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Sample records for coexistent normal fetus

  1. Multiple pregnancies with complete mole and coexisting normal fetus in North and South America: A retrospective multicenter cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Sun, Sue Y; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V; Elias, Kevin M; Horowitz, Neil; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2017-04-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics of multiple gestation with complete mole and coexisting fetus (CHMCF) in North and South America. Retrospective non-concurrent cohorts compromised of CHMCF from New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) (1966-2015) and four Brazilian Trophoblastic Disease Centers (BTDC) (1990-2015). From a total of 12,455 cases of gestational trophoblastic disease seen, 72 CHMCF were identified. Clinical characteristics were similar between BTDC (n=46) and NETDC (n=13) from 1990 to 2015, apart from a much higher frequency of potentially life-threatening conditions in Brazil (p=0.046). There were no significant changes in the clinical presentation or outcomes over the past 5 decades in NETDC (13 cases in 1966-1989 vs 13 cases in 1990-2015). Ten pregnancies were electively terminated and 35 cases resulted in viable live births (60% of 60 continued pregnancies). The overall rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) was 46%; the cases which progressed to GTN presented with higher chorionic gonadotropin levels (p=0.026) and higher frequency of termination of pregnancy due to medical complications (p=0.006) when compared to those with spontaneous remission. The main regional difference in CHMCF presentation is related to a higher rate of potentially life-threatening conditions in South America. Sixty percent of the expectantly managed CHMCF delivered a viable infant, and the overall rate of GTN in this study was 46%. Elective termination of pregnancy did not influence the risk for GTN; however the need for termination due to complications and higher hCG levels were associated with development of GTN in CHMCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  3. Renal artery pulsatility index and renal volume: Normal fetuses versus growth-retarded fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Soon; Woo, Bock Hi [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    To evaluate the blood flow velocity waveform of the renal artery and renal volume of growth-retarded fetuses and to compare them with those of normal fetuses. Pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography were obtained from seventy eight normal fetuses at the gestational age from twenty five to thirty nine weeks and eighteen intrauterine growth retarded fetuses whose weight was below ten percentile at birth. We studied changes of the pulsatility index of the renal artery and renal volume according to the gestational age and compared with those of growth-retarded fetuses. Pulsatility index (PI) of the fetal renal artery decreased throughout the gestational period (r=0.703, p<0.0001). In growth-retarded fetuses, despite of abnormal doppler velocity waveform of the middle cerebral artery, which was showing fetal hypoxia, the renal PI was not increased significantly. The fetal renal volume increased throughout the gestational period (r=0.834, p<0.0001) whereas in growth-retarded fetuses, all renal volume was below fifth percentile of normal fetuses. In growth-retarded fetuses, fetal renal volume was decreased significantly without change of the renal vascular flow. Therefore, the fetal renal volume measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography may be a helpful parameter in the diagnosis of growth-retarded fetuses.

  4. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

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    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  5. Normal anatomy of the fetus at MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, R S; Nikolaidis, P; Kawashima, A; Kramer, L A; Ernst, R D

    1999-10-01

    Owing to recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the role of obstetric MR imaging has increased in cases in which the results of ultrasonography are equivocal. Fast MR imaging sequences, such as T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE), half-Fourier single-shot fast SE, 0.5-signal-acquired single-shot fast SE, and echo-planar imaging, have virtually eliminated the need for fetal premedication, with a concomitant improvement in image resolution and diminished blurring. Artifacts related to maternal respiratory motion and fetal motion no longer limit the anatomic detail that can be demonstrated with MR imaging. With such advances in obstetric MR imaging, knowledge of normal fetal anatomy at MR imaging is essential to detect disease in utero. MR imaging can demonstrate fetal anatomy in detail, especially the brain, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and vasculature. Major developmental structures of the fetus, particularly the cranial nervous system, naso- and oropharynx, lungs, and major abdominal viscera, can be adequately evaluated with targeted fast MR imaging as early as the beginning of the second trimester. However, MR imaging of the heart remains limited. Fetal MR imaging during the first trimester remains controversial secondary to biosafety issues and is limited due to diminutive fetal size.

  6. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  7. Cardiovascular dynamics in relation to presentation and postural changes in normal fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterkort, M; Gennser, G

    1987-01-01

    The role of fetal cardiovascular function in the reduced intrauterine growth rate of breech pregnancy was studied in fetuses with different presentations. Hemodynamic responses to postural changes were also investigated in fetuses in horizontal and vertical positions. Thirty-one normal pregnancies, with 15 fetuses presenting by the breech and 16 fetuses by the vertex, were included in the study. Diameter pulse waves from the fetal descending aorta were measured using equipment combining real-time ultrasound imaging with phase-locked echo-tracking. No differences in basal pulse wave parameters were demonstrated between breech and vertex fetuses nor did any differences appear when maternal posture was changed from horizontal to upright or vice versa. The present observations suggest that fetal circulatory factors are less likely to be a primary cause of the reduced intrauterine growth in breech presentation. Tilting of the fetus in late gestation seems to produce neither a redistribution of its blood volume nor secondary adaptations to an orthostatic challenge. The hydrostatic effect of amniotic fluid presumably precludes the requirement of fetal circulatory adaptation to postural changes.

