ecosystem services of agroforestry systems (AFS) have raised high expectations in recent years. The nine papers included in this special collection deal with three of such environmental benefits of AFS: water-quality enhancement, carbon sequestration, and soil improvement. These benefits are based on the perceived ability of (i) vegetative buffer strips (VBS) to reduce surface transport of agrochemical pollutants, (ii) large volumes of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees to store high amounts of C deeper in the soil profile, and (iii) trees to enhance soil productivity through biological nitrogen fixation, efficient nutrient cycling, and deep capture of nutrients. The papers included have, in general, substantiated these premises and provided new insights. For example, the riparian VBS are reported to increase the reservoir life, in addition to reducing transport of agrochemicals; the variations in C storage in different soil-fraction sizes suggest that microaggregate (250-53 μm) dynamics in the soil could be a good indicator of its C-storage potential; and the use of vector analysis technique is recommended in AFS to avoid consequences of inaccurate and overuse of fertilizers. The papers also identified significant knowledge gaps in these areas. A common theme across all three environmental quality issues covered is that more and varied research datasets across a broad spectrum of conditions need to be generated and integrated with powerful statistical tools to ensure wide applicability of the results. Furthermore, appropriate management practices that are acceptable to the targeted land users and agroforestry practitioners need to be designed to

  1. Determinants of bacterial communities in Canadian agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samiran; Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bissett, Andrew; Richardson, Alan E; Siddique, Tariq; Bork, Edward W; Chang, Scott X

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change is one of the most important factors influencing soil microbial communities, which play a pivotal role in most biogeochemical and ecological processes. Using agroforestry systems as a model, this study examined the effects of land uses and edaphic properties on bacterial communities in three agroforestry types covering a 270 km soil-climate gradient in Alberta, Canada. Our results demonstrate that land-use patterns exert stronger effects on soil bacterial communities than soil zones in these agroforestry systems. Plots with trees in agroforestry systems promoted greater bacterial abundance and to some extent species richness, which was associated with more nutrient-rich soil resources. While Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla and subphyla across land uses, Arthrobacter, Acidobacteria_Gp16, Burkholderia, Rhodanobacter and Rhizobium were the keystone taxa in these agroforestry systems. Soil pH and carbon contents emerged as the major determinants of bacterial community characteristics. We found non-random co-occurrence and modular patterns of soil bacterial communities, and these patterns were controlled by edaphic factors and not their taxonomy. Overall, this study highlights the drivers and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities in agroforestry systems.

  2. A common framework for greenhouse gas assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: Connecting via GRACEnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems offer many ecosystem benefits, but such systems have previously been marginalized in temperate environments due to overriding economic goals and perceived management complexity. In view of adaptation to a changing climate, agroforestry systems offer advantages that require quan...

  3. ECONOMIC ANALISYS OF A COFFEE-BANANA SYSTEM OF A FAMILY-BASED AGRICULTURE AT THE ATLANTIC FOREST ZONE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ponciano Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems can reduce the risks of investing in just one crop. However, there are uncertainties like other agricultural and forestry activities. Therefore, there is the need for economic studies under conditions of economic risk of agroforestry systems. This work reports an analysis of the main components of costs and revenues of an agroforestry system with coffee and banana, as well as an analysis of its economic performance through indicators: net present value, equivalent period benefit (or cost, family labor revenue and a sensitivity analysis of net present value. The main cost components in the system are the human labor and mineral and organic fertilizers applied in coffee, and the costs for the production of coffee outweigh the costs of banana production. The monthly income from the production of bananas balances the costs of coffee production, generating a positive cash flow in the studied period. Financial indicators showed positive values, demonstrating the economic viability of the system with coffee and banana. The agroforestry system is economically feasible, even with variations of ± 20% in production costs and selling prices of their products. Variables that showed greater sensitivity on the net present value were the selling price of coffee and bananas, and the cost of coffee production.

  4. Model Bera dalam Sistem Agroforestri (Fallow Land Model in Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Suryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of tree-based agroforestry model gives consequences to the space utilization dominated by trees. Farmers take action on this condition by conniving the fallow land. This research was aimed to know the fallow land model, find the key parameters of fallow land model, and formulating the management of fallow land. The spatial model of agroforestry used in this research were trees along border, alley cropping, alternate rows and mixer. The actual data obtained were tree height, tree diameter, crown diameter, land width, and light intensity; the calculated data were land extent, the percentage of crown cover and crown density. The analysis used to determining the percentage of crown cover to calculate the affective arable land area was zone system. Zonation system maked for four zone : 1 zone 1 interval 0-1 m ; 2 zone 2 interval 1-2 m; zone 3 interval 2-3 m; zone 4 interval 3-4m.Key words: agroforestry, fallow land, silviculture, land cover, resource sharing, crown dynamic

  5. AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS SING PORTFOL'IQ-MQDEL ANALYSIS.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimum risk system is an agroforestry system in which v80% of the land is allocated to forest crops and 20% ... practices of shifting cultivation; the a sustainable land management system continued .... choice/combination of enterprise. .... the highest pay off and thus specialize in ... as the basis of decision making. complete.

  6. Agroforestry systems for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes are an important component of a biofuel strategy to develop energy independence. Agroforestry systems offer an opportunity to produce both food and biofuel feedstocks from the same land area. Such a strategy could improve numerous ecosystem services more so than either of t...

  7. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services? A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.;

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... is fragmented and does often not integrate diverse ecosystem services into the assessment. To upscale existing case-study insights to the European level, we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem service provision and on biodiversity levels. From 53 publications we extracted...... a total of 365 comparisons that were selected for the meta-analysis. Results revealed an overall positive effect of agroforestry (effect size = 0.454, p agroforestry practices...

  8. Seasonal isotope hydrology of a coffee agroforestry watershed in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Unwala, K.; Boll, J.; Roupsard, O.

    2014-12-01

    Improved information of seasonal variations in watershed hydrology in the tropics can strengthen models and understanding of hydrology of these areas. Seasonality in the tropics produces rainy seasons versus dry seasons, leading to different hydrologic and water quality processes throughout the year. We questioned whether stable isotopes in water can be used to trace the seasonality in this region, despite experiencing a "drier" season, such as in a Tropical Humid location. This study examines the fluctuations of stable isotope compositions (δ18O and δD) in water balance components in a small (agroforestry watershed located in central Costa Rica on the Caribbean side. Samples were collected in precipitation, groundwater, and stream water for more than two years, across seasons and at an hourly frequency during storm events to better characterize spatial and temporal variations of the isotopic composition and of the respective contribution of surface and deeper groundwater to streamflow in the watershed. Isotope composition in precipitation ranged from -18.5 to -0.3‰ (∂18O) and -136.4 to 13.7‰ (∂D), and data indicate that atmospheric moisture cycling plays an important role in this region. A distinct seasonality was observed in monthly-averaged data between enriched dry season events as compared with the rainy season events. Streamflow data indicate that a deep groundwater system contributes significantly to baseflow, although a shallow, spring-driven system also contributes to stream water within the watershed. During storm events, precipitation contributes to stormflow in the short-term, confirming the role of superficial runoff. These results indicate that isotopes are helpful to partition the water balance even in a Tropical Humid situation where the rainfall seasonality is weak.

  9. Vegetable Agroforestry and Cashew-Cacao Systems in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Ha, D. (ed.); Du, L; Thanh Loan, L.; Loi, N. Kim (ed.); Duc Thanh, N. (ed.); Duc Phuoc, P. H. (ed.); Midmore, D.; Catacutan, D.; Palada, M.; M. Reyes; Cajilig, R. (ed.); Kunta, K. (ed.); Sombatpanit, S. (ed.)

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record This book is part of a four-book series that details the research conducted by the Nong Lam University research team concerning the addition of cacao to cashew farming systems in Vietnam. Eight cacao varieties were tested on farmer-owned cashew plantations and had promising results that showed that cacao grew exceptionally well under the cashew canopy, and will be profitable to farmers. These ecologically-sound, integrated vegetable agroforestry systems were developed ...

  10. Persea schiedeana: A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Bost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.

  11. [Research progress on carbon sink function of agroforestry system under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting-Ting; Su, Pei-Xi; Zhou, Zi-Juan; Shan, Li-Shan

    2014-10-01

    As a land comprehensive utilization system, agroforestry system can absorb and fix CO2 effectively to increase carbon storage, and also reduces greenhouse effect convincingly while reaching the aim of harvest. The regulatory role in CO2 makes humans realize that agroforestry systems have significant superiority compared with single cropping systems, therefore, understanding the carbon sinks of different components in an agroforestry system and its influencing factors play an important role in studying global carbon cycle and accurate evaluation of carbon budget. This paper reviewed the concept and classification of agroforestry system, and then the carbon sequestration potentials of different components in agroforestry systems and influencing factors. It was concluded that the carbon sequestration rate of plants from different agroforestry systems in different regions are highly variable, ranging from 0.59 to 11.08 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1), and it is mainly influenced by climatic factors and the characteristics of agroforestry systems (species composition, tree density and stand age). The soil C sequestration of any agroforestry system is influenced by the amount and quality of biomass input provided by tree and nontree components of the system and the soil properties such as soil texture and soil structure. Overall the amount of carbon storage in any agroforestry system depends on the structure and function of its each component. The future studies should focus on the carbon sink functions of structurally optimized agroforestry systems, the temporal variation and spatial distribution pattern of carbon storage in agroforestry system and its carbon sequestration mechanism in a long time.

  12. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  13. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  14. NUTRIENT DEPOSITION BY LITTER IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN PARATY (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Duarte Silveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to evaluate the Regenerative and Analogous Agroforestry Systems (SAFRA on environmental sustainability, using as indicators the biomass increase or accumulation and nutrients deposition through litter arboreal species. This work is part of  PRODETAB/EMBRAPA - 39th Project – and was developed in Goura Vrindávna Farm, Paraty - RJ. 28 multipurpose arboreal species were cultivated in three agroforestry treatments, Minimum SAFRA (simplified system of the banana culture enrichment, Absolute SAFRA (dense and diversified system and Modified SAFRA (the same composition of the latter SAFRA plus soil fertilization. For evaluating nutrients deposition through litter fifteen months after planting, samples of three Safra and two control treatments, banana culture and area in fallow, were collected with 625cm2 collectors. Macro and micronutrients determinations were done in the samples. The Minimum SAFRA  was  the  system  that deposited  the  greatest weight in litter (32.4 t.ha-1 and the greatest content of micro and macronutrients. Excepting C and H, N was the one which presented greatest content in the five treatments, and Fe was the micronutrients of major deposition. The vegetation pruning in the SAFRA benefited the nutrients cycling and contributed to its content elevation in litter. Considering the nutrients deposition through litter, the SAFRAs were the most promissory systems in the re-establishing of these ecological functions, when compared to area in fallow and banana monoculture.

  15. Sap flow measurements of lateral tree roots in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J. E.; Khan, A. A. H.; Ong, C. K.; Black, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful extension of agroforestry to areas of the semi-arid tropics where deep reserves of water exist requires that the tree species be complementary to the associated crops in their use of water within the crop rooting zone. However, it is difficult to identify trees suitable for dryland agroforestry because most existing techniques for determining water uptake by roots cannot distinguish between absorption by tree and crop roots. We describe a method for measuring sap flow through lateral roots using constant temperature heat balance gauges, and the application of this method in a study of complementarity of water use in agroforestry systems containing Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Sap flow gauges were attached to the trunks and roots of Grevillea with minimum disturbance to the soil. Thermal energy emanating from the soil adversely affected the accuracy of sap flow gauges attached to the roots, with the result that the uncorrected values were up to eightfold greater than the true water uptake determined gravimetrically. This overestimation was eliminated by using a calibration method in which nonconducting excised root segments, with sap flow gauges attached, were placed adjacent to the live roots. The power consumption and temperature differentials of the excised roots were used to correct for external sources and internal losses of heat within the paired live root. The fraction of the total sap flow through individual trees supplied by the lateral roots varied greatly between trees of similar canopy size. Excision of all lateral roots, except for one to which a heat balance gauge was attached, did not significantly increase sap flow through the intact root, suggesting that it was functioning at near maximum capacity.

  16. Diagnosis of nutrient imbalances with vector analysis in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Kimaro, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has had unintended environmental consequences, including increased nutrient leaching and surface runoff and other agrarian-derived pollutants. Improved diagnosis of on-farm nutrient dynamics will have the advantage of increasing yields and will diminish financial and environmental costs. To achieve this, a management support system that allows for site-specific rapid evaluation of nutrient production imbalances and subsequent management prescriptions is needed for agroecological design. Vector diagnosis, a bivariate model to depict changes in yield and nutritional response simultaneously in a single graph, facilitates identification of nutritional status such as growth dilution, deficiency, sufficiency, luxury uptake, and toxicity. Quantitative data from cocoa agroforestry systems and pigeonpea intercropping trials in Ghana and Tanzania, respectively, were re-evaluated with vector analysis. Relative to monoculture, biomass increase in cocoa ( L.) under shade (35-80%) was accompanied by a 17 to 25% decline in P concentration, the most limiting nutrient on this site. Similarly, increasing biomass with declining P concentrations was noted for pigeonpea [ (L). Millsp.] in response to soil moisture availability under intercropping. Although vector analysis depicted nutrient responses, the current vector model does not consider non-nutrient resource effects on growth, such as ameliorated light and soil moisture, which were particularly active in these systems. We revisit and develop vector analysis into a framework for diagnosing nutrient and non-nutrient interactions in agroforestry systems. Such a diagnostic technique advances management decision-making by increasing nutrient precision and reducing environmental issues associated with agrarian-derived soil contamination.

  17. Economics of Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...

  18. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both White (Corchorus capsularis L.cv. CVL-1 and Tossa (two popular cultivars, eg., Corchorus olitorius L. cv. O-9897, and cv. O-72 varieties were used for to evaluate the late jute seed production in cropland agroforestry in 2011- 2013. It was observed that 600 kg ha-1 to 725 kg ha-1 of jute seed was produced in different types of orchard plantation. Seeds from Litchi orchard showed the higher fiber yield (1051.11, 2511.11 and 3555.56 kg ha-1 at Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur, respectively than the mango orchard. Nutrient contents of soil in three sits were improved significantly due to the cultivation of late jute seed production. Moreover, late jute seed production in early stages of orchard plantation was more profitable and late jute can be produced economically for five to seven years depending on the plantations type and age.

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  20. Decomposition and nutrient release in leaves of Atlantic Rainforest tree species used in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, E.M.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Stijnen, T.; Mendonça, M.A.F.C.; Coelho, M.S.; Cantarutti, R.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Villani, E.M.A.; Mendonça, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to support the use of native species from the Atlantic Rainforest in local agroforestry systems, we analysed chemical and biochemical components related to leaf decomposition of Inga subnuda, Senna macranthera, Erythrina verna, Luehea grandiflora, Zeyheria tuberculosa, Aegiphila sellowiana, a

  1. Smallholder rubber agroforestry system in Mindanao, Philippines: A village approach to climate change mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado, Agustin R., Jr.; Edralin, Don Immanuel; Arcinal, Gil A.; Reyes, Manuel R.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presented the impact, sustainability and adaptability of Rubber Agroforestry System (RAS) to smallholder farmers Claveria, Philippines. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  2. Decomposition and nutrient release in leaves of Atlantic Rainforest tree species used in agroforestry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, E.M.G.; Cardoso, I.M.; Stijnen, T.; Mendonça, M.A.F.C.; Coelho, M.S.; Cantarutti, R.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Villani, E.M.A.; Mendonça, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to support the use of native species from the Atlantic Rainforest in local agroforestry systems, we analysed chemical and biochemical components related to leaf decomposition of Inga subnuda, Senna macranthera, Erythrina verna, Luehea grandiflora, Zeyheria tuberculosa, Aegiphila sellowiana,

  3. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  4. Selection of native trees for intercropping with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de H.N.; Cardoso, I.M.; Fernandes, J.M.; Garcia, F.C.P.; Bonfim, V.R.; Santos, A.C.; Carvalho, A.F.; Mendonca, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    A challenge in establishing agroforestry systems is ensuring that farmers are interested in the tree species, and are aware of how to adequately manage these species. This challenge was tackled in the Atlantic Rainforest biome (Brazil), where a participatory trial with agroforestry coffee systems wa

  5. Vertical project : designing fruit agroforestry systems for a renewed horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Although it's addressing multiple issues for modern farming, agroforestry mixing fruit trees and annual crops (mainly vegetables) has not been so well documented under temperate climate. One expected amenity of agroforestry is to increase biodiversity and natural pest regulation within the plot. While fruit trees are among the crops that rely most on plant protection products, we made the hypothesis that introduction of annual crops in the perennial system can lead to effective biocontrol and...

  6. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types  preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained  in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.Keywords: agro-forestry, preferences, adoption, NPV

  7. Strategies and economics of farming systems with coffee in the Atlantic Rainforest Biome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonato de Souza, H.; Graaff, de J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, family farmers are adjusting to agroecological principles to reconcile sustainable agriculture, livelihood improvements and biodiversity conservation. Starting in 1993, experimentation with coffee agroforestry was gradually initiated on an increasin

  8. Nitrogen symbiotically fixed by cowpea and gliricidia in traditional and agroforestry systems under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Rodrigues Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the amounts of N fixed by cowpea in a traditional system and by cowpea and gliricidia in an agroforestry system in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, in a split-plot arrangement, with four replicates, in the semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Plots consisted of agroforestry and traditional systems (no trees, and split-plots of the three crops planted between the tree rows in the agroforestry system. To estimate N fixation, plant samples were collected in the fourth growth cycle of the perennial species and in the fourth planting cycle of the annual species. In the agroforestry system with buffel grass and prickly-pear cactus, gliricidia plants symbiotically fix high proportions of N (>50% and contribute with higher N amounts (40 kg ha-1 in leaves than in the traditional system (11 kg ha-1 in grain and 18 kg ha-1 in straw. In the agroforestry system with maize and cowpea, gliricidia plants do not fix nitrogen, and N input is limited to the fixation by cowpea (2.7 kg ha-1, which is lower than in the traditional system due to its lower biomass production.

  9. Soil microbial biomass in an agroforestry system of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane C. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems (AFS are considered alternative land use options to help prevent soil degradation and improve soil microbial biomass and organic C status. However, it is unclear how different densities of babassu palm [Attalea speciosa (syn. Orbignya phalerata], which is an important tree in Northeast Brazil, affect the soil microbial biomass. We investigated the soil microbial biomass C and activity under AFS with different densities of babassu palm associated with Brachiaria brizantha grass. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC, soil microbial biomass N (MBN, MBC:total organic C ratio, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and dehydrogenase activity showed highest values in plots with high density of babassu palm. On the other hand, the respiratory quotient (qCO2 was significantly greater in plots without babassu palm. Brachiaria brizantha in monoculture may promote C losses from the soil, but AFS with high density of babassu palm may increase the potential of soils to accumulate C.Keywords: Enzyme activity, tropical soil, babassu palm, silvopastoral system, soil quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(341-48

  10. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-07

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  11. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.

  12. Energy dynamics in Populus deltoides G{sub 3} Marsh agroforestry systems in eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, O.P. [National Research Centre for Agroforestry, Jhansi (India); Das, D.K. [Rajendra Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Forestry, Bihar (India)

    2005-08-01

    Energy efficiency of Populus deltoides G{sub 3} Marsh agroforestry of a 3-year-old system with intercropping of maize-wheat in crop I and pigeonpea in crop II and of a 9-year-old system with turmeric, a shade loving crop was studied at Pusa, Bihar in eastern India. Energy fixation, storage, net allocation in agronomic yield and energy released and exit from the 9-year-old system was 1.53, 4.30, 0.43 and 3.37 times in crop I and 1.67, 4.60, 0.53 and 3.30 times in crop II of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy conservation efficiency in the 9-year-old system was higher (1.91%) as compared to crop I (1.24%) and crop II (1.15%) of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The energy accumulation ratio in the 9-year-old system was 2.82 and 2.77 times higher in crop I and crop II, respectively, of the 3-year-old agroforestry system. The 3-year-old agroforestry system showed lower energy accumulation ratio resulting from less energy accumulation in perennial turnover in the form of leaf of tree and agricultural crops. The crop II system of the 3-year-old poplar agroforestry was more efficient system of management due to higher quanta of energy and higher cash return but one has to opt for shade loving intercrop turmeric with increase in age of the poplar plantation and more canopy closure. (Author)

  13. 农林复合系统研究概述%Research Summary of Agroforestry System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国琦; 何林生

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the research statues of Agroforestry System from structure selection, its effect on ecological environment and interaction between crop and environment, and pointed out using many ways to research Agroforestry System structure model, mainly research interspecific interaction mechanism on the basis of grasping the integrity of Agroforestry System.%文章从农林复合系统的结构选择、对生态环境的影响和系统内部作物与环境相互作用三个方面对农林复合系统研究现状进行分析,并指出要在把握农林系统整体性的基础上,采用多种方式开展复合结构模式研究,重点开展农林复合系统种间相互作用机理的研究.

  14. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 μm) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar

  15. Soil Enzyme Activities under Agroforestry Systems in Northern Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Fuxu; Chen Ping

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented the enzyme characteristics of catalase, sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase under agroforestry systems in northern Jiangsu Province. The results show that soil enzyme activities reduce gradually from top to bottom layer of the soil profile, and the fluctuations of catalase and urease are smaller than those of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase. Soil enzyme activities differe significantly in different samples, and the order is arranged as poplar-crop intercropping segment (A, D) > paulownia-crop intercropping segment (B, C) > CK. Furthermore, soil enzyme activities increase with intercropping age. On the other hand, in the same plot, there are closer relationships between enzymes in the soil samples. Catalase, alkaline phosphatase and urease are negatively related, while alkaline phosphatase and urease are positively related (except in samples B and C). In addition, the enzyme activities have a close relationship with the fertilizers. Catalase is positively correlated with the soil pH value (r = 0.854, 0.804, 0.078 and 0.082, respectively), and is negatively correlated with total N (r = -0.201, -0.529, -0.221 and -0.821, respectively), total P (r = -0.143, -0.213, -0.362 and -0.751, respectively) and available P (r = -0.339, -0.351, -0.576, and -0.676, respectively). Sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase are negatively correlated with the pH value, while positively correlated with the other fertilizers (r ≈ 1). The authors suggest that enzyme activity will be a great potential as an indicator of soil quality.

  16. Changing human-ecological relationships and drivers using the Quesungual agroforestry system in western Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of sustainable agricultural production systems in the tropics is challenging in part because the local and external conditions that affect sustainability are constantly in flux. The Quesungual Agroforestry System (QSMAS) was developed in response to these changing conditions. The his...

  17. Status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Varadharajan, Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Soil is a complex and dynamic biological system. Agroforestry systems are considered to be an alternative land use option to help and prevent soil degradation, improve soil fertility, microbial diversity, and organic matter status. An increasing interest has emerged with respect to the importance of microbial diversity in soil habitats. The present study deals with the status of microbial diversity in agroforestry systems in Tamil Nadu. Eight soil samples were collected from different fields in agroforestry systems in Cuddalore, Villupuram, Tiruvanamalai, and Erode districts, Tamil Nadu. The number of microorganisms and physico-chemical parameters of soils were quantified. Among different microbial population, the bacterial population was recorded maximum (64%), followed by actinomycetes (23%) and fungi (13%) in different samples screened. It is interesting to note that the microbial population was positively correlated with the physico-chemical properties of different soil samples screened. Total bacterial count had positive correlation with soil organic carbon (C), moisture content, pH, nitrogen (N), and micronutrients such as Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Similarly, the total actinomycete count also showed positive correlations with bulk density, moisture content, pH, C, N, phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). It was also noticed that the soil organic matter, vegetation, and soil nutrients altered the microbial community under agroforestry systems.

  18. Bats limit insects in a neotropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-04

    Exclosure experiments have demonstrated the effects of bird predation on arthropods. In a Mexican coffee plantation, we excluded foliage-gleaning bird and bat predators from coffee plants. Effects of bats and birds were additive. In the dry season, birds reduced arthropods in coffee plants by 30%; birds and bats together reduced arthropods by 46%. In the wet season, bats reduced arthropods by 84%, whereas birds reduced them by only 58%. We conclude that previous "bird" exclosure experiments may have systematically underestimated the effects of bats.

  19. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  20. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  1. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  2. Cocoa agroforestry systems vs. monocultures under conventional and organic management - results from tropical Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Andres, Christian; Milz, Joachim; Seidel, Renate; Trujillo, German; Alcon, Freddy; Weibel, Franco; Schneider, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is one of the most important export commodities for many developing countries and provides income for millions of smallholders. The expansion of cocoa production has resulted in habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, and soil degradation. The prevalent cocoa production systems worldwide are conventional monoculture full sun systems. Agroforestry systems are argued to be a viable strategy for sustainable cocoa production. However, data-based information on advantages and limitations of ...

  3. Soil Fertility in Agroforestry System of Chinese Fir and Villous Amomum in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A trial of interplanting and non-interplanting villous amomum (Amomum villosum Lour.) under the canopy of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) at age 22 was established in Sanming, Fujian of China, and a survey on soil fertility was carried out 10 years after its establishment. Compared with the control (non-interplanting), the properties of soil humus in agroforestry system were ameliorated, with a higher level of humification and resynthesis of organic detritus. The soil microbial population and enzymatic activities were both higher under the influence of villous amomum. Both the nutrient supplying and nutrient conserving capacities of the soil were improved. This agroforestry system exhibited an advantage of improved soil fertility, as well as an accelerated growth of Chinese fir, it was, therefore, a sustainable management system suited for Chinese fir in South China.

  4. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  5. An Ecologically Based System for Sustainable Agroforestry in Sub-Tropical and Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests in tropical and sub-tropical countries face severe pressures due to a combination of poverty and environment degradation. To be effective, measures to protect these forests must therefore consider both economic and ecological dimensions synergistically. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize our long-term work (1994–2015 on a Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. agroforestry system and demonstrate its potential for achieving both goals, and discuss its wider application in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The performance of various ecological, economic, and social indicators was compared among five Ginkgo agroforestry systems. Two additional indicators, Harmony Degree (HD and Development Degree (DD, were also used to show the integrated performance of these indicators. Ginkgo-Wheat-Peanut (G+W+P and Ginkgo-Rapeseed-Peanut (G+R+P are the best systems when compared to pure and mixed Ginkgo plantations, or pure agricultural crops. Results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve both economic development and environmental protection through implementation of sustainable agroforestry systems in sub-tropical regions.

  6. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  7. Soil biochemical properties and microbial resilience in agroforestry systems: effects on wheat growth under controlled drought and flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Lorente, Miren; Olivier, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Agroforestry is increasingly viewed as an effective means of maintaining or even increasing crop and tree productivity under climate change while promoting other ecosystem functions and services. This study focused on soil biochemical properties and resilience following disturbance within agroforestry and conventional agricultural systems and aimed to determine whether soil differences in terms of these biochemical properties and resilience would subsequently affect crop productivity under extreme soil water conditions. Two research sites that had been established on agricultural land were selected for this study. The first site included an 18-year-old windbreak, while the second site consisted in an 8-year-old tree-based intercropping system. In each site, soil samples were used for the determination of soil nutrient availability, microbial dynamics and microbial resilience to different wetting-drying perturbations and for a greenhouse pot experiment with wheat. Drying and flooding were selected as water stress treatments and compared to a control. These treatments were initiated at the beginning of the wheat anthesis period and maintained over 10 days. Trees contributed to increase soil nutrient pools, as evidenced by the higher extractable-P (both sites), and the higher total N and mineralizable N (tree-based intercropping site) found in the agroforestry compared to the conventional agricultural system. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) was lower in the agroforestry than in the conventional agricultural system, suggesting higher microbial substrate use efficiency in agroforestry systems. Microbial resilience was higher in the agroforestry soils compared to soils from the conventional agricultural system (windbreak site only). At the windbreak site, wheat growing in soils from agroforestry system exhibited higher aboveground biomass and number of grains per spike than in conventional agricultural system soils in the three water stress treatments. At the tree

  8. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  9. Drought effects on soil COcacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  10. Cadmium uptake by cocoa trees in agroforestry and monoculture systems under conventional and organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, A; Tandy, S; Andres, C; Chincheros Paniagua, J; Armengot, L; Schneider, M; Schulin, R

    2017-02-15

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake by cocoa has recently attracted attention, after the European Union (EU) decided to establish values for tolerable Cd concentrations in cocoa products. Bean Cd concentrations from some cocoa provenances, especially from Latin America, were found to exceed these values. Cadmium uptake by cocoa is expected not only to depend on a variety of soil factors, but also on plant and management factors. In this study, we investigated the influence of different production systems on Cd uptake by cocoa in a long-term field trial in the Alto Beni Region of Bolivia, where cocoa trees are grown in monocultures and in agroforestry systems, both under organic and conventional management. Leaf, fruits and roots of two cultivars were sampled from each production system along with soil samples collected around these trees. Leaf, pod husk and bean samples were analysed for Cd, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), the roots for mycorrhizal abundance and the soil samples for 'total' and 'available' Cd, Fe and Zn as well as DGT-available Cd and Zn, pH, organic matter, texture, 'available' phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Only a small part of the variance in bean and pod husk Cd was explained by management, soil and plant factors. Furthermore, the production systems and cultivars alone had no significant influence on leaf Cd. However, we found lower Cd leaf contents in agroforestry systems than in monocultures when analysed in combination with DGT-available soil Cd, cocoa cultivar and soil organic matter. Overall, this model explained 60% of the variance of the leaf Cd concentrations. We explain lower leaf Cd concentrations in agroforestry systems by competition for Cd uptake with other plants. The cultivar effect may be explained by cultivar specific uptake capacities or by a growth effect translating into different uptake rates, as the cultivars were of different size.

  11. Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Gallerani

    Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

  12. Changes in labile soil organic matter fractions following land use change from monocropping to poplar-based agroforestry systems in a semiarid region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Li, Lu-Jun; Hu, Ya-Lin

    2012-11-01

    Labile fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) respond rapidly to land management practices and can be used as a sensitive indicator of changes in SOM. However, there is little information about the effect of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions in semiarid regions of China. In order to test the effects of land use change from monocropping to agroforestry systems on labile SOM fractions, we investigated soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N, particulate organic matter C (POMC) and N (POMN), as well as total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and the 15- to 30-cm layers in 4-year-old poplar-based agroforestry systems and adjoining monocropping systems with two different soil textures (sandy loam and sandy clay loam) in a semiarid region of Northeast China. Our results showed that poplar-based agroforestry practices affected soil MBC, POMC, and POMN, albeit there was no significant difference in TOC and TN. Agroforestry practices increased MBC, POMC, and POMN in sandy clay loam soils. However, in sandy loam soils, agroforestry practices only increased MBC and even decreased POMC and POMN at the 0- to 15-cm layer. Our results suggest that labile SOM fractions respond sensitively to poplar-based agroforestry practices and can provide early information about the changes in SOM in semiarid regions of Northeast China and highlight that the effects of agroforestry practices on labile SOM fractions vary with soil texture.

  13. Ethnopedology and soil quality of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Jyoti, Nath; Lal, Rattan; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2015-07-15

    It is widely recognized that farmers' hold important knowledge of folk soil classification for agricultural land for its uses, yet little has been studied for traditional agroforestry systems. This article explores the ethnopedology of bamboo (Bambusa sp.) based agroforestry system in North East India, and establishes the relationship of soil quality index (SQI) with bamboo productivity. The study revealed four basic folk soil (mati) types: kalo (black soil), lal (red soil), pathal (stony soil) and balu (sandy soil). Of these, lal mati soil was the most predominant soil type (~ 40%) in bamboo-based agroforestry system. Soil physio-chemical parameters were studied to validate the farmers' soil hierarchal classification and also to correlate with productivity of the bamboo stand. Farmers' hierarchal folk soil classification was consistent with the laboratory scientific analysis. Culm production (i.e. measure of productivity of bamboo) was the highest (27culmsclump(-1)) in kalo mati (black soil) and the lowest (19culmsclump(-1)) in balu mati (sandy soil). Linear correlation of individual soil quality parameter with bamboo productivity explained 16 to 49% of the variability. A multiple correlation of the best fitted linear soil quality parameter (soil organic carbon or SOC, water holding capacity or WHC, total nitrogen) with productivity improved explanatory power to 53%. Development of SQI from ten relevant soil quality parameters and its correlation with bamboo productivity explained the 64% of the variation and therefore, suggest SQI as the best determinant of bamboo yield. Data presented indicate that the kalo mati (black soil) is sustainable or sustainable with high input. However, the other three folk soil types (red, stony and sandy soil) are also sustainable but for other land uses. Therefore, ethnopedological studies may move beyond routine laboratory analysis and incorporate SQI for assessing the sustainability of land uses managed by the farmers'. Additional

  14. The Portuguese montado : conciliating ecological values with human demands within a dynamic agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    Sá-Sousa, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, around 3.5–4.0 million ha of a multi-propose agroforestry system persist, where cork oak (Quercus suber L.), Holm oak [Quercus ilex L. subsp. rotundifolia (Lam.)], or a mixture of both species, coexist with pastures and crops (Acácio et al. 2010; Olea and San Miguel-Ayanz 2006; Pinto-Correira et al. 2011). They are called montado in Portugal and dehesa in Spain but represent quite different structures along a cline from 5 % to 65 ...

  15. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  16. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers living far from roads prefer to plant coffee significantly more than do those ... This study also assesses current production in two local agroforestry nurseries ..... Therefore, focusing on indigenous fruits could waste time and resources in ...

  17. Soil hydrology of agroforestry systems: Competition for water or positive tree-crops interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjets, Rowena; Richter, Falk; Jansen, Martin; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In dry periods during the growing season crops may suffer from severe water stress. The question arises whether the alternation of crop and tree strips might enhance and sustain soil water resources available for crops during drought events. Trees reduce wind exposure, decreasing the potential evapotranspiration of crops and soils; additionally hydraulic lift from the deep roots of trees to the drier top soil might provide additional water for shallow-rooted crops. To understand the above and belowground water relations of agroforestry systems, we measured soil moisture and soil water potential in crop strips as a function of distance to the trees at varying depth as well as meteorological parameters. At the agroforestry site Reiffenhausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, two different tree species are planted, each in one separated tree strip: willow breed Tordis ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis) and poplar clone Max 1 (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii). In between the tree strips a crop strip of 24 m width was established with annual crop rotation, managed the same way as the reference site. During a drought period in May 2016 with less than 2 mm rain in four weeks, an overall positive effect on hydrological conditions of the agroforestry system was observed. The results show that trees shaded the soil surface, lowering the air temperature and further increasing the soil moisture in the crop strips compared to the reference site, which was located far from the trees. At the reference site the crops took up water in the upper soil (crop strips of the agroforestry system, crops took up water in the upper soil. However, the lower soil layers remained wet for an extended period of time. The tree strips reduced the wind speed, hence lowering evapotranspiration in the crop strip. The plot was not aligned directly to North and we observed steeper soil water potential gradients in the part of the crop strip more exposed to sunlight. The two tree species

  18. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  19. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  20. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Gao

    Full Text Available Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M. at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  1. Agroforestry versus farm mosaic systems - Comparing land-use efficiency, economic returns and risks under climate change effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carola; Weber, Michael; Knoke, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Increasing land-use conflicts call for the development of land-use systems that reconcile agricultural production with the provisioning of multiple ecosystem services, including climate change mitigation. Agroforestry has been suggested as a global solution to increase land-use efficiency, while reducing environmental impacts and economic risks for farmers. Past research has often focused on comparing tree-crop combinations with agricultural monocultures, but agroforestry has seldom been systematically compared to other forms of land-use diversification, including a farm mosaic. This form of diversification mixes separate parcels of different land uses within the farm. The objective of this study was to develop a modelling approach to compare the performance of the agroforestry and farm mosaic diversification strategies, accounting for tree-crop interaction effects and economic and climate uncertainty. For this purpose, Modern Portfolio Theory and risk simulation were coupled with the process-based biophysical simulation model WaNuLCAS 4.0. For an example application, we used data from a field trial in Panama. The results show that the simulated agroforestry systems (Taungya, alley cropping and border planting) could outperform a farm mosaic approach in terms of cumulative production and return. Considering market and climate uncertainty, agroforestry showed an up to 21% higher economic return at the same risk level (i.e. standard deviation of economic returns). Farm compositions with large shares of land allocated to maize cultivation were also more severely affected by an increasing drought frequency in terms of both risks and returns. Our study demonstrates that agroforestry can be an economically efficient diversification strategy, but only if the design allows for economies of scope, beneficial interactions between trees and crops and higher income diversification compared to a farm mosaic. The modelling approach can make an important contribution to support

  2. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  3. Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Coffee Plantation in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Wibawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is closely related with the amount of carbon stored in an ecosystem. A research to determine the amount of carbon stock in the coffee farms has been conducted in Sumberbaru and Silo Sub-districts in Jember district, Kaliwining Experimental Station (ES in Jember district, Sumberasin ES in Malang district and Andungsari ES in Bondowoso district. Carbon stock was measured using the method of Rapid Carbon Stock’s Assessment (RaCSA developed by ICRAF. Measurements were made on the observation plots of 200 m2, with 3 replications. Results of measurement of carbon stock on coffee plantations showed that the increased carbon stock was proportional with the age of plants. Carbon stock in coffee plantation depends on the shade tree system. In the monoculture coffee leucaena used as shade trees, the carbon stock was lower then in multistrata system (agroforestry used several kinds of shade trees. Carbon stock on coffee plant in the estate more than smallholder. The average of carbon stock on Robusta coffee at the age of 30 years amounted to 29.38 Mg ha-1, it is greater than the carbon deposit on Arabica coffee that is 22.02 Mg ha-1.Key words: Carbon stock, coffee plantation, Arabica, Robusta, smallholder, agroforestri

  4. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah;

    2015-01-01

    of millions of people who depend on forest resources extremely vulnerable. We ask; can better implementation of forest policies and landscape management contribute to curb the current level of deforestation? Agroforestry systems in particular are a promising strategy to sustainably deliver food, nutritional...... and income security, ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation across the landscape. However, for agroforestry to become a viable livelihood venture that simultaneously delivers all these benefits, a mixture of economic and institutional support from the state is needed instead of market driven...

  5. Projecting the long-term biogeochemical impacts of a diverse agroforestry system in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Paul, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Annual, monoculture cropping systems have become the standard agricultural model in the Midwestern US. Unintended consequences of these systems include surface and groundwater pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, loss of biodiversity, and soil erosion. Diverse agroforestry (DA) systems dominated by fruit and nut trees/shrubs have been proposed as an agricultural model for the Midwestern US that can restore ecosystem services while simultaneously providing economically viable and industrially relevant staple food crops. A DA system including six species of fruit and nut crops was established on long-time conventional agricultural land at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2012, with the conventional corn-soybean rotation (CSR) as a control. Initial field measurements of the nitrogen and water cycles during the first two years of transition have indicated a significant decrease in N losses and modification of the seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) pattern. While these early results suggest that the land use transition from CSR to DA can have positive biogeochemical consequences, models must be utilized to make long-term biogeochemical projections in agroforestry systems. Initial field measurements of plant phenology, net N2O flux, nitrate leaching, soil respiration, and soil moisture were used to parameterize the DA system within the DayCENT biogeochemical model as the "savanna" ecosystem type. The model was validated with an independent subset of field measurements and then run to project biogeochemical cycling in the DA system for 25 years past establishment. Model results show that N losses via N2O emission or nitrate leaching reach a minimum within the first 5 years and then maintain this tight cycle into the future. While early ET field measurements revealed similar magnitudes between the DA and CSR systems, modeled ET continued to increase for the DA system throughout the projected time since the trees would continue to grow larger. These modeling

  6. Microbial Community Diversity in Agroforestry and Grass Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforesty and grass buffer systems have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many environmental benefits. Previous research has described the ability of buffer systems to retain nutrients, slow water flow and soil erosion, or mitigate the potentially harmful effects of e...

  7. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  8. Incorporating agroforestry approaches into commodity value chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  9. Incorporating Agroforestry Approaches into Commodity Value Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Edward

    2011-08-01

    The productivity of tropical agricultural commodities is affected by the health of the ecosystem. Shade tolerant crops such as coffee and cocoa benefit from environmental services provided by forested landscapes, enabling landscape design that meets biodiversity conservation and economic needs. What can motivate farmers to apply and maintain such landscape approaches? Rather than rely on a proliferation of externally funded projects new opportunities are emerging through the international market that buys these commodities. As part of their growing commitment to sustainable supply chains, major companies are supporting agroforestry approaches and requiring producers and traders to demonstrate that the source of their commodities complies with a set of principles that conserves forested landscapes and improves local livelihoods. The paper presents examples of international companies that are moving in this direction, analyzes why and how they are doing it and discusses the impact that has been measured in coffee and cocoa communities in Latin America and Africa. It particularly considers the role of standards and certification systems as a driver of this commitment to promote profitable operations, environmental conservation and social responsibility throughout the coffee and cocoa value chains. Such approaches are already being taken to scale and are no longer operating only in small niches of the market but the paper also considers the limitations to growth in this market-based approach.

  10. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  11. Bio-amelioration of alkali soils through agroforestry systems in central Indo-Gangetic plains of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P. Singh; Gurbachan Singh; D.K. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    A long-term field study was initiated during 1995 at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Lucknow (26°47′58′ N and 80°46′24′ E) to analyze the effect of agroforestry systems on amelioration of alkali soils. Three agroforestry systems (pas-toral, silvipastoral and silvicultural) were compared with the control where no agroforestry system was introduced. Tree-based silvicultural and silvipastoral systems were characterized by tree species Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica along with grass species Leptochloa fusca, Panicum maximum, Trifolium alexandrium and Chloris gayana. Growth of ten-year-old Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica planted in combi-nation with grasses was significantly higher over the silviculture system with the same species. Tree biomass yields of P. juliflora (77.20 t⋅ha-1) and A. nilotica (63.20 t⋅ha-1) planted under silvipastoral system were significantly higher than the sole plantation of (64.50 t⋅ha-1 and 52.75 t⋅ha-1). Fodder yield under the pastoral system was significantly higher than the silvipastoral system during initial years but it was at par with that of silvipastoral systems after eight years of plantation. The microbial biomass carbon in the soils of silvipastoral systems was significantly higher than in soils under sole plantation of trees and control systems. The Prosopis-based silvipastoral system proved more effective in reduc-ing soil pH, displacing Na+ from the exchange complex, increasing or-ganic carbon and available N, P and K. Improvement in soil physical properties such as bulk density, porosity, soil moisture and infiltration rate was higher in the Prosopis-based silvipastoral system than in the silviculture system or control. On the basis of biomass production and improvement in soil health due to tree + grass systems, silvipastoral agroforestry system could be adopted for sustainable reclamation of highly alkali soils.

  12. Soil organic matter pools in a tropical savanna under agroforestry system in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Carvalho Leite

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying total organic carbon stocks and its pools in Acrisol under agroforestry systems with six (AFS6 and thirteen years old (AFS13, slash-and-burn agriculture (SBA and savanna native forest (SNF in northeastern Brazil. Soil samples were collected at 0-0.05 m, 0.05-0.10 m, 0.10-0.20 m and 0.20-0.40 m depths in the dry and rainy seasons to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC stocks and labile carbon (LC, fulvic acid fraction (C-FAF, humic acid fraction (C-HAF, humin (C-HF and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic contents. Additionally, carbon management index (CMI was determined. Higher TOC stocks (97.7 and 81.8 Mg ha-1 for the 0-0.40 m depth in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively and LC, humic substances and Cmic contents were observed in the AFS13 in all the depths. CMI also was higher in the AFS13 (0-0. 05 m: 158 and 86; 0.05-0.10 m: 171 and 67, respectively for the dry and rainy seasons especially when compared to the SBA (0-0.05 m: 5.6 and 5.4; 0.05-0.10 m: 5.3 and 5.8, respectively for dry and rainy seasons. The agroforestry systems increased soil quality through the conservation of organic matter and can be considered an excellent strategy to assurance sustainability in tropical soil of Northeastern Brazil

  13. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterial populations trapped from soils under agroforestry systems in the Western Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Duque Jaramillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata is an important grain-producing legume that can forego nitrogen fertilization by establishing an efficient symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Although inoculating strains have already been selected for this species, little is known about the genotypic and symbiotic diversity of native rhizobia. Recently, Bradyrhizobium has been shown to be the genus most frequently trapped by cowpea in agricultural soils of the Amazon region. We investigated the genetic and symbiotic diversity of 148 bacterial strains with different phenotypic and cultural properties isolated from the nodules of the trap species cowpea, which was inoculated with samples from soils under agroforestry systems from the western Amazon. Sixty non-nodulating strains indicated a high frequency of endophytic strains in the nodules. The 88 authenticated strains had varying symbiotic efficiency. The SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development index (indirect measurement of chlorophyll content was more efficient at evaluating the contribution of symbiotic N2-fixation than shoot dry matter under axenic conditions. Cowpea-nodulating bacteria exhibited a high level of genetic diversity, with 68 genotypes identified by BOX-PCR. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed a predominance of the genus Bradyrhizobium, which accounted for 70 % of all strains sequenced. Other genera identified were Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum, Paenibacillus, Bosea, Bacillus, Enterobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. These results support the promiscuity of cowpea and demonstrate the high genetic and symbiotic diversity of rhizobia in soils under agroforestry systems, with some strains exhibiting potential for use as inoculants. The predominance of Bradyrhizobium in land uses with different plant communities and soil characteristics reflects the adaptation of this genus to the Amazon region.

  14. 农林间作生态系统研究进展探析%Research Advances in Agroforestry System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雄飞; 黎华寿; 陈红跃

    2016-01-01

    指出了农林间作是现代农林复合系统研究的核心内容之一,对农林业的可持续发展具有重要意义。阐述了农林间作模式的发展历史及常见的间作模式,归纳了农林间作系统对林下小气候、土壤养分、土壤水分、土壤酶活性、土壤微生物和间作系统产量的影响等方面的研究进展,并展望了农林间作复合系统研究的发展前景。提出了今后应加强间作系统内不同组分间的竞争作用的比较、农林间作系统的物种配置、模型创建、全球气候变化与间作竞争机理等方面的研究,并从生态环境修复的角度将间作系统地上部分和地下部分作为一个整体进行了深入分析。%This paper pointed out that the combination of forest and field crops was one of the core contents of the re‐search of modern agroforestry systems ,which has important implications for the sustainable development of agricul‐ture and forestry industry .We expounded the development history of agroforestry model and common inter -crop‐ping patterns ,summarized the research advances of the impact of agroforestry systems on forests microclimate ,soil nutrients ,soil moisture ,soil enzyme activity ,soil microbes ,inter-cropping system output and other aspects of the system and stated the outlooks of the prospect of the agroforestry system research .It was suggested that the compar‐ative analysis of the competitive effect of the roles between different components in agroforestry system should be en‐hanced .The research on species configuration ,model creation ,global climate change and the inter -cropping compe‐tition mechanism was also the key point .Based on ecology environmental remediation ,the object of agroforestry sys‐tem research should be the combination of the ground and underground parts in inter -cropping system .

  15. Cocoa in Full-sun Monocultures vs. Shaded Agroforestry Systems under Conventional and Organic Management in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Monika; Andres, Christian; Trujillo, German; Alcon, Freddy; Amurrio, Patricia; Seidel, Renate; Weibel, Franco; Milz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa is a crucial export commodity for many developing countries and provides income for millions of smallholders. However, cocoa cultivation has resulted in habitat destruction, biodiversity loss and soil degradation. While much of the world’s cocoa is produced in arguably unsustainable full-sun monoculture systems, shaded agroforestry systems may be an alternative for sustainable cocoa production. However, data-based information on advantages and limitations of different cocoa production s...

  16. Vegetative and productive aspects of organically grown coffee cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta dos Santos Freire Ricci

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Coffea arabica species has its origin in the African understories, there is great resistance on the part of the Brazilian producers for growing this species under agroforestry systems as they fear that shading reduces production. This study aimed at evaluating some vegetative traits and the productivity of organically grown coffee (Coffea arabica L. cultivars under shaded and unshaded systems. Twelve treatments consisting of two cultivation systems (shaded and unshaded and six coffee cultivars were arranged in randomized blocks with four replicates, in a split-plot scheme. Shading was provided by banana (Musa sp. and coral bean plants (Erythrinaverna. Shading delayed fruit maturation. Late maturation cultivars, such as the Icatu and the Obatã, matured early in both cultivation systems, while medium and early maturation cultivars presented late maturation. Cultivation in the shaded system increased the leaf area and the number of lower branches, decreased the number of productive nodes per branch, and increased the distance between the nodes and the number of leaves present in the branches. Cultivation in the unshaded system presented greater number of plants with branch blight in relation to plants grown in the shade. The productivity of the cultivars was not different, at 30.0 processed bags per hectare in the shaded system, and 25.8 processed bags per hectare in the unshaded system. The most productive cultivars in the shaded system were the Tupi, the Obatã, and the Catuaí, while no differences between cultivars were obtained in the unshaded system.

  17. Agrosocial analysis of the family farmers’ perception on agroforestry systems in northeastern Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemê Gomes Amaral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 a case study was undertaken in agroforestry systems as practiced by family farmers in the Arapuã-Simeira colonization project, municipality of Garrafão do Norte, Pará state, in northern Brazil, with the purpose of describing and systematizing the agrosocial characteristics of the family farmers and their experiences and perceptions of agroforestry systems. The methodology consisted of field research, application of standard questionnaires, observation and discussion in group. Farmers gave preference to some perennial cultures and forest species for intercropping, and the main explication for the introduction of species in their fields was economic gain and social behavior. Multifaceted thinking is seen in the choice of agriculture products and management options, resulting in each property having a combination of different agricultural systems that are adapted to local conditions. The farmer knows better than anyone else how to determine the ideal combination for his agricultural system. The study shows the agrosocial and socialcultural trajectory of the farmers and hypothesis are advanced on what would imply the adoption of agroforestry systems in family agriculture. A systemic approach can be very useful in understanding the relationships and social processes that are important aspects of the rural and agrarian question.

  18. Vegetable agroforestry system: Baseline survey results in Songco, Lantapan, Bukidnon, Philippines, 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, M.R.; De Mesa, J. P. A.; Rola, Agnes C.

    2007-01-01

    This baseline study is part of the SANREM CRSP "Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production in Southeast Asia Watersheds" (VAF) project. This was conducted in Songco, Lantapan, Bukidnon, an upland barangay located at the foot of the Mt. Kitanglad Range National Park in the southern part of the Philippines, during January to February, 2007. The crop and household data pertain to January to February, 2006. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  19. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  20. The Role of Soil Biological Function in Regulating Agroecosystem Services and Sustainability in the Quesungual Agroforestry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, S.; Pauli, N.; Rousseau, L.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Barrios, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Quesungual agroforestry system from western Honduras has been increasingly promoted as a promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in tropical dry forest regions of the Americas. Improved residue management and the lack of burning in this system can greatly impact soil biological functioning and a number of key soil-based ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes has not been thoroughly integrated to understand system functionality as a whole that can guide improved management. To address this gap, we present a synthesis of various field studies conducted in Central America aimed at: 1) quantifying the influence of the Quesungual agroforestry practices on soil macrofauna abundance and diversity, and 2) understanding how these organisms influence key soil-based ecosystem services that ultimately drive the success of this system. A first set of studies examined the impact of agroecosystem management on soil macrofauna populations, soil fertility and key soil processes. Results suggest that residue inputs (derived from tree biomass pruning), a lack of burning, and high tree densities, lead to conditions that support abundant, diverse soil macrofauna communities under agroforestry, with soil organic carbon content comparable to adjacent forest. Additionally, there is great potential in working with farmers to develop refined soil quality indicators for improved land management. A second line of research explored interactions between residue management and earthworms in the regulation of soil-based ecosystem services. Earthworms are the most prominent ecosystem engineers in these soils. We found that earthworms are key drivers of soil structure maintenance and the stabilization of soil organic matter within soil aggregates, and also had notable impacts on soil nutrient dynamics. However, the impact of earthworms appears to depend on residue management practices, thus indicating the need for an integrated approach for

  1. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have

  2. Financial viability and conservation role of betel leaf based agroforestry: an indigenous hill farming system of Khasia community in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mizanur Rahman; Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman; Mahmuda Islam

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the cultural and financial management techniques of betel leaf based agroforestry system practiced in or near homegardens of Khasia community in Jaintapur Upazila in the district of Sylhet, Bangladesh. The Khasia is an educated community where 100% of Khasia people were literate, a stunning fact for this ethnic community in Bangladesh. The average family size in the study area was 7.68, with a ration of male and females of 141:100. The homegardens of the Khasia are rich in species composition, which 15 timber species, 22 horticultural species, six medicinal species, 13 annual crops including leafy vegetables, seven species of spices and five species of bamboo were identified along with betel leaf. The Khasia is an economically prosperous community with the minimum family incomes of Tk 4000 per month (Tk. 70=1 US Dollar). Betel leaf based agroforestry is very common being a prevalent source of income. About 95.45% of the households are involved in betel leaf husbandry. The mean annual income from one hectare of betel leaf plantation was estimated to be Tk. 80979. This practice was proven to be a profitable business where the benefit cost ratio was calculated to be 4.47. Moreover, the species composition in the betel leaf plantation area (the forest area once utilized by Khasia for shifting cultivation) was found to be very promising to play the significant role in conservation of biological diversity making the practice a sustainable agroforestry system.

  3. The role of habitat patches on mammalian diversity in cork oak agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalino, Luis M.; Rosário, João do; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2009-07-01

    Habitat patches, depending on the degree of differentiation from the matrix, can add few or many elements to the species pool of a particular landscape. Their importance to biodiversity is particularly relevant in areas with complex landscapes, where natural, naturalized, or managed habitats are interspersed by small patches of habitat types with very different biophysical characteristics; e.g., fruit orchards and riparian areas. This is the case of the montado landscape, a cork oak agroforestry system that largely covers south-western Portugal. We evaluated whether the high mammalian biodiversity found in this system is, in part, the cumulative result of the species found in the non-matrix habitats. Our results indicate that in areas where there are inclusions of orchards/olive yards and riparian vegetation in the cork oak woodland, a significantly higher number of mammalian species are present. We further detected a positive effect of low human disturbance on mammal diversity. Ultimately, our results can be used by managers to augment their management options, since we show that the inclusion and maintenance of non-matrix habitat patches in cork oak agro-silvo-forestry systems can help to maximize mammal biodiversity without compromising services associated with agriculture and forestry.

  4. [Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

    2008-11-01

    Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield.

  5. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  6. [Canopy conductance characteristics of poplar in agroforestry system in west Liaoning Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Niu, Li-Hua; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2012-11-01

    By using Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of poplar in a poplar-maize agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and as well, the environmental factors such as air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, wind speed, soil temperature, and soil moisture content were synchronically measured. Based on the sap flow data, the canopy conductance of poplar was calculated with simplified Penman-Monteith equation. In the study area, the diurnal variation of poplar' s canopy conductance showed a "single peak" curve, whereas the seasonal variation showed a decreasing trend. There was a negative logarithm relationship between the canopy conductance and vapor pressure deficit, with the sensitivity of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit change decreased gradually from May to September. The canopy conductance had a positive relationship with solar radiation. In different months, the correlation degree of canopy conductance with environmental factors differed. The vapor pressure deficit in the whole growth period of poplar was the most significant environmental factor correlated with the canopy conductance.

  7. Spatial genetic structuring of baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae) in the traditional agroforestry systems of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Tina; Assogbadjo, Achille E; Hardy, Olivier J; Glele Kakaï, Romain; Sinsin, Brice; Van Damme, Patrick; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the spatial genetic structure of baobab (Adansonia digitata) populations from West African agroforestry systems at different geographical scales using AFLP fingerprints. Eleven populations from four countries (Benin, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Senegal) had comparable levels of genetic diversity, although the two populations in the extreme west (Senegal) had less diversity. Pairwise F(ST) ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 and increased with geographic distance, even at a regional scale. Gene pools detected by Bayesian clustering seem to be a byproduct of the isolation-by-distance pattern rather than representing actual discrete entities. The organization of genetic diversity appears to result essentially from spatially restricted gene flow, with some influences of human seed exchange. Despite the potential for relatively long-distance pollen and seed dispersal by bats within populations, statistically significant spatial genetic structuring within populations (SGS) was detected and gave a mean indirect estimate of neighborhood size of ca. 45. This study demonstrated that relatively high levels of genetic structuring are present in baobab at both large and within-population level, which was unexpected in regard to its dispersal by bats and the influence of human exchange of seeds. Implications of these results for the conservation of baobab populations are discussed.

  8. Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas.

  9. THE THEORY OF REAL OPTIONS in investment ANALYSIS of agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Santos Joaquim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compared the values generated by traditional economic analysis (Net Present Value - NPV with Real Options Method. The objective was to apply the method proposed by Copeland & Antikarov for rainbow options, due to three stochastic variables selected with decision of abandonment if the project value with flexibility was less than the value of the underlying stock. It enabled the flexibility value generation in order to entrepreneurs to have more confidence in their decision when they are investing in a project with Agroforestry System, with different scenarios visualization in a single analysis. The results evidenced that the economic viability analysis, using Real Options, provided the best view of the possible scenarios, within a range generated by the prices volatility. The Net Present Value adopted as the underlying stock value was R$ 5,684.32, using the discount rate (WACC of 9.95% and risk-free interest rate of 7.5%. To determine the volatility were calculated: the logarithmic return standard deviation (27.06, the average (0.0883, upward movements values (u (1.3107 with 61.34% of probability and downward movements values (d(0.7628 with 38.66%  of probability. The option value in case of abandonment was R$ 2,059.01/ha positive. The results showed that the NPV overestimated the project return and that it would be viable to abandon it.

  10. Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes — a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teja Tscharntke; Yann Clough; Shonil A. Bhagwat; Damayanti Buchori; Heiko Faust; Dietrich Hertel; Dirk Hölscher; Jana Juhrbandt; Michael Kessler; Ivette Perfecto; Christoph Scherber; Götz Schroth; Edzo Veldkamp; Thomas C. Wanger

    2011-01-01

    .... Both coffee and cacao are tropical understorey plants. Shade trees in agroforestry enhance functional biodiversity, carbon sequestration, soil fertility, drought resistance as well as weed and biological pest control...

  11. Soil Modification by Native Shrubs Boosts Crop Productivity in Sudano-Sahelian Agroforestry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Diedhiou, I.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Dick, R.

    2014-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively.We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture and water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. Hydraulic redistribution is thought to exist in this system and we found diurnal fluctuations in water potential within the intercropped system that increased in magnitude of to 0.4 Mpa per day as the soil dried below 1.0 Mpa during the stress treatment. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting labeled water into shrub roots and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to lower overall magnitude of diurnal soil water potential fluctuations in dry soils. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  12. A common framework for GHG assessment protocols in temperate agroforestry systems: connecting via GRACEnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are technical and financial advantages for pursuing agroforestry-derived mitigation and adaptation services simultaneously, with a recognition that carbon (C) payments could assist in supporting the deployment of adaptation strategies (Motocha et al. (2012). However, we lack the repeated/repea...

  13. General considerations in testing and evaluating crop varieties for agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolita N. Ragus

    1993-01-01

    Introduction of new crops in agroforestry is often suggested as a way to improve productivity. This paper provides general guidelines in selecting companion plant combinations and general considerations in evaluating, testing, naming, maintaining genetic purity and distributing crop varieties to farmers.

  14. Analysis of phosphorus by 31PNMR in Oxisols under agroforestry land conventional coffee systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Meer, van der P.; Oenema, O.; Janssen, B.H.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the primary limiting nutrient for crop production in highly weathered tropical soils. The deficiency is mainly caused by strong adsorption of H2PO4¿ to Al- and Fe-(hydr)oxides, which turns large proportions of total P into a form that is unavailable to plants. Soil management modif

  15. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in agroforestry systems. Temporal patterns of some important soil processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Gert [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The ameliorative effects of different tree species on soils in some agroforestry systems were studied. The temporal pattern of nutrient release from tree organic material is important to achieve synchrony with crop uptake. When, as in many tropical agroforestry systems, trees (C{sub 3}-plants) are planted on C{sub 4}-carbon dominated soils, the difference of around 12-16 per mille in natural abundance of {sup 13}C between C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants makes the natural abundance of {sup 13}C a particularly sensitive indicator of the influence of trees on the soil. An increase of 3-5% of the percentage C was proven to derive from trees by this method, only five years after planting. By using the difference of around 10 per mille in natural abundance of {sup 13}C between the endogenous soil C (mainly C{sub 4}) and the applied C (C{sub 3}) in green manure experiments, the contributions of the two C sources to soil respiration can be calculated. The microbial response to the additions of leaves was an immediate increase in respiration. This non-destructive method allows repeated measurements of the actual rate of C mineralisation and facilitates decomposition studies with high temporal resolution in the field. The mineralisation of N was also very rapid and the concentration of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in the soil correlated well with respiration of added C. In our studies, 3-4% of the added C was respired daily, for the first 10 days after addition of Sesbania sesban leaves. Although respiration rates decline with time, we estimated 70-90% to be respired in as short time as 40 days. Weight losses of around 80% after 52 days, from high quality residues in litter bags, also indicate substantial C losses. Measurable build-up of soil organic matter is, hence, unlikely. For immediate soil fertility, addition of high quality green manure may, however, be a viable management option. To achieve synchrony with crop demand, caution is needed in management as large amounts of N are

  16. Biomass production in agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils in South Asia: exploration of the GHG balance and economic performance of three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward M W; Akanda, Razzaque; Stille, Leon; Singh, Ranjay K; Awan, Abdul Rasul; Mahmood, Khalid; Faaij, Andre P C

    2013-09-30

    This study explores the greenhouse gas balance and the economic performance (i.e. net present value (NPV) and production costs) of agroforestry and forestry systems on salt-affected soils (biosaline (agro)forestry) based on three case studies in South Asia. The economic impact of trading carbon credits generated by biosaline (agro)forestry is also assessed as a potential additional source of income. The greenhouse gas balance shows carbon sequestration over the plantation lifetime of 24 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in a rice-Eucalyptus camaldulensis agroforestry system on moderately saline soils in coastal Bangladesh (case study 1), 6 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the rice-wheat- Eucalyptus tereticornis agroforestry system on sodic/saline-sodic soils in Haryana state, India (case study 2), and 96 Mg CO2-eq. ha(-1) in the compact tree (Acacia nilotica) plantation on saline-sodic soils in Punjab province of Pakistan. The NPV at a discount rate of 10% is 1.1 k€ ha(-1) for case study 1, 4.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 2, and 2.8 k€ ha(-1) for case study 3. Carbon sequestration translates into economic values that increase the NPV by 1-12% in case study 1, 0.1-1% in case study 2, and 2-24% in case study 3 depending on the carbon credit price (1-15 € Mg(-1) CO2-eq.). The analysis of the three cases indicates that the economic performance strongly depends on the type and severity of salt-affectedness (which affect the type and setup of the agroforestry system, the tree species and the biomass yield), markets for wood products, possibility of trading carbon credits, and discount rate.

  17. Cocoa and total system yields of organic and conventional agroforestry vs. monoculture systems in a long-term field trial in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, M; Andres, C; Trujillo, G.; Alcon, F.; Amurrios, P.; Perez, E.; Weibel, F.; Milz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is produced in systems of varying complexity ranging from monoculture with temporary shade to highly diverse agroforests. Producers have to weigh high cocoa yields in the short to medium term in monocultures against higher total system yields in the short term and sustainable production systems in the long term in conjunction with ecosystem services in agroforestry systems (AFs). More long-term data on the comparative agronomic, economic and ecological performance o...

  18. Supply of wood-based bioenergy sources by means of agro-forestry systems; Bereitstellung von holzartigen Bioenergietraegern durch Agroforstsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christian; Quinkenstein, Ansgar; Freese, Dirk [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenschutz und Rekultivierung; Baerwolff, Manuela [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Because of the initiated energy revolution and the associated increasing demand for woody biomass in Germany, the production of woody crops on agricultural sites is increasingly gaining in importance. In this context, agroforestry systems provide a promising option to cultivate simultaneously fast growing tree species and annual crops on the same field and to produce woody biomass and conventional products at the same time. Agroforestry systems in which hedgerows of fast growing tree species are established on agricultural sites in a regular pattern are called as alley cropping systems (ACS). These can be managed as low input systems and thus provide several ecological benefits. The cultivation of trees results in an enhanced humus accumulation in the soil and affects the quality of surface as well as percolating waters in a positive way. Additionally, ACS alter the microclimatic conditions at the site, from which the conventional crops cultivated in the alleys between the tree stripes benefit. However, from an economic point of view the production of woody crops with ACS is not generally preferable to conventional agriculture. The positive effects of ACS are most pronounced on marginal sites and, consequently, ACS are currently economically unfavorable compared to conventional agriculture on fertile soils. However, on unfertile, dry sites, such as can be found at a large scale in the Lusatian post-mining landscapes, ACS can be an ecologically and economically promising land-use alternative.

  19. Results of a project on development of agro-forestry systems for food security in Carrefour region, Republic of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Massolino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Haity has a notable problem of food security, 48% of people have not sufficient food availability, food prices has doubled from 1980 and 1990 and further increased 5 times between 1991 and 2000. Water availability and quality is another problems to be added to food insufficiency. Food deficiency is mitigated by natural food resources in rural areas where many different species are cultivated together but it can be extreme in the towns. Agricultural systems are not efficient and, at the same time, enhance soil and genetic erosion. A development project has been implemented to increase food security over the long term in the geographical area of Carrefour rural area, this comprises a research aimed to increase national food production introducing complex agro-forestry systems. The project has investigated problems and solutions, actions have been started to increase food production, including agronomic training of local farmers, organization of small farmers including legal protection on land tenure, introduction of low input modern agroforestry systems that can diversify food production through the year and reduce soil and genetic erosion. After these results, an intervention project has been approved and funded by EU, then delayed due to the recent civil war, finally it is giving positive results now. The same approach used for this project can be spread in the rest of the Republic of Haiti and, hopefully, to other world regions that have similar problems.

  20. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-28

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging.

  1. Indigenous agroforestry in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo

    1993-01-01

    Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...

  2. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  3. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  4. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  5. Understanding maize/beans intercropping yield distributions from water conservation measures in a hedged agroforestry system in semi-arid Laikipia District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteng'i, S.B.B.; Stigter, C.J.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Cropping systems in semi-arid Laikipia district are more weather sensitive than those in medium to higher potential areas of Kenya. Water, and to a certain extent, wind are major climatic constraints. Agroforestry (AF) farms surrounded by Coleus barbatus hedges as live-fences are being introduced by

  6. Agro-Forestry system in West Africa: integrating a green solution to cope with soil depletion towards agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís

    2017-04-01

    , reducing soil erosion as well as insect pests and associated diseases, while improves the yield of the main crop. The integration of legume in agroforestry systems offers an alternative and resilient strategy to increase N availability without increasing mineral N additions. As such, we present a case study of a forest-based system under intensive agriculture regime and propose an alternative sustainable system - the agroforestry system - by intercropping legumes, thus ensuring the sustainability of a cash crop sector both in terms of food security and soil resources. Results obtained from this case-study will therefore be important to demonstrate the global importance of agroforestry systems as key strategy for land use planning, sustainability of the agricultural systems as well as the preserving the environment of smallholder farms in the sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p Erosion reduction at the AFS site was mainly attributed to the ground cover plants characterizing the recently established system. Moreover, edaphic change throughout AFS and F soil profiles differed from the SCC site. At the latter site, losses of fine particles and Hg were enhanced towards soil surface, while they were less pronounced at the other sites. This study shows that agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels

  8. How is agroforestry perceived in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García de Jalón, Sylvestre; Burgeaa, Paul J.; Graves, Anil

    2017-01-01

    ). In total 344 valid responses were received to a questionnaire where stakeholders were asked to rank the positive and negative aspects of implementing agroforestry in their region. Improved biodiversity and wildlife habitats, animal health and welfare, and landscape aesthetics were seen as the main positive...... aspects of agroforestry. By contrast, increased labour, complexity of work, management costs and administrative burden were seen as the most important negative aspects. Overall, improving the environmental value of agriculture was seen as the main benefit of agroforestry, whilst management and socio-economic...... issues were seen as the greatest barriers. The great variability in the opportunities and barriers of the systems suggests enhanced adoption of agroforestry across Europe will be most likely to occur with specific initiatives for each type of system....

  9. PERFORMANSI SISTEM AGROFORESTRI TRADISIONAL DI DESA TELAGA LANGSAT, KABUPATEN BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adistina Fitriani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The study aims to learn: (1 study the system and process of formation of agroforestri, (2 study management system which includes the Division of labor, working time and work as well as the institusional system, and (3 figure out the composition and structure of plants with agroforestry system. The object of the research is the agroforestry system has been developed by the community in the Sungai Langsat village, Banjar Regency in which consists of a type and composition that forms a system. The results showed that the system agroforestry in the Sungai Langsat village consists of one system of agroforestry, agrisilvikultur system, with two sub system, i.e. the sub system agroforestri rubber garden and Orchard blend. The history of the development of the process of formation of agroforestry system in location research in the beginning was the natural forest or scrub. Then opened by the community for the annual crop of shifting cultivation. As time goes by, in addition to the annual planting crops, also grow fruits and plants producing wooden resin (rubber. In its development the plant fruits into orchards mixture that consists of a variety of fruit trees are scattered at random and irregular, while rubber plantations were planted in irregular and tend to even aged. Keywords: Performance, Traditional, Agroforestry System ABSTRAK.  Penelitan ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari : (1 mempelajari sistem dan proses terbentuknya agroforestri, (2 Mendiskripsikan sistem pengelolaan yang meliputi pembagian kerja, waktu kerja dan sistem kerja serta kelembagaannya, dan (3 mengetahui komposisi dan struktur tanaman dengan sistem agroforestri. Obyek penelitian ini adalah sistem agroforestry yang telah dikembangkan oleh masyarakat di desa Sungai Langsat Kabupaten Banjar yang di dalamnya terdiri atas jenis dan komposisinya yang membentuk suatu sistem. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem agroforestri yang terdapat di desa Sungai Langsat terdiri dari

  10. Allelopathic activity and chemical constituents of walnut (Juglans regia) leaf litter in walnut-winter vegetable agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xu, Zheng; Hu, Tingxing; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Chen, Hong; Li, Zhongbin; Ding, Bo; Hu, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    Walnut agroforestry systems have many ecological and economic benefits when intercropped with cool-season species. However, decomposing leaf litter is one of the main sources of allelochemicals in such systems. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. angustata) was grown in the soil incorporated with walnut leaf litter to assess its allelopathic activity. Lettuce growth and physiological processes were inhibited by walnut leaf litter, especially during early growth stage (1-2 euphylla period) or with large amount of litter addition. The plants treated by small amount of leaf litter recovered their growth afterwards, while the inhibition for 180 g leaf litter persisted until harvest. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the leaf litter, and several of them were reported to be phytotoxic, which may be responsible for the stress induced by walnut leaf litter. Thus, for highest economic value of vegetables such as lettuce, excessive incorporation of leaf litter should be discouraged.

  11. The Network Of Shelterbelts As An Agroforestry System Controlling The Water Resources And Biodiversity In The Agricultural Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędziora, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Long-term human activity has led to many unfavourable changes in landscape structure. The main negative effect has been a simplification of landscape structure reflecting the removal of stable ecosystems, such as forests, shelterbelts, strips of meadows and so on, which were converted into unstable ecosystems, mainly farmlands. Thanks to these changes, serious threats have been posed to the sustainable development of rural areas. The most hazardous of these involve a deteriorating of water balance, increased surface and ground water pollution, and impoverishment of biodiversity. An agroforestry system can serve as a toolkit which allows counteracting such negative changes in the landscape. This paper presents the main findings emerge from long-term investigations on the above issues carried out by the Institute for the Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  12. Land use and rainfall effect on soil CO2 fluxes in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soils are the largest C reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems and play an important role in regulating the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and soil controls the balance of C in soils. The CO2 fluxes may be influenced by climate conditions and land use and cover change especially in the upper soil organic layer. Understanding C dynamics is important for maintaining C stocks to sustain and improve soil quality and to enhance sink C capacity of soils. This study focuses on the response of the CO2 emitted to rainfall events from different land uses (i.e. forest, abandoned cultivated soils and winter cereal cultivated soils) in a representative Mediterranean agroforestry ecosystem in the central part of the Ebro basin, NE Spain (30T 4698723N 646424E). A total of 30 measurement points with the same soil type (classified as Calcisols) were selected. Soil CO2 flux was measured in situ using a portable EGM-4 CO2 analyzer PPSystems connected to a dynamic chamber system (model CFX-1, PPSystems) weekly during autumn 2016. Eleven different rainfall events were measured at least 24 hours before (n=7) and after the rainfall event (n=4). Soil water content and temperature were measured at each sampling point within the first 5 cm. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the experiment to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) content using a LECO RC-612. The mean SOC for forest, abandoned and cultivated soils were 2.5, 2.7 and 0.6 %, respectively. The results indicated differences in soil CO2 fluxes between land uses. The field measurements of CO2 flux show that before cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in the abandoned soils varying from 56.1 to 171.9 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 whereas after cereal sowing the highest values were recorded in cultivated soils ranged between 37.8 and 116.2 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 indicating the agricultural impact on CO2 fluxes. In cultivated soils, lower mean CO2 fluxes were measured after direct seeding

  13. Individual tree size inequality enhances aboveground biomass in homegarden agroforestry systems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-01-01

    Individual tree size variation, which is generally quantified by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and height in isolation or conjunction, plays a central role in ecosystem functioning in both controlled and natural environments, including forests. However, none of the studies have been conducted in homegarden agroforestry systems. In this study, aboveground biomass, stand quality, cation exchange capacity (CEC), DBH variation, and species diversity were determined across 45 homegardens in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand quality and CEC, via tree size inequality and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. The SEM accounted for 26, 8, and 1% of the variation in aboveground biomass, species diversity and DBH variation, respectively. DBH variation had the strongest positive direct effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.49), followed by the non-significant direct effect of species diversity (β=0.17), stand quality (β=0.17) and CEC (β=-0.05). There were non-significant direct effects of CEC and stand quality on DBH variation and species diversity. Stand quality and CEC had also non-significant indirect effects, via DBH variation and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. Our study revealed that aboveground biomass substantially increased with individual tree size variation only, which supports the niche complementarity mechanism. However, aboveground biomass was not considerably increased with species diversity, stand quality and soil fertility, which might be attributable to the adaptation of certain productive species to the local site conditions. Stand structure shaped by few productive species or independent of species diversity is a main determinant for the variation in aboveground biomass in the studied homegardens. Maintaining stand structure through management practices could be an effective approach for enhancing aboveground biomass in these dry

  14. Enabling Large-Scale Storage in Sensor Networks with the Coffee File System

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiftes, Nicolas; Dunkels, Adam; He, Zhitao; Voigt, Thiemo

    2009-01-01

    Persistent storage offers multiple advantages for sensor networks, yet the available storage systems have been unwieldy because of their complexity and device-specific designs. We present the Coffee file system for flash-based sensor devices. Coffee provides a programming interface for building efficient and portable storage abstractions. Unlike previous flash file systems, Coffee uses a small and constant RAM footprint per file, making it scale elegantly with workloads consisting of large fi...

  15. 农林复合生态经济系统研究综述%Research Summary of Agroforestry Eco-economic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张硕

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research summary from different periods and authors of agroforestry (breeding) system and deep thinking into the concept evolution and characteristics, the study holds the opinion that "agroforestry eco-economic system" is more accurate than former concept like "agroforestry system" or "management of agroforesiry". The research method and design principles of agrofDrestry eco-economic system were explored and summarized, and the work emphasis in the future was put forward.%在综合不同时期、不同学者对于农林(养)复合模式系统研究成果的基础上,通过对其概念演进及特点的深入思考,认为“农林复合生态经济系统”这一表述较原有诸如“农林复合系统”、“农林复合经营”等概念更能准确表述其理论内涵,对农林复合生态经济系统的研究方法和设计原则进行了初步的探索和总结,并提出了今后研究工作的重点.

  16. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  17. [Effect of mixed edaphic bacterial inoculants in the early development of improved cocoa cultivars (Theobroma cacao L.) in a traditional agroforestry system of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Romero, E; Carcaño-Montiel, M G; Ramos-Prado, J M; Vázquez-Cabañas, E A; López-Reyes, L; Ricaño-Rodríguez, J

    2017-07-31

    Cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) is native from South America and it represents one of the most significant "bio-cultural" resources of Mesoamerica, since it is a region where it was domesticated and had a relevance as ritual drink and as currency in many pre-hispanic cultures until the arrival of the Spaniards who spread its use worldwide, and became it one of the most consumed commodity goods. Through this research, an alternative is proposed to address the problem of cultivars through the introduction of a wide variety of cocoa plants in traditional agroforestry systems, in synergy with the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and insoluble phosphor solubilizing edaphic bacterial consortia. Four cultivars of improved grafted cocoa plants were introduced in a traditional agroforestry plot and three fertilization treatments were applied: application of biofertilizer, application of chemical fertilizer and control. Measurements of height, stem diameter, number of leaves and branches were recorded at 2 and 12 months after planting and rhizosphere microbial populations were characterized. Growth results showed good potential for all studied cultivars and it was observed that biofertilization foresees significant effects in some of the growth indicators of cocoa plant. Thereby, plant associations in an agroforestry system could be favorable to promote fruit development and resistance to pests and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Analisis Vegetasi Sebagai Dasar Pengembangan Agroforestri di DAS Mikro Desa Tukad Sumaga, Kecamatan Gerokgak, Kabupaten Buleleng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN GEDE WIRYANTARA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetations Analysis As A Basic ForAgroforestry Development In Micro Watershed TukadSumaga Village, Gerokgak District, Buleleng Regency.Forest changed to agricultural hasconsciousness can effected many problems such as soil degradations, erosion, flora and fauna extinctions,floods, dryness, and even global environmental change. Agroforestry is one of solutions to protect thebiodiversity. The research was held at Micro Watershed Tukad Sumaga Village, Gerokgak District,Buleleng Regency which consist of intercropping agroforestry system, alley cropping agroforestry system,and the trees for soil conservations agroforestry system. The purpose of this research is to discoverbiodiversity and composition of vegetations species in each agroforestry system and also to find out theagroforestry management level at Micro Watershed Tukad Sumaga Village. The research result showsthat the biggest Important Value Index (INP in intercropping agroforestry system is in trees level bymango at 59.46%, scrubs and sapling level by teak at 80.13%, seddling level by gosh bean at 49.57%.The biggest INP in Alley Cropping Agroforestry System is in trees level by cashew at 150.33%, scrubsand saplings level by lamtoro at 95.26%, seedling level by legetan at 84,93%. The biggest INP in TheTrees for Soil Conservations Agroforestry System is in trees level by tamarind at 165,35%, %, scrubsand saplings level by india apple at 114.09%, seedling level by legetan at 83.98%. The calculations ofspecies biodiversity which as species variety, prevalent index, and domination index can separated themanagement level in each agroforestry system. The best management is Intercropping AgroforestrySystem. The second is The Trees for Soil Conservations Agroforestry System. The last is Alley CroppingAgroforestry System. The development of Intercropping Agroforestry System is needed because thissystem is the best. Monitoring, evaluations, and technical learning about forest and agricultural

  19. Production ecology of agroforestry systems: a minimal mechanistic model and analytical derivation of the land equivalent ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesman, K J; van der Werf, W; van Keulen, H

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the yield and the land equivalent ratio (LER) of a silvo-arable agroforestry (SAF) system, containing one tree and one crop species, is analyzed analytically using a minimal mechanistic model describing the system dynamics. Light competition between tree and crop is considered using light extinction functions. The tree leaf area is driven by annual increase in the number of leaf-bearing shoots with a seasonal cycle of bud burst, leaf expansion and senescence. The crop leaf area dynamics is driven by the solar radiation, heat sum and the dry matter allocation to the leaves. As a consequence of this, the model consists of six state equations expressing the temporal dynamics of: (1) tree biomass; (2) tree leaf area; (3) number of shoots per tree; (4) crop biomass; (5) crop leaf area index, and (6) heat sum. The main outputs of the model are the growth dynamics and final yields of trees and crops. Daily inputs are temperature and radiation. Planting densities, initial biomass of tree and crop species and growth parameters must be specified. The main parameters are those describing light interception, conversion to dry matter and leaf area. Given the crop cover and the tree parameters, it is shown that under potential growing conditions the land equivalent ratio can be explicitly expressed in terms of these parameters.

  20. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks in traditional agricultural and agroforestry systems in the semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Amorim Silva do Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the semiarid region of Brazil, inadequate management of cropping systems and low plant biomass production can contribute to reduce soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N stocks; therefore, management systems that preserve C and N must be adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in soil C and N stocks that were promoted by agroforestry (agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral and traditional agricultural systems (slash-and-burn clearing and cultivation for two and three years and to compare these systems with the natural Caatinga vegetation after 13 years of cultivation. The experiment was carried out on a typical Ortic Chromic Luvisol in the municipality of Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. Soil samples were collected (layers 0-6, 6-12, 12-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm with four replications. The plain, convex and concave landforms in each study situation were analyzed, and the total organic C, total N and densities of the soil samples were assessed. The silvopastoral system promoted the greatest long-term reductions in C and N stocks, while the agrosilvopastoral system promoted the smallest losses and therefore represents a sustainable alternative for soil C and N sequestration in these semiarid conditions. The traditional agricultural system produced reductions of 58.87 and 9.57 Mg ha-1 in the organic C and total N stocks, respectively, which suggests that this system is inadequate for these semiarid conditions. The organic C stocks were largest in the concave landform in the agrosilvopastoral system and in the plain landform in the silvopastoral system, while the total N values were highest in the concave landform in the native, agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems.

  1. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  2. Complementary ecosystem services provided by pest predators and pollinators increase quantity and quality of coffee yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Alice; Peters, Marcell K; Ferger, Stefan W; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Schmack, Julia M; Maassen, Genevieve; Schleuning, Matthias; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2014-03-22

    Wild animals substantially support crop production by providing ecosystem services, such as pollination and natural pest control. However, the strengths of synergies between ecosystem services and their dependencies on land-use management are largely unknown. Here, we took an experimental approach to test the impact of land-use intensification on both individual and combined pollination and pest control services in coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro. We established a full-factorial pollinator and vertebrate exclosure experiment along a land-use gradient from traditional homegardens (agroforestry systems), shaded coffee plantations to sun coffee plantations (total sample size = 180 coffee bushes). The exclusion of vertebrates led to a reduction in fruit set of ca 9%. Pollinators did not affect fruit set, but significantly increased fruit weight of coffee by an average of 7.4%. We found no significant decline of these ecosystem services along the land-use gradient. Pest control and pollination service were thus complementary, contributing to coffee production by affecting the quantity and quality of a major tropical cash crop across different coffee production systems at Mount Kilimanjaro.

  3. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the present work was to verify the viability of briquette production using the biomass waste obtained by zero harvest system. The treatments were composed of briquetting process: 1 coffee rind; 2 mixture of branches and leaves; 3 25% of coffee rind + 75% of branches and leaves; 4 75% of coffee rind + 25% of branches and leaves; 5 50% of coffee rind + 50% of branches and leaves; 6 40% of coffee rind + 60% of branches and leaves. The mixtures were realized in v/v base, milled to produce 5-10 mm particles and were briqueted with 12% of humidity. The C-teor of briquettes produced ranged from 41.85 to 43. 84% and sulphur teor was below 0.1%. The calorific value of briquettes produced ranged from 3,359 to 4, 028 Kcal/ kg and the ashes were below 6%. The isolated use of coffee rind or branches and leaves, as well the mixtures of coffee rind with 50% or more of branches and leaves allow the production of briquettes with calorific value around 4,000 Kcal/ kg which is within the quality parameters. The briquetting of coffee crop wastes is viable and sustainable energetically.

  4. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  5. Drought effects on soil CO efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive" to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all ("non-responsive" (n=7. The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22. A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1.

  6. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  8. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Coupled Socioecological Systems in East Africa: The Case of the Chagga Agroforestry and Maasai Agropastoralism across the Greater Environments of Mount Kilimanjaro Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    The various types of rainfall-dependent coupled socioecological systems that conspicuously characterize mountain-environments across Africa, such as the Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, constitute a major economic backbone to the local inhabitants. Similarly, agropastoralism that characterizes the adjoining rangelands of such mountain-environments, such as that practiced by the Maasai people of Kenya, in the northern plains that adjoins Mount Kilimanjaro, is major contributor to local food security. Both Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism also contribute greatly to broader-scale economic sectors and respectively to sustainable utilization of rangeland and mountain-environment resources. Like similar coupled socioecological systems across Africa, the Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism are being, and will continue to be affected by the changing climate. This study uses an integrated approach to explore the sustainability of Chagga homegardens, an intensive agroforestry system, in the southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. Concurrently, the sustainability of the Maasai agropastoralism (a livelihood-diversification type) in the northern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the adjoining plains in Kenya is explored. This explication is followed by conceptualization of the potential future of Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism systems under diverse scenarios of climate change—and alongside simultaneous effects of cross-scale social and biophysical factors, processes, and their interactions—in an integrated model. The premise of this study is that coupled socioecological systems, such as Chagga agroforestry and Maasai agropastoralism, linked to and/or dependent on mountain environments and microclimates, are natural-laboratories. Apropos this last point, the two systems offer timely insight into how similar systems in different geographical locations are likely to be influenced by the continuously changing

  9. Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2003-05-01

    The worldwide decline of pollinators may negatively affect the fruit set of wild and cultivated plants. Here, we show that fruit set of the self-fertilizing highland coffee (Coffea arabica) is highly variable and related to bee pollination. In a comparison of 24 agroforestry systems in Indonesia, the fruit set of coffee could be predicted by the number of flower-visiting bee species, and it ranged from ca. 60% (three species) to 90% (20 species). Diversity, not abundance, explained variation in fruit set, so the collective role of a species-rich bee community was important for pollination success. Additional experiments showed that single flower visits from rare solitary species led to higher fruit set than with abundant social species. Pollinator diversity was affected by two habitat parameters indicating guild-specific nesting requirements: the diversity of social bees decreased with forest distance, whereas the diversity of solitary bees increased with light intensity of the agroforestry systems. These results give empirical evidence for a positive relationship between ecosystem functions such as pollination and biodiversity. Conservation of rainforest adjacent to adequately managed agroforestry systems could improve the yields of farmers.

  10. Analysis and prediction of pest dynamics in an agroforestry context using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Marcela; Malard, Julien; Adamowski, Jan; Carrera, Jaime Luis; Maas, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    While it is known that climate change will impact future plant-pest population dynamics, potentially affecting crop damage, agroforestry with its enhanced biodiversity is said to reduce the outbreaks of pest insects by providing natural enemies for the control of pest populations. This premise is known in the literature as the natural enemy hypothesis and has been widely studied qualitatively. However, disagreement still exists on whether biodiversity enhancement reduces pest outbreaks, showing the need of quantitatively understanding the mechanisms behind the interactions between pests and natural enemies, also known as trophic interactions. Crop pest models that study insect population dynamics in agroforestry contexts are very rare, and pest models that take trophic interactions into account are even rarer. This may be due to the difficulty of representing complex food webs in a quantifiable model. There is therefore a need for validated food web models that allow users to predict the response of these webs to changes in climate in agroforestry systems. In this study we present Tiko'n, a Python-based software whose API allows users to rapidly build and validate trophic web models; the program uses a Bayesian inference approach to calibrate the models according to field data, allowing for the reuse of literature data from various sources and reducing the need for extensive field data collection. Tiko'n was run using coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera coffeella) and associated parasitoid data from a shaded coffee plantation, showing the mechanisms of insect population dynamics within a tri-trophic food web in an agroforestry system.

  11. Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodivers

  12. Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodivers

  13. Activity of some isoenzymatic systems in stored coffee grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Saath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide consumption of coffee, it is natural that throughout the history many people have dedicated the research to markers that contribute somehow on gauging its quality. This research aimed to evaluate the biochemical performance of arabica coffee during storage. Coffee in beans (natural and in parchment (pulped dried in concrete terrace and in dryer with heated air were packed in jute bags and stored in not controlled environmental conditions. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, esterase and lipoxygenase in coffee grains were evaluated at zero, three, six, nine and twelve months by means of electrophoresis. Independently of the drying method, the activity of isoenzymatic complexes highlighted deteriorative processes in stored grains of coffee. The treatments 60/40º C and 60º C used to reduce the water content imposed a greater stress condition, accelerated metabolism of natural coffee in the storage with decreased activity of defense mechanisms due to latent damage in these grains. Natural coffees are more sensible to high drying temperatures and its quality reduces faster than pulped coffee in the storage.

  14. Changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in croplands converted to walnut-based agroforestry systems and orchards in southeastern Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sen; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Yin, Changjun; Sun, Shiyou

    2015-11-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of agroforestry system practices on soil properties in the Loess Plateau of China. Over the last decade, a vegetation restoration project has been conducted in this area by converting cropland into tree-based agroforestry systems and orchards to combat soil erosion and degradation. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of land use conversion on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in southeastern Loess Plateau. The experiment included three treatments: walnut intercropping system (AF), walnut orchard (WO), and traditional cropland (CR). After 7 years of continual management, soil samples were collected at 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50-cm depths for three treatments, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured. Results showed that compared with the CR and AF treatments, WO treatment decreased both SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-50-cm soil profile. However, similar patterns of SOC and TN concentrations were observed in the AF and CR treatments across the entire profile. The SOC stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 5.42, 5.52, and 4.67 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. The calculated TN stocks at 0-50-cm depth were 0.63, 0.62, and 0.57 kg m(-2) for CR, AF, and WO treatments, respectively. This result demonstrated that the stocks of SOC and TN in WO were clearly lower than those of AF and CR and that the walnut-based agroforestry system was more beneficial than walnut monoculture in terms of SOC and TN sequestration. Owing to the short-term intercropping practice, the changes in SOC and TN stocks were slight in AF compared with those in CR. However, a significant decrease in SOC and TN stocks was observed during the conversion of cropland to walnut orchard after 7 years of management. We also found that land use types had no significant effect on soil C/N ratio. These findings demonstrated that intercropping between walnut rows can potentially maintain

  15. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  16. TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Ramos, Mariana; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Casas, Alejandro

    2016-07-22

    Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts. We hypothesized that biodiversity in AFS is related to that of forests types associated and the vigour of TEK and management. We conducted studies in a matrix of environments and human cultures in the Tehuacán Valley. In addition, we reviewed, systematized and compared information from other regions of Mexico and the world with comparable socio-ecological contexts in order to explore possible general patterns. Our study found from 26 % to nearly 90 % of wild plants species richness conserved in AFS, the decreasing proportion mainly associated to pressures for intensifying agricultural production and abandoning traditional techniques. Native species richness preserved in AFS is influenced by richness existing in the associated forests, but the main driver is how people preserve benefits of components and functions of ecosystems. Elements of modern agricultural production may coexist with traditional management patterns, but imposition of modern models may break possible balances. TEK influences decisions on what and how modern techniques may be advantageous for preserving biodiversity, ecosystem integrity in AFS and people's wellbeing. TEK, agroecology and other sciences may interact for maintaining and improving traditional AFS to increase biodiversity

  17. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  18. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  19. Chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion effects on the cognitive function and antioxidant system of rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Renata Viana; Silva-Oliveira, Eliane Moretto; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Moraes-Santos, Tasso

    2011-10-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage consumed worldwide and its effect on health protection has been well studied throughout literature. This study investigates the effect of chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion on cognitive behavior and the antioxidant system of rat brains. The paradigms of open field and object recognition were used to assess locomotor and exploratory activities, as well as learning and memory. The antioxidant system was evaluated by determining the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content. Five groups of male rats were fed for approximately 80 days with different diets: control diet (CD), fed a control diet; 3% coffee diet (3%Co) and 6% coffee diet (6%Co), both fed a diet containing brewed coffee; 0.04% caffeine diet (0.04%Ca) and 0.08% caffeine diet (0.08%Ca), both fed a control diet supplemented with caffeine. The estimated caffeine intake was approximately 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, for the 3%Co-0.04%Ca and 6%Co-0.08%Ca treatments, respectively. At 90 days of life, the animals were subjected to the behavioral tasks and then sacrificed. The results indicated that the intake of coffee, similar to caffeine, improved long-term memory when tested with object recognition; however, this was not accompanied by an increase in locomotor and exploratory activities. In addition, chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion reduced the lipid peroxidation of brain membranes and increased the concentration of reduced-glutathione. The activities of the GR and SOD were similarly increased, but no change in GPx activity could be observed. Thus, besides improving cognitive function, our data show that chronic coffee consumption modulates the endogenous antioxidant system in the brain. Therefore, chronic coffee ingestion, through the protection of the antioxidant system, may play an important role in preventing age-associated decline in the cognitive

  20. Storage of soil organic carbon in coffee (Coffea arabica L. production systems in the municipality of Líbano, Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade Castañeda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase in greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources has resulted in climate change, which affects all living beings. Coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations, in monoculture or together with timber species such as salmwood (Cordia alliodora, mitigate climate change due to fixation of atmospheric CO2 that is deposited in biomass and soils. This study was carried out in the municipality of Líbano, Tolima, Colombia with the objective of defining which of the following coffee production systems store more soil organic carbon (SOC: 1 monoculture, 2 agroforestry systems (AFS with salmwood, and 3 AFS with plantain. Farms with those systems that are the most dominant in the study zone were selected. From each system, five repetitions were identified to be analyzed with a completely randomized design. In each plot or repetition, five samples for bulk density (BD using the cylinder method and a composite sample for concentration of SOC were taken and analyzed using the Walkley and Black approach. The systems of production did not significantly (p > 0.05 affect either the BD or the concentration of SOC. However, AFS with plantain tended to have less BD than monoculture and AFS with salmwood (0.83 ± 0.03 vs 0.88 ± 0.03 vs 0.92 ± 0.04 g·cm-3, respectively. These systems of production stored between 50 and 54 t·ha-1 of SOC in the top 30 cm, which indicates their capacity for climate change mitigation.

  1. How Agroforestry Contributes to Meeting the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vulnerability and having the least adaptive capacities. (Thornton et. ... the emerging global and local challenges. Tanzania is home to several traditional agroforestry systems. Some have ... extension service, NGOs and CBOs, has developed.

  2. Klasifikasi Sistem Agroforestry Berbasis Salak di Kabupaten Tapanuli Selatan Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Idasari; Rauf, Abdul; Rahmawaty

    2016-01-01

    Most of the salak farmers in Tapanuli Selatan District apply the agroforestry system in their farm land. This study aimed to classify agroforestry system based-salak into several types and sub-types based on their constituent components. This study employed survey methods. The results of this study showed that agroforestry system salak-based consist of agrisilvicultural type with combination of trees, plantation crops, and fruit trees (ASCkpb) and combination of trees, plantation crops, fruit...

  3. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  4. Comparative productivity of Prosopis cineraria and Tecomella undulata based agroforestry systems in degraded lands of Indian Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Singh

    2009-01-01

    Tree-crop interactions were monitored by measuring tree growth characters of Prosopis cineraria L. And Tecomella undulata L. And yields of Vigna radiata (L) in agroforestry systems in degraded lands of Indian Desert. Potential competition for resource between the trees and associated crop was analyzed by measuring soil water contents, soil organic matters and NH4-N at different depths of soil layers i.e., 0–25 cm, 25–50 cm and 50–75 cm in the experimental plots. The plots size were 16 m - 18 m (D1), 20 m - 18 m (D2) and 32 m - 18 m (D3) with tree densities of 208, 138 and 104 trees·ha-1 after June 2002, respectively. Results showed that tree height increased by 3% to 7% during June 2002 to June 2004. Collar diameter increased by 30% and 11% in D1, 23% and 19% in D2 and 18% and 36% in D3 plots, respectively, in P. Cineraria and T. Undulata in two years period. The increase in crown diameter was 9% to 18% in P. Cineraria and 11% to 16% in T. Undulata. Tree growth was relatively greater in 2002 than in 2003. Yield of V. Radiata increased linearly from D1 to D3 plots. Lowest soil water content at 1 m distance from tree base indicated greater utilization of soil water within the tree rooting zone. Concentrations of soil organic matters and NH4-N were the highest (p<0.05) in 0–25 cm soil layer. P. Cineraria was more beneficial than T. Undulata in improving soil conditions and increasing crop yield by 11.1% and thus more suitable for its integration in agricultural land. The yield of agricultural crop increased when density of tree species was appropriate (i.e., optimum tree density), though it varied with tree size and depended upon resource availability. The result indicated bio-economic benefits of optimum density of P. Cineraria and T. Undulata over traditional practices of maintaining random trees in farming system in arid zones.

  5. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  6. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid lactones in a model system and in a coffee extract. Application to reduction of coffee bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Page-Zoerkler, Nicole; Mauroux, Olivier; Gartenmann, Karin; Blank, Imre; Bel-Rhlid, Rachid

    2017-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid lactones have been identified as key contributors to coffee bitterness. These compounds are formed during roasting by dehydration and cyclization of their precursors, the chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present study, we investigated an approach to decompose these lactones in a selective way without affecting the positive coffee attributes developed during roasting. A model system composed of (3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone (3-CQAL), 4- caffeoyl quinic acid lactone (4-CQAL), and 4-feruloylquinic acid lactone (4-FQAL)) was used for the screening of enzymes before treatment of the coffee extracts. Hog liver esterase (HLE) hydrolyzed chlorogenic acid lactones (CQALs, FQALs) selectively, while chlorogenate esterase hydrolyzed all chlorogenic acids (CQAs, FQAs) and their corresponding lactones (CQALs, FQALs) in a non-selective way. Enzymatically treated coffee samples were evaluated for their bitterness by a trained sensory panel and were found significantly less bitter than the untreated samples.

  7. Analysis of existing agroforestry practices in Madhupur Sal forest: an assessment based on ecological and economic perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria; Narayan Saha

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in Madhupur sal forest of Tangail,Bangladesh to identify the suitable agroforestry practices of the area.Considering the ecological aspects of different agroforestry practices 10 sample plots (10 m × 10 m) from each land uses were taken,including natural forest to get a comparative scenario.The study showed that among the different agroforestry practices,Margalef and ShannonWeiner index values are the maximum for pineapple agroforestry and lower for banana agroforestry,and Evenness index value is the maximum for lemon agroforestry.Determination of tree biomass in different land uses revealed that it is highest (3078.6 kg/100 m2) in natural forest followed by pineapple agroforestry,lemon agroforestry and banana agroforestry.Soil pH,moisture content,organic matter,organic carbon,phosphorus and total nitrogen showed statistically significant variation while bulk density,particle density,sulphur and potassium did not show any statistically significant variation among the land uses.Soil fertility status showed that pineapple agroforestry is more fertile than rest of other land uses.The Net Present Value (NPV) indicated that banana agroforestry is financially more profitable than other two systems,while the BenefitCost ratio (BCR) is higher in pineapple agroforestry (4.21 in participatory agroforestry and 3.35 in privately managed land).Even though banana agroforestry gives higher NPV,capital required for this practice is much higher.The findings suggest that pineapple agroforestry has a tendency towards becoming ecologically and economically more sound than other two practices as it has better ecological attributes and required comparatively low investment.

  8. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  9. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia monoculture system (JRMS, a wheat (Triticum aestivum monoculture system (TAMS, and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  10. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  11. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O' Neill; Harry W. Godwin

    2008-01-01

    Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial...

  12. Impact of agroforestry on dragonflies diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Kajzrová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    Tropical rain forests around the world suffer from deforestation, which is caused mainly by small-scale farmers. These farmers largely employ slash-and-burn methods to clear the land for agricultural settlement. Agroforestry systems are widely found in the humid tropics, where they could have great potential to increase the productivity of farming systems and sustain continuous crop production and they are also supposed to conserve biodiversity. As a group of freshwater invertebrates, dragonf...

  13. Simulation of the dynamic behavior of the coffee fruit-stem system using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lúcio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical harvesting can be considered an important factor to reduce the costs in coffee production and to improve the quality of the final product. Coffee harvesting machinery uses mechanical vibrations to accomplish the harvesting. Therefore, the determination of the natural frequencies of the fruit-stem systems is an essential dynamic parameter for the development of mechanized harvesting system by mechanical vibrations. The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional finite element model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the coffee fruit-stem systems, considering different fruit ripeness. Moreover, it was carried out a theoretical study, using the finite element three-dimensional model, based on the linear theory of elasticity, for determining the generated stress in a coffee fruit-stem system, during the harvesting process by mechanical vibration. The results showed that natural frequencies decrease as the ripeness condition of the fruit increases. Counter-phase mode shape can provide better detachment efficiency considering the stress generation on coffee fruit-stem system during the harvesting by mechanical vibrations and presented a difference greater than 40 Hz between the natural frequencies of the green and ripe fruit.

  14. DINAMIKA AGROFORESTRY TEGALAN DI PERBUKITAN MENOREH, KULON PROGO, DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Hani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land management in agroforestry systems requires species selection and proper silviculture. Selection of species and silvicultural treatments aimed at maintaining competition in obtaining a light, water and nutrients. Farmers choose the species based on the economical factor. This study aims to determine the composition of plant species in dry land agroforestry in Menoreh Hill, Kulon Progo District. Research done by survey method. Plot observation was divided into three level of light intensity: : a early agroforestry (light intensity >50%, b middle agroforestry, (light intensity 30-50%, c further agroforestry (light intensity <30%. Four planting plots were made as repetition, so that there were 12 plots observation. Observations and measurements of vegetation are done with census (100%. The Result show five important value index in early Agroforestry,: sengon (77.84, coconut (50.04, and cacao (25.47, tree density was 482 trees/hectare and basal area 5.48 m2/ha, in middle agroforestry were: sengon (88.15, mahogany (49.51, and clove (45.03, with tree density was 595 trees/ha, and basal area was 6.70 m2/ha, further agroforestry were: clove (72.37%, sengon (50.61, and coconut (37.02, tree density was 650 trees/ha, basal area was 6.78 m2/ha.Keywords: Composition of plant species, dry land agroforestry, Menoreh Hill

  15. Drinking Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explores how coffee is an integral part of our daily life. Focusing on coffee drinking at home, at work, and on the go I show that coffee consumption is a social practice. The chapter illustrates through everyday examples that coffee is more than a caffeine drug. Coffee, with or without...... caffeine, is a social lubricant. We talk to each other and share emotions with one another as we share a cup of coffee. Coffee makes conversation and we embrace coffee, to stay or to go, in the daily rhythm of our busy and global social existence. The practice and sociality of coffee consumption provide...... the coffee industry with the opportunity to make money on our coffee preferences – indeed, also for those of us who actually dislike the taste of coffee. Would you prefer coffee mixed and stirred with non-coffee products such as salt, caramel and licorice? Then you are one of us in the modern age of coffee...

  16. Agroforestry: a refuge for tropical biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J; Birks, H John B; Whittaker, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    As rates of deforestation continue to rise in many parts of the tropics, the international conservation community is faced with the challenge of finding approaches which can reduce deforestation and provide rural livelihoods in addition to conserving biodiversity. Much of modern-day conservation is motivated by a desire to conserve 'pristine nature' in protected areas, while there is growing recognition of the long-term human involvement in forest dynamics and of the importance of conservation outside protected areas. Agroforestry -- intentional management of shade trees with agricultural crops -- has the potential for providing habitats outside formally protected land, connecting nature reserves and alleviating resource-use pressure on conservation areas. Here we examine the role of agroforestry systems in maintaining species diversity and conclude that these systems can play an important role in biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes.

  17. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  18. Growth characteristics of multipurpose tree species,crop productivity and soil properties in agroforestry systems under subtropical humid climate in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Datta; N. P. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Multipurpose tree species (MPTs) were studied in an agroforestry arboretum under subtropical humid climate in Northeast India. Out of 12 MPTs planted under agroforestry systems, Acacia auriculiformis in spacing of 2 m × 2 m (2500 stems·hm-2) could have the potentiality to meet the timber/fuelwood requirement due to its high wood production of 635 m3·hm-2 with mean annual increment (MAI) of 2.54×10-2· m3·tree1·a-1 in a short rotation period of 10 years. Thus, A. Auriculiformis is a short rotation forest tree species suitable to grow in subtropical humid climate. On the other hand, at 16 years of age, Eucalyptus hybrid and Michelia champaca in spacing of 3 m × 3 m (1111 stems·hm-2) produced appreciably high timber volume of 315 m3·hm-2 and 165 m3·hm-2 with MAI of 1.77×10-2 m3·tree-1·a-1 and 0.92×10-2 m3·tree-1·a-1, respectively. At 16 years of age, Gmelina arborea produced a timber volume of 147 m3·hm-2 with MAI of 1.47×10-2 m3·tree-1·a-1 followed by Samania saman (140 m3·hm-2), Albizzia procera (113 m3·hm-2) and Tectona grandis (79 m3·hm-2) with MAI of 1.40, 1.13 and 0.78 × 10-2 m3 ·tree-1·a-1, respectively in 4 m × 4 m spacing (625 stems·hm-2). Gliricidia maculata and Leucaena leucocephala could be used as live fences around the farm boundary to supply their N-rich leaves for mulch as well as manure to crops. In agroforestry arboretum, direct seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa - variety, AR-11), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea - variety, JL-24) and sesamum (Sesamum indicum - variety, B-67) were grown during the initial period upto 8 years of tree establishment. Under other MPTs,there was a reduction in crop productivity as compared to open space. After 8 years of tree establishment, horti-silvi and silvi-pastoral systems were developed and pineapple (Ananas comosus - variety Queen), turmeric (Curcuma longa -variety RCT -1) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis - variety Pusa Barsati) as forage crop were raised. The productivity of pineapple, turmeric

  19. The effects of rainfall partitioning and evapotranspiration on the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content in a Mediterranean agroforestry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, C.; Molina, A.; Aranda, X.; Llorens, P.; Savé, R.

    2012-04-01

    Tree plantation for wood production has been proposed to mitigate CO2-related climate change. Although these agroforestry systems can contribute to maintain the agriculture in some areas placed between rainfed crops and secondary forests, water scarcity in Mediterranean climate could restrict its growth, and their presence will affect the water balance. Tree plantations management (species, plant density, irrigation, etc), hence, can be used to affect the water balance, resulting in water availability improvement and buffering of the water cycle. Soil water content and meteorological data are widely used in agroforestry systems as indicators of vegetation water use, and consequently to define water management. However, the available information of ecohydrological processes in this kind of ecosystem is scarce. The present work studies how the temporal and spatial variation of soil water content is affected by transpiration and interception loss fluxes in a Mediterranean rainfed plantation of cherry tree (Prunus avium) located in Caldes de Montbui (Northeast of Spain). From May till December 2011, rainfall partitioning, canopy transpiration, soil water content and meteorological parameters were continuously recorded. Rainfall partitioning was measured in 6 trees, with 6 automatic rain recorders for throughfall and 1 automatic rain recorder for stemflow per tree. Transpiration was monitored in 12 nearby trees by means of heat pulse sap flow sensors. Soil water content was also measured at three different depths under selected trees and at two depths between rows without tree cover influence. This work presents the relationships between rainfall partitioning, transpiration and soil water content evolution under the tree canopy. The effect of tree cover on the soil water content dynamics is also analyzed.

  20. 树木-水稻农林系统中害虫的侵害%Infestation of insect pests in tree-rice agroforestry system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of insect pests was studied on rice BR11 (mukta) as understory crop grown in association with 11 years old selected tree species viz, Akashmoni, Jhau and Albida in the field laboratory of the Department of Agroforestry, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the period from July to December, 2003. Among the three species Albida and Jhau possessed the largest canopy and there light penetration rate were high. On the other hand, Akashmoni had the lowest canopy but it penetrated low amount of light. Albida-rice association showed the lowest infestation of major rice insects followed by Jhau-rice association, while Akashmoni-rice association showed the highest insect infestation. Light intensity in the control plot (absent of tree species) was maximum and it caused minimum severity of insects infestation as compared to other associations. From the result it appeared that light interception has the relationship with insect population in rice. Therefore, tree species having sparse canopy which allowed easy penetration of sunlight is suitable for tree-rice agroforestry system.%本文比较研究了10种水稻害虫在3个树种(Akashmoni, Jhau 和 Albida)与稻子混栽的农-林复合生态系统中的发生情况,通过3个树种的冠幅大小、透光率以及害虫发生程度相比较,提出农-林复合生态系统中,水稻害虫的发生与树冠的透光率呈密切的负相关关系.图1参13.

  1. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  2. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  3. Shaded Coffee: A way to Increase Sustainability in Brazilian Organic Coffee plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Cassio Franco; De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A.; Tagliaferro, Fábio Sileno

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of specialty coffee, mainly organic coffee, increases worldwide following the tendency of consuming social and ecological sustainable products. Brazil is the world largest coffee producer, with an average of 2,300,000 tons of green coffee in the last 5 years. Cultivation of organic coffee and shaded coffee are common in Central America, while in Brazil both conventional and organic coffee are cultivated in the full sun system. The full sun system is criticized due to the lack of b...

  4. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract more…

  5. Phosphorus mobilization in agroforestry: Organic anions, phosphatase activity and phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.; Grierson, P.F.

    2004-01-01

    In agroforestry systems on Ferralsols in the tropics, maize crop yields are low owing to a lack of P. However, some agroforestry tree species adapted to P-fixing soils may be able to utilize less available P sources and concurrently increase P availability to adjacent crops. Adaptations for enhanced

  6. Modeling and Mapping Agroforestry Aboveground Biomass in the Brazilian Amazon Using Airborne Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi Chen; Dengsheng Lu; Michael Keller; Maiza dos-Santos; Edson Bolfe; Yunyun Feng; Changwei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Agroforestry has large potential for carbon (C) sequestration while providing many economical, social, and ecological benefits via its diversified products. Airborne lidar is considered as the most accurate technology for mapping aboveground biomass (AGB) over landscape levels. However, little research in the past has been done to study AGB of agroforestry systems...

  7. Computer-based tools for decision support in agroforestry: Current state and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Ellis; G. Bentrup; Michelle M. Schoeneberger

    2004-01-01

    Successful design of agroforestry practices hinges on the ability to pull together very diverse and sometimes large sets of information (i.e., biophysical, economic and social factors), and then implementing the synthesis of this information across several spatial scales from site to landscape. Agroforestry, by its very nature, creates complex systems with impacts...

  8. Early warning system for coffee rust disease based on error correcting output codes: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Camilo Corrales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coffee producers have had to face the severe consequences of the coffee rust disease since it was first reported in the country in 1983. Recently, machine learning researchers have tried to predict infection through classifiers such as decision trees, regression Support Vector Machines (SVM, non-deterministic classifiers and Bayesian Networks, but it has been theoretically and empirically demonstrated that combining multiple classifiers can substantially improve the classification performance of the constituent members. An Early Warning System (EWS for coffee rust disease was therefore proposed based on Error Correcting Output Codes (ECOC and SVM to compute the binary functions of Plant Density, Shadow Level, Soil Acidity, Last Nighttime Rainfall Intensity and Last Days Relative Humidity.

  9. 我国农林复合系统自然资源利用率研究进展%Research Progress of Natural Resource Utilization in Agroforestry System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩泉; 何春霞

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry system is a dynamic natural resource management system. This paper summarized the research progress of agroforestry system in the utilization of solar radiation,water,nutrition,land and other natural resources. We concluded that agroforestry system was important to improve the utilization of natural resources. However,the degree of this improvement was different due to differences in climate,forest category and tree density and stand age,crop types. The research scale,research content,method and research prospects were also proposed in this paper.%农林复合系统是一种动态的自然资源管理系统,通过总结我国农林复合系统在光能、水分、养分及土地等自然资源利用率的研究进展,认为农林复合系统具有提高自然资源利用率等重要作用,只是由于气候、树种林种及其密度和林龄、作物种类的差异,使得提高的幅度有所差异而已;并从研究尺度、研究内容及方法等角度,提出研究展望。

  10. From Imperata cylindrica grasslands to productive agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murniati,

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Ecosystem, Agroforestry, Imperata cylindrica , pioneer, mycorrhizae, inter-cropping, tree architecture, biomass, functional branching analysisConversion of an Imperata cylindrica ecosystem into an agroforestry ecosystem is a complex process. Integrated control of the I . cylindric

  11. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  12. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and 2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby

  13. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical

  14. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985–2009 in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (High Agri Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Simoniello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (High Agri Valley – Basilicata region occurred during 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European on-shore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes and the Forest/Non Forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern: increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  15. Land cover changes and forest landscape evolution (1985-2009) in a typical Mediterranean agroforestry system (high Agri Valley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, T.; Coluzzi, R.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.

    2015-06-01

    The present study focuses on the transformations of a typical Mediterranean agroforestry landscape of southern Italy (high Agri Valley - Basilicata region) that occurred over 24 years. In this period, the valuable agricultural and natural areas that compose such a landscape were subjected to intensive industry-related activities linked to the exploitation of the largest European onshore oil reservoir. Landsat imagery acquired in 1985 and 2009 were used to detect changes in forest areas and major land use trajectories. Landscape metrics indicators were adopted to characterize landscape structure and evolution of both the complex ecomosaic (14 land cover classes) and the forest/non-forest arrangement. Our results indicate a net increase of 11% of forest areas between 1985 and 2009. The major changes concern increase of all forest covers at the expense of pastures and grasses, enlargement of riparian vegetation, and expansion of artificial areas. The observed expansion of forests was accompanied by a decrease of the fragmentation levels likely due to the reduction of small glades that break forest homogeneity and to the recolonization of herbaceous areas. Overall, we observe an evolution towards a more stable configuration depicting a satisfactory picture of vegetation health.

  16. Peasant coffee in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: A critical evaluation of sustainable intensification and market integration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cristina de la Vega-Leinert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production of low-input, shaded coffee in the Los Tuxtlas UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (LTBR, Veracruz, Mexico, an economically marginalized but ecologically rich region, was strongly affected by the collapse in international prices and the reconfiguration of the Mexican coffee sector in the 1990s. This place-based study used qualitative methods to investigate local strategies to reactivate coffee cultivation and improve market integration. Ninety-five producers, processors and cooperative representatives were interviewed to: 1 characterize the different actors in the local coffee commodity chain; 2 explore how producers, organized or not, shape and are constrained by the local coffee sector, and 3 evaluate whether producers land use strategies may be compatible with conservation in the LTBR. We combine the Land Sparing and Sharing framework with the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve zonation system to conceptualize how coffee plantations can be spatially integrated in protected areas and facilitate synergies between local livelihoods and conservation. Our empirical study illustrates the complexity and dynamism of the LTBR coffee sector. It highlights the resourcefulness of producers in adapting their cultivation systems, but also the narrow maneuvering room farmers have to exploit textbook synergies between conservation and fair trade and / or certified organic markets. In principle, coffee cultivation can be expanded and intensified without affecting remaining primary forest (Land Sparing and contribute to maintain a diverse landscape matrix in productive agroforestry systems (Land Sharing. However, few producers have the means required to successfully achieve profitable and long-term market integration. Future research on sustainable land use management in, and around, protected areas needs to explicitly address local, sectoral and market dynamics as drivers of land use at the local level. Although these dynamics may create windows of opportunity

  17. Agroforestry systems of the lowland alluvial valleys of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve: an evaluation of their biocultural capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Mariana; Casas, Alejandro; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Moreno-Calles, Ana I; Hernández-Ordoñez, Omar; Tellez, Oswaldo; Dávila, Patricia

    2015-02-19

    Agroforestry systems (AFS) are valuable production systems that allow concealing benefits provision with conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analysed AFS of the zone of alluvial valleys of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (TCV), Mexico, the most intensive agricultural systems within a region recognized for harbouring one of the most ancient agricultural experience of the New World. We hypothesized that the biodiversity conservation capacity of AFS would be directly related to traditional agricultural features and inversely related to management intensity. Agricultural practices, use frequency of machinery and chemical inputs, and proportion of forest and cultivated areas were described in 15 AFS plots in alluvial valleys of the Salado River in three villages of the region. With the information, we constructed a management intensity index and compared among plots and villages. We documented the reasons why people maintain wild plant species and traditional practices. Perennial plant species were sampled in vegetation of AFS (15 plots) and unmanaged forests (12 plots 500 m(2)) in order to compare richness, diversity and other ecological indicators in AFS and forest. In all studied sites, people combine traditional and intensive agricultural practices. Main agroforestry practices are ground terraces and borders surrounding AFS plots where people maintain vegetation. According to people, the reasons for maintaining shrubs and trees in AFS were in order of importance are: Beauty and shade provision (14% of people), fruit provision (7%), protection against strong wind, and favouring water and soil retention. We recorded 66 species of trees and shrubs in the AFS studied, 81% of them being native species that represent 38% of the perennial plant species recorded in forests sampled. Land tenure and institutions vary among sites but not influenced the actions for maintaining the vegetation cover in AFS. Plant diversity decreased with increasing

  18. Tree culture of smallholder farmers practicing agroforestry in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2016-01-01

    groups, followed by household survey of a sample of 20 agroforestry farmers. Five main agroforestry systems (homegardens, fruit tree system, timber tree system, mixed fruit–timber system, and cropping in the forest understory) exist in the study area, and all of them exhibit a noticeable diversity...... include not only a form of forest dominated by ‘cultivated trees’, but also an anthropogenic vegetation formation derived from agricultural antecedents. In land-use classifications agroforestry systems are not recognized as forestry, but like forests they provide tree products and services. Classification...

  19. A study on the impact of cocoa agro-forestry ecosystem on social economy and environment in a hillside location (Nghia Trung village, Bu Dang district of Binh Phuoc province)

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate and quantify the triple benefits of social, economic and environmental in cocoa agro-forestry ecosystem when planted as a mixed cropping system in a degraded hillside environment. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  20. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes (GEC such as climate change (CC and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011, and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  1. Climate change or urbanization? Impacts on a traditional coffee production system in East Africa over the last 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Setamou, Mamoudou; Muchugu, Eric; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Mukabana, Joseph; Maina, Johnson; Gathara, Simon; Borgemeister, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental changes (GEC) such as climate change (CC) and climate variability have serious impacts in the tropics, particularly in Africa. These are compounded by changes in land use/land cover, which in turn are driven mainly by economic and population growth, and urbanization. These factors create a feedback loop, which affects ecosystems and particularly ecosystem services, for example plant-insect interactions, and by consequence agricultural productivity. We studied effects of GEC at a local level, using a traditional coffee production area in greater Nairobi, Kenya. We chose coffee, the most valuable agricultural commodity worldwide, as it generates income for 100 million people, mainly in the developing world. Using the coffee berry borer, the most serious biotic threat to global coffee production, we show how environmental changes and different production systems (shaded and sun-grown coffee) can affect the crop. We combined detailed entomological assessments with historic climate records (from 1929-2011), and spatial and demographic data, to assess GEC's impact on coffee at a local scale. Additionally, we tested the utility of an adaptation strategy that is simple and easy to implement. Our results show that while interactions between CC and migration/urbanization, with its resultant landscape modifications, create a feedback loop whereby agroecosystems such as coffee are adversely affected, bio-diverse shaded coffee proved far more resilient and productive than coffee grown in monoculture, and was significantly less harmed by its insect pest. Thus, a relatively simple strategy such as shading coffee can tremendously improve resilience of agro-ecosystems, providing small-scale farmers in Africa with an easily implemented tool to safeguard their livelihoods in a changing climate.

  2. Development of coffee maker service robot using speech and face recognition systems using POMDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Meiliana; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    There are many development of intelligent service robot in order to interact with user naturally. This purpose can be done by embedding speech and face recognition ability on specific tasks to the robot. In this research, we would like to propose Intelligent Coffee Maker Robot which the speech recognition is based on Indonesian language and powered by statistical dialogue systems. This kind of robot can be used in the office, supermarket or restaurant. In our scenario, robot will recognize user's face and then accept commands from the user to do an action, specifically in making a coffee. Based on our previous work, the accuracy for speech recognition is about 86% and face recognition is about 93% in laboratory experiments. The main problem in here is to know the intention of user about how sweetness of the coffee. The intelligent coffee maker robot should conclude the user intention through conversation under unreliable automatic speech in noisy environment. In this paper, this spoken dialog problem is treated as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We describe how this formulation establish a promising framework by empirical results. The dialog simulations are presented which demonstrate significant quantitative outcome.

  3. Does litterfall from native trees support rainfed agriculture? Analysis of Ficus trees in agroforestry systems of southern dry agroclimatic zone of Karnataka, southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Dhanya; Syam Viswanath; Seema Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Trees of the genus Ficus,integral components of indigenous rainfed agro-ecosystems of the southern dry agro-climatic zone of Kamataka,southern India,have traditionally been associated with the ecological service of soil quality enhancement in addition to various direct use benefits.We assessed the soil enrichment service of Ficus benghalensis L.a common Ficus species in these agroforestry systems,by quantifying nutrient return via litter fall.Litterfall estimation and chemical analysis of litter showed that F.benghalensis trees produce 3,512 kg·ha-1 of litter annually which,on decomposition,can satisfy up to 76.70 % of N,20.24% of P and 67.76% of K requirements of dryland crops annually per hectare.This can lead to an avoided cost of compost of US $ 36.46ha-1·a-1 in dryland farming systems.The slow rate of decay of Ficus litter,as revealed in litter decomposition studies indicates its potential as ideal mulch for dryland soils.We discuss the complementarity between Ficus litterfall and cropping patterns in Mandya,and its implications for rainfed agricultural systems.

  4. Variabilidad espacial y diaria del contenido de humedad en el suelo en tres sistemas agroforestales Spatial and daily variability of soil moisture content in three agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rivera Peña

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En seis puntos de tres transectos (102 m paralelos (9 m en tres sistemas de uso del terreno (Quesungual menor de dos años, SAQThe objective of this study was to determine the level of soil spatial variability in an area consisting of the land uses: Quesungual slash and mulch agroforestry system with less than two years (QSMAS<2, Slash-and-burn traditional system (SB and Secondary forest (SF. Soil samples were taken in three parallel transects of 102 m in length, separated 9 meters. The profile was sampled in the depths from 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, 10 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm in 6 points (09, 11 am and 05 during 9 days. Coefficient of variation for soil properties varied for bulk density (0.76 and 15.1%, organic carbon (30.4 and 54.3%, volumetric moisture (9.5 and 23.5%, sand (12.8 and 22.5% and clay (14.0 and 29.2%. The geo-statistical analysis showed that the random component of the spatial dependence was predominant over the nugget effect. The functions of semivariograms, structured for each variable were used to generate maps of interpolated contours at a fine scale. The Moran (I autocorrelation indicated that sampling ranges less than 9 m would be adequate to detect spatial structure of the volumetric moisture variable.

  5. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Geoffroy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq. is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+ of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  8. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L; Ranney, J W

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described.

  9. Design and implementation of an integrated management system for ochratoxin A in the coffee production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, R; Mallmann, C Augusto; Pineiro, M

    2008-02-01

    Coffee is an important export product of Ecuador. Producers are challenged by the implementation of regulatory limits for ochratoxin A. Ecuador has four coffee production areas and the potential for mycotoxin contamination varies due to different environmental conditions and cultural differences in harvesting, storage, processing and commercialization. The major contributors to contamination are the lack of selection during harvesting, delays in drying or rewetting, the lack of proper drying and storage conditions, the mixing of products with different levels of moisture, and the potential for cross-contamination. The long commercialization chain involves different intermediaries that use foreign materials to increase the weight of the product without consideration of quality. An integrated mycotoxin management system using the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Systems (HACCP) principles was developed to prevent mycotoxin contamination at each stage of production. Critical control points were developed based on the resources available at the different stages of the production chain. Training programmes helped increase awareness about the impact of contamination, but failed to transform knowledge into improved practices. Thus, different demonstrative models specific for each productive region at all production levels were developed to show the application of prevention mechanisms using limited resources and to demonstrate the increased commercial value of coffee produced using good practices throughout the chain so producers have a better disposition to adopt improved practices. Preliminary results show that coffee managed using the models had a better quality, a lower contamination, a higher yield and better commercial value. The use of local resources and low-cost technology was important in demonstrating the practical approach.

  10. 传统农林复合系统:一种全球重要文化遗产类型%Traditional Agroforestry Systems:One Type of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟玮; 李文华; 刘某承; Anthony M. FULLER

    2014-01-01

    作为一种土地利用活动,传统农林复合系统已经经历了成百上千年的历史,并且依然发挥着重要的作用在世界上,特别是热带和亚热带地区。在全球变化和粮食安全等危机的时代背景下,传统农林复合系统受到越来越多政府和非政府组织的重视,因为传统农林复合系统具有重要的经济、生态和社会文化效益。这与全球重要农业文化遗产要求的特征也相一致,目前为止,已经有5个国家4个典型的传统农林复合系统被列为全球重要农业文化遗产。这些传统农林复合系统具有丰富的农业生物多样性,多重的生态系统服务功能,重要的社会文化价值,无论在区域还是全球水平上。目前传统农林复合系统面临一些威胁和挑战,如人口迁移、市场冲击、气候变化等,但是只要政府和非政府组织、社区、农民之间采取多种方式紧密合作,在未来的全球土地利用活动中,传统农林复合系统必将得到有效保护和推广。%As one kind of land use practice, traditional agroforestry systems already have a long history of hundreds of years in practice and still play a significant role in the world today, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas. In this era of globalization and food in security, more and more governments and non-governmental organizations are paying attention to traditional agroforestry systems because of their economic, ecological and socio-culture beneifts. These beneifts are also in accord with the characteristics of Globaly Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). So far, four typical traditional agroforestry systems from five countries have been designated as GIAHS. These traditional agroforestry systems have rich agricultural and associated biodiversity, multiple ecosystem services and precious socio-culture values at a regional and global level. Although traditional agroforestry systems are confronted

  11. Coffee agroforests remain beneficial for neotropical bird community conservation across seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Hernandez

    Full Text Available Coffee agroforestry systems and secondary forests have been shown to support similar bird communities but comparing these habitat types are challenged by potential biases due to differences in detectability between habitats. Furthermore, seasonal dynamics may influence bird communities differently in different habitat types and therefore seasonal effects should be considered in comparisons. To address these issues, we incorporated seasonal effects and factors potentially affecting bird detectability into models to compare avian community composition and dynamics between coffee agroforests and secondary forest fragments. In particular, we modeled community composition and community dynamics of bird functional groups based on habitat type (coffee agroforest vs. secondary forest and season while accounting for variation in capture probability (i.e. detectability. The models we used estimated capture probability to be similar between habitat types for each dietary guild, but omnivores had a lower capture probability than frugivores and insectivores. Although apparent species richness was higher in coffee agroforest than secondary forest, model results indicated that omnivores and insectivores were more common in secondary forest when accounting for heterogeneity in capture probability. Our results largely support the notion that shade-coffee can serve as a surrogate habitat for secondary forest with respect to avian communities. Small coffee agroforests embedded within the typical tropical countryside matrix of secondary forest patches and small-scale agriculture, therefore, may host avian communities that resemble those of surrounding secondary forest, and may serve as viable corridors linking patches of forest within these landscapes. This information is an important step toward effective landscape-scale conservation in Neotropical agricultural landscapes.

  12. Coffee agroforests remain beneficial for neotropical bird community conservation across seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Mattsson, Brady J; Peters, Valerie E; Cooper, Robert J; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-01-01

    Coffee agroforestry systems and secondary forests have been shown to support similar bird communities but comparing these habitat types are challenged by potential biases due to differences in detectability between habitats. Furthermore, seasonal dynamics may influence bird communities differently in different habitat types and therefore seasonal effects should be considered in comparisons. To address these issues, we incorporated seasonal effects and factors potentially affecting bird detectability into models to compare avian community composition and dynamics between coffee agroforests and secondary forest fragments. In particular, we modeled community composition and community dynamics of bird functional groups based on habitat type (coffee agroforest vs. secondary forest) and season while accounting for variation in capture probability (i.e. detectability). The models we used estimated capture probability to be similar between habitat types for each dietary guild, but omnivores had a lower capture probability than frugivores and insectivores. Although apparent species richness was higher in coffee agroforest than secondary forest, model results indicated that omnivores and insectivores were more common in secondary forest when accounting for heterogeneity in capture probability. Our results largely support the notion that shade-coffee can serve as a surrogate habitat for secondary forest with respect to avian communities. Small coffee agroforests embedded within the typical tropical countryside matrix of secondary forest patches and small-scale agriculture, therefore, may host avian communities that resemble those of surrounding secondary forest, and may serve as viable corridors linking patches of forest within these landscapes. This information is an important step toward effective landscape-scale conservation in Neotropical agricultural landscapes.

  13. Yield and nutritional status of the conilon coffee tree in organic fertilizer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Maurício da Silva

    Full Text Available The conilon coffee tree presents high yield potential, the replacement of soil nutrients usually being by the use of mineral fertilizers. To reduce these fertilizers, the use of organic waste may be an alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizer systems on the nutritional status and yield of the conilon coffee tree. On a farm, located in the town of Linhares, Espirito Santo, during the agricultural year of 2009/2010, a trial was set up using a completely randomized block design with a factorial distribution of 2 x 2 x 5 and three replications, the factors being: organic compost (compost 1 and compost 2 ; legumes (the presence and absence of jack beans, sown between the rows of coffee trees; and the proportions of each compost (0; 25; 50; 75 and 100% as a substitute for the recommended mineral fertilizer. The increase in the proportion of compost 2 was reflected as increases in the P content of the leaves due to the higher concentration of this nutrient in the compost. The increase in compost input increased the S content of the leaves as a response to the increase in soil pH. Maximum values of 61 and 66 sacks ha-1 were obtained with substitutions (mineral source by organic in the proportion of 40 and 37% for compost 1 and compost 2 respectively. The use of organic-waste composts is an alternative as a partial replacement of mineral fertilizers in the conilon coffee tree, resulting in increases in yield.

  14. Decepa de plantas jovens de eucalipto e manejo de brotações, em um sistema agroflorestal Juvenile eucalypt plant coppicing and sprout management in agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Valadão Cacau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de decepa de plantas jovens de eucalipto, para produção de árvores de menor diâmetro, com colheita facilitada por pequenos produtores; ou para recuperação de povoamentos jovens severamente danificados e produção de biomassa para energia em ciclos curtos. O experimento foi conduzido em sistema agroflorestal, com espaçamento entre plantas de 9,5x4 m. O crescimento de plantas intactas foi comparado ao de brotações de decepas realizadas aos nove ou doze meses após plantio. Aos seis ou nove meses após a decepa, realizou-se a desbrota, para deixar dois ou três brotos por cepa. Quando a desbrota foi realizada aos 12 meses após a decepa, todos os brotos dominantes foram deixados. Um tratamento sem desbrota também foi avaliado. Aos 42 meses após plantio, o tratamento sem desbrota apresentou o mesmo número de brotos por cepa que o de plantas desbrotadas para três brotos. O diâmetro das brotações foi equivalente a 69% do valor estimado para as plantas intactas. O valor assintótico de produção das brotações, da maioria dos tratamentos de decepa aos nove meses, foi igual ao das plantas intactas, o que evidencia a viabilidade da decepa sem a realização da desbrota, em sistemas agroflorestais.This study aimed to evaluate juvenile eucalypt clone plant coppicing, in order to obtain small diameter logs, in the first rotation, which facilitates harvesting by small farmers; or to recover damaged young stands and to produce biomass for energy in short rotations. The experiment was carried out in an agroforestry system with 9.5x4 m spacing. Intact plant growth was compared to sprout growth from coppicing at nine and twelve months after planting. At six or nine months after coppicing, sprout thinning was carried out to leave two or three sprouts per stump. When thinning was done after 12 months of coppicing, all dominant sprouts were left. A treatment without thinning was also evaluated. Forty

  15. Disentangling the effects of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation on aboveground biomass in dry zone homegarden agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-11-15

    The biodiversity - aboveground biomass relationship has been intensively studied in recent decades. However, no consensus has been arrived to consider the interplay of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation in driving aboveground biomass, after accounting for the effects of plot size heterogeneity, soil fertility and stand quality in natural forest including agroforests. We tested the full, partial and no mediations effects of species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation on aboveground biomass by employing structural equation models (SEMs) using data from 45 homegarden agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka. The full mediation effect of either species diversity or intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation was rejected, while the partial and no mediation effects were accepted. In the no mediation SEM, homegarden size had the strongest negative direct effect (β=-0.49) on aboveground biomass (R(2)=0.65), followed by strong positive direct effect of intraspecific tree size variation (β=0.32), species diversity (β=0.29) and interspecific tree size variation (β=0.28). Soil fertility had a negative direct effect on interspecific tree size variation (β=-0.31). Stand quality had a significant positive total effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.28), but homegarden size had a significant negative total effect (β=-0.62), while soil fertility had a non-significant total effect on aboveground biomass. Similar to the no mediation SEM, the partial mediation SEMs had explained almost similar variation in aboveground biomass because species diversity, and intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation had non-significant indirect effects on aboveground biomass via each other. Our results strongly suggest that a multilayered tree canopy structure, due to high intraspecific and interspecific tree size variation, increases light capture and efficient utilization of resources among component species, and

  16. Energy and water fluxes above a cacao agroforestry system in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, indicate effects of land-use change on local climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.; Oltchev, A.; Kreilein, H.; Merklein, J.; Gravenhorst, G. [Inst. of Bioclimatology, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); June, T. [Inst. Pertanian Bogor, BIOTROP-ICSEA, Bogor (Indonesia); Rauf, A. [Univ. Tadulako, Palu (Indonesia)

    2005-04-01

    Rapid conversion of tropical rainforests to agricultural land-use types occurs throughout Indonesia and South-East Asia. We hypothesize that these changes in land-use affect the turbulent heat exchange processes between vegetation and the atmosphere, and the radiative properties of the surface, and therefore, induce an impact on local climate and water flows. As part of the international research project (SFB 552, Stability of Rainforest Margins in Indonesia, STORMA) the turbulent heat fluxes over a cacao agroforestry system (AFS) were investigated, using the eddy covariance technique. These first heat flux observations above a cacao AFS showed an unexpectedly large contribution of the sensible heat flux to the total turbulent heat transport, resulting in an averaged day-time Bowen ratio of {beta} = H/{lambda}E {approx} 1. Seasonality of {beta} did mainly coincide with the seasonal course of precipitation, which amounted to 1970 mm yr{sup -1} during the investigated period. The findings are compared to investigations at four neotropical rain forests where daytime {beta} were substantially smaller than 1. All discussed sites received similar incident short wave radiation, however, precipitation at the neotropical sites was much higher. Our first observations in a nearby Indonesian upland rain forest where precipitation was comparable to that at the cacao AFS showed an intermediate behaviour. Differences in {beta} between the cacao AFS and the tropical forests are discussed as a consequence of differing precipitation amounts, and albedo. From these comparisons we conclude that conversion from tropical forests to cacao AFS affects the energy fluxes towards increased heating of the day-time convective boundary-layer. (orig.)

  17. FeedbackBetweenHumanActivitiesAndTerrestrialCarbonCyclesInSystemsOfShadeCoffeePro ductionInMexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Del Valle, A. E.; Perez-Samayoa, I. A.

    2007-12-01

    Coffee production in Mexico is carried out within a strong natural context. Coffee is grown under a canopy of several native and introduced tree species. This fact ensures a greater diversity of natural resources and environmental services available for local inhabitants to sustain their livelihoods. However, the lack of opportunities for coffee farmers is increasing the demand over the remaining forest areas by exacerbating non- sustainable timber extraction practices and promoting conversion of forests to pasture lands. This situation hampers the landscapes equilibrium and threatens the wellbeing of rural livelihoods. To understand the interactions between human activities and ecological functions associated with shaded coffee systems, this research has explored the extent to which socio-economic and cultural factors have influenced the use and management of natural resources sustaining coffee livelihoods. At the same time, it examines how customary patterns of resource use have induced changes in the terrestrial carbon cycle at the local level. The empirical study was carried out in a coffee-growing region in Mexico. It involved substantial fieldwork, use of satellite imagery, and participatory research methods in order to gauge a variety of biophysical and socio- economic factors, including forest cover, land use, and carbon balances, as well as, farming practices and off- farming strategies. In addition, a livelihood perspective was applied to approach the linkages between the management of natural resources, the environmental goods and services, and the socio-economic conditions in the coffee-growing region. The empirical evidence from the research marks out shade coffee systems as important supporters for broader natural systems as suppliers of environmental services. However, it also suggests that non-climatic factors might have significant impacts on the local environment and therefore on the terrestrial carbon cycle. According to the research estimations

  18. Adoption of Agroforestry Innovations in the Tropics: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer

    2004-01-01

    The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental...

  19. Sustainable Management Technology for Agroforestry Systems on the Leizhou Peninsula%雷州半岛农林复合经营技术应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧; 郑磊; 杜阿朋

    2013-01-01

      雷州半岛自然灾害频发,农林业受到很大影响。本文首先回顾了我国农林复合经营发展的历史,对农林复合经营的类型、特征和优势进行了概括;阐述了农林复合经营作为生态农业的一种形式在雷州半岛具有广阔的发展前景。%Frequent natural disasters , especially typhoons , have a great influence on agriculture and forestry in Leizhou Peninsula . In this paper , the history of the development of agroforestry in our country was re-viewed , and the types , features , and advantages of agroforestry were summarized . As a form of ecologically based agriculture , it was concluded that agroforestry had broad prospects for development in the Leizhou Peninsula .

  20. Identifying Gender-Sensitive Agroforestry Options: Methodological Considerations From the Field

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    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is seen as a promising set of land use practices that can lead to increased ecological integrity and sustainable benefits in mountain areas. Agroforestry practices can also enhance smallholder farmers' resilience in the face of social and ecological change. There is a need for critical examination of existing practices to ensure that agroforestry recommendations for smallholder farmers are socially inclusive and grounded in local experience, knowledge, and perceptions. In this paper, we present a transdisciplinary systems approach to the identification and analysis of suitable agroforestry options, which takes into account gendered perceptions of the benefits and values of natural resources. The 4-step approach consists of an appraisal of local perceptions of the social-ecological context and dynamics, an inventory of existing agroforestry practices and species, a gendered valuation of agroforestry practices and species, and the development of locally adapted and gender-sensitive agroforestry options. In a study using this approach in the Peruvian Andes, data were collected through a combination of participatory tools for gender research and ethnobotanical methods. This paper shares lessons learned and offers recommendations for researchers and practitioners in the field of sustainable mountain development. We discuss methodological considerations in the identification of locally adapted agroforestry options, the understanding of local social-ecological systems, the facilitation of social learning processes, engagement in gender research, and the establishment of ethical research collaborations. The methodology presented here is especially recommended for the exploratory phase of any natural resource management initiative in mountain areas with high environmental and sociocultural variability.

  1. Feasibility of cultivation of sugarcane in agroforestry systems Viabilidade do cultivo de cana-de-açúcar e sistemas agroflorestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Guedes Pinto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's main sugarcane producer and the production system has changed abiding to legal and technical recommendation. In Piracicaba many smallholders grow sugarcane in steep areas. Under such situation, mechanization at harvest makes cultivation impossible. This work assess the viability of agroforestry systems on joining crop production and conservation of natural resources. Soils at 12-20% slope class were identified, tree species which could be cultivated along with sugarcane were selected, and the design of the systems to be adopted was evaluated. Identified area occupies 11,556 ha and the most representative soil types are Typic Kandiuldult and Lithic Hapludoll. The exotic species coconut, eucalyptus, pejibaye and rubber, and eight native species have potential to be grown in contourhedgerows with sugarcane. Initial planting of exotic, domesticated trees is recommended, and gradual introduction of native, non-domesticated species, can be set according to their ecological requirements.O Brasil é o principal produtor mundial de cana-de-açúcar e seu sistema de produção tem sofrido mudanças devido a aspectos legais e técnicos. Na região de Piracicaba, grande parte dos pequenos produtores cultiva cana-de-açúcar em áreas de grande declividade, mas a mecanização da colheita tem inviabilizado seu cultivo nesta condição. Assim, foram identificados e selecionados terras e árvores visando compatibilizar a produção da cultura e a conservação de recursos naturais em sistemas agroflorestais. Os solos presentes no intervalo de 12-20% de declividade foram identificados, selecionamos árvores com potencial para serem cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar foram selecionados e os desenhos dos sistemas a serem adotados foram avaliados. A classe de declive identificada ocupa área de 11.556 ha e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e Neossolo Litólico são os solos mais representativos. As espécies arbóreas exóticas coco

  2. Recuperação de área degradada com sistema agroflorestal no Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais Recovery of degraded areas using agroforestry systems in Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudenir Fávero

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O Vale do Rio Doce, MG, apresenta um histórico de ocupação e uso do solo que favorece a degradação ambiental, em que predominam pastagens sob o uso constante de queimadas. Os sistemas agroflorestais têm-se mostrado eficientes na recuperação de áreas degradadas. Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos de um sistema agroflorestal na recuperação do solo em área degradada por pastagem na comunidade de Ilha Funda, Município de Periquito, Minas Gerais. A implantação do sistema se deu em 1994 e está sendo conduzido segundo os princípios agroecológicos, potencializando a regeneração natural e a sucessão de espécies. Em 1998, foram coletadas amostras de solo na área em recuperação e em duas áreas adjacentes: uma área degradada, que se encontrava em condições semelhantes às da área em recuperação no início do processo, e outra ocupada por pastagem. Foram determinados atributos químicos do solo e realizada a caracterização da matéria orgânica. O solo da área em recuperação com sistema agroflorestal mostrou-se em melhores condições do que o solo sob pastagem e o da área degradada, apresentando maior dinâmica do carbono orgânico e maior disponibilidade de nutrientes. Embora o teor de carbono orgânico total apresentado pelo solo sob pastagem tenha sido maior que nas demais condições avaliadas, o solo do sistema agroflorestal já está se igualando ao da pastagem no acúmulo das formas mais estáveis de carbono e apresentando maior dinâmica das frações orgânicas menos estáveis. Este estudo comprovou a eficiência dos sistemas agroflorestais, conduzidos segundo os princípios agroecológicos, na recuperação de áreas degradadas.Vale do Rio Doce, MG presents an ancestral history of occupation and use of soil that has contributed to environmental degradation, mostly caused by pasture with fire always being used as a form of management. Agroforestry systems have shown efficient results in recovering these

  3. Does environmental certification in coffee promote "business as usual"? A case study from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arshiya; Vira, Bhaskar; Garcia, Claude

    2016-12-01

    Conservation initiatives are designed to address threats to forests and biodiversity, often through partnerships with natural-resource users who are incentivized to change their land-use and livelihood practices to avoid further biodiversity loss. In particular, direct incentives programmes that provide monetary benefits are commended for being effective in achieving conservation across short timescales. In biodiversity-rich areas, outside protected areas, such as coffee agroforestry systems, direct incentives, such as certification schemes, are used to motivate coffee producers to maintain native tree species, natural vegetation, restrict wildlife hunting, and conserve soil and water, in addition to encouraging welfare of workers. However, despite these claims, there is a lack of strong evidence of the on-ground impact of such schemes. To assess the conservation importance of certification, we describe a case study in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot of India, in which coffee growers are provided price incentives to adopt Rainforest Alliance certification standards. We analyse the conservation and social outcomes of this programme by studying peoples' experiences of participating in certification. Despite high compliance and effective implementation, we find a strong case for the endorsement of 'business as usual' with no changes in farm management as a result of certification. We find that such 'business as usual' participation in certification creates grounds for diminishing credibility and local support for conservation efforts. Working towards locally relevant conservation interventions, rather than implementing global blueprints, may lead to more meaningful biodiversity conservation and increased community support for conservation initiatives in coffee landscapes.

  4. Emergía de tres sistemas agroforestales en el sur del municipio de Lempira, Honduras Emergy of tree agroforestry systems in southern Lempira, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    óscar I. Ferreira C.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron el uso de recursos y la sostenibilidad de tres sistemas agroforestales (bosque secundario- BS, tala y quema-TQ y sistema conservacionista Quesungual-SAQ. Se utilizaron datos de 15 parcelas de 200 m² ubicadas entre 14° 05' N y 88° 30' W y transformicidades reportadas en otros estudios. Los mayores valores de emergía se presentaron en la variable Lluvia (1.35E15 sej/ha por año y las mayores diferencias de emergía entre sistemas se observaron en suelo erosionado, especialmente en TQ, BS y SAQ tuvieron mayor Razón de Carga Ambiental que TQ (0.63, 0.14 y 0.02, respectivamente. El sistema TQ presenta el valor más alto del índice de Huella Ecológica seguido por SAQ y BS. El índice de Sostenibilidad de Emergía del sistema TQ fue 34.8, el de SAQ = 135.6 y el de BS = 4123.8, con mayores valores de sostenibilidad en el SAQ y el BS, lo cual indica que son sistemas que favorecen el uso de recursos renovables y locales.Resource use and sustainability of three agroforestry systems (Secondary Woods - BS; Fell and Burn - TQ; and Quesungal Conservation mode - SAQ were evaluated by analyzing data from fifteen 200 m² plots (14° 05' N; 88° 30' W, making use of transformity values reported in other related studies. The highest emergy values were observed for the variable rain (1.35E15 sej/ha per year; and the largest emergy differences were found in eroded soils, especially those of TQ. BS and SAQ exhibited a greater Environmental Load Ratio than TQ (0.63, 0.14 and 0.02, respectively. TQ showed the largest Ecological Footprint Index value, followed by SAQ and BS. Emergy Sustainability Index for TQ was 34.8, whereas SAQ and BS reached respective values of 135.6 and 4,123.8. The latter two data, as compared to the former, reveal how these systems (SAQ and BS favor the use of local renewable resources.

  5. The Coffee Commodity Chain in the World-Economy: Arrighi's Systemic Cycles and Braudel's Layers of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of coffee in the modern world-economy, w;ing an analyticalframework synthesized from Arrighi's concept of systemic cycles of accumulation and Braudel'snotion of three levels of economic analysis: material life, the market economy, and capitalism. Ittakes the commodity chain as the unit of analysis, and argues that this choice helps to illuminatethe caw;al connections between Braudel 's three layers. The method of incorporated comparisonis w;ed to compare restructurings of the coffee commodity chain with the restructurings of thelarger world-economy during each of Arrighi 's systemic cycles.

  6. The Pattern and Process of Adoption and Scaling up: Variation in Project Outcome Reveals the Importance of Multilevel Collaboration in Agroforestry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Erik Johansson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is considered a subsistence system that balances the urgent need for food and income of small scale farmers with restoration and conservation of ecosystem services, and climate change adaptation and mitigation. The Vi Agroforestry Program aims to implement agroforestry as a means to alleviate poverty and increase resilience among the poorest smallholders. After seven years, the Vi Agroforestry Project in the Mara Region of Tanzania had an inter-village variation in the proportion of households with tangible surviving agroforestry trees ranging from 10%–90%. Using a multiple methods approach, this variation was analysed in relation to changes and differences among administrative districts and project zones regarding perceived barriers to agroforestry adoption, project interventions, governance and the chronology of the process. In districts and zones where collaboration among the project staff, government counterparts and other stakeholders had been established at multiple levels, more agroforestry trees survived and a larger proportion of households practiced agroforestry. The established collaboration made it possible to discover and consider opportunities and barriers to agroforestry development such as diverse stakeholder interests and perceptions. As a result, potential conflicts could be avoided and socially robust solutions developed, adapted and integrated into the local subsistence systems.

  7. Phlebotomine sandflies and leishmaniasis risks in Colombian coffee plantations under two systems of cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexande; Agudelo, L A; Navarro, F; Ruiz, F; Molina, J; Aguilera, G; Quiñones, M L

    2001-12-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of traditional (shaded) and intensified (unshaded) coffee plantations in Colombia was sampled by a variety of methods and the species composition and density under the two systems compared. Twenty species of Lutzomyia sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) were collected, of which eight were found only in the 'Coffee Axis' ('Eje Cafetero') of the departments of Caldas, Risaralda and Quindio, six were exclusive to the department of Norte de Santander and six occurred in both regions. Four species were collected only in traditional plantations and two exclusively in intensified ones. At least 13 species occurred in both plantation types. Fifteen species are opportunistic man-biters and eight are suspected vectors of leishmaniasis caused by Le. braziliensis, Le. panamensis or Le. mexicana. Seven species were collected inside houses and may be involved in intradomiciliary transmission of Leishmania. The dominant species in Norte de Santander was Lu. spinicrassa, which made up 93.8% of all the sandflies collected in this department. This species was absent from the Eje Cafetero and a number of others among the 15 recorded there might be responsible for Leishmania transmission in this region, including Lu. trapidoi, Lu. yuilli, Lu. gomezi, L. hartmanni and Lu. ovallesi. Sandfly population densities were significantly higher in traditional plantations than in intensified ones. Residents of traditional plantations were able to describe sandflies in significantly more detail than those of intensified plantations, based on seven basic characteristics related to the appearance and biting behaviour of the insects.

  8. Carbon sink potential of multistrata agroforestry systems at Atlantic Rain Forest Potencial de sistemas agroflorestais multiestrata para sequestro de carbono em áreas de ocorrência de Floresta Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Maranhão Froufe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Carbon storage of agroforestry systems, regenerated areas, conventional agriculture and pasture was evaluated at Alto Ribeira Valley region, São Paulo State, Brazil, in different compartments of Land-use systems (LUS. In soil, classified as Entisols and Inceptisols, we found similarities among all LUS, dued to their low contents of organic carbon, and similar values of bulk density. The total carbon stocked on land-use systems, greater amounts were determined on regenerated areas (115.78 Mg ha-1, followed by agroforestry systems (75.38 Mg ha-1, agriculture (47.07 Mg ha-1, and pasture (36.01 Mg ha-1. Despite their conservative characteristic, the silvicultural practices of multistrata agroforestry systems have to be improved for forest production and carbon sequestration.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.143

    Foi avaliado o estoque de carbono no solo, serapilheira, biomassa arbórea e biomassa herbácea de SAFs multiestratos, em comparação a capoeiras em diferentes estágios de regeneração, sistemas agrícolas convencionais e pastagem, todos na região do Alto Vale do Ribeira, SP. Nos Neossolos e Cambissolos, com baixos teores de carbono orgânico e similaridade dos valores de densidade aparente, as capoeiras contribuíram com 115,78 Mg ha-1 de carbono total estocado, seguidas dos SAFs (75,37 Mg ha-1, das áreas agrícolas (47,07 Mg ha-1 e das pastagens (36,01 Mg ha-1. Apesar do grande potencial de sequestro de carbono dos SAFs, há necessidade de melhoria em suas práticas silviculturais.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.66.143

  9. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  10. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with shade trees and Coffea arabica L. in a coffee-based agroforestry system in Bonga, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewnet ,Tadesse Chanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that teacher and learner beliefs about second language instruction have a significant influence on language teaching and learning process and, consequently, on students’ achievements. However, in the Mozambican context, we still do not have studies focusing on learner and teacher beliefs about students and language proficiency, about teaching materials, about individual and cultural variations and beliefs about the learning process itself. Using questionnaires and a focus group report, we look at the Mozambican linguistic profile, the learner and teacher beliefs and their influence in tertiary English Language Teaching (ELT and learning. The results show that there is a need for creating an environment in which teachers’ and learners’ cultural background, beliefs and needs are considered so as to enable teachers to teach effectively, as well as enabling learners to achieve positive learning outcomes.

  13. Fertilizer {sup 15}N balance in a coffee cropping system: a case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenilli, Tatiele Anete Bergamo [Universidade Regional de Blumenau (URB), SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail: tfenilli@furb.br; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny Oliveira Santos [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica do Solo]. E-mails: klaus@cena.usp.br; osny@cena.usp.br; Favarin, Jose Laercio [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Silva, Adriana Lucia [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fazenda Santo Antonio]. E-mail: adriana.silva@ctc.com.br; Timm, Luis Carlos [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural]. E-mail: lcartimm@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-15

    Knowledge about the fate of fertilizer nitrogen in agricultural systems is essential for the improvement of management practices in order to maximize nitrogen (N) recovery by the crop and reduce N losses from the system to a minimum. This study involves fertilizer management practices using the {sup 15}N isotope label applied in a single rate to determine the fertilizer-N balance in a particular soil-coffee-atmosphere system and to deepen the understanding of N plant dynamics. Five replicates consisting of plots of about 120 plants each were randomly defined within a 0.2 ha coffee plantation planted in 2001, in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Nine plants of each plot were separated in sub-plots for the {sup 15}N balance studies and treated with N rates of 280 and 350 kg ha-1 during 2003/2004 and 2004/ 2005, respectively, both of them as ammonium sulfate enriched to a {sup 15}N abundance of 2.072 atom %. Plant shoots were considered as separate parts: the orthotropic central branch, productive branches, leaves of productive branches, vegetative branches, leaves of vegetative branches and fruit. Litter, consisting of dead leaves accumulated below the plant canopy, was measured by the difference between leaves at harvest and at the beginning of the following flowering. Roots and soil were sampled down to a depth of 1.0 at intervals of 0.2 m. Samples from the isotopic sub-plots were used to evaluate total N and {sup 15}N, and plants outside sub-plots were used to evaluate dry matter. Volatilization losses of NH{sub 3} were estimated using special collectors. Leaching of fertilizer-N was estimated from deep drainage water fluxes and {sup 15}N concentrations of the soil solution at 1 m soil depth. At the end of the 2-year evaluation, the recovery of {sup 15}N applied as ammonium sulfate was 19.1 % in aerial plant parts, 9.4 % in the roots, 23.8 % in the litter, 26.3 % in the fruit and 12.6 % remaining in the 0-1.0 m soil profile. Annual leaching and volatilization losses were

  14. Agroforestry i økologisk husdyrproduktion

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsted, A.G.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Er agroforestry en mulig udviklingsvej for økologisk husdyrproduktion. Dette undersøges i et stort europæisk projekt, AGFORWARD, som involverer forskere og landmænd fra 10 lande, herunder Danmark.

  15. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  16. Aspectos silviculturais da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa em sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia Central Silvicultural aspects of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa in agroforestry systems in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Régis Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa em sistemas agroflorestais implantados em ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Foram avaliados 3 sítios de sistemas agroflorestais multi-estratificados, implantados em 1992, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, situadas no km 54 da BR-174, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Manaus (AM. Os sistemas foram implantados após o processo tradicional de derruba e queima da vegetação secundária estabelecida em pastagens submetidas por 6 anos ao pastejo intensivo e abandonadas por 4 anos, em média, ao processo de regeneração natural. O desempenho da espécie com 12 anos de idade foi avaliado por meio do diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, da altura total, da taxa de sobrevivência e das variáveis morfométricas "Diâmetro da Copa", "Proporção de Copa", "Grau de Esbeltez", "índice de Saliência", "índice de Abrangência" e "Forma de Copa". Os indivíduos atingiram altura total média de 20,9 m e DAP de 37,9 cm, com incremento médio anual de 1,74 m e 3,16cm, respectivamente. A porcentagem média de sobrevivência foi de 78%, cuja mortalidade foi relacionada às ventanias e raios. Os resultados indicaram a eficiência dessa espécie para reabilitar áreas degradadas e confirmaram-na como uma espécie adequada para formar sistemas agroflorestais.This study evaluated the development of Brasil nut (Bertholletia excelsa in agroforestry systems established on non-flooding plateaus in Central Amazonia. Three multi-strata agroforestry systems established in 1992 in degraded pastures, located at the Experiment Station of Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, BR-174 highway, km 54, Manaus, Amazonas, were evaluated. The area had been intensively managed as pasture for six years, then abandoned for four years, and reopened with traditional slash and burn practices to plant the agroforestry systems. Species development was evaluated with measurements of

  17. A renewed perspective on agroforestry concepts and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquebiau, E F

    2000-11-01

    Agroforestry, the association of trees with farming practices, is progressively becoming a recognized land-use discipline. However, it is still perceived by some scientists, technicians and farmers as a sort of environmental fashion which does not deserve credit. The peculiar history of agroforestry and the complex relationships between agriculture and forestry explain some misunderstandings about the concepts and classification of agroforestry and reveal that, contrarily to common perception, agroforestry is closer to agriculture than to forestry. Based on field experience from several countries, a structural classification of agroforestry into six simple categories is proposed: crops under tree cover, agroforests, agroforestry in a linear arrangement, animal agroforestry, sequential agroforestry and minor agroforestry techniques. It is argued that this pragmatic classification encompasses all major agroforestry associations and allows simultaneous agroforestry to be clearly differentiated from sequential agroforestry, two categories showing contrasting ecological tree-crop interactions. It can also contribute to a betterment of the image of agroforestry and lead to a simplification of its definition.

  18. Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURHENI WIJAYANTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wijayanto N (2011 Species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at Lake Toba Catchment Area (LTCA. Biodiversitas 12: 52-58. In order to improve land productivity surrounding the LTCA, the existing ITTO project tries to establish agroforestry system. The system will be designed to meet consideration of both sides. on one side is to generate the people awareness of the forest and land rehabilitation, and on the other side is to support the poverty reduction. The aims of this research are: species identification and selection to develop agroforestry at LTCA. Data collecting was carried out with: interview, group discussion, field observation, divining manual study, and PRA. The diversity of the available crop kind shows the number of choices to be developed by the farmer. The farmers generally have the economic objective to develop agroforestry, including increase in net income, risk reduction, increase in environmental service, and the wealth and savings accumulation. Various types of agricultural crops, plantations and forest trees were found in LTCA. They can be the basis for building a wide variety of agroforestry systems.

  19. A new 10-min ligation method using a modified buffer system with a very low amount of T4 DNA ligase: the "Coffee Break Ligation" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuki; Ishida, Masaharu; Horii, Akira

    2007-10-01

    The ligation reaction is widely used in molecular biology. There are several kits available that complete the ligation reaction very rapidly but they are rather expensive. In this study, we successfully modified the ligation buffer with much lower cost than existing kits. The ligation reaction can be completed in 10 min using very low activities such as 0.01 U T4 DNA ligase, and costs only $1 for 100 reactions of 20 microl scale. We name this ligation system the "Coffee Break Ligation" system; one can complete ligation reaction while drinking a cup of coffee, and perform 100 reactions by spending money equivalent to a cup of coffee.

  20. Impacts of public policies and farmer preferences on agroforestry practices in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerme, S; Kumar, B M; Menon, A; Hinnewinkel, C; Maire, E; Santhoshkumar, A V

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  1. Impacts of Public Policies and Farmer Preferences on Agroforestry Practices in Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerme, S.; Kumar, B. M.; Menon, A.; Hinnewinkel, C.; Maire, E.; Santhoshkumar, A. V.

    2011-08-01

    Agroforestry systems are fundamental features of the rural landscape of the Indian state of Kerala. Yet these mixed species systems are increasingly being replaced by monocultures. This paper explores how public policies on land tenure, agriculture, forestry and tree growing on private lands have interacted with farmer preferences in shaping land use dynamics and agroforestry practices. It argues that not only is there no specific policy for agroforestry in Kerala, but also that the existing sectoral policies of land tenure, agriculture, and forestry contributed to promoting plantation crops, even among marginal farmers. Forest policies, which impose restrictions on timber extraction from farmers' fields under the garb of protecting natural forests, have often acted as a disincentive to maintaining tree-based mixed production systems on farmlands. The paper argues that public policies interact with farmers' preferences in determining land use practices.

  2. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee ...

  3. Marketing as a means to transformative social conflict resolution: lessons from transitioning war economies and the Colombian coffee marketing system

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, A.; De Valck, K.; Shultz, C.; Sibai, O.; Husemann, K. C.; Maxwell-Smith, M.; Luedicke, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Social conflicts are ubiquitous to the human condition and occur throughout markets, marketing processes, and marketing systems.When unchecked or unmitigated, social conflict can have devastating consequences for consumers, marketers, and societies, especially when conflict escalates to war. In this article, the authors offer a systemic analysis of the Colombian war economy, with its conflicted shadow and coping markets, to show how a growing network of fair-trade coffee actors has played a k...

  4. Prospect of Milicia excelsa (Welw. C. Berg for Multi-Tree Species Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ossai Onefeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The population of most of our economically indigenous tree species in Nigeria is declining. Human activities and agricultural practices have been the ultimate contributors to this decrease. In order to ameliorate the conflict between agriculture and forestry, agroforestry was introduced. However, most of the practiced agroforestry is based on single tree species. Agroforestry practiced using single tree species have been reported to be ecologically staggered and therefore it is pertinent that phytosociology of trees with agroforestry potential is studied in order to improve the sustainability of human livelihood. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the University of Ibadan’s campus forest. The data were collected on Milicia excelsa (Welw. C. Berg by enumerating the tree species and also by identifying and enumerating the tree species associated with the subject tree (Milicia excelsa. Statistical analysis was done using percentages, Chi-square and charts. Results: A total of 49 individual Milicia excelsa were encountered in the study area. The results show 31 woody tree species associated with Milicia excelsa. Of all the associates Azadirachta indica A.Juss. happened to be the best one, having an average distance of 5.4 m to the subject tree. The sex ratio of Milicia excelsa was discovered to be approximately 1:1. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results of this research it may be concluded that Milicia excelsa has the prospect of being used in agroforestry in multi-tree species systems.

  5. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  6. Traditional agroforestry practices in Atlantic Nicaragua promote biodiversity and natural resource diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, S.; Roddy, A. B.; Williams, N. E.; Kramer, D.; Stevens, K.; Allison, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    The conversion of forest to pasture and other agricultural uses has increased interest in the role that small-scale agroforestry systems can play in linking sustainable agriculture to biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. Complementing the provisioning of natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems tend to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. We studied the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforest, and secondary forest: three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity. No significant relationships were found between plant diversity and the soil properties assessed; however higher species richness and phylodiversity was positively correlated with natural resource

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  8. Coffee: A Selected Overview of Beneficial or Harmful Effects on the Cardiovascular System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a wellknown benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is not adversely affected; in moderation, there may be some benefit for CHF. There is no apparent increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Overall, there also appears to be a beneficial inverse association with all-cause mortality, although this is not absolute for extra heavy intake. Benefit in reducing stroke also has supportive evidence. Hypertension is not increased by coffee. Boiled and unfiltered coffee appears to increase plasma cholesterol and triglycerides but for the overall metabolic syndrome, there appears to be benefit. There is also some evidence that paper-filtered coffee results in an increase in some markers of inflammation. Association of coffee with arrhythmias has been a major concern though in moderation it is not a significant overall problem. Therefore, only if a patient were to associate major arrhythmic symptoms with coffee would cessation have to be advised. Where coffee clearly shines from a CV standpoint is in the established decrease in onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Any benefit or harm has always been attributed to caffeine as the apparent major component. However, coffee contains a myriad of compounds, including polyphenols. These other substances may be most relevant for potential benefit or harm and some of these may be partially removed or altered by coffee preparation methods such as paper filtration. Multiple studies

  9. Root system distribution and yield of 'Conilon' coffee propagated by seeds or cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the root system distribution and the yield of 'Conilon' coffee (Coffea canephora propagated by seeds or cuttings. The experiment was carried out with 2x1 m spacing, in an Oxisol with sandy clay loam texture. A randomized complete block design was used, following a 2x9x6 factorial arrangement, with two propagation methods (seeds and cuttings, nine sampling spacings (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60, 0.75, and 0.90 m between rows, and 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 between plants within rows, six soil depths (0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30, 0.30-0.40, 0.40-0.50, and 0.50-0.60 m, and six replicates. Soil cores (27 cm3 with roots were taken from 12 experimental units, 146 months after planting. The surface area of the root system and root diameter, length, and volume were assessed for 13 years and, then, correlated with grain yield. The highest fine root concentration occurred at the superficial soil layers. The variables used to characterize the root system did not differ between propagation methods. Moreover, no differences were observed for net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentrations, and instantaneous water-use efficiency in the leaves. Cutting-propagated plants were more productive than seed-propagated ones.

  10. Combustion of coffee husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.; Hartge, E.-U.; Werther, J. [Technical Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Chemical Engineering 1, Hamburg (Germany); Ogada, T.; Siagi, Z. [Moi Univ., Dept. of Production Engineering, Eldoret (Kenya)

    2001-05-01

    Combustion mechanisms of two types of coffee husks have been studied using single particle combustion techniques as well as combustion in a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility (FBC), 150 mm in diameter and 9 m high. Through measurements of weight-loss and particle temperatures, the processes of drying, devolatilization and combustion of coffee husks were studied. Axial temperature profiles in the FBC were also measured during stationary combustion conditions to analyse the location of volatile release and combustion as a function of fuel feeding mode. Finally the problems of ash sintering were analysed. The results showed that devolatilization of coffee husks (65-72% volatile matter, raw mass) starts at a low temperature range of 170-200degC and takes place rapidly. During fuel feeding using a non water-cooled system, pyrolysis of the husks took place in the feeder tube leading to blockage and non-uniform fuel flow. Measurements of axial temperature profiles showed that during under-bed feeding, the bed and freeboard temperatures were more or less the same, whereas for over-bed feeding, freeboard temperatures were much higher, indicating significant combustion of the volatiles in the freeboard. A major problem observed during the combustion of coffee husks was ash sintering and bed agglomeration. This is due to the low melting temperature of the ash, which is attributed to the high contents of K{sub 2}O (36-38%) of the coffee husks. (Author)

  11. Firewood deficit in coffee communities of Chenalhó, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ramírez López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Firewood is the main energy source for many indigenous communities in Mexico. We studied the relationship between consumption and availability of firewood in a group of coffee producers and describe their strategies developed to meet the shortfall in supply of firewood in eight coffee communities of Chenalho, Chiapas. The analysis included participatory workshops, interviews, direct measurement of consumption, collection and botanical identification of plant material of species used for firewood. The consumption of firewood varied between 3.7 ± 1.5 to 3.9 ± 2.7 kg person -1 days-1. In general, families with more members optimize the use of fuel to reduce the rate of consumption per capita, families with 10 to 12 members take up to 55% less in relation to families of 2-4 people. The loss of original vegetation cover has resulted in a dearth of species traditionally used for firewood (eg., oaks as now used species from agroforestry systems to meet the demand for firewood. Actions to reduce consumption are limited to keep the fire off when not in use in food preparation and use of devices to reduce the time of preparation of “tortillas”. Although some families have adopted theuse of saving stoves as a strategy to reduce consumption found not found significant differences (p> 0.05 in relation to consumption using the traditional stove (4.1 ± 1.7 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5 kg person-1 days-1, respectively. Although the coffeeplantations are ongoing source of supply of firewood, they do not meet the demands, so that some families must buy investing $1631 ± 1203 Mexican pesos yearly. It is envisaged that the firewood deficit will worsen in coming years giventhe increase in population density, the floristic impoverishment, continued deforestation and forest fragmentation. There is low potential for wood energy plantations in current areas of coffee production, while they do not outweigh the economic benefits obtained from the coffee.

  12. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  13. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B; Mugnier, L M; Sauvage, J-F; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M

    2013-12-30

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10(-6) contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10(7) in a SPHERE-like context).

  14. Ammonia volatilization from blends with stabilized and controlled-released urea in the coffee system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantuir Filipe Teixeira Chagas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Application of stabilized and controlled-release urea blends can reduce the losses of N-NH3 as compared to conventional urea. The aim of this study was to quantify ammonia volatilization from conventional nitrogen fertilizers and blends of urea + (urea + NBPT + controlled release urea applied in drip irrigated coffee system. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in in a Red Latosol located in Lavras-MG, Brazil. The randomized complete block design with six treatments: Urea = 450 kg ha-1 yr-1 N (100% of the recommended dose divided in three splittings equal to 150 kg ha-1 N with an interval of 50 days; ammonium nitrate = 450 kg ha-1 yr-1 N (100% of the recommended dose in three splittings equal to 150 kg ha-1 N with an interval of 50 days; Polyblen Extend(r-100%= 450 kg ha-1 yr-1 (100% of the recommended dose applied in two splittings, 315 kg ha-1 N in the 1º split and 135 kg ha-1 N in the 2º split; Polyblen Extend(r-70% = 315 kg ha-1 yr-1 N (70% of the recommended dose in two splittings, 220.5 kg ha-1 N in the 1º split and 94.5 kg ha-1 N in the 2º split; Polyblen Montanha(r-100% = 450 kg ha-1 yr-1 (100% of the recommended dose in an unique application in the 1º split and Polyblen Montanha(r-70% = 315 kg ha-1 yr-1 N (70% of the recommended dose at an unique application in the 1º split, with three repetitions. Total accumulated N-NH3 losses followed the decreasing order: Urea (83.2 kg ha-1 N > Polyblen Extend(r - 100% (60.3 kg ha-1 N > Polyblen Montanha(r - 100% (46.8 kg ha-1 N > Polyblen Extend(r - 70% (35.1 kg ha-1 N > Polyblen Montanha(r - 70% (24.2 kg ha-1 N > nitrate ammonium (2.0 kg ha-1 N . The use of Polyblen Montanha(r decreases two splittings compared to conventional sources such as urea and ammonium nitrate, by applying only 70% of the recommended dose without affecting yield and coffee crop nutrition.

  15. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  16. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  17. Soil health indicators: A case study with smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Pohl, Walther; Okalany, Emmanuel; Probst, Lorenz; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Schomakers, Jasmin

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to determine soil health indicators of 46 coffee smallholder farmers in the area of Mbale, Mount Elgon region (1200m ~ 1900m) in the southeast of Uganda. Forty of these farmers are working under an organic farmers association and are certified. They are compared to six conventional coffee production systems. The organic farms are agroforestry systems, whereas the conventional coffee farms have nearly no shading trees. Topsoil and subsoil samples, in a depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm were collected from each farm and analyzed. The following parameters were determined: pH (H2O), electric conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4) , sulfate (SO4) carbonate, dissolved total nitrogen (TN), plant available phosphorus (PO4 CAL), plant available potassium (K CAL) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These parameters were used as indicators for soil health. A set of 33 quantitative and qualitative indicators was exclusively developed for coffee farmers to best describe a functioning ecosystem through social, economic and ecological indicators. These ecosystem-indicators were assessed through a questionnaire, carried out parallel to the soil sampling and further transformed into a scoring matrix where a scoring system from 0 to 100 points was used to normalize the collected data. There is a significant difference between the soil health indicators of organic and conventional coffee producers. The soil samples of conventional farms show higher pH values than those of organic farming systems referring to high turnover rates of the organic material. DOC release is on average higher in organic production systems. A major difference in the system is the higher plant available phosphate content, as well as a higher CEC in organic systems, which is due to the high organic matter input. The soil health indicator systems allowed to differentiate and to evaluate organic farms. Outlook Through the different management

  18. Research on Coffee File System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks%基于无线传感器网络文件系统 Coffee 的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏铅坤; 罗克露; 周强

    2013-01-01

      现有的桌面甚至是嵌入式一些文件系统不能适应资源受限的无线自组织网络传感器节点,这就要求重新设计文件系统。文中分析了设计 WSNs 专用文件系统的必要性,在 WSNs 中 FLASH 文件系统设计需要考虑的额外问题及现有FLASH 文件系统 JFFS2和 YAFFS 的缺陷。在分析现有的无线传感网络文件系统的基础上,选择了网络节点操作系统 Con-tiki 中的 Coffee 文件系统作为研究对象,深入源代码,详细分析 Coffee 的原理、设计思想及实现细节,并给出其移植到其它平台的通用方法,最后在延长 FLASH 使用寿命、高可靠性、大规模存储的方向上对 Coffee 提出了4种改进方法。这对WSNs 文件系统理论研究及实际应用具有重要意义。%The existing file systems designed for desktops and even some normal embedded file systems can not be adapted to resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes,so redesigning a special file system is required in such applications. In this paper,first analyze the ne-cessity of design such a file system for WSNs,the extra consideration when design a FLASH file system for WSNs,and the defects of ex-isting FLASH file systems,JFFS2 and YAFFS. After the introduction of current existing WSNs file systems,choose the Coffee file system as research target which comes from Contiki WSNs operating system. After a thorough analysis of the design principles and implementa-tion details of Coffee,pose a common method to port it to other platforms. In the end,put forward four ways to optimize Coffee,aimed at extending FLASH working time,high reliability and enabling large-scale storage. This work is useful and significant for designing WSNs applications and further researches.

  19. Análise econômica de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia ocidental, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO Economic analysis of agroforestry systems in eastern Amazonia, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a análise financeira e a simulação de risco de investimento em sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs implantados em 1987, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Rondônia, localizado no município de Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. A análise financeira foi realizada mediante os métodos de avaliação de projetos florestais, e para a análise de risco utilizou-se a técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, mediante o programa @RISK. Entre os arranjos testados, o SAF T1 Castanha-do-brasil-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu apresentou o melhor desempenho financeiro em relação aos SAFs T2 Freijó-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu e T3 Pupunha-banana-pimenta-do-reino-cupuaçu . Os custos com tratos culturais e colheita representaram mais de 70% da composição dos custos totais, e a participação da mão-de-obra foi superior a 50% nas fases de preparo da área e de manutenção (tratos culturais dos SAFs. A simulação da análise de risco indicou que as variáveis que afetaram o Valor Presente Líquido no Horizonte Infinito (VPL*, de acordo com a ordem de importância (R, foram: taxa de desconto, preço do fruto de cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, custo de colheita, preço da madeira de castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa e o custo de tratos culturais. Apesar do alto custo de implantação e manutenção, o SAF T1 apresentou uma probabilidade de 15% de os valores do Valor Presente Líquido (VPL se concentrarem em torno de R$35.000 ha-1.ano-1.The objective of this study was to carry out the financial analysis and the risk of investment simulation in agroforestry systems (AFSs established in 1987 in the Experimental Field of Embrapa Rondônia, located in the County of Machadinho d'Oeste, RO. Financial analysis was made through the evaluation of results from the forestry enterprise evaluation methods, and the risk analysis was carried out through the Monte Carlo simulation technique by @RISK software. Among the arrangements

  20. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  1. Catalytic oxidation with Al-Ce-Fe-PILC as a post-treatment system for coffee wet processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Nancy R; Peralta, Yury M; Montañez, Mardelly K; Rodríguez-Valencia, Nelson; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from the anaerobic biological treatment of coffee wet processing wastewater (CWPW) contains a non-biodegradable compound that must be treated before it is discharged into a water source. In this paper, the wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process using Al-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts was researched as a post-treatment system for CWPW and tested in a semi-batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 25 °C. The Al-Ce-Fe-PILC achieved a high conversion rate of total phenolic compounds (70%) and mineralization to CO(2) (50%) after 5 h reaction time. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of coffee processing wastewater after wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation was reduced in 66%. The combination of the two treatment methods, biological (developed by Cenicafé) and catalytic oxidation with Al-Ce-Fe-PILC, achieved a 97% reduction of COD in CWPW. Therefore, the WHPCO using Al-Ce-Fe-PILC catalysts is a viable alternative for the post-treatment of coffee processing wastewater.

  2. Sistemas agroflorestais e seus efeitos sobre os atributos químicos em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Cerrado piauiense Agroforestry systems and its effects on chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de F. Iwata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos Sistemas Agroflorestais com diferentes tempos de adoção e a agricultura de corte e queima sobre os atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em áreas de cerrado do estado do Piauí. Em duas épocas climáticas foram estudados quatro sistemas: sistemas agroflorestais com seis e treze anos de adoção, agricultura de corte e queima e uma floresta nativa do cerrado. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em quatro profundidades para determinação dos atributos químicos. No solo sob os Sistemas Agroflorestais foram observados, em todas as camadas avaliadas, redução dos teores de Al3+ e H++Al3+ e aumento do pH, dos teores dos nutrientes e do carbono orgânico total em relação aos demais sistemas. No solo sob agricultura de corte e queima, verificou-se que apenas nas camadas superficiais a cinza depositada sobre o solo promoveu aumento dos nutrientes, exceto para o P, que foi maior em todas as camadas. Nos demais sistemas houve diminuição dos teores dos nutrientes no período chuvoso. Os sistemas agroflorestais promoveram aumento dos teores de nutrientes do solo e garantiram melhoria da qualidade química do solo em áreas de cerrado no estado do Piauí.This study aimed to quantify the effects of agroforestry systems (AFS, with different periods of adoption, and slash and burn agriculture (SB on the chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui State, Brazil. In two distinct climatic seasons (dry and rainy four systems were studied: AFS with six (AFS6 and thirteen years (AFS13 of adoption, an area under SB and a native forest (NF, as a reference. In the AFS, in all depths, higher reduction in the Al3+ and H+ + Al3+ contents were observed as well as an increase of pH value and contents of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg and K and organic carbon in soil. In the soil under SB, only in superficial layers, the ash deposited on the soil caused an increase in contents of

  3. III. MYCORRHIZAE IN AGROFORESTRY: A CASE-STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. NUHAMARA

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Census of mycorrhizae in Shorea javanica agroforests has been made periodically in the district of Krui, Lampung, Sumatra. Amanita hemibapha (Amanitaceae, Cantharellus cibarius (Cantharella-ceae, Lactarius spp., Russula spp. (Russulaceae and Scleroderma sp. (Sclerodermataceae were commonly encountered on the agroforest floor. These mycorrhizal fungi are naturally associated with the planted trees. The significance of mycorrhizae for the maximization of growth and sustained productivity of resin is discussed as well as the need to design well defined agroforestry systems to facilitate growth and to improve production management techniques. INTRODU

  4. Modulatory effect of coffee on platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Shobha; Rauf, Arun A

    2010-01-01

    Blood platelets play a major role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thrombosis. Conflicting information exists regarding the effect of coffee consumption on the cardiovascular system. We have investigated whether the consumption of moderate amount of coffee affect platelet functions and primary hemostasis in vivo in normal and high fat diet fed rats. Coffee fed group showed significant (P production from membrane arachidonic acid and it was decreased in coffee treated group. Platelet aggregation studies with ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and epinephrine showed significant (P coffee fed group. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that platelet aggregation tendency increased in HFD group and was reduced in coffee fed group. These results indicate that coffee is active in inhibiting platelet aggregation, a critical step involved in thrombosis.

  5. Copper removal from aqueous systems with coffee wastes as low-cost materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzas G. Z.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solutions with coffee residues. Waste materials with no further treatment such as coffee residues from café may act as adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II. Equilibrium data were successfully fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich model (L-F. The maximum adsorption capacity of the coffee residues can reach 70 mg/g for the removal of Cu(II. The kinetic data were fitted to pseudo-first, -second and -third order equation. The equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Also, the effect of pH on adsorption and desorption was studied. Ten cycles of adsorption-desorption were carried out revealing the strong reuse potential of these low-cost adsorbents; the latter was confirmed from a brief economic approach.

  6. Planning and costing adaptation of perennial crop systems to climate change: Coffee and banana in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngabitsinze, Jean Chrysostome; Mukashema, Adrie; Ikirezi, Mireille; Niyitanga, Fidele

    2011-10-15

    The Rwandan economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since agricultural production in Rwanda depends almost exclusively on the quality of the rainy season and specific temperature ranges, it makes the country particularly vulnerable to climate variability and change. The study objective of evaluating and costing the most suitable climate change adaptation measures for this geographic context responds to the Rwandan Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2008-2012 (EDPRS) (MINECOFIN 2007), in which climate change and its adverse impacts were recently identified as a high priority. This study has particularly focused on coffee and banana farming systems and aimed at analysing shocks due to climate change from farmer to policymaker perspectives. The study found that in the last 30 years, Rwanda has experienced a series of climate fluctuations in terms of frequency, intensity, and persistence of existing extremes. Heavy rains, storms, heatwaves and droughts are the observed manifestations of climate change in specific areas of Rwanda. Changing weather patterns have an adverse impact on the country's agricultural production and thus on the country's GDP. Adaptation options for Rwanda include the following efficiency-enhancing agricultural interventions: 1. Adaption of crop calendars to new climate patterns (more effective distribution of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides). 2. Investments in farming equipment. 3. Improvement of extension services and research. 4. Restructuring of the institutional frameworks and development plans. Integrated water resources management (IWRM); setting up information systems for early warning systems and rapid intervention mechanisms; intense agri-pastoral activities; and research on climate-resilient varieties were identified as primary requirements for agricultural adaption to climate change. In addition, developing alternative energy sources (e.g., substituting firewood) and the promotion of non

  7. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  8. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  9. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  10. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  11. Methodological approach for the assessment of enviromental effects of agroforestry at the landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Mayus, M.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Silvoarable agroforestry, the deliberate combined use of trees and arable crops on the same area of land, has been proposed in order to improve the environmental performance of agricultural systems in Europe. Based on existing models and algorithms, we developed a method to predict the environmental

  12. Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

  13. Tree culture of smallholder farmers practicing agroforestry in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the types of agroforestry system that exist in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia in order to characterize the differences in their basic structure and associated crop plant diversity. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisal, field observation and focus...

  14. Mapping malaria in municipalities of the Coffee Triangle region of Colombia using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Orrego-Acevedo, César A; Zambrano-Muñoz, Yazmin; García-Folleco, Francisco J; Herrera-Giraldo, Albert C; Lozada-Riascos, Carlos O

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been used extensively for the development of epidemiological maps of malaria but not in the Coffee Triangle region of Colombia, endemic for P. vivax, P. falciparum and P. malariae. Surveillance case data (2007-2011) were used to estimate annual incidence rates per Plasmodium spp. (cases/100,000 pop) to develop the first malaria maps in the 53 municipalities of this region (departments Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda). The GIS software used was Kosmo Desktop 3.0RC1(®). Thirty thematic maps were developed according to the municipalities, years, parasite etiology, and uncomplicated and complicated cases. A total of 6582 cases were reported (6478 uncomplicated and 104 complicated, 77.8% Risaralda), for a cumulated rate of 269.46 cases/100,000 pop. Among uncomplicated cases, 5722 corresponded to P. vivax (234.25 cases/100,000 pop), 475 to P. falciparum (19.45 cases/100,000 pop), 8 to P. malariae (0.33 cases/100,000 pop) and 273 mixed (P. falciparum/P. vivax) (11.18 cases/100,000 pop). The highest rate reported was in the more undeveloped and rural municipality of Risaralda (Pueblo Rico, 57.7 cases/1000 pop, 2009). The burden of disease was concentrated in one department (>75% of the region). The use of GIS-based epidemiological maps helps to guide decision-making for the prevention and control of this public health problem that still represents a significant issue in the region and the country, particularly in children.

  15. Can joint carbon and biodiversity management in tropical agroforestry landscapes be optimized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Michael; Hertel, Dietrich; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kluge, Jürgen; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Bos, Merijn; Buchori, Damayanti; Gerold, Gerhard; Gradstein, S Robbert; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Moser, Gerald; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Saleh, Shahabuddin; Schulze, Christian H; Sporn, Simone G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2012-01-01

    Managing ecosystems for carbon storage may also benefit biodiversity conservation, but such a potential 'win-win' scenario has not yet been assessed for tropical agroforestry landscapes. We measured above- and below-ground carbon stocks as well as the species richness of four groups of plants and eight of animals on 14 representative plots in Sulawesi, Indonesia, ranging from natural rainforest to cacao agroforests that have replaced former natural forest. The conversion of natural forests with carbon stocks of 227-362 Mg C ha(-1) to agroforests with 82-211 Mg C ha(-1) showed no relationships to overall biodiversity but led to a significant loss of forest-related species richness. We conclude that the conservation of the forest-related biodiversity, and to a lesser degree of carbon stocks, mainly depends on the preservation of natural forest habitats. In the three most carbon-rich agroforestry systems, carbon stocks were about 60% of those of natural forest, suggesting that 1.6 ha of optimally managed agroforest can contribute to the conservation of carbon stocks as much as 1 ha of natural forest. However, agroforestry systems had comparatively low biodiversity, and we found no evidence for a tight link between carbon storage and biodiversity. Yet, potential win-win agroforestry management solutions include combining high shade-tree quality which favours biodiversity with cacao-yield adapted shade levels.

  16. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  17. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bananas (Musa spp. belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world’s largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of i biogeography, and ii agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem, which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves. Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted.

  18. LAND USE PATTERNS FOR CACAO AGROFORESTRY IN SOUTHERN CAMEROON

    OpenAIRE

    SAKANASHI, Kenta

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation in central Africa is a serious global concern. Many studies have pointed to timber extraction and agricultural expansion as responsible for the destruction. To address this problem, cacao agroforestry, which combines cacao production with forest conservation, has attracted attention. Recent discussion on cacao agroforestry has focused on biodiversity conservation. Agroforestry was originally promoted to manage and use land effectively. This study examines various land uses by th...

  19. Decaffeinated? Situation, Trends, and Prospects for Smallholder Coffee Production in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, Scott; Nyarwaya, Jean Baptiste; Shingiro, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    Most Rwandan coffee is currently grown and processed the same way it was a decade ago. Consequently, Rwanda’s coffee production and marketing system has not been able to keep up with changes in the global market for high quality coffee. Given world market gluts of relatively poor quality coffee, Rwanda is now exporting a product that fetches low prices. Despite the challenges in coffee marketing and production, coffee remains one of Rwanda’s most important official sources of foreign exchange...

  20. What is the Difference in Profit per Acre between Organic and Conventional Coffee?

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jennifer; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The research addresses the economic problem of deforestation. A contributing factor to deforestation is coffee production. Coffee is an indigenous plant that is naturally occurring in the native tropical forests. However, conventional coffee is grown on cleared forest soil. In the native forest there is the potential for additional fruits (bananas, mangoes, avocados) and wood products while in the conventional coffee production system the only product is coffee. Conventional coffee production...

  1. Natural Diterpenes from Coffee, Cafestol, and Kahweol Induce Peripheral Antinoceception by Adrenergic System Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Luciana Souza; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Perez, Andrea de Castro; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima

    2016-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol are diterpenes found only in the non-saponified lipid fraction of coffee. They are released during boiling and retained in the filtration process. Previous studies have shown peripheral antinociception induced by endogenous opioid peptides released by these diterpenes. Considering that the activation of the opioid system leads to a noradrenaline release, the aim of this study was to verify the participation of the noradrenergic system in the peripheral antinociception induced by cafestol and kahweol. Hyperalgesia was induced by an intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (2 µg). Cafestol or kahweol (80 µg/paw) were administered locally into the right hindpaw alone, and after the agents α 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (5, 10 and 20 µg/paw), α 2 A-adrenoceptor antagonist BRL 44 408 (40 µg/paw), α 2B-adrenoceptor antagonist imiloxan (40 µg/paw), α 2 C-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (10, 15 and 20 µg/paw), α 2D-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821 002 (40 µg/paw), α 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (0.5, 1 and 2 µg/paw), or β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (150, 300 and 600 ng/paw), respectively. Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (30 µg/paw) was administered prior to cafestol or kahweol low dose (40 µg/paw) and guanetidine 3 days prior to the experiment (30 mg/kg, once a day), depleting the noradrenaline storage. Intraplantar injection of cafestol or kahweol (80 µg/paw) induced a peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. This effect was reversed by intraplantar injections of yohimbine, rauwolscine, prazosin and propranolol. Reboxetine injection intensified the antinociceptive effect of cafestol or kahweol low-dose, and guanethidine reversed almost 70 % of the cafestol or kahweol-induced peripheral antinociception. This study gives evidence that the noradrenergic system participates in cafestol and kahweol-induced peripheral antinociception with the

  2. Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Kessler, Michael; Barkmann, Jan; Bos, Merijn M; Buchori, Damayanti; Erasmi, Stefan; Faust, Heiko; Gerold, Gerhard; Glenk, Klaus; Gradstein, S Robbert; Guhardja, Edi; Harteveld, Marieke; Hertel, Dietrich; Höhn, Patrick; Kappas, Martin; Köhler, Stefan; Leuschner, Christoph; Maertens, Miet; Marggraf, Rainer; Migge-Kleian, Sonja; Mogea, Johanis; Pitopang, Ramadhaniel; Schaefer, Matthias; Schwarze, Stefan; Sporn, Simone G; Steingrebe, Andrea; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri S; Tjitrosoemito, Soekisman; Twele, André; Weber, Robert; Woltmann, Lars; Zeller, Manfred; Tscharntke, Teja

    2007-03-20

    Losses of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning due to rainforest destruction and agricultural intensification are prime concerns for science and society alike. Potentially, ecosystems show nonlinear responses to land-use intensification that would open management options with limited ecological losses but satisfying economic gains. However, multidisciplinary studies to quantify ecological losses and socioeconomic tradeoffs under different management options are rare. Here, we evaluate opposing land use strategies in cacao agroforestry in Sulawesi, Indonesia, by using data on species richness of nine plant and animal taxa, six related ecosystem functions, and on socioeconomic drivers of agroforestry expansion. Expansion of cacao cultivation by 230% in the last two decades was triggered not only by economic market mechanisms, but also by rarely considered cultural factors. Transformation from near-primary forest to agroforestry had little effect on overall species richness, but reduced plant biomass and carbon storage by approximately 75% and species richness of forest-using species by approximately 60%. In contrast, increased land use intensity in cacao agroforestry, coupled with a reduction in shade tree cover from 80% to 40%, caused only minor quantitative changes in biodiversity and maintained high levels of ecosystem functioning while doubling farmers' net income. However, unshaded systems further increased income by approximately 40%, implying that current economic incentives and cultural preferences for new intensification practices put shaded systems at risk. We conclude that low-shade agroforestry provides the best available compromise between economic forces and ecological needs. Certification schemes for shade-grown crops may provide a market-based mechanism to slow down current intensification trends.

  3. Coffee diterpenes prevent benzo[a]pyrene genotoxicity in rat and human culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, C; Bezencon, C; Guignard, G; Schilter, B

    2003-06-27

    The coffee-specific diterpenes cafestol and kahweol (C+K) have been identified as two important chemoprotective agents in coffee. In the present study, the potential preventive effects of C+K against the genotoxicity of B[a]P were investigated in rat primary hepatocytes and in human bronchial Beas-2B cells. Several independent mechanisms were identified and their respective contribution to the overall protective effects was determined. A marked dose-dependent inhibition by C+K of B[a]P DNA-binding was found in cells of both origins. However, data showed that the significant induction by C+K of the detoxifying enzyme GST-Yp subunit is the key mechanism of protection against B[a]P DNA-binding in rat liver. In contrast, the phase I-mediated mechanism where C+K produce an inhibition of CYP 1A1 induction by B[a]P is of key significance for the C+K protection in human Beas-2B cells. Moreover, this effect suggests a novel mechanism of chemoprotection by the coffee diterpenes cafestol and kahweol.

  4. Chlorogenic acid-arabinose hybrid domains in coffee melanoidins: Evidences from a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Passos, Cláudia P; Santos, Sónia A O; Silvestre, Armando J D; Silva, André M N; Rangel, Maria; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2015-10-15

    Arabinose from arabinogalactan side chains was hypothesized as a possible binding site for chlorogenic acids in coffee melanoidins. To investigate this hypothesis, a mixture of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the most abundant chlorogenic acid in green coffee beans, and (α1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose, structurally related to arabinogalactan side chains, was submitted to dry thermal treatments. The compounds formed during thermal processing were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and characterized by tandem MS (ESI-MS(n)). Compounds composed by one or two CQAs covalently linked with pentose (Pent) residues (1-12) were identified, along with compounds bearing a sugar moiety but composed exclusively by the quinic or caffeic acid moiety of CQAs. The presence of isomers was demonstrated by liquid chromatography online coupled to ESI-MS and ESI-MS(n). Pent1-2CQA were identified in coffee samples. These results give evidence for a diversity of chlorogenic acid-arabinose hybrids formed during roasting, opening new perspectives for their identification in melanoidin structures.

  5. Mirmecofauna asociada con sistemas agroforestales en el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano en Tabasco, México Mirmecofauna associated with agroforestry systems in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A. González-Valdivia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron la riqueza, la abundancia y la distribución de hormigas como indicadores para monitoreo ecológico en los sistemas agroforestales en 3 regiones dentro del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano en Tabasco, México. Los sistemas agroforestales (SAF analizados fueron de árboles en linderos (AL y de árboles dispersos en potreros (ADP. El estudio establece una línea de base para evaluar el estado de conservación de este grupo biológico en SAF de las regiones prioritarias para el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano (municipios de Huimanguillo, Tacotalpa y Tenosique. Se recolectaron 52 792 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 131 especies, asignadas a 7 subfamilias. Se presentan 32 especies como nuevos registros y 7 morfoespecies catalogadas como affinis para Tabasco. La riqueza total para ADP consistió en 16 (±6 especies en Tenosique, 19 (±6 en Huimanguillo y 20 (±4 en Tacotalpa. La riqueza de especies para AL fue de 20 (±5 especies en Tenosique, 21 (±5 en Huimanguillo y 21 (±4 en Tacotalpa. La diversidad de la mirmecofauna en ADP fue de 1.52 (±0.36 en Tenosique, 0.84 (±0.49 en Huimanguillo y de 1.35 (±0.44 en Tacotalpa. La diversidad en AL se estimó en 1.87 (±0.36 en Tenosique, 1.06 (±0.55 en Huimanguillo y 1.33 (±0.45 en Tacotalpa. La dominancia de especies tanto en AL como ADP de las 3 regiones fue D > 0.26. Las comunidades no se distribuyeron equitativamente y la mayor homogeneidad fue alcanzada en Tenosique (J≥ 0.57 en ADP y 0.63 en AL, respectivamente. La composición de hormigas difirió entre sistemas y regiones. Ninguna especie se detectó como indicadora, ya que éstas utilizan ampliamente todos estos agroecosistemas.Myrmecofaunal richness, abundance and distribution were studied as indicators for ecological monitoring of agroforestry systems (SAF in 3 regions in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor of Tabasco, Mexico. The agroforestry systems analyzed were linearly arranged trees (AL and scattered trees on pastures (ADP

  6. An experimental study of habitat selection by birds in a coffee plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Angón, Andrea; Sillett, T Scott; Greenberg, Russell

    2008-04-01

    Unique components of tropical habitats, such as abundant vascular epiphytes, influence the distribution of species and can contribute to the high diversity of many animal groups in the tropics. However, the role of such features in habitat selection and demography of individual species has not been established. Understanding the mechanisms of habitat selection requires both experimental manipulation of habitat structure and detailed estimation of the behavioral and demographic response of animals, e.g., changes in movement patterns and survival probabilities. Such studies have not been conducted in natural tropical forest, perhaps because of high habitat heterogeneity, high species diversity, and low abundances of potential target species. Agroforestry systems support a less diverse flora, with greater spatial homogeneity which, in turn, harbors lower overall species diversity with greater numerical dominance of common species, than natural forests. Furthermore, agroforestry systems are already extensively managed and lend themselves easily to larger scale habitat manipulations than protected natural forest. Thus, agroforestry systems provide a good model environment for beginning to understand processes underlying habitat selection in tropical forest animals. Here, we use multistate, capture-recapture models to investigate how the experimental removal of epiphytes affected monthly movement and survival probabilities of two resident bird species (Common Bush-Tanager [Chlorospingus ophthalmicus] and Golden-crowned Warbler [Basileuterus culicivorus]) in a Mexican shade coffee plantation. We established two paired plots of epiphyte removal and control. We found that Bush-Tanagers were at least five times more likely to emigrate from plots where epiphytes were removed compared to control plots. Habitat-specific movement patterns were not detected in the warbler. However, unlike the Golden-crowned Warbler, Common Bush-Tanagers depend upon epiphytes for nest sites and

  7. Coffee and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Bae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the effects of coffee on human health.

  8. Coffee Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涵毅

    2010-01-01

    天还是冷冷的,爸爸妈妈下班回家,我们可以为他们做些什么呢?My Mommy‘s favorite就是a cup of coffee。妈妈说每次我端出香香的咖啡给她的时候,她的寒意就完全没有啦。Well,今天就是我们的coffee time,让我给大家转述一下妈妈告诉我的咖啡故事吧。

  9. Fitossociological inventory in a multistrata agroforestry system as a tool for legal reserve execution Levantamento fitossociológico comparativo entre sistema agroflorestal multiestrato e capoeiras como ferramenta para a execução da reserva legal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Maranhão Froufe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The legal reserve (RL is by the Brazilian Forest Code a portion of the total area of a farm where the use of the natural resources is to be done on a sustainable basis aiming the ecological processes, and biodiversity conservation and the shelter and protection of native fauna and flora.  The existence of RL has been criticized since its creation, specially by the allegation that it interferes on productive processes and
    for regarding the difficulties of its implantation. The multistrata agroforestry systems (AFS are widely accepted as a conservative management practice, even in Brazilian legislation, and it is an alternative technique for the  implantation of the RL. This work, carried altogether in small farms containing multistrata AFS and natural forests regeneration tracts (some of them already registered as RL showed that this AFS, although productive systems, hold similar number and diversity of species to the renenerating forest , satisfying the legal minimum requisites expected in RL and thus suitable to be used as a technology for recovering and managing the RL. Moreover, as its management is agroecological, it was observed the recolonization of several
    native species, corroborating the potential use of these AFS in ecological restiration processes. Those agroforestry systems, however, need additional silvicultural practices
    to improve forestry production and sustainability.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.203

    A reserva legal (RL, normatizada pelo Novo Código Florestal,  Lei 4.771/65, vem sendo alvo de críticas, desde sua criação,  sobretudo sob a alegação de que interfere nos processos   produtivos da propriedade rural e apresenta dificuldade na sua  execução. Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAF multiestrato são práticas de manejo conservacionista do solo já aceitos pela legislação brasileira como uma alternativa técnica para a execução da RL. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a

  10. Adaptive Capacity and Social-Environmental Change: Theoretical and Operational Modeling of Smallholder Coffee Systems Response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Diaz, Rafael Monterde; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  11. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  12. Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

  13. Er agroforestry en mulig udviklingsvej i økologisk svine- og fjerkræproduktion?

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Hvad er agroforestry? Og hvad er idéen bag? - Hvilke fordele/synergieffekter ser I? (diskussion) - Eksempler på agroforestry i Europa - Hvilke udfordringer i den økologiske svine- og fjerkræproduktion kan agroforestry være med til at imødegå? - Er agroforestry en mulig udviklingsvej i DK? Barrierer og udviklingsbehov (diskussion)

  14. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  15. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto;

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...

  16. Biodiversity, carbon stocks and community monitoring in traditional agroforestry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartoyo, Adisti Permatasari Putri; Siregar, Iskandar Z.; Supriyanto

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agroforestry practices in Berau, East Kalimantan, are suitable land use types to conserve that potentially support the implementation of REDD+. The objectives of this research are to assess biodiversity and carbon stock in various traditional agroforestry practices, also to determine...

  17. Current extent and stratification of agroforestry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Herder, Michael; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and objective estimate on the extent of agroforestry in Europe is critical for the development of supporting policies. For this reason, a more harmonised and uniform Pan-European estimate is needed. The aim of this study was to quantify and map the distribution of agroforestry in the ...

  18. A perception on health benefits of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sunitha Elizabeth; Ramalakshmi, Kulathooran; Mohan Rao, Lingamallu Jagan

    2008-05-01

    Coffee, consumed for its refreshing and stimulating effect, belongs to the tribe Coffea of the subfamily Cinchonoidea of Rubiaceae family. Coffee is a complex chemical mixture composed of several chemicals. It is responsible for a number of bioactivities and a number of compounds accounting for these effects. Few of the significant bioactivities documented are antioxidant activity, anticarcinogenic activity, antimutagenic activity etc. Various compounds responsible for the chemoprotective effects of coffee are mainly polyphenols including chlorogenic acids and their degradation products. Others include caffeine, kahweol, cafestol, and other phenolics. Coffee also shows protective or adverse effects on various systems like the skeletal (bone) system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the homocysteine levels, the cholesterol levels etc. Harmful effects of coffee are associated with people who are sensitive to stimulants. Overall, with the available information, it can be concluded that the moderate consumption, corresponding to 3 to 4 cups/day with average strength is safer to human health.

  19. The impact of coffee on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, A; Tarín, J J; Cano, A

    2013-05-01

    Coffee is a beverage used worldwide. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implication on health. We have reviewed publications on the impact of coffee on a series of health outcomes. Articles published between January 1990 and December 2012 were selected after crossing coffee or caffeine with a list of keywords representative of the most relevant health areas potentially affected by coffee intake. Caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes are important components of coffee. Tolerance often acts as a modulator of the biological actions of coffee. There is a significant impact of coffee on the cardiovascular system, and on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Contrary to previous beliefs, the various forms of arterial cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia or heart insufficiency seem unaffected by coffee intake. Coffee is associated with a reduction in the incidence of diabetes and liver disease. Protection seems to exist also for Parkinson's disease among the neurological disorders, while its potential as an osteoporosis risk factor is under debate. Its effect on cancer risk depends on the tissue concerned, although it appears to favor risk reduction. Coffee consumption seems to reduce mortality. The information gathered in recent years has generated a new concept of coffee, one which does not match the common belief that coffee is mostly harmful. This view is further supported by the discovery of a series of phyto-components with a beneficial profile. Reasonable optimism needs to be tempered, however, by the insufficiency of the clinical data, which in most cases stem from observational studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Seeta A; Roddy, Adam B; Williams, Nicholas E; Kramer, Daniel B; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region's first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  1. Agroforestry Practices Promote Biodiversity and Natural Resource Diversity in Atlantic Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Seeta A.; Roddy, Adam B.; Williams, Nicholas E.; Kramer, Daniel B.; Stevens, Kara; Allison, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forest conversion to pasture, which drives greenhouse gas emissions, soil degradation, and biodiversity loss, remains a pressing socio-ecological challenge. This problem has spurred increased interest in the potential of small-scale agroforestry systems to couple sustainable agriculture with biodiversity conservation, particularly in rapidly developing areas of the tropics. In addition to providing natural resources (i.e. food, medicine, lumber), agroforestry systems have the potential to maintain higher levels of biodiversity and greater biomass than lower diversity crop or pasture systems. Greater plant diversity may also enhance soil quality, further supporting agricultural productivity in nutrient-limited tropical systems. Yet, the nature of these relationships remains equivocal. To better understand how different land use strategies impact ecosystem services, we characterized the relationships between plant diversity (including species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and natural resource diversity), and soil quality within pasture, agroforests, and secondary forests, three common land use types maintained by small-scale farmers in the Pearl Lagoon Basin, Nicaragua. The area is undergoing accelerated globalization following the 2007 completion of the region’s first major road; a change which is expected to increase forest conversion for agriculture. However, farmer agrobiodiversity maintenance in the Basin was previously found to be positively correlated with affiliation to local agricultural NGOs through the maintenance of agroforestry systems, despite these farmers residing in the communities closest to the new road, highlighting the potential for maintaining diverse agroforestry agricultural strategies despite heightened globalization pressures. We found that agroforestry sites tended to have higher surface soil %C, %N, and pH relative to neighboring to secondary forest, while maintaining comparable plant diversity. In contrast, pasture reduced

  2. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = - QN - QH - QG - Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through upscaling

  3. Combining farm typology and yield gap analysis to identify major variables limiting yields in the highland coffee systems of Llano Bonito, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattarai, Sanjeeb; Alvarez, Stéphanie; Gary, Christian; Rossing, Walter; Tittonell, Pablo; Rapidel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Yield variability in space and time is a well-known phenomenon in the highland coffee production systems of Costa Rica. Our objective was to systematically unravel variations and gaps in yields due to the combined effects of farm resources and major production variables in a region of premium

  4. Hormesis with glyphosate depends on coffee growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed management systems in almost all Brazilian coffee plantations allow herbicide spray to drift on crop plants. In order to evaluate if there is any effect of the most commonly used herbicide in coffee production, glyphosate, on coffee plants, a range of glyphosate doses were applied directly on ...

  5. Development of coffee production in Nepal : analysis of an appropriate supply chain and institutional support for production and export of specialty coffee from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Egil Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    The coffee industry in Nepal is young, and it is only since 2003 that export of washed Arabica coffee has commenced. The industry seems to be rather fragmented with several exporting companies competing to collect the relatively small output of the coffee production system. Two Norwegian investors are looking to promote coffee production for export from three hilly districts in eastern Nepal. There seems to be some recognition that coffee from Nepal can satisfy the quality criteria for specia...

  6. What is the structure of the coffee market: Can the real poor benefit from the coffee trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pokorná

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trade with coffee. The primary aim of the paper is to analyse the international coffee trade. Because coffee belongs to the cash crops we have focus on the production. We have analysed the structure of the trade concerning the green (not roasted coffee, roasted coffee and coffee extracts, essences or concentrates. The analyses of production show enormous differences between developed and developing countries on the supply side. Dissimilarity appeared in the price system. Our results show that developing countries (especially least developed countries cannot fully benefit from the international trade because they are placed just on the lowest level of the production vertical line. The results prove that there must exist strong influence of the supply chains. This is connected with the export of roasted coffee and import of the green coffee.

  7. Smashing CoffeeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Brew the perfect code with CoffeeScript If you're familiar with JavaScript and the often-frustrating process of creating complex applications, a nice cup of CoffeeScript can help. CoffeeScript is a programming language that compiles into JavaScript and simplifies the entire development process. Now you can tap the full power of CoffeeScript with Smashing CoffeeScript. This full-color, practical book explains CoffeeScript language, syntax, and processes, and will soon have you producing concise and quality code. Ultimately, you'll create RIAs and mobile apps faster, with less

  8. Coffee and health

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Hoon Bae; Jae-Hyung Park; Seung-Soon Im; Dae-Kyu Song

    2014-01-01

    Most people start their day with a cup of coffee. Many people would also finish their daily work with coffee. As such, coffee drinking is an important part of modern daily life. It has been told that coffee is a driving force for humans to develop science, because it has an alerting effect on the human brain. However, some people report experiencing irregular heartbeat or headaches and are thus reluctant to drink coffee, which suggests individual variation to coffee intolerance. The aim of th...

  9. SE Asian Palms for Agroforestry and Home Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Barfod

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products either do not figure in trade statistics, or they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we focus on these products that are not prominent in national trade statistics and we review their sustainability and economic importance in SE Asia. We rank the most important palms according to their versatility, which is an extremely important property, especially for smallholders who practice subsistence agriculture. We conclude by listing a number of recommendations for future research directions based on experiences from the recently completed EU 7th Framework project (EU-PALMS 2009-2013.

  10. Development of a chromatographic low pressure flow injection system using amperometric detection: Application to the analysis of niacin in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João Rodrigo; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-11-15

    In this work, an analytical flow system able to perform low pressure chromatography with amperometric detection is presented. As case study, the determination of niacin (vitamin B3) in coffee brewed samples was selected. The manifold comprised a 1.0 cm length monolithic column coated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide, a laboratory-made boron doped diamond electrode, and featured in-line ionic strength adjustment of the mobile phase. The figures of merit concerning the selected case study namely, detection limit, 7.90 × 10(-7) M, determination rate, ca. 10 samplesh(-1), mobile phase and ISA solution consumption, ca. 2.6 mL per analysis, and CV, below 5% for retention time and peak height, showed the competitiveness of this analytical strategy comparing to the described HPLC methods for niacin determination. The strategy displays a simple configuration, low cost, fast and easy assembling, foreseeing its use to general purpose applications.

  11. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  12. HOW COFFEE COMPANIES CAN STAY COMPETITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA DANIELA RIZEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The coffee shop industry in the U.S. includes 20,000 stores with combined annual revenue of about $11 billion. Major companies include Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, Caribou, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf, and Diedrich (Gloria Jean’s. The industry is highly concentrated at the top and fragmented at the bottom: the top 50 companies have over 70 percent of industry sales. Coffee is one of the world’s largest commodities. The top green coffee producing countries are Brazil, Colombia, and Vietnam. Many grower countries are small, poor developing nations that depend on coffee to sustain local economies. The U.S. is the world’s largest importer of green coffee beans and the largest consumer of coffee. The main objective of this study is to investigate the competitive strategies that U.S. coffee franchise companies adopt considering customers’ expectations and industry best practices. In order to achieve this objective, a best practice benchmarking analysis was performed taking into account the top U.S. coffee companies This analysis showed that product and service innovation are necessary in order to stay competitive in the market and attract new or to keep existing customers successfully. Many customers focus on the special atmosphere each store has and which is characterized by the location, music, interior design, seating or whether internet access is provided. Particularly for specialty coffee shops it is important not to sell only the beverage but the whole experience. Coffee shops have to establish a unique image that prevents customers from buying products from another shop or use home-brewing systems which are also on the rise in American households. In addressing the increased level of competition, every company’s focus should be on differentiating from the rest of the market in every possible business segment (products, atmosphere, location, image etc..

  13. Isolation of high molecular weight components and contribution to the protective activity of coffee against lipid peroxidation in a rat liver microsome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Aceti, Camilla; Sordelli, Barbara; Gregotti, Cesarina; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2008-12-24

    One of the most extensively studied and best-established properties of coffee is its antioxidant activity. We have shown that coffee brew has the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation completely in a rat liver microsome biological system. The inhibitory activity was mainly due to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction; this consisted of five components that were isolated, purified, and seen to occur in different amounts in the brew. Each component had different spectra and element compositions, although they all contained nitrogen. HMW, nitrogen content, and brown color enabled three components to be attributed to the melanoidin family; the two nonbrown components could not be considered as melanoidins. Each melanoidin and nonmelanoidin component contributes to a different extent to the protective action exerted by coffee brew. None of the isolated components completely inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation alone, suggesting that each acts at different sites and/or possesses different mechanisms of action. The protective activity of coffee brew is thus underpinned by the antiradical properties, reducing power, and metal chelating ability of the individual components, each contributing to a different extent.

  14. Increased soil organic carbon stocks under agroforestry: A survey of six different sites in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Cambou, Aurélie; Beral, Camille; Barthes, Bernard; Dupraz, Christian; Kouakoua, Ernest; Chenu, Claire

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Agroforestry systems are land use management systems in which trees are grown in combination with crops or pasture in the same field. In silvoarable systems, trees are intercropped with arable crops, and in silvopastoral systems trees are combined with pasture for livestock. These systems may produce forage and timber as well as providing ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation. Carbon (C) is stored in the aboveground and belowground biomass of the trees, and the transfer of organic matter from the trees to the soil can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Few studies have assessed the impact of agroforestry systems on carbon storage in soils in temperate climates, as most have been undertaken in tropical regions. Methods: This study assessed five silvoarable systems and one silvopastoral system in France. All sites had an agroforestry system with an adjacent, purely agricultural control plot. The land use management in the inter-rows in the agroforestry systems and in the control plots were identical. The age of the study sites ranged from 6 to 41 years after tree planting. Depending on the type of soil, the sampling depth ranged from 20 to 100 cm and SOC stocks were assessed using equivalent soil masses. The aboveground biomass of the trees was also measured at all sites. Results: In the silvoarable systems, the mean organic carbon stock accumulation rate in the soil was 0.24 (0.09-0.46) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a depth of 30 cm and 0.65 (0.004-1.85) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 in the tree biomass. Increased SOC stocks were also found in deeper soil layers at two silvoarable sites. Young plantations stored additional SOC but mainly in the soil under the rows of trees, possibly as a result of the herbaceous vegetation growing in the rows. At the silvopastoral site, the SOC stock was significantly greater at a depth of 30-50 cm than in the control. Overall, this study showed the potential of agroforestry systems to store C in both soil and biomass in

  15. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such a

  16. Coffee seed physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, da E.A.A.; Castro, de R.D.; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such

  17. Density responses and spatial distribution of cotton yield and yield components in jujube (Zizyphus jujube)/cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) agroforestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qi; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Lizhen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Werf, van der Wopke; Evers, Jochem B.; Sun, Hongquan; Su, Zhicheng; Zhang, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Trees are the dominant species in agroforestry systems, profoundly affecting the performance of understory crops. Proximity to trees is a key factor in crop performance, but rather little information is available on the spatial distribution of yield and yield components of crop species under the

  18. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents.

  19. Air conditioning total system for a coffee house. Groundwater as a supplier for heat and coldness; Klimatechnisches Gesamtsystem fuer ein Cafe. Grundwasser als Waerme- und Kaelte-Lieferant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, Gerald [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Stutensee (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The new building of a coffee-house of the land baker's shop Ihle on the outskirts of Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was not only a new way of the baker's shop in the catering trade, but also in the conception of the building and its technical equipment. The linkage of heating, climate, ventilation and commercial refrigeration systems to a highly efficient total system succeeded in outstanding way.

  20. Carbon footprints and carbon stocks reveal climate-friendly coffee production

    OpenAIRE

    Rikxoort, Henk; Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Coffee production is impacting the climate by emitting greenhouse gasses. Coffee production is also vulnerable to climate change. As a consequence, the coffee sector is interested in climate-friendly forms of coffee production, but there is no consensus of what exactly this implies. Therefore, we studied two aspects of the climate impact of coffee production: the standing carbon stocks in the production systems and the product carbon footprint, which measures the green...

  1. Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-03-01

    1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey.

  2. Agroforestry in private land: a North Western Indian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammed, Nur; Hague, Farhana; Koike, Masao (Forest Policy Laboratory, Department of Forest Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan))

    2007-07-01

    Till the beginning of the 20th century World forest reserves seemed inexhaustible. Population growth (at the current rate of 2% annually) and industrial energy requirements pose an immediate threat to forest resources (at the current rate of 0.2% annually). As a result, since the later part of 20th century forest resource has become a scarce commodity. India with 21.97% forest land is the largest consumer of fuelwood in the world. Industrial consumption of timber in India is about 30 million cubic meters per year. Biomass fuel shares 40% of the total energy requirements in India. There exists a huge gap between demand and supply of timber. Majority of the timber comes from outside the forests. India is the pioneer to bring agroforestry practice as a science with its theoretical and practical development. The study was conducted on Hara agroforestry farm at Yamunanagar district of Haryana state of India with a view to analyze agroforestry based farming system on private land. Methodology includes secondary data review, interview with semi structured questionnaire (audio-visual aids), farm visit and analysis. This is learnt that there is a very little amount of official forest in Haryana state; only per capita forest area is about 0.001 ha. This is perhaps the most important reason that the agroforestry or tree outside forest programs is so successful in this region. Mr. Hara and another progressive farmer introduced Poplar based agroforestry during 1979-80 under an industry led initiative. With their success each farmers are motivated and now all types of farmers are practicing agroforestry in this region. This farm practices different combination of trees, horticultural plants and crops with varying length of rotation. Hara farm now stands with solid technical foundation, physical infrastructure, skilled worker and other logistical facilities that enable the farm to produce commercial timber of Poplar and Eucalyptus efficiently, economically and abundantly from the

  3. [Coffee and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    The coffee bean contains over 2000 chemical compounds, the health effects of which are known only to a limited extent. Previous coffee researchers and laymen focused solely on caffeine and its positive effect on mental alertness. Other ingredients in coffee, especially its polyphenols, also have an influence on our health. In Finland, coffee is the source of more than half of the so-called antioxidants that are thought to be important for health. Coffee drinkers have lower mortality and morbidity rates than non-drinkers in respect of many common chronic diseases.

  4. A systematic map of ecosystem services assessments around European agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    the knowledge field and provide the first systematic synthesis of ecosystem services research in relation to European agroforestry. We reviewed 71 scientific publications from studies conducted in farmland and forest ecosystems with various types of agroforestry management. Each publication was systematically...... characterized and classified by agroforestry practice and research approach in order to provide an insight into the current research state in addressing ecosystem services (including methods, indicators, and approaches). Spatial distribution of the case study sites in Europe was also explored. In addition...... participation and introduction of spatially explicit mapping are also important key actions. We make suggestions to advance the promise of ecosystem services provision from European agroforestry in decision making including various actors, stakeholders, and institutions, with strong links to policy processes...

  5. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between fa

  6. Diversity in smallholder farms growing coffee and their use of recommended coffee management practices in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Fleskens, L.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Mukasa, D.; Giller, K.E.; Asten, van P.

    2015-01-01

    Many smallholder farm systems in Uganda produce coffee as an important cash crop. Yet coffee yields are poor. To increase farmers’ production, a range of agronomic practices have been recommended by national and international agencies. Yet the adoption potential of recommendations differs between

  7. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic

  8. Sustainable Agroforestry Models for Proposed Food Production in Post-Mined Land Sites of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Hermawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reclamation areas of the opencast coal mining in South Sumatera are predominantly compact and nutrient-poor, marginal sites, but have a high potential for cultivation of fast-growing trees and agricultural crops.  This paper aims to promote several models of agroforestry in the post-mined land in South Sumatera as a new strategy in reclaiming degraded soil properties for both enviroment and economic purposes.  About 5,000 ha of coal mining areas were observed to characterize the landscape and soil properties in the area, then overlaid with the landuse maps of post-mining plans issued by the company.  Results showed that about 1,730 ha of the reclamation areas was suitable for agroforestry while the rest was for utilities, camping ground, water pond and grassland.  Three models were proposed for the agroforestry areas, including (i agrisilviculture model (1,190 ha, (ii silvihorticulture model (203 ha, and (iii local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture (337 ha.  Prior to the agroforestry establishment, all reclamation sites were subjected to the revegetation with fast-growing trees and other rejuvenation treatments in order to restore favour soil and microclimate conditions.  The proposed components for each model were as follows: for agrisilviculture model were cultivation on the alley cropping system of trees and food crops, for silvihorticulture model were the plantation of fruit trees in the bench of water pond, and for local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture were the cultivation of local forest and food crop species.

  9. Os sistemas agroflorestais como alternativa de sustentabilidade em ecossistemas de várzea no Amazonas The Agroforestry systems as an alternative of sustainable land use in várzea (floodplain ecosystems in Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2009-01-01

    , especially when it is refereed to the forest management, to the products diversity, and the incomes. This study has objective to understand the different ways of appropriation and management of natural resources through SAFs in the different subsystems as clearing, home garden, and lakes as a sustainability component of families’ farmers from Costa da Terra Nova located in the Careiro da Várzea County (Amazon. The methodology used was the case study with the questionnaires applied, interviews and participant observation. The families’ production in the Costa da Terra Nova is represented for agroforestry systems accordingly with the subsystem: farm, home garden and lakes that provide products for their subsistence as much as much for local commercialization. The local communities established the agriculture as a fundamental activity. The main product is obtained from the vegetables grown during the receding water period in the field subsystem in the communities São Francisco and Nossa Senhora da Conceição; and the extrativismo fishing boat on subsystem lake in water period, predominant in community São José. The animal raising is used only for self-subsistence, being the birds and the pigs the mainly domestic animals raising in the three communities. Thus, the traditional agroforestry systems combined with the forest subsystem, clearing, home garden, and lakes are responsible for social-economics sustainability for the studied area, and could be used as an alternative agriculture better adapted for the local conditions at the Amazonian floodplain areas.

  10. Habitat selection and natural enemy function of Chrysopa pallens rambur in agroforestry systems%农林复合环境大草蛉生境选择取向及天敌效能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钊; 赵广亮; 闫国增; 周在豹; 田作宝; 魏婉红; 张东; 李凯

    2015-01-01

    because of the high aphid densities that occurred during early crop growth, which might serve as alternative food for survival and reproduction ( LSD:Pα= 0.002,α = 0.01) . Fifth, the preferred oviposition sites of C. pallens differed with habitat. In agronomic fields, eggs were laid from June to September, preferentially on peanut and corn plants, where high aphid densities would provide stable food sources for larvae ( LSD:Pα= 0.007,α = 0.01) . In forest belts, oviposition mainly occurred from May to July, preferentially in the poplar mixed forest belt, which provided a safe environment, in addition to be stable and diverse food sources ( LSD:Pα= 0.038,α = 0.05) . This study showed that both adults and larvae of C. pallens exhibit clear patterns of aphid chasing behavior. In addition, shelter forest habitats that were stable and complex under natural conditions might provide an important refuge for C. pallens in agroforestry environments when the landscape changed sharply after crop harvest. Thus, this study also implies that non-crop agroforestry system habitats are essential for the ecological regulation and management of agricultural pests because they provide a refuge for and improve the survival of natural enemies. Therefore, emphasis on cultivating forest belts in agricultural fields may be vital for the protection and maintenance of natural enemy populations in agricultural systems.

  11. The coffee genome hub: a resource for coffee genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Secagem de café em combinação A combined system for coffee drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilio F. de Lacerda Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar um sistema de secagem de café, com meia-seca em leito fixo e complementação da secagem em secador de lotes, intermitente, de fluxos concorrentes, em um experimento instalado na Área de Pré-processamento e Armazenamento de Produtos Vegetais, DEA-UFV. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Fez-se a colheita pelo método de derriça sobre o chão. Os frutos foram pré-processados por via seca, secando-se os frutos verdes, cerejas e passas. Na meia-seca, a umidade inicial dos frutos variou entre 68,9 e 71,3% b.u. e a final entre 44,0 e 47,5% b.u. Na complementação da secagem a umidade final variou entre 12,2 e 13,8% b.u. A temperatura do ar, no secador de leito fixo, variou entre 50,4 e 76 °C, e no de fluxos concorrentes, entre 87,2 e 110 °C. A entalpia específica no secador de leito fixo variou entre 8,4 e 9,1 MJ kg-1 e no de fluxos concorrentes, entre 7,1 e 16,9 MJ kg-1. Relativamente às testemunhas, a qualidade final do produto apresentou melhores características comerciais. Concluiu-se que a meia-seca em leito fixo e a secagem em secador de fluxos concorrentes, além de reduzir o tempo de operação, poderá contribuir para melhor preservar as qualidades que o produto adquire no campo.The general objective of this study was the evaluation of a system for coffee drying, using partial drying in fixed bed dryer and complementary drying in an intermittent concurrent flow batch dryer. The experiment was carried out in the Vegetable Products Processing Area, DEA-UFV. The drying tests were accomplished in completely randomized design. The coffee was harvested on the ground by manual striping process. The fruits were pre-processed by drying of ripe, overripe and greenish cherries. For the preliminary drying, the initial coffee moisture content varied from 68.9 to 71.3% w.b. with the drying being interrupted with moisture content between 44.0 and 47.5% w.b. In the complementary drying phase the final moisture

  13. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed.

  14. Influence of Acacia senegal agroforestry system on growth and yield of sorghum, sesame, roselle and gum in north Kordofan State, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of intercropping with Acacia senegal (L.) Willd on growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.),sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa).Field experiments were conducted in El-Obeid Research farm (13°10' N; 30°12' E),North Kordofan State,Sudan,during 2002-2003 in an 11-year-old A.senegal plantation.The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications.Data were recorded for plant height (cm),fresh weight (kg·ha-1),dry weight (kg·ha-1),crop yield (kg·ha-1),and gum yield (kg·ha-1).We used Land Equivalent Ratios (LER) and simple financial analyses of gross surpluses to evaluate the productivity and profitability of the different treatments.The results indicated that A.senegal trees had a beneficial effect on crop performance and yield as well as gum yield.Significant differences (p < 0.05)were obtained for plant height,fresh weight,dry weight and crop yield.Therefore,yield of sorghum,sesame and roselle under intercropping system were 13.7%,23.8% and 20.9% higher than that obtained in the sole cropping system respectively.The highest yield increase was observed with sesame (23.8%).Gum yield (g/tree/picking) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased for sorghum,sesame and roslle under intercropping system.The highest yield of (298 g/tree/picking) was obtained when roselle was intercropped with A.senegal,while the least gum yield of (239 g·tree-1) was recorded in pure A.senegal plot.All the treatments gave land equivalent ratio (LER) of more than one-indicating the superiority of growing the field crops in intercropping over the sole cropping systems.The highest LER of 3.8 was obtained for sesame intercropped with A.senegal (Hashab),followed by 3.7,when sorghum was intercropped with A.senegal and 3.3 when roselle intercropped with A.senegal.All the treatments gave positive net revenues,the highest being for intercropped sorghum (558 SDG·ha-1) (SDG=Sudanese gienh

  15. Coffee and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Pablo; Arauz, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    Coffee consumption is worldwide spread with few side effects. Interestingly, coffee intake has been inversely related to the serum enzyme activities gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in studies performed in various countries. In addition, epidemiological results, taken together, indicate that coffee consumption is inversely related with hepatic cirrhosis; however, they cannot demonstrate a causative role of coffee with prevention of liver injury. Animal models and cell culture studies indicate that kahweol, diterpenes and cafestol (some coffee compounds) can function as blocking agents by modulating multiple enzymes involved in carcinogenic detoxification; these molecules also alter the xenotoxic metabolism by inducing the enzymes glutathione-S-transferase and inhibiting N-acetyltransferase. Drinking coffee has been associated with reduced risk of hepatic injury and cirrhosis, a major pathogenic step in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, thus, the benefit that produces coffee consumption on hepatic cancer may be attributed to its inverse relation with cirrhosis, although allowance for clinical history of cirrhosis did not completely account for the inverse association. Therefore, it seems to be a continuum of the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on liver enzymes, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, it seems reasonable to propose experiments with animal models of liver damage and to test the effect of coffee, and/or isolated compounds of this beverage, not only to evaluate the possible causative role of coffee but also its action mechanism. Clinical prospective double blind studies are also needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of advances in carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry%农林复合系统固碳潜力研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平晓燕; 王铁梅; 卢欣石

    2013-01-01

    农林复合系统是解决当前资源枯竭、农林用地紧张和实现环境保护的一种可持续土壤管理模式.自《京都议定书》签订以来,农林复合系统因其较高的固碳潜力引起了科学家的广泛关注.深入理解农林复合系统的固碳过程及其对气候变化、环境条件的改变和管理措施的响应,是准确地预测农林复合系统在全球变化情景下固碳潜力的关键.该文综述了农林复合系统的概念和分类,探讨了农林复合系统相比单一系统的固碳潜力及固碳机理,分析了农林复合系统固碳潜力的测定方法和当前面临的挑战,综述了气候因子、环境条件和人为管理措施对农林复合系统固碳潜力的影响.我国农林复合系统的固碳潜力相比全球其他区域还处于较低水平,为提高我国农林复合系统的固碳潜力,未来需要加强以下四个方面的工作:扩大农林复合系统的分布面积、加强农林复合系统的合理配置和管理、选择适宜的物种组合和优化系统的群体结构.%Agroforestry is regarded as a sustainable land-use management due to its potential for solving the problem of resource deficiency, improving the livelihood of rural areas and reducing environmental degradation. Agroforestry has attracted considerable scientific attention since the Kyoto Protocol because it has relatively high potential for carbon sequestration. Comprehensively understanding the process of carbon sequestration in agroforestry and its response to climate change, environmental variation and management practices is essential for predicting the carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry under varying climate and land-use patterns. This paper first reviews the concept and classification of agroforestry and then proposes the mechanism of higher carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems compared with monocropping or monoculture pasture systems. Furthermore, the methods used for quantifying the

  17. [Coffee and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Kerstin; Martin, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    Lack of physical activity and high caloric diet are main causes for increasing diabetes prevalence. Thus, it is possible to influence blood glucose levels by lifestyle modifications. Coffee is an important lifestyle factor in Germany with a mean consumption of about 150 litres per inhabitant. It is important to know that coffee cannot be equated with caffeine. Scientific investigations have shown that caffeine can temporarily have a negative impact on cardiovascular risk factors but does not promote development of cardiovascular events. On the other hand, several international prospective studies demonstrate a protective effect of coffee on the development of type 2 diabetes as coffee consumption can reduce glucose uptake. Coffee components, e.g. chlorogenic acid, play a central role, as they can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation in addition. In the context of lifestyle tasks coffee consumption therefore is an additional option for modifying diabetes risk.

  18. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  19. PENGELOLAAN DAN PENERIMAAN SOSIAL AGROFORESTRI TRADISIONAL DUKUH DI KABUPATEN BANJAR KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizianor Hafizianor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banjar District, one of which district that most peoples working as farmer in between gardening fruit, and present the results from the orchard began to decline. The purpose of this study is: (1 The Management of traditional agroforestry dukuh in The Banjar District (2 Knowing the social acceptance of the existence of an orchard with traditional agroforestry dukuh in the district of Banjar (3 Knowing the factors that influence the social acceptance of the existence of the orchard.  Obtain data used 2 methods primer and secondary data. Population of this study used purposive sampling. As for knowing the factors that influence people's  social acceptance of the existence of an orchard  used Multiple Linear Regression  Analysis, processed through Statistical Program for Social  Sciences. Obtained by calculating an index score of each elements of the social acceptance of  such participation, attitudes and values, it is mean peoples still have high levels of social acceptance the orchard. The results showed the traditional management system of dukuh consist of the local community wisdom value .  The contribution that given by the traditional agroforestry dukuh from the economic sector is siginificant enough amount of 33% of the community income totally in a year so that the performance of traditional agroforestry is good for the side of productivity, sustainability, justice and eficiency showing the good condition.  Level social acceptance of existence the orchard with traditional agroforestry dukuh, according to the analysis of data obtained has high acceptance rate, is 82.86. As for factors that affected, the results of multiple linear regression analysis of testing is known that  the  seven  factors  affected  social acceptance,  there are  three  factors that significantly influence social acceptance,  namely  income, production,  and marketing.

  20. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL PATTERN OF TROPICAL AGRO-FORESTRY EFFORTS AT EDUCATIONAL FOREST LANDSCAPE OF MOUNT WALAT, SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization has changed the face of the landscape, not only in urban environments, but it also has expanded the areas around it. The changes in land use are increasing not only occurs in areas formerly categorized a semi-intensive, such as agricultural lands, but also in extensive and protection areas. However, in some periphery still characterizes the function of a good environment; especially in rural areas the changes that occurred were limited to their own needs (subsistence, as in Mount Walat, Sukabumi. This study aims to identify and analyze the tropical agro-forestry efforts and to provide landscape ecological pattern in order to preserve the environment and social culture. The method used in this study was a site survey method with focusing on the biophysical condition of the site and analysis of reports or other sources regarding the management processes undertaken. Mount Walat ± 359 Ha area of forest is guided by land use pattern that is divided into four characters, i.e., forest ecosystem, opened forest, ownership land, and countrified. Its area of ± 70 Ha was managed as agro-forestry land. The form of tropical agro-forestry in the country side around the site consists of yard and mixture garden, while in the arable land is a mixture garden. In order to prevent of destruction, then the manager invites Hegarmanah villagers to cooperate in maintaining its sustainability by allowing land to cultivated in Mount Walat agro-forestry, with the terms agreed by both parties, without damaging the forest ecosystem. The study was suggested that the community structures and developmental pathways which arised across a gradient of disturbance frequencies can provide models for alternative agro-forestry solutions. Addressing multiple objectives and sustainability in a complex biophysical and socioeconomic system ought to be a challenging and exciting enterprises.

  1. Coffee seed physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Eira, M.T.S.; Silva, DA; Castro, de, JFM; Dussert, S.; Walters, C.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae family and the genus Coffea. There are more than 70 species of coffee but only two are economically important: Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre; 70 % of the coffee traded in the world is arabica and 30 % is robusta (C. canephora). Other species such as C. congensis, C. dewevrei and C. racemosa have some interesting genetic characteristics, including resistance to pests and diseases and are used in breeding programs. To satisfy the demand for co...

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of coffee grounds with and without waste activated sludge as co-substrate using a submerged AnMBR: system amendments and membrane performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Niu, Qigui; Yu, Han Qing; Li, Yu-You

    2013-12-01

    Coffee grounds are deemed to be difficult for degradation by thermophilic anaerobic process. In this research, a 7 L AnMBR accepting coffee grounds was operated for 82 days and failed with pH dropping to 6.6. The deficiency of micronutrients in the reactor was identified. The system was recovered by supplying micronutrient, pH adjustment and influent ceasing for 22 days. In the subsequent 160 days of co-digestion experiment, waste activated sludge (15% in the mixture) was mixed into coffee grounds. The COD conversion efficiency of 67.4% was achieved under OLR of 11.1 kg-COD/m(3) d and HRT of 20 days. Tannins was identified affecting protein degradation by a batch experiment. Quantitative supplements of NH4HCO3 (0.12 g-N/g-TSin) were effective to maintain alkalinity and pH. The solid concentration in the AnMBR reached 75 g/L, but it did not significantly affect membrane filtration under a flux of 5.1 L/m(2) h. Soluble carbohydrate, lipid and protein were partially retained by the membrane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    the effect of caffeine on mean birth weight and gestational age in a randomised controlled double-blinded trial with 1,207 women randomised to either caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee. We found no difference in mean birth weight or gestational age between children of mothers randomised...... to caffeinated or women randomised to decaffeinated coffee. Women who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day and were randomised to caffeinated coffee gave birth to children with an average adjusted birth weight of 263 gram (95 % CI: 97,430) less than women randomised to decaffeinated coffee. In a nested case...

  4. [Coffee in Cancer Chemoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P

    Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.

  5. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  6. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the participants’ different common-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee....... The negotiation between the researchers’ and practitioners’ approach to the coffee drinking patient facilitate a more profound understanding of how different knowledge forms can be at play in other ways than expected. In conclusion the findings show that dialogue and interplay between different knowledge forms...

  7. ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA ARBÓREA DEL SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. EN EL SOCONUSCO, CHIAPAS - MÉXICO Analysis of the Structure Arborea Agroforestry System Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. in Soconusco, Chiapas - Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO A ROA-ROMERO

    Full Text Available Se determinó la abundancia, riqueza, importancia, equidad y diversidad de los árboles encontrados en sistemas agroforestales de cacao, del Soconusco, Chiapas, México. La presente investigación, se desarrolló en la región costera del Soconusco, ubicada al sur del estado de Chiapas; se muestrearon los municipios de Huehuetán, Tapachula y Tuxtla Chico, por ser los más representativos en área sembrada de cacao. En cada municipio, se establecieron al azar siete parcelas temporales de 50 x 50 m cada una, lo que suma en total 5,25 hectáreas , en las cuales se registraron variables como el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP: 1,3 m sobre el nivel del suelo, área basal, y sombrío en el cacaotal. Se encontraron 46 especies agrupadas en 21 familias, las especies con el mayor valor de importancia fueron Mangifera indica y Pouteria sapota, convirtiéndose en las especies de sombra más frecuentemente encontradas. La composición florística denotó una mayor similitud en los municipios de Tapachula y Huehuetán, como lo muestra el mayor porcentaje del índice de Jaccard y en lo que respecta a diversidad, el municipio de Tuxtla Chico presentó el mayor valor según el índice de Shannon. Este estudio determina la existencia de una cobertura definitiva de preferencia asociada a los árboles frutales.The abundance, wealth, size, fairness and diversity of trees found in cacao agroforestry systems was determined in Soconusco , Chiapas , Mexico . This research was conducted in the coastal region of Soconusco, located in the southern state of Chiapas . The municipalities of Huehuetán Tapachula and Tuxtla Chico were sampled, as the most representative in area planted with cocoa. In each municipality, were created at random seven parcels temporary 50 x 50 m each, which amount totalling 5.25 hectares , in which there were variables such as the diameter at breast height (DBH: 1.3 m above the soil, basal area, and grim in the cacaotal. We found 46 species

  8. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J.A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  9. Perceptions and outlook on intercropping coffee with banana as an opportunity for smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jassogne, Laurence; van Asten, Piet J. A.; Wanyama, Ibrahim; Baret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and banana are important cash and food crops in Uganda and the surrounding East African highland region. Production is dominated by smallholders that have limited arable land and often coffee and banana are intercropped. No significant research and development efforts have been undertaken over the last few decades on this coffee/banana intercropping system. Because recent studies suggest that this system could be a practice with high benefits to the farmers, we decided to study the per...

  10. Emergy analysis of an agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: A forma de produção da agricultura em larga escala, intensiva em defensivos agrícolas, tem demonstrado ser destrutiva quanto à preservação da biodiversidade e de outros fatores de produção como solo e água. Neste sentido, novas alternativas de produção agrícola têm sido estudadas e aplicadas objetivando a recuperação dos solos, entre as quais se destaca a metodologia de sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs). A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo estudar o processo de recuperação de uma área ...

  11. Environmental services from tropical agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Casanova-Lugo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta revisión es discutir el papel de los sistemas agroforestales en la prestación de servicios ambientales, incluyendo producción agrícola más diversificada y sostenible, aumento de reservas de carbono, conservación de la biodiversidad, mejora de la fertilidad del suelo, mitigación de emisiones de metano y calidad del agua y aire. Existe evidencia de que los sistemas agroforestales juegan un papel importante en la prestación de servicios ambientales, ya que aproximadamente 20 % de la población mundial, sobre todo las zonas rurales y urbanas de los países en desarrollo, depende directamente de los productos agroforestales. La adopción de sistemas agroforestales contribuye a reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (dióxido de carbono y metano, disminuye la presión sobre los ecosistemas vulnerables y mejora las condiciones de vida de las comunidades rurales.

  12. Plant species in the kilimanjaro agroforestry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' kting' ati, A.; Maghembe, J.A.; Fernandes, E.C.M.; Weaver, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    An inventory of plant species was conducted on 30 farms, farm boundaries and homesteads in 6 villages in Hai District on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Of 111 plant species identified, 53 were tree species, 29 food crop species, 21 non-woody plants of economic value and 8 weed species. Information on uses was obtained through interviews with farmers. Useful plants (most with 2 or more uses) were carefully chosen and closely intercropped on the same unit of land. Of the tree species, 90% were used for fuelwood, 30% for medicines, 25% for poles, 24% for shade, 23% for timber and 10% for fodder. These, and food, were the most important plant uses.

  13. Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages worldwide, is an infusion of ground, roasted coffee beans. Today, coffee is considered a functional food, especially due to its high content of compounds that exert antioxidant and other beneficial biological properties. The annual consumption exceeds 5 billion kilograms of coffee, which corresponds to 500 billion cups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, caffeine as well as the antioxidant activity of three brewed coffee samples in order to assess the amount of these bioactive compounds in a cup of coffee. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based spectrophotometric method. The caffeine was extracted from brewed coffee samples with dichlormethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The antioxidant capacity of each coffee sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging activity on DPPH radical. Even though Arabica coffee variety is appreciated for its fine aroma profile, Robusta variety has proved to be richer in phenolic compounds, flavonoids and caffeine. The larger amount of compounds with antioxidant properties found in Robusta brewed coffee was also confirmed by the obtained antioxidant capacity values.

  14. Role of food emulsifiers in milk coffee beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, A; Cho, H

    2015-07-01

    To emphasize the coffee flavor, many milk coffee beverages contain coffee extracts; these are the so-called "rich milk coffee" beverages. When the content of the coffee extracts increases, milk coffee beverages become unstable. The milk ring formation, or oiling off, is accelerated in these kinds of drinks. We prepared a "rich milk coffee" beverage and studied the stability of the emulsion. We also investigated the influence of the food emulsifiers on the stability of the emulsion. We tried to test the emulsifier system in order to improve the emulsion stability. When the milk coffee beverage with a low light value for the roasted coffee beans sterilized by UHT was stored at a low temperature, the milk component strongly separated. We found that the sucrose monoester with a high HLB and diglycerol monoester accelerated the milk separation, and the decaglycerol monoester controlled the milk separation. We discussed the milk separation mechanism and showed that maintaining the hydration of the hydrophilic group in the rich milk coffee beverage was related to the combination of emulsifiers that control the milk separation.

  15. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  16. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  17. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  18. Can good coffee prices increase smallholder revenue?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinard, Fabrice; Aithal, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The global coffee market is currently plagued by 2 paradoxes, a coffee boom in consuming countries, and a coffee crisis in producing countries (over supply of low quality coffee and shortage of high quality coffee) which is actually driving the coffee market (Daviron and Ponte, 2005). After the termination of the International Coffee Agreement between producing and consuming countries in 1989, the coffee market has been in a flux, with market forces and over supply bringing down the coffee pr...

  19. Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    study was conducted to compare growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fed graded levels of coffee pulp (CoP) and reared in aquaria or in pens. Diets contained 0, 130, 260 and 390 g kg-1 of oven-dried CoP. In aquaria, fish receiving increasing dietary CoP levels (from 0 to 390 g kg-1)

  20. Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    study was conducted to compare growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fed graded levels of coffee pulp (CoP) and reared in aquaria or in pens. Diets contained 0, 130, 260 and 390 g kg-1 of oven-dried CoP. In aquaria, fish receiving increasing dietary CoP levels (from 0 to 390 g kg-1) show

  1. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  2. The Appreciation of Coffee Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹慧玲

    2010-01-01

    As a unique culture in human history,the coffee culture originated with a magic story.This paper first tells the origin of coffee culture.Then it illustrates some typical coffee cultures in the world.Moreover,the paper specially describes the Chinese coffee culture before making a conclusion.

  3. General Situation and Type of Agroforestry in Korea%韩国山林农业概况与类型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴起亨; 张宇清; 万勤琴; 全根雨; 金锡宇; 郑性喆; 尹锡熙; 文康珉

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to introduce the agroforestry system, its problem and solution of forests in Korea. Agroforestry in Korea began in 1999 in order to provide interim income to the owners of forest by the lack of income from forest management and investment. In response to the economic circumstances, agroforestry area in Korea has expanded to government ~anding were set up. The funding program is 168 sites hiring agroforestry practices supported by divided by three models, i.e. short-term income providing model, multi-products producing model and timber producing model. In order to develop suitable agroforestry practices and systems in Korea, efforts to achieve some important are necessary. Firstly, the management models should be revised and reestablished to an application method, which reflects on reality more efficiently. Secondly, development of a program by providing sufficient education and reasonable income for forest owners could result in successful management of the models. Lastly, revision and improvement of the support systems in agroforestry should be performed.%“山林复合经营项目”是韩国在1999年为了增加林业从业者的收入而正式实施的,主要包括短期收入、木材生产和复合山地管理3种类型。截至2005年,该项目在韩国国内的168个市(区)都得到了推广。文中主要介绍韩国山林农业系统,分析该系统存在的问题并探讨与之相应的解决方案,提出应在开发更可行的复合农林经营模式的基础上加大对林业从业者的培训和奖励力度并改善对复合农林业的支持制度。

  4. Determination of acrylamide during roasting of coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael

    2008-08-13

    In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.

  5. Stress, Coping and Coffee Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    Gorlin , 1976) while the increased demands of the heart can be dangerous if the system is otherwise compromised. Biochemical changes occurring...platelets, can create lipid-filled lesions at sites of injured endothelium, referred to as atheromatous plaque ( Gorlin , 1976; Krantz & Manuck, 1984; Ross...Quantitative and qualitative differences associated with habituation to coffee. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, lo. 489-497. Gorlin , R

  6. An overview of palms in SE Asian Agroforestry and home gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    Throughout SE Asia palms constitute an important component in agroforestry systems and home gardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on their physical or nutritional properties. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products...... either, do not figure in trade statistics or, they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we will focus specifically on these products and provide an overview of both their sustainability and economic importance throughout SE Asia. We will rank...

  7. Transfer of Knowledge on Agroforestry Management Practices: the Structure of Farmer Advice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marney E. Isaac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to knowledge on farm management practices is essential for the maintenance of productive agroforestry systems. Farmers who lack the means to acquire farming knowledge from formal sources often rely on information within their informal social networks. However, little research has explored the explicit structure of farmer communication patterns. We examined advice network structures by using farmer attributes, i.e., kin relationships, community involvement, and imitation, to characterize structural positions and investigated the consequences of such structure on farming practices in cocoa agroforestry systems in Ghana, West Africa. Furthermore, we used a multicommunity approach; we constructed networks for four communities to increase replication and enhance the generality of our conclusions. A high density of advice ties occurred among a small group of farmers, indicating a core-periphery structure. Settler farmers composed 73% of core position members, suggesting that social proximity did not control the formation of informal advice structures. Because core farmers were highly participative in community activities, the promotion of community involvement may facilitate the movement of knowledge and social exchange to strengthen informal networks. Farmers in both core and peripheral structural positions indicated that they observed fellow farmers and subsequently adopted their practices. Of highly sought farmers, 84% used external information, predominately from government institutions, thus functioning as bridging links between formal and informal networks. Both external and farmer-derived sources of knowledge of agroforestry practices were transferred through informal advice networks, providing available information throughout the farming community, as well as a foundation for community-based adaptive management.

  8. [Coffee as hepatoprotective factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana

    The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.

  9. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  10. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  11. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: An epidemiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Geleijnse

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna M GeleijnseDivision of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, The NetherlandsAbstract: This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP and risk of hypertension. Data from crosssectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1–12 weeks, have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (∼2/1 mmHg when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fi bre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension.

  12. Too much coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    and ethnomethodology we – researchers - decided to study the interplay between practitioners and researchers negotiating on how a psychiatric patient who drinks too much coffee can be motivated to drink less coffee. The ethnomethodological perspective reveals how the interlocutors’ different common......-sense and hierarchical perceptions of a normative theory and its meaning in practice appears to guide the talk about how to motivate the patient to drink less coffee. Moreover, the examination of the dialogue between these show how important it is to respect multivocality in order to be sensitive to how different...

  13. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  14. Developing a Coffee Yield Prediction and Integrated Soil Fertility Management Recommendation Model for Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and quantitative system for coffee yield estimation and nutrient input advice, so as to address the problem of declining annual coffee production in Tanzania (particularly in its Northern coffee zone), which is related to declining soil fertility. The st

  15. Variation in Soil Enzyme Activities in a Temperate Agroforestry Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of agroforestry and grass buffers into row crop watersheds improves overall environmental quality, including soil quality. The objective of this study was to examine management and landscape effects on soil carbon, soil nitrogen, microbial diversity, enzyme activity, and DNA concentrati...

  16. Exploring gender and forest, tree and agroforestry value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverhals, Merel; Ingram, V.J.; Elias, M.; Basnett, Bimbika Sijapati; Petersen, S.

    2016-01-01

    •This systematic review of literature on gender and value chains of forest, tree and agroforestry (FTA) products examined gender differences and inequalities in FTA value chains, factors that influence these differences, and interventions to foster greater gender equity.
    •There is limited inform

  17. Potential of agroforestry in improving livelihoods in eastern and mid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    current tree growing practices in the zones; tree species preferred by households and their uses; tree management practices by the households; major ... of farmers and stakeholders in designing agroforestry interventions is paramount. Key words: .... agriculture, forestry and environment, each district was stratified into ...

  18. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  19. Parental smoking, maternal alcohol, coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy and childhood malignant central nervous system tumours: the ESCALE study (SFCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Menegaux, Florence; Lacour, Brigitte; Hartmann, Olivier; Frappaz, Didier; Doz, François; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Defaschelles, Anne-Sophie; Pierre-Kahn, Alain; Icher, Céline; Chastagner, Pascal; Plantaz, Dominique; Rialland, Xavier; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2008-08-01

    Parental smoking and maternal alcohol and caffeinated beverage consumption are prevalent exposures which may play a role, either directly or through their influence on metabolism, in the aetiology of childhood malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours. The hypothesis was investigated in the Epidemiological Study on childhood Cancer and Leukemia ESCALE study, a national population-based case-control study carried out in France in 2003-2004. The study included 209 incident cases of CNS tumours and 1681 population-based controls, frequency matched with the cases by age and sex. The data were collected through a standardized telephone interview of the biological mothers. No association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CNS tumours [odds ratio (OR): 1.1 (0.8-1.6)] was observed. Paternal smoking during the year before birth was associated with CNS tumours (P for trend=0.04), particularly astrocytomas [OR: 3.1 (1.3-7.6)]. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with CNS tumours. Associations between ependymomas and the highest consumption of coffee [OR: 2.7 (0.9-8.1)] and tea [OR: 2.5 (1.1-5.9)] were observed. A strong association between CNS tumours and the highest maternal consumption of both coffee and tea during pregnancy was observed [OR: 4.4 (1.5-13)]. The results constitute additional evidence for a role of paternal smoking and suggest that maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy may also increase the risk of CNS tumours. The study does not suggest an increased risk of CNS tumours related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  20. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  1. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Calcification: The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background¿ The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results¿ The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Ro

  2. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification - The Rotterdam Coronary Calcification Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Background-The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. Methods and Results-The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who participated in the Rott

  3. Coffee consumption and coronary calcification: The Rotterdam coronary calcification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. van Woudenbergh (Geertruida); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND - The role of coffee in the cardiovascular system is not yet clear. We examined the relation of coffee intake with coronary calcification in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS - The study involved 1570 older men and women without coronary heart disease who particip

  4. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...... non-case study in DNBC with 141 cases (stillbirth) and 157 controls (singleton live birth) we examined if slow metabolisers of caffeine had higher risk of stillbirth and whether genotype related to oxidative stress was associated with the risk of stillbirth. Slow metabolisers of caffeine had no higher...

  5. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  6. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gómez-Delgado, F; Roupsard, O; le Maire, G; Taugourdeau, S; Pérez, A; van Oijen, M; Vaast, P; Rapidel, B; Harmand, J. M; Voltz, M; Bonnefond, J. M; Imbach, P; Moussa, R

    2011-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water...

  7. Modelling the hydrological behaviour of a coffee agroforestry basin in Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Gómez-Delgado; O. Roupsard; R. Moussa; G. le Maire; S. Taugourdeau; J. M. Bonnefond; A. Pérez; M. van Oijen; P. Vaast; B. Rapidel; M. Voltz; P. Imbach; J. M. Harmand

    2010-01-01

    The profitability of hydropower in Costa Rica is affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs, which are in turn influenced by land use, infiltration and aquifer interactions with surface water...

  8. Producción de agroenergía a partir de biomasa en sistemas agroforestales integrados: una alternativa para lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la protección ambiental Agroenergy production from biomass in integrated agroforestry systems: an alternative to achieve food security and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Suárez

    2010-09-01

    agroforestry systems. At present, worldwide, marked by a group of hazards that threaten human existence, there is a challenge mainly in the rural context: how can the coexistence of agroenergy, food security and environmental protection be achieved?, in the presence of climate changes, environmental degradation, food crises and the growing biofuels vs food contradiction, generated by a senseless policy for obtaining first-generation agrofuels from large extensions of food monocrops, which is morally rejectable. Biofuels are also considered an ecological alternative to fossil fuels, because of their reduction capacity in the emission of greenhouse gasses and because they promote the development of rural communities in southern countries; this is enhanced in integrated agroforestry systems, in which biofuels, of first as well as second generation, can be produced, especially with the application of the concept of biorefinery which allows converting biomass into many products, which total added value can be higher than the one generated by fossil fuels. International projects, which promote integrated and sustainable food and energy production in the context of agroforestry integrated systems, at local scale, contribute to this purpose. The authors consider that the execution of projects and experiences about agroenergy has the main objective of achieving energetic sustainability and food security at local scale, in rural areas, taking into account environmental protection.

  9. Caracterização de lavouras cafeeiras cultivadas sob o sistema orgânico no sul de Minas Gerais Characterization of coffee crops cultivated on organic system in the south of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Malta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As exigências do mercado por cafés de melhor qualidade estão sendo responsáveis pela difusão e adoção de novas tecnologias de produção e preparo de café. Entre os cafés especiais, o café orgânico é um dos que mais vem se destacando neste segmento. Desta forma, objetivou-se nesse trabalho, a avaliação das características agronômicas de lavouras cafeeiras (Coffea arabica L. sob o sistema orgânico de produção, localizadas no Município de Poço Fundo, sul de Minas Gerais. Foram caracterizadas em 21 lavouras cafeeiras orgânicas as cultivares utilizadas, a população cafeeira, o tipo de colheita e secagem adotadas, a produtividade e qualidade do café, a fertilidade do solo e o estado nutricional do cafeeiro. Através dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que os cafeeiros conduzidos sob o sistema orgânico de produção apresentam potencial para produzirem cafés de boa qualidade. Em relação à fertilidade do solo, os baixos valores de pH e o desequilíbrio das relações entre K, Ca e Mg observados na maioria dessas lavouras, sugerem que esses fatores podem afetar o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção dos cafeeiros submetidos ao manejo orgânico do sul de Minas Gerais.The market demands for coffee of better quality are being responsible for diffusion and adoption of new production technologies and coffee preparation. Among the special coffee, the organic coffee is one of the most important in this group. So, this paper had the aim of evaluating the agronomical traits of coffee crops (Coffea arabica L. on organic system production, located in Poço Fundo district, South of Minas Gerais. One obtained information about the management of 21 organic coffee crops, like: cultivars, coffee tree population, harvest and drying adopted systems, yield and coffee quality, soil fertility and coffee nutritional status. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to conclude that coffee trees conducted under organic system

  10. Agroforestry and its Application in Amelioration of Saline Soils in Eastern China Coastal Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jianfeng; Xing Shangjun; Li Jiyue; F.Makeschin; Song Yumin

    2004-01-01

    Some environmental problems, especially soil salinity hinder the regional sustainable development of eastern China coastal region. Salinity mainly comes from tide weave, seawater flooding and seawater intrusion. Over exploitation of groundwater, which is the result of unfitful land use systems, leads to seawater intrusion and salt concentration increase. Agroforestry systems can enrich soil fertility and prevent soil salinization, furthermore help maintain biodiversity and enhance productivity. For the intergrated multiple ecosystems the most critical issue is to select optimum tree species and rationally arrange these plants. The basics of this multiple ecosystem is that different plants will occupy variable ecological niches within an area, both in space and in soil depth. Shelterbelts and trees intercropping with agricultural crops are major types of the multiple ecosystem. Shelterbelts can reduce wind speed and consequently lessen evaporation and erosion of the soil, increase pasture growth by up to 60% on exposed sites, increase crop yields by up to 25%. Besides intercropping with jujube, other agroforestry multiple ecosystem such as forestry plus agriculture, forestry plus agriculture plus fishery, and forestry plus animal husbandry are the most appropriate ways to utilise land resource in this region.

  11. Agroforestry and Management of Trees in Bunya County, Mayuge District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kyarikunda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant resources continue to disappear in anthropogenic landscapes in Uganda. To slow down further loss of these resources requires the collaboration of farmers in tree planting in agroforestry systems. Tree planting interventions with the collaboration of farmers require a good understanding of tree management practices as well as trees that best satisfy farmers’ needs. We carried out this research to determine (1 the most preferred tree species and reasons why they are preferred, (2 the species conservation statuses, and (3 existing tree management practices and challenges to tree planting. Fourteen priority species valued because they yield edible fruits and timber have been prioritised in this study. Farmers are interested in managing trees but are constrained by many factors, key among which is scarcity of land and financial capital to manage tree planting. Trees are managed in crop fields and around the homestead. From farmers’ reports, the highly valued species are increasing in the landscape. In conclusion, the potential to manage trees in agroforestry systems exists but is hampered by many challenges. Secondly, the liking of trees that supply edible fruits seems to support the welfare maximisation theory which ideally states that rural people manage trees with the aim of having regular access to products that satisfy their household needs and not for income generation.

  12. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  13. Whose Knowledge, Whose Development? Use and Role of Local and External Knowledge in Agroforestry Projects in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Johanna; Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan; Gambon, Helen; Rist, Stephan; Altieri, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity. Projects based predominantly on external knowledge tended to promote a single combination of tree and crop species and targeted mainly financial capital, whereas projects with a local or mixed knowledge base tended to focus on food security and increased natural capital (e.g., soil restoration) and used a higher diversity of trees and crops than those with an external knowledge base. The integration of different forms of knowledge can enable farmers to better cope with new challenges emerging as a result of climate change, fluctuating market prices for cash crops, and surrounding destructive land use strategies such as uncontrolled fires and aerial fumigation with herbicides. However, many projects still tended to prioritize external knowledge and undervalue local knowledge—a tendency that has long been institutionalized in the formal educational system and in extension services. More dialogue is needed between different forms of knowledge, which can be promoted by strengthening local organizations and their networks, reforming agricultural educational institutions, and working in close interaction with policymakers.

  14. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  15. Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from smallholder crop-livestock systems in Central Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Gonzalo, Daniel; Vaast, Philippe; de Neergaard, Andreas; Oelofse, Myles; Albrecht, Alain; Rosenstock, Todd S.

    2017-04-01

    Few studies measured empirically greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in sub-Saharan Africa. More specifically, there is no experimental data on GHG emissions from coffee systems in East Africa and estimations with GHG calculators have shown some limitations. The objectives of our study are to: 1) Quantify soil GHG fluxes in smallholder coffee-dairy farms in Central Kenya and; 2) Compare results with the GHG emissions estimated with GHG calculators. The study area is situated in Murang'a County at 1700 m.a.s.l. on the Eastern slopes of the Aberdares Range, where coffee (Coffee arabica) is cultivated within integrated crop-livestock-agroforestry systems. We carried out GHG measurements along two cropping seasons using non-flow through non-steady static chambers. Sixty rectangular frames (0.355m x 0.255m) were installed at two representative farms, including the three main cropping systems found in the area: 1) Coffee (Coffee arabica); 2) Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum); 3) Maize intercropped with beans (Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris). We used the gas pooling technique to overcome spatial variability and obtain a composite sample from the two treatment chambers: fertilized and non-fertilized. The sampling was performed twice per week during the rainy season and once per week during the dry season. Fertilizer and manure applications were followed by daily measurements during seven days after application. Annual fluxes (cumulative) in coffee plots ranged from 0.8 to 2.1 kg N2O-N ha-1, 6.3 to 8.2 Mg CO2-C ha-1 and -1.3 to -0.8 kg CH4-C ha-1, with higher fluxes during the rainy seasons. Emissions of N2O and CO2 from coffee plots were 20 to 80% higher than those in maize and napier grass. We found significant higher emissions in fertilized hot-spots (45 -190 % higher around coffee bushes perimeter, within maize rows and in napier holes) than in non-fertilized locations (between trees, between rows and between holes). Though this aspect is crucial for upscaling the

  16. Transferring results from NIR-hyperspectral to NIR-multispectral imaging systems: A filter-based simulation applied to the classification of Arabica and Robusta green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvini, Rosalba; Amigo, Jose Manuel; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2017-05-15

    Due to the differences in terms of both price and quality, the availability of effective instrumentation to discriminate between Arabica and Robusta coffee is extremely important. To this aim, the use of multispectral imaging systems could provide reliable and accurate real-time monitoring at relatively low costs. However, in practice the implementation of multispectral imaging systems is not straightforward: the present work investigates this issue, starting from the outcome of variable selection performed using a hyperspectral system. Multispectral data were simulated considering four commercially available filters matching the selected spectral regions, and used to calculate multivariate classification models with Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and sparse PLS-DA. Proper strategies for the definition of the training set and the selection of the most effective combinations of spectral channels led to satisfactory classification performances (100% classification efficiency in prediction of the test set). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock......Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support......- and future-climate tree species distribution modelling, important areas for future research....

  18. Avaliação econômica de sistemas agroflorestais implantados para recuperação de reserva legal no Pontal do Paranapanema, São Paulo Economic evaluation of agroforestry systems for recovering forest reserves in Pontal of the Paranapanema, São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Ronconi Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    original vegetation had been removed or impacted. Thus, this research was carried out in Santa Zelia settlement, in Pontal do Paranapanema, located within 15 hectares of Legal Reserve. Six families of this settlement were involved in an agroforestry project, using temporary Taungya agroforestry modules, where native trees were intercropped with annual crops. Two variables had been used for the economic evaluation of the agricultural production in the area: Liquid Present Value (VPL and Benefit-Cost Ratio (RB/C. The results show positives values for all the analyzed families, leading to the conclusion that Agroforestry Systems can be adopted in the recovery of areas of Legal Reserve in rural properties. Its economic viability will mainly depend on intensifying the intercropping and satisfactory market prices for the annual crops.

  19. 林农复合经营行为及推广机制%Review on Agroforestry Management and Promotion Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健芝; 周玉新; 戴迎春; 岳楚乔

    2016-01-01

    在对国内外相关文献梳理的基础上,文章主要从农户收入、农民生计、农民认知和推广机制4个方面,分析农户林农复合经营行为的动因,并针对我国林农复合经营及推广政策的现状进行述评。认为,现阶段我国林农复合经营推广方式还不够完善,推广体系还不够健全,在此基础上提出构建完善的推广机制的措施,展望了林农复合经营持续发展的前景。%On the basis of reviewing the relevant literature at home and abroad,this paper mainly from the farmers'income, livelihood,perceptions and promotion mechanism to analysis the motivation of farmers to adopt agroforestry.And summa-rized of the current situation of agroforestry promotion policies of China.It was argued that our agroforestry promotion mechanisms are still not perfect and extension system is not enough.On this basis,the authors put forward measures to complete the promotion mechanisms and prospected the sustainable development of agroforestry.

  20. Investigation of CO2 precursors in roasted coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2017-03-15

    Two CO2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO2. However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee.

  1. Morphometric of four species in agroforestry systems in the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. = Morfometria de quatro espécies florestais em sistemas agroflorestais no munícipio de Porto Velho, Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Monteiro Condé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the morphometry of Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, Brasil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa HBK, Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. and simulate the vital space for it to grow without competition in agroforestry plantations. Data were collected in 20 agroforestry (SAF’s considered productive age (16.5 years of Project RECA (Economic Reforestation Consortium and Compacted, the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia. The deployment of the SAF’s occurred through the removal of vegetation through the process of clearing and burningof native forests. Morphometric data were collected randomly from individuals with DBH > 10 cm of four tree species in onehectare of each farm, for a total sample area of 20 ha (20 properties. The sample was composed by 25 individuals of Andiroba,40 of Brasil nut tree, 23 of Copaíba and 46 of Mogno. Andiroba was very similar to Mogno in relation to Cup Percentage (PC,Coverage Index (AI and Cup Form (FC, both showed potential for higher density plantations with timber purposes. The Brasilnut tree and Copaíba had the highest values of the FC (1.66, 1.79 and Crown Area (92.60, 57.51, respectively, showing frondscrowns, silvicultural interesting features for the extraction of seeds. Was simulated living space for the four species developwithout competition between cups. It was concluded that the four species have potential for planting for extraction of timberand non-timber forest in areas subject to degradation and deforestation in the Amazon.ResumoO presente estudo visa descrever a morfometria das espécies Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl, Castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Copaíba (Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. e Mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. e simular o espaço vital para que as mesmas cresçam sem concorrência em plantios agroflorestais. Os dados foram coletadosem vinte sistemas agroflorestais (SAF’s em idade considerada

  2. Growing Coffee in the Shade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, Sushil; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a major coffee pest in parts of Asia and Africa. In recent years, the pest has also been found in American countries. This study in Gulmi District, Nepal, aimed to determine the infestation by coffee white stem

  3. Thrips (Thysanoptera) of coffee flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...

  4. Evaluation of a treatment system wastewater prebeneficiado of coffee (Coffea arabica implemented in the community Carmen Pampa province of Nor Yungas of La Paz Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in prebeneficiadora coffee plant of UAC-CP, located in the community of Carmen Pampa, Coroico Municipality, Nor Yungas of La Paz department. The objective was to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment prebeneficiado coffee because it is not known to be effective in reducing the level of contamination of treated wastewater, and according to the results to correct and / or validate directly model system in place. For their study was established seven sampling points within the system of treatment and four replications were made at different times and with different amounts of coffee cherry. We evaluated the parameters of temperature, pH, settleable solids, total suspended solids, fixed and volatile, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. The temperature of wastewater entering the system has recorded 16.5 o C, increasing during the treatment process at 17.5 °C and record the output is 16.5 ºC. The pH increased from 4.51 to 6.04 which occurred at the last two gaps oxygenation and not in the neutralization tank. Settleable solids (SS increased from 0.1 mg / L to 0.15 mg / L, which was recorded at the lakes of oxygen, is attributed to the drag of fine gravel. Total suspended solids (TSS have been reduced from 1927.5 mg / L to 299 mg / L gradually throughout the treatment process. Fixed suspended solids (SSF were reduced from 137.5 mg / L to 58.5 mg / L. Volatile suspended solids (VSS were reduced from 1790 mg / L to 240.5 mg / L. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD was reduced from 6102.5 mg O2 / L to 1245 mg O2 / L. The chemical oxygen demand (COD was reduced from 9800 mg O2 / L to 1658.75 mg O2 / L. Dissolved oxygen (DO increased from 0 to 2.4 mg O2 / L, in the last two gaps in oxygenation, due to the reduction of solids and chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen. Of the nine parameters measured, six meet the maximum permissible values for download in source receptor (stream

  5. 基于EM78P510NK的全自动咖啡机控制系统的设计%Design of Automatic Coffee Machine Control System Based on the EM78P510NK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵雯

    2013-01-01

    This article introduced automatic coffee machine control system 's design.Its core is MCU based on EM78P510NK, it can control the position of piston and seal gland, temperature, water flow, coarseness of coffee reliably.It can give an alarm when hydropenia and lack coffee.The automatic coffee machine control system has advantages of reliable operation, simple structure, easy to debug and expansion.It is used in business, catering industry, office and family, etc.%介绍一种全自动咖啡机控制系统的设计,它以EM78P510NK处理器为核心,对活塞位置、密封套位置、温度、水流量、咖啡粗细度等进行可靠控制,具有缺水、缺豆报警功能.该系统工作可靠、结构简单、易于调试和扩展,适合于商业、餐饮业、办公室和家庭.

  6. Characterization of Woodchips for Energy from Forestry and Agroforestry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Picchio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the particle-size distribution, the fiber, the bark and the leaves content, the heating value, the CNH and the ash content of a wide sample of wood chips, collected from 10 forestry and 10 agroforestry production sources. This sampling focused on two main production types: forestry (Full Tree System—FTS—and logging residues—LR and agroforestry (Short Rotation Coppice—SRC. For the forestry production wood chips from coniferous and broadleaf species were considered. For the agroforestry production wood chips from poplar plantations were examined (different clones with two different harvesting intervals. Overall, we collected 400 samples. Particle size distribution was determined with an automatic screening device on 200 samples. The higher heating value was determined on 200 subsamples using an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The CNH and the ash content was ascertained on another 200 subsamples. FTS and SRC (with three year old sprouts offered the best quality, with high fiber content (71%–80%, favorable particle-size distribution and good energetic parameters. On the contrary, both logging residues and SRC (with two year old sprouts presented a high bark content (18%–27% and occasionally a mediocre particle-size distribution, being often too rich in fines (6%–12%, but the energetic parameters are in the normal range.

  7. Sistemas agroflorestais em áreas de agricultores familiares em Igarapé-Açu, Pará: caracterização florística, implantação e manejo Agroforestry systems in areas of smallholder agriculture in Igarapé-Açu, Pará: floristic characterization, implantation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Almeida Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os Sistemas Agroflorestais-SAF comerciais multiestratificados de agricultores familiares de Igarapé-Açu, bem como identificar as espécies que compõem os sistemas agroflorestais. A partir de entrevistas foram catalogadas as espécies de maior interesse dos agricultores familiares e por meio de inventário florístico foram avaliados os SAF produtivos. Os cultivos de pimenta-do-reino, mandioca, feijão, cupuaçu, caju, açaí, pupunha, mogno e o nim indiano foram os mais freqüentes pelos agricultores. Os SAF são manejados na sua maioria de forma tradicional.This paper aimed to evaluate the multistrata agroforestry systems of small farmers of Igarapé-Açu, as well as to identify the species that compose of they interest. Through interviews were listed the interest species of small farmers and from inventory floristic were evaluated the productive AFS. The species: pepper-of-kingdom, cassava, beans, cupuaçu, caju, açai palm, pupunha palm, mahogany and indian neem were the most cultivated by these farmers. Most of the AFS are managed in the traditional manner.

  8. Review on Agroforestry for Ecosystem Services%农林复合系统生态服务功能研究综述①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷瑶; 朱永杰; 姜微

    2015-01-01

    农林复合系统能够提供多种生态系统服务,本文从固碳、水土保持、防灾减灾、生物多样性保护、改善土壤肥力、改善空气和水质等6个方面对农林复合系统的生态系统服务功能和环境效益展开讨论,依次总结了近期农林复合生态系统的研究成果,表明各地区对农林系统生态服务的强烈需求以及改善土地利用和减少贫困的愿望,指出提高林农对农林复合生态系统认识的必要性。%Agroforestry system could provide many ecosystem services, and its ecosystem services and environmental benefits were under discussion recently. According to the six major ecosystem services such carbon sink, soil and water loss prevention, biodiversity conservation, disaster prevention and mitigation, soil fertilized, air and water quality improved and microclimate changing, this paper summarized resent research on agroforestry. It was shown that agroforestry could improve the land use and provide significant ecosystem services and environmental benefits. Thus, it was proved that ecosystem services of agroforestry were needed urgently, and it was significant to improve the land utilization and reduce poverty all over the world. It was pointed out that it was to improve the awareness of agroforestry ecosystems and promote of the land management, which would make agroforestry as the multifunctional landscape all over the world.

  9. Payments for environmental services – Carbon finance options for smallholders’ agroforestry in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 25 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are caused by deforestation, and Indonesia is the third largest greenhouse gas emitter worldwide due to land use change and deforestation. On the island of Sulawesi in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, many smallholders contribute to conversion processes at the forest margin as a result of their agricultural practices. Specifically the area dedicated to cocoa plantations has increased from zero (1979 to nearly 18,000 hectares (2001. Some of these plots have been established inside the 220,000 hectares of the LLNP. An intensification process is observed with a consequent reduction of the shade tree density. This study assesses which impact carbon sequestration payments for forest management systems have on the prevailing land use systems. Additionally, the level of incentives is determined which motivates farmers to desist from further deforestation and land use intensification activities. Household behaviour and resource allocation is analysed with a comparative static linear programming model. As these models prove to be a reliable tool for policy analysis, the output can indicate the adjustments in resource allocation and land use shifts when introducing compensation payments. The data was collected in a household survey in six villages around the LLNP. Four household categories are identified according to their dominant agroforestry systems. These range from low intensity management with a high degree of shading to highly intensified systems with no shade cover. At the plot level, the payments required for inducing the adoption of more sustainable land use practices are the highest for the full shade cocoa agroforestry system, but with low carbon prices of €5 tCO2e-1 these constitute 5 percent of the cocoa gross margin. Focusing on the household level, however, an increase up to 18 percent of the total gross margin can be realised. Furthermore, for

  10. 越南和平水电站库区不同农林复合模式的环境效益比较%Environmental benefits evaluation of different agroforestry systems in Hoa Binh Hydropower Station Reservoir Area of Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vu Thi Thuong; Nguyen The Ky; 王来; 张硕新

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, agroforestry farming is a major issue in Vietnamat midland and mountainous region as it has to satisfy the demand of forest production and ecosystem protection. Compared to some other types of forest, agroforest has demonstrated outstanding strength as it provides landowners with early and fast income generation. Therefore, developing agroforest becomes a trend when the research on land use gets much attention. However, environmental efficiency of agroforest is quite varied and closely reliable on the structure of the forest system. Taking into consideration of both environmental condition and the efficiency at the same time is significant not only in evaluating the current situation of the forest but also in improving its structure, thereby reaching environmental goals. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of research on above problem in Hoa Binh hydropower reservoir environment. Due to this restriction many agroforests were in failure to enhance their economic and protective functions and the forest also showed low stability. In order to have a part in solving the aforesaid inadequacies, this paper has been conducted. The environmental protection and soil conservation of vegetation have high requirements in hydropower station reservoir area. Finding a kind of land use pattern that can meet the interests of all parties is particularly important in the context that moving local residents out of the reservoir area is impossible. In the present study, the four main agroforestry system patterns (Acacia mangium-Zea mays;Acacia mangium-Manihot esculenta crantz;Eucalyptus camandulensis-Oryza sativa;Acacia mangium-Manihot esculenta crantz-Zea mays) were employed as the research subjects in two different areas (Thung Nai Commune, Cao Phong District and Vay Nua Commune, Da Bac District) of Hoa Binh hydropower station reservoir area in Vietnam. Multiple structural indicators such as plant species composition, morphemic structures, density and canopy of the plantation

  11. Effects of Mixed Residues on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in the Soil of Poplar-Crops Agroforestry System%残落物混合分解对杨树-农作物复合系统土壤碳氮矿化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王意锟; 方升佐; 田野; 唐罗忠

    2012-01-01

    In the agroforestry system,the mixture of the forest litter and crop straw residues is different in chemical compositions and physical structure from single component,and plays a key role in ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycle.The agroforestry models of poplar-peanut and poplar-wheat,which are the typical agroforestry models in northern Jiangsu province,were chosen to study the impacts of mixed residues on carbon and nitrogen mineralization,microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the soil.The soils for the experiment were collected from Siyang county of northern Jiangsu province.The main results were as follows:(1)The cumulated carbon mineralization displayed in the order of HHJ,Y M CK for single residue treatments,while it was ranged as Y-H Y-HJ Y-M in mixed residue treatments.At the end of incubation,the mixture of the forest litter and crop straw residues demonstrated significant stimulation on the cumulated carbon mineralization.(2)A significant correlation was observed among contents of nitrogen in litters,carbon-nitrogen ratio and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the soil.In mixed residue treatments,the microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in the soil was higher in treatment of Y-H with lower carbon-nitrogen ratio,and was lower in treament of Y-M with higher carbon-nitrogen ratio.(3)When poplar leaf litter(Y),wheat straw residue(M) and their mixture(Y-M) were added to the soil,the contents of mineral nitrogen was significantly smaller than the control.However,when peanut leaf residue(H),peanut stalk residue(HJ),and their mixed residues with the poplar leaf litter(Y-H,Y-HJ) were added,the contents of mineral nitrogen in soil increased significantly.Results from this study suggested that the mixture of the poplar leaf litter and crop straw residues,particularly in crops with a higher nitrogen level,could regulate carbon dynamic and nitrogen supply.Such a study can provide important information for selecting model

  12. Assessing farmers' interest in agroforestry in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and management of agroforestry technologies differs among farms in Rwanda and needs to be documented as a basis for shaping future research and development programs. The objective of this study was to investigate current agroforestry practices, farmers’ preferences, tree management and perspe

  13. Assessing farmers' interest in agroforestry in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucagu, C.; Vanlauwe, B.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Uptake and management of agroforestry technologies differs among farms in Rwanda and needs to be documented as a basis for shaping future research and development programs. The objective of this study was to investigate current agroforestry practices, farmers’ preferences, tree management and

  14. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR SPECIALTY COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vharessa Aknesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty coffee is a coffee of premium quality that has been made through various stages of post-harvest processing and strictly controlled to produce distinctive taste of origins. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari is one of the companies that currently produce and develop specialty coffee type, Arabica Java Preanger. The objectives of the study are to examine competitive advantages and develop an alternative strategy that need to be done by PT Sinar Mayang Lestari for their business development. The research methods used are value chain analysis and VRIO framework to explore competitive advantage owned by the company. The result shows the company currently has a temporary competitive advantage of the technological resources and reputation. By using SWOT-AHP technique, the alternative strategies that can be done by company are as follows: 1 increasing the production of natural and honey coffee  type; 2 building coffee center in plantation site for sharing knowledge and innovation media to the farmers; 3 improving the competency of human resource in plantation, post harvest, and promoting area; 4 building management system gradually 5 forwarding integration by building roast and ground coffee business; and 6 maximizing the ability of the land and human resources through research and development.Keywords: competitive advantage, specialty coffee, SWOT-AHP, value chain, VRIOABSTRAKKopi special merupakan kopi dengan kualitas premium yang sudah melalui berbagai tahapan pengolahan pascapanen yang diawasi dengan ketat sehingga menghasilkan cita rasa yang khas sesuai dengan daerah asalnya. PT Sinar Mayang Lestari adalah salah satu perusahaan yang saatini memproduksi dan mengembangkan kopi spesial jenis Arabika Java Preanger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis keunggulan bersaing yang dimiliki dan mengembangkan alternative strategi yang perlu dilakukanoleh PT Sinar Mayang Lestari untuk pengembangan usahanya. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis rantai

  15. Coffee and Cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    , I analyze how the informal and supposedly non-therapeutic interactions (e.g. coffee breaks, lunch or fieldtrips) between clients and social workers are scenes of subtle acts of governing and resistance. I employ Susie Scott’s (2010) notions of performative regulation and reinventive institutions...

  16. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its interactions with Azteca instabilis and Pheidole synanthropica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a shade coffee agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Cruz-Rodríguez, Juan A; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2013-10-01

    The coffee berry borer is currently the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide. In shaded coffee farms such as Finca Irlanda in Chiapas, Mexico, natural enemies limit coffee berry borer and potentially prevent outbreaks. This research aimed to determine the effect of ants on coffee berry borer damage and to describe behaviors of Azteca instabilis F. Smith and Pheidole synanthropica (Longino 2009) when encountering the coffee berry borer. To these ends, an ant survey was conducted in a 2,500-m(2) plot within the farm. A 4- by 4-m coordinate system was established, and the coffee plant or shade tree closest to the coordinate point was sampled using tuna fish for a total of 168 coffee plants and 46 shade trees sampled. In addition, up to 100 berries were harvested from 138 coffee plants to measure damage and verify the presence of the coffee berry borer. Behavior was determined in the field by placing live coffee berry borer adults on berries and video recording all attacks. Results showed that plants with ants had less percentage of damaged berries and shorter coffee berry borer galleries than plants without ants. However, the length of galleries in plants with A. instabilis showed no significant differences from plants without ants. P. synanthropica was observed carrying coffee berry borer to the nest in 50% of the cases, whereas A. instabilis threw coffee berry borer off of the coffee plant in 79% of the cases. Results indicate that the presence of these species of ants reduce coffee berry borer damage and suggest that different behaviors could explain the pattern of coffee berry borer attack in this agroecosystem.

  18. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  19. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K

    2015-05-01

    The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

  20. Bird communities in sun and shade coffee farms in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion to meet rising crop demand is one of the greatest threats to terrestrial biodiversity. Coffee, one of the most valuable trade items in tropical countries, can provide both economic livelihood and wildlife habitat. Previous work, conducted primarily on Neotropical coffee farms, indicates that birds are generally more abundant and diverse in farms with a canopy of shade trees, though regional variation exists. To date, few studies have examined birds on coffee farms in Africa, which contains 20% of the world’s coffee acreage. We studied differences in the bird communities between sun and shade monoculture coffee in central Kenya, and we examined effects of vegetation on bird abundance and diversity. Sun coffee had higher species richness and abundances of all major guilds (omnivores, insectivores, and granivores, and showed low community similarity to shade. Unlike findings from the Neotropics, canopy cover appeared to have a negative influence on all guilds, while understory volume of weeds increased bird abundance and species richness with a similar magnitude as canopy cover. These differences highlight the need for further studies in the general East Africa region with a wider variety of shade coffee systems.

  1. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    OpenAIRE

    J. Snel; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumption, sensitivity and health complaints were significant but were of low importance to health. Coffee consumption was significantly related to intestinal complaints (r=0.15) and sensitivity to coffee ...

  2. Análise exploratória da socioeconomia de sistemas agroflorestais em várzea flúvio-marinha, Cametá-Pará, Brasil Exploratory socioeconomic analysis of agroforestry systems in tidal river floodplains, Cametá, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato da Silveira Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar e caracterizar o sistema de exploração da várzea flúvio-marinha em unidades de produção agroflorestal - UPA, nos aspectos florísticos e socioeconômicos. Utilizaram-se as técnicas do inventário florestal, orçamentos unitários e questionários. Os resultados expressaram uma composição florística média de 2.920,7 indivíduos/ha com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP>10 cm, com maiores frequência de açaí (50,63%, cacau (31,02% e virola (6,76%. O Sistema está constituído pela exploração florestal madeireira, não-madeireira, pesca e criação de aves e suínos. O custo anual do sistema agroflorestal - SAF é de R$ 1.866,25/UPA e a renda bruta anual oriunda do SAF é de R$ 2.959,08/UPA. Concluiu-se que o sistema é do tipo agrossilvipastoril, em que a atividade de criação de aves e suínos utiliza como fonte de alimentos a mariscagem na várzea. A tecnologia utilizada, em princípio, favorece a conservação e preservação do ecossistema, há todavia a necessidade de qualificação de mão-de-obra familiar. A renda bruta anual do SAF denota viabilidade econômica das UPA no nível do salário mínimo, porém, tais unidades são pluriativas, apresentando rendas múltiplas, cujas rendas não-agrícolas são fundamentais para a permanência das famílias na atividade e no meio rural.The purpose of this paper is to identify and characterize forestry and socio-economic systems of tidal river floodplain utilization in agroforestry production units (UPA. Forest inventory techniques, budget sheets and questionnaires were utilized. The results obtained express an average floristic composition of 2,920.7 plants/ha, with a breast-high circumference (CHC>10cm, the highest frequency being for açaí (Euterpe oleracea (50.63%, cocoa (Theobroma cacau (31.02% and virola (Virola surinamensis (6.76%. The system comprises timber and non-timber forest exploitation, fishing, and poultry and swine raising

  3. The Potential Use of Agroforestry Community Gardens as a Sustainable Import-Substitution Strategy for Enhancing Food Security in Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Oelbermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of food insecurity experienced by northern First Nations partially results from dependence on an expensive import-based food system that typically lacks nutritional quality and further displaces traditional food systems. In the present study, the feasibility of import substitution by Agroforestry Community Gardens (AFCGs as socio-ecologically and culturally sustainable means of enhancing food security was explored through a case study of Fort Albany First Nation in subarctic Ontario, Canada. Agroforestry is a diverse tree-crop agricultural system that has enhanced food security in the tropics and subtropics. Study sites were selected for long-term agroforestry research to compare Salix spp. (willow-dominated AFCG plots to a “no tree” control plot in Fort Albany. Initial soil and vegetative analysis revealed a high capacity for all sites to support mixed produce with noted modifications, as well as potential competitive and beneficial willow-crop interactions. It is anticipated that inclusion of willow trees will enhance the long-term productive capacity of the AFCG test plots. As an adaptable and dynamic system, AFCGs have potential to act as a more reliable local agrarian system and a refuge for culturally significant plants in high-latitude First Nation socio-ecological systems, which are particularly vulnerable to rapid cultural, climatic, and ecological change.

  4. Caffeine in coffee: its removal. Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Raghavan, B

    1999-09-01

    The popularity of coffee as a beverage is ever increasing despite the fact that there are reports antagonized to its consumption. Of the several factors cited, the alkaloid caffeine present in coffee can cause addiction and stimulate the central nervous system. It has an effect on the cardiovascular system with a slight increase in blood pressure and heart output. It undergoes biotransformation in the human body to form methylated derivatives of uric acid. In recent times, much effort has gone into the research on the removal of caffeine in coffee, resulting in a specialty product called decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination methods mainly employ organic solvents or water or supercritical carbon dioxide. These methods with their attendant advantages and disadvantages are reviewed in this article.

  5. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold

    2015-04-01

    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  6. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  7. Biological systems coupled for treating wastewater from processing coffee cherries: I – Removal of organic matter - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of upflow anaerobic filters followed by constructed wetlands (CW were evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from processing coffee cherries (WCP. The filters (F were made up of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and SACs were made of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed with HDPE geomembranes and filled with gravel ‘zero’. WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 100/5/1. As a result, the values of influent and effluent pH remained within the range appropriate to the biological degradation of organic material. The system could not bear the shock of the organic load, which reduced the organic matter removal efficiency. Based on the analysis of performance and operating conditions employed, only the system that received the lowest organic load (F1+CW1 on the third phase, was effective in removing organic matter.  

  8. Coffee parchment in fluidisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available All coffee is harvested as cherry grains which are then crushed and extracted traditionally or by applying the Becolsub method. Once the coffee parchment obtained has been washed, it is naturally or mechanically dried. Static dryers are the most used mechanical dryers, generally producing lack of uniformity in the grain’s final humidity content which must range from 10% to 12% b.h. Drying by fluidization was used in the present research work; this turns a solid particle bed into a suspended and expanded mass, possessing many of the properties of a liquid. A 5,000 g capacity prototype was designed and constructed in which coffee was dried at three air drying temperatures: 42°C, 46°C and 49°C; drying time lasted 6 to 8 hours. Good uniformity in final grain humidity content was obtained, differences being less than 0.86%. As well as the grain test, a control cup test was used, finding that the product presented good organoleptic qualities.

  9. Identification of coffee components that stimulate dopamine release from pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Rohm, B; Lang, R; Pariza, M W; Hofmann, T; Somoza, V

    2012-02-01

    Coffee and caffeine are known to affect the limbic system, but data on the influence of coffee and coffee constituents on neurotransmitter release is limited. We investigated dopamine release and Ca(2+)-mobilization in pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12 cells) after stimulation with two lyophilized coffee beverages prepared from either Coffea arabica (AR) or Coffea canephora var. robusta (RB) beans and constituents thereof. Both coffee lyophilizates showed effects in dilutions between 1:100 and 1:10,000. To identify the active coffee compound, coffee constituents were tested in beverage and plasma representative concentrations. Caffeine, trigonelline, N-methylpyridinium, chlorogenic acid, catechol, pyrogallol and 5-hydroxytryptamides increased calcium signaling and dopamine release, although with different efficacies. While N-methylpyridinium stimulated the Ca(2+)-mobilization most potently (EC(200): 0.14±0.29μM), treatment of the cells with pyrogallol (EC(200): 48±14nM) or 5-hydroxytryptamides (EC(200): 10±3nM) lead to the most pronounced effect on dopamine release. In contrast, no effect was seen for the reconstituted biomimetic mixture. We therefore conclude that each of the coffee constituents tested stimulated the dopamine release in PC-12 cells. Since no effect was found for their biomimetic mixture, we hypothesize other coffee constituents being responsible for the dopamine release demonstrated for AR and RB coffee brews. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means.

  11. GIS-based multi-criteria analysis for Arabica coffee expansion in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Nzeyimana

    Full Text Available The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha-1, and 70% has a low yield potential (<1.0 t coffee ha-1. Only 9% of the country has a high yield potential of 1.6-2.4 t coffee ha-1. Those areas are found near Lake Kivu where the dominant soil Orders are Inceptisols and Ultisols. Moderate yield potential is found in the Birunga (volcano, Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (<1 t ha-1 occur in the eastern semi-dry lowlands, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, Buberuka Highlands, and Mayaga zones. The weighted overlay analysis and ordinary kriging indicated a large spatial variability of potential productivity indices. Increasing the area and productivity of coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential.

  12. Participatory data collection and monitoring of agricultural pest dynamics for climate-resilient coffee production using Tiko'n, a generic tool to develop agroecological food web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; Malard, J. J.; Adamowski, J. F.; Tuy, H.

    2016-12-01

    climate variability impacts. Preliminary results of a study currently being conducted in a coffee agroforestry system in El Quebracho, Guatemala, will be presented, where the data was directly collected by farmers during eight consecutive months. Finally, future recommendations from lessons learnt during this study will be discussed.

  13. Reducing pollution in agriculture land, agroforestry and Common Agrarian Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa Mosquera Losada, Maria; Santiago-Freijanes, José Javier; Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rois, Mercedes; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Reducing non-point source pollution in Europe is a key activity for the European institutions and citizens. Ensuring high quality food supply while environment is sustainable managed is a highly relevant in the European agriculture. New CAP tries to promote sustainability with the greening measures in Pillar I (EU payments) and Pillar II (EU-Country cofinanced payments). The star component of the Pillar I is the greening. The greening includes three types of activities related to crop rotation, maintenance of permanent pasture and the promotion of Ecological Focus Areas (EFA). Greening practices are compulsory in arable lands when they are placed in regions with low proportion of forests and when the owner has large farms. Among the EFA, there are several options that include agroforestry practices like landscape features, buffer strips, agroforestry, strips of eligible hectares along forest edges, areas with short rotation coppice. These practices promote biodiversity and the inclusion of woody vegetation that is able to increase the uptake of the excess of nutrients like N or P. USA Agriculture Department has also recognize the importance of woody vegetation around the arable lands to reduce nutrient pollution and promote biodiversity.

  14. The Coffee and Cream Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how Newton's Law of Cooling and the Method of Mixtures are used to solve the basic dilemma of whether to add the cool cream to the hot coffee or to let the black coffee cool down first and then add the cream. (ZWH)

  15. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CAFÉ CEREZA EMPLEANDO TÉCNICAS DE VISIÓN ARTIFICIAL AN ARTIFICIAL VISION SYSTEM FOR CLASSIFICATION OF COFFEE BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Liliana Sandoval Niño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un sistema de visión artificial para la clasificación de frutos de café en once categorías dependiendo de su estado de madurez. Para la descripción de la forma, el color y la textura de cada fruto de café se extrajeron 208 características. La reducción del conjunto de características de 208 a 9 se hizo con base en los resultados de dos métodos de selección de características, uno univariado y otro multivariado. Las características seleccionadas corresponden a 4 características de textura, 3 de color y 2 de forma. Este conjunto final de características se evaluó en dos técnicas de clasificación: Bayesiano y redes neuronales. Con el clasificador Bayesiano se obtuvo un error de clasificación del 5,43% y requirió un tiempo de clasificación de 5,5 ms, mientras que usando redes neuronales el error de clasificación fue de 7,46%, pero disminuyó el tiempo de clasificación a 0,8 ms.An artificial vision system for classification of coffee beans, in eleven categories, according to its state of maturity was developed. The description of the coffee beans was done by using 208 characteristics (form, color and texture characteristics. The reduction of the set of characteristics from 208 to 9 was done by using two methods of characteristic selection. The final set of characteristics is composed by 4 texture characteristics, 3 color characteristics and 2 shape characteristics. This final set was evaluated in two classifiers: The Bayesian and a neuronal networks classifier. The classification error obtained by the Bayesian classifier was 5,43%, it required 5,5 ms for the classification process, while the error obtained by neuronal networks classifier was 7,46% and the classification time decreased to 0,8 ms.

  16. Use of headspace gas chromatographic/FTIR for the monitoring of volatiles in commercial brand coffees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Senja V.; Compton, David A.

    1989-12-01

    Recently, the area of food analysis and product safety has become of major concern to consumers. Therefore, companies involved in the quality assurance of theirproducts have been encouraged to perform extensive analyses to guarantee safety and satisfaction. One of the largest consumer products in the beverage marketplace is coffee. Much emphasis has been placed upon the safety of the decaffeination processes used by various manufacturers; these involve extraction of the caffeine by a solvent system that may be aqueous or organic, and is sometimes,super-critical. Additionally, aroma (fragrance) of brewing coffee has been found to be of major concern to the individual by the marketing departments of the coffee companies. The heads ace analysis of coffees can be used to discover the species retained after the decaffeination of coffee, as well as to distinguish the volatile species released upon treatment of the coffee at boiling water temperatures.

  17. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee

  18. Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The question was whether health complaints are associated with coffee consumption and self reported sensitivity to coffee. Participants were 89 men and 107 women, all coffee drinkers. Questionnaires were used at 2 points of time with an interval of 3.7 years. The correlations among coffee consumptio

  19. Have coffee reforms and coffee supply chains affected farmers' income? The case of coffee growers in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Murekezi, Abdoul Karim; Loveridge, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Low prices in the international coffee markets have worsened the economic well-being among coffee farmers. In the face of this situation, the Government of Rwanda has introduced coffee sector reforms that aimed to transform the sector in a way that targets the high quality market and moves away from the bulk coffee market. The high quality coffee market has shown consistent growth over time and exhibits price premiums in international market. If these high prices are passed on to farmers who ...

  20. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry nurseries in southeastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel deB. Richter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry projects in Madagascar that promote fruit trees address social and environmental threats to rainforests by reducing farmers’ reliance on rice cultivation as long as fruit production is a more economically efficient option. This study aims to understand farmer planting preferences for fruit trees around Ranomafana National Park, specifically related to their ability to transport produce to wider markets. A large social survey assessed current fruit tree cultivation and the fruit planting preferences of farmers, and evaluated differences in farmer preferences based on distance to roads and markets. Survey results from 21 villages and 200 households indicate current fruit cultivation does not correspond well with planting preferences. Households near and far from roads share similar cultivation patterns and planting preferences with one exception: farmers living far from roads prefer to plant coffee significantly more than do those living near roads. This preference for coffee cultivation far from roads is attributed to coffee’s relatively high sales price and ease of transport to buyers. This study also assesses current production in two local agroforestry nurseries and suggests new production priorities, notably focusing on coffee and lychee above the currently emphasized citrus fruits. RÉSUMÉÀ Madagascar, les projets agroforestiers avec des arbres fruitiers peuvent représenter une réponse aux menaces sociales et environnementales qui pèsent sur les forêts naturelles en réduisant la dépendance des agriculteurs vis - à - vis de la riziculture pluviale à condition que la production de fruits constitue une option plus rentable. Les principaux obstacles à la production de fruits sur la périphérie du Parc National de Ranomafana sont le manque de connaissances des agriculteurs quant aux techniques de propagation, la rareté des espèces, variétés et cultivars d’arbres fruitiers qu’il conviendrait de planter ainsi

  1. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock......Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...... livestockkeeping have included the planting of mostly-exotic tree-fodders, and where most parts of the region are expected to become drier in the next decades, although smaller areas may become wetter. Wider cultivation and improved management of fodder trees provides adaptation and mitigation opportunities......- and future-climate tree species distribution modelling, important areas for future research....

  2. Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Lya Aklimawati; Yusianto .; Surip Mawardi

    2014-01-01

    Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem id...

  3. MARKETING STRATEGY OF CHOSEN COFFEE SHOP

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to make a marketing strategy of chosen coffee shop, which is situated in Slovakia. Therefore the analysis needed to achieve the given aim were analysis of macroenvironment in Slovakia, current trends in coffee drinking, coffee shop business (in Europe), competition in the town. Interviews with the owner of given coffee shop, owners of other successful coffee shops and the summarization of related theory, also contributed to the achievement of the aim. A partial aim wa...

  4. An Agroforestry Design for the Model Ecovillage at the Lake Victoria,Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 舞

    2008-01-01

    This is a presentation of an agroforestry design proposal for the Model Ecovillage-A University at Lake Victoria and Islands project site in Kaazi-Busabala, Uganda. This is a collaborative project currently taking place between Tenri University and Makerere University, and supported and funded by the Ambassador of the Republic of Uganda to Japan. The proposal seeks to convey the importance of and the potential for an agroforestry design for the overall success of the project. It is based on a...

  5. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  6. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  7. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage worldwide and is only second to water drinking and is consumed by 83% of adults in the United States. The long-held controversy regarding the association of coffee consumption with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension has been reversed by several recent prospective cohort studies and meta-analyses, which have demonstrated that coffee consumption is not associated with increased incidence of CVDs and hypertension and instead it could have a beneficial effect. To get a better understanding of the effects of coffee consumption on cardiovascular health, a Medline search of the English language literature was conducted from 2010 to early 2015 and 25 pertinent reports with information on the effects of coffee drinking, the incidence of CVDs, and hypertension and its mechanism of action were selected for inclusion in this commentary. These studies have shown either a neutral or beneficial effect of coffee on cardiovascular health. In conclusion, coffee is safe to drink by both normal subjects and by those with preexisting CVDs and hypertension.

  8. 荫蔽或非荫蔽耕作制度对云南咖啡质量的影响%Effects of Shade/Non-shade Farming Systems on Cup Quality of Arabica Coffee in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦红; 张洪波; 周华; 郭铁英; 肖兵; 陈路; Karlheinz Rieser

    2011-01-01

    本研究从云南小粒种咖啡3个主要种植区采集了52个样品.在德国柏林由一个专业杯品测试小组对其进行测评。比较了不同海拔荫蔽和非荫蔽耕作系统中咖啡豆的质量。结果显示:荫蔽系统的优势明显。荫蔽系统下生产的咖啡豆在所有4个感官项目测试和“带衣豆总干重/咖啡鲜果重”(D/F)项目中都有较好的表现。此外,在比较来自相近海拔(约1000m)的不同卡蒂莫品系时,发现香味和D/F之间呈正相关.D/F比值冈其结果简单、具体、客观,从而可作为咖啡质量中的物理性状的主要评价指标之一。另外.荫蔽耕作制度能够明显增加D/F的比值,这可能是荫蔽耕作制度下的咖啡豆在杯品测试中能有更好的表现的原因(特别是香味)。%Yunnan is the only Arabica coffee producing province in China and the northernmost coffee planting area in the world (from latitude 22° N to 25.5° N). In this research, 52 coffee samples were collected from three major Arabica plantation regions, namely Siamo, Dehong and Baoshan and rated by a professional cup taster group in Berlin (Germany). The coffee beans from shade and non-shade farming systems at different altitude are compared in the research. The advantage of the shading system is clearly seen. The coffee beans under the shading situation have better quality in all four organoleptic items and 'Total dry weight of Parchment beans/Fresh coffee fruit weight (D/F)' item. Furthermore, a positive correlation between aroma and D/F item was found in the comparison of different Catimor family samples from similar altitudes (about 1 000 m.a.s.1.). The ratio of D/F could probably be defined as a reference standard for cup quality with simple, concrete and objective advantages. On the other hand, the introduction of shade farming system seems can significantly increase the D/F ratio. That could be one of the reasons to

  9. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  10. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems.

  11. Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfapietra, C; Gielen, B; Karnosky, D; Ceulemans, R; Scarascia Mugnozza, G

    2010-04-01

    The use of agroforestry crops is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration through fossil fuel substitution. In particular, plantations characterised by high yields such as short rotation forestry (SRF) are becoming popular worldwide for biomass production and their role acknowledged in the Kyoto Protocol. While their contribution to climate change mitigation is being investigated, the impact of climate change itself on growth and productivity of these plantations needs particular attention, since their management might need to be modified accordingly. Besides the benefits deriving from the establishment of millions of hectares of these plantations, there is a risk of increased release into the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted in large amounts by most of the species commonly used. These hydrocarbons are known to play a crucial role in tropospheric ozone formation. This might represent a negative feedback, especially in regions already characterized by elevated ozone level.

  12. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management.

  13. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  14. Climate-resilient agroforestry: physiological responses to climate change and engineering of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) as a mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Anne M; Wullschleger, Stan D; Weston, David J; Hartwell, James; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Cushman, John C

    2015-09-01

    Global climate change threatens the sustainability of agriculture and agroforestry worldwide through increased heat, drought, surface evaporation and associated soil drying. Exposure of crops and forests to warmer and drier environments will increase leaf:air water vapour-pressure deficits (VPD), and will result in increased drought susceptibility and reduced productivity, not only in arid regions but also in tropical regions with seasonal dry periods. Fast-growing, short-rotation forestry (SRF) bioenergy crops such as poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) are particularly susceptible to hydraulic failure following drought stress due to their isohydric nature and relatively high stomatal conductance. One approach to sustaining plant productivity is to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) by engineering crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) into C3 crops. CAM improves WUE by shifting stomatal opening and primary CO2 uptake and fixation to the night-time when leaf:air VPD is low. CAM members of the tree genus Clusia exemplify the compatibility of CAM performance within tree species and highlight CAM as a mechanism to conserve water and maintain carbon uptake during drought conditions. The introduction of bioengineered CAM into SRF bioenergy trees is a potentially viable path to sustaining agroforestry production systems in the face of a globally changing climate.

  15. Ecological factors influencing incidence and severity of Coffee Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The importance of coffee in economies of many African countries like Uganda, presents ... estimated 2.97% of its crop to the world .... coffee fields sampled in the Arabica coffee growing regions of Uganda ..... coffee-banana intercropping in.

  16. Nonlinear dynamical systems effects of homeopathic remedies on multiscale entropy and correlation dimension of slow wave sleep EEG in young adults with histories of coffee-induced insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Aickin, Mikel; Bootzin, Richard R; Brooks, Audrey J

    2012-07-01

    Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of remedy-related sleep stage alterations in human subjects by testing the feasibility of using two different NDS analytic approaches to assess remedy effects on human slow wave sleep EEG. Subjects (N=54) were young adult male and female college students with a history of coffee-related insomnia who participated in a larger 4-week study of the polysomnographic effects of homeopathic medicines on home-based all-night sleep recordings. Subjects took one bedtime dose of a homeopathic remedy (Coffea cruda or Nux vomica 30c). We computed multiscale entropy (MSE) and the correlation dimension (Mekler-D2) for stages 3 and 4 slow wave sleep EEG sampled in artifact-free 2-min segments during the first two rapid-eye-movement (REM) cycles for remedy and post-remedy nights, controlling for placebo and post-placebo night effects. MSE results indicate significant, remedy-specific directional effects, especially later in the night (REM cycle 2) (CC: remedy night increases and post-remedy night decreases in MSE at multiple sites for both stages 3 and 4 in both REM cycles; NV: remedy night decreases and post-remedy night increases, mainly in stage 3 REM cycle 2 MSE). D2 analyses yielded more sporadic and inconsistent findings. Homeopathic medicines Coffea cruda and Nux vomica in 30c potencies alter short-term nonlinear dynamic parameters of slow wave sleep EEG in healthy young adults. MSE may provide a more sensitive NDS analytic method than D2 for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects on human sleep EEG patterns. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Avaliação de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento, utilizados na cafeicultura Evaluation of trickle irrigation systems used in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís O. C. de Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no período de agosto a outubro de 1999, com o objetivo de avaliar os sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento utilizados na cafeicultura irrigada do norte do Espírito Santo e nas áreas de cerrado de Minas Gerais e caracterizar a porcentagem de área molhada (PAM nesses sistemas de irrigação. Foram realizadas medidas das dimensões do bulbo molhado para determinação da porcentagem de área molhada. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que, dos valores de coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição determinados, apenas um sistema apresentou valor abaixo de 70%, refletindo uma uniformidade ruim. No que se refere aos demais resultados, dez sistemas indicaram valores de uniformidade de distribuição entre 70 e 80%, oito sistemas mostraram valores entre 80 e 90% e doze sistemas apontaram valores acima de 90%, indicando uniformidade razoável, boa e excelente, respectivamente. Dos valores determinados, a maioria dos sistemas que apresentaram uniformidade de boa a excelente estava situada na região de cerrado de Minas Gerais. Com relação à PAM, os valores determinados variaram na faixa de 19 a 100% e apenas um sistema apresentou valor abaixo do limite mínimo recomendado para regiões úmidas, que é de 20%.This study was carried out over the period from August to October 1999, aiming the evaluation of trickle irrigation systems used in coffee crop in the northern part of Espírito Santo State and the savannah areas of Minas Gerais State, as well as to characterize the percentage of wetted area (PWA of these irrigation systems. The wetted bulb dimensions measurements were accomplished for determining the percent wetted area. According to the results, just one system presented a value lower than 70% for the distribution uniformity coefficient, reflecting a bad uniformity. Concerning to the other results, ten systems showed the distribution uniformity values ranging from 70 to 80%, whereas for eight systems, it

  18. Biological systems combined for the treatment of coffee processing wastewater: II - Removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13628

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Three treatment systems consisting of anaerobic filters with upward flow followed by constructed wetland systems (CW) were evaluated for the removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds, in the treatment of coffee processing wastewater (WCP) in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. Filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter) filled with gravel # 2 and CW were made of wooden boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide) sealed by HDPE geomembrane and filled with gravel ‘zero’. The WCP ...

  19. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yashin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc. in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.. Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.

  20. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-10-15

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared.

  1. Associação micorrízica e teores de nutrientes nas folhas de cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum e guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana de um sistema agroflorestal em Manaus, Amazonas Arbuscular mycorrhizal association and foliar nutrient concentrations of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum and guaraná (Paullinia cupana plants in an agroforestry system in Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As micorrizas arbusculares podem ser importantes na nutrição das plantas em solos ácidos e de baixa fertilidade, como são os da Amazônia de modo geral. Avaliaram-se a colonização radicular por fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs nativos e os teores de nutrientes em cupuaçuzeiro e guaranazeiro em um sistema agroflorestal no município de Manaus, Amazonas. Dez plantas de cada espécie foram selecionadas, das quais foram coletadas amostras de raiz, folha e solo durante o período seco e chuvoso da região de Manaus. Os guaranazeiros e os cupuaçuzeiros apresentaram maior colonização radicular por FMAs na época chuvosa. Os teores foliares de Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu e Mn nas duas espécies não foram influenciados pelas épocas de amostragem. O teor de Fe nas folhas dos cupuaçuzeiros foi maior na época chuvosa, enquanto o dos guaranazeiros, na época seca. A colonização micorrízica correlacionou-se com a concentração foliar de Ca, Mg, P e Cu nos cupuaçuzeiros e com a de Ca, Fe, Zn e Cu nos guaranazeiros.Arbuscular mycorrhiza can be important for plant nutrition in acid and low fertility soils such as those of the Amazon. The present study evaluated the mycorrhizal colonization by native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and nutrient concentrations of cupuassu and guarana leaves in an agroforestry system in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Ten plants of each species were selected, of which the roots, soil and leaves were sampled during the rainy and dry seasons. Guarana and cupuassu trees presented higher levels of AMF colonization during the rainy season. Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations in both species were not affected by the season. Fe concentration was higher during the rainy season in the cupuassu leaves, but higher in the dry season in the guarana leaves. Mycorrhizal colonization correlated with Ca, Mg, P, and Cu concentrations in cupuassu plants and with Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in guarana plants.

  2. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smallholder commercialisation and market integration. , .... Coffee growers in Ethiopia have been exposed to price fluctuations and impacts of ...... also indirectly indicates the cropping mix (staple versus cash crops) is also important in.

  3. Biodiversity loss in Latin American coffee landscapes: review of the evidence on ants, birds, and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Arendt, Wayne J; Armbrecht, Inge; Bichier, Peter; Diestch, Thomas V; Gordon, Caleb; Greenberg, Russell; Perfecto, Ivette; Reynoso-Santos, Roberto; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Tejeda-Cruz, Cesar; Williams-Linera, Guadalupe; Valenzuela, Jorge; Zolotoff, José Manuel

    2008-10-01

    Studies have documented biodiversity losses due to intensification of coffee management (reduction in canopy richness and complexity). Nevertheless, questions remain regarding relative sensitivity of different taxa, habitat specialists, and functional groups, and whether implications for biodiversity conservation vary across regions.We quantitatively reviewed data from ant, bird, and tree biodiversity studies in coffee agroecosystems to address the following questions: Does species richness decline with intensification or with individual vegetation characteristics? Are there significant losses of species richness in coffee-management systems compared with forests? Is species loss greater for forest species or for particular functional groups?and Are ants or birds more strongly affected by intensification? Across studies, ant and bird richness declined with management intensification and with changes in vegetation. Species richness of all ants and birds and of forest ant and bird species was lower in most coffee agroecosystems than in forests, but rustic coffee (grown under native forest canopies) had equal or greater ant and bird richness than nearby forests. Sun coffee(grown without canopy trees) sustained the highest species losses, and species loss of forest ant, bird, and tree species increased with management intensity. Losses of ant and bird species were similar, although losses of forest ants were more drastic in rustic coffee. Richness of migratory birds and of birds that forage across vegetation strata was less affected by intensification than richness of resident, canopy, and understory bird species. Rustic farms protected more species than other coffee systems, and loss of species depended greatly on habitat specialization and functional traits. We recommend that forest be protected, rustic coffee be promoted,and intensive coffee farms be restored by augmenting native tree density and richness and allowing growth of epiphytes. We also recommend that

  4. Turkish Coffee Shop

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A black and white copy of an original photograph showing Turkish men sitting outside a Turkish coffee shop, Cyprus - Μαυρόασπρο αντίγραφο από μια φωτογραφία που δείχνει Τούρκους άντρες να κάθονται έξω από ένα τούρκικο καφενεία στην Λευκωσία.

  5. Coffee induces autophagy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of co