  8. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate in normal, anaemic and transfused human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soothill, P W; Lestas, A N; Nicolaides, K H; Rodeck, C H; Bellingham, A J

    1988-05-01

    1. The effect of anaemia and transfusion with adult blood on fetal 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels was investigated by studying fetal blood from 45 normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks of gestation and in 34 pregnancies complicated by erythroblastosis fetalis. 2. In normal fetuses, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration was higher than in adults and did not change significantly with gestational age. 3. In erythroblastotic fetuses, there was a significant negative correlation between 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and haemoglobin concentration. 4. When adult blood was transfused into the fetal circulation, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration reached similar levels to that found in untransfused fetuses after allowing for the severity of anaemia.

  9. Normal obstetric ultrasound reduces the risk of down syndrome in fetuses of older mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N. G.; Luehr, B.; Ng, R.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a normal fetal morphology ultrasound scan in women older than 35 years reduces the risk of aneuploidy. We reviewed the results of amniocentesis and second trimester sonogram in all women older than 35 years from 1991 to 1995. None had prior screening. We excluded fetuses with structural anomalies. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of minor markers in detecting Down syndrome and also determined the reduction in risk of a normal sonogram. Among the 2060 women older than 35 years giving birth during the study period, 16 (0.78%) delivered an infant with Down syndrome. Of the 16 fetuses, two had no prenatal testing or ultrasound, two had invasive testing but no second trimester sonogram, five had a normal sonogram and seven had one or more sonographic markers of Down syndrome. At least 17% of women older than 35 years did not participate in prenatal testing or ultrasound. Ultrasound detected Down syndrome with a sensitivity of 59% (95% confidence interval: 45-72%), a false-positive rate of 10.6% (9.4-11.8%) and a positive predictor value of 1 in 9. The likelihood of having normal karyotype if the sonogram was normal was 0.46 (0.31-0.61). In women older than 35 years, a normal second trimester sonogram reduces the risk of Down syndrome by more than 50%. At least 17% of women older than 35 years do not participate in prenatal testing or ultrasound

  10. Analysis of renal blood flow and renal volume in normal fetuses and in fetuses with a solitary functioning kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, An; Raaijmakers, Anke; Levtchenko, Elena; Allegaert, Karel; De Catte, Luc

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate renal blood flow and renal volume for the prediction of postnatal renal function in fetuses with solitary functioning kidney (SFK). Seventy-four SFK fetuses (unilateral renal agenesis [12], multicystic dysplastic kidney [36], and severe renal dysplasia [26]) were compared with 58 healthy fetuses. Peak systolic velocity (PSV), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI) of the renal artery (RA) were measured; 2D and 3D (VOCAL) volumes were calculated. Renal length and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were obtained in SFK children (2 years). Compared with the control group, the PSV RA was significantly lower in nonfunctioning kidneys and significantly higher in SFK. Volume measurements indicated a significantly larger volume of SFK compared with healthy kidneys. All but 4 children had GFR above 70 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and compensatory hypertrophy was present in 69% at 2 years. PSV RA and SFK volume correlated with postnatal renal hypertrophy. No correlation between prenatal and postnatal SFK volume and GFR at 2 years was demonstrated. Low PSV RA might have a predictive value for diagnosing a nonfunctioning kidney in fetuses with a SFK. We demonstrated a higher PSV RA and larger renal volume in the SFK compared with healthy kidneys. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Hepatic aminotransferases of normal and IUGR fetuses in cord blood at birth.

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    Kocylowski, Rafal; Dubiel, Mariusz; Gudmundsson, Saemundur; Fritzer, Elfriede; Kiserud, Torvid; von Kaisenberg, Constantin

    2012-07-01

    The accepted standard for assessing the wellbeing of the newborn is the Apgar score and blood gas analysis. However, the prediction of neonatal morbidity or mortality is limited. In small-for-gestation (SGA) fetuses at 18-38 weeks of gestation, pO(2) is normals. To test the hypothesis, that fetuses with intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) have elevated AST (GOT) and ALT (GPT) aminotransferases as a result of hypoxic liver cell injury, and to establish references ranges. Prospective cohort study, serum of umbilical artery (n=156) and vein (n=180), 599 normal singletons at 37(+0)-42(+0)weeks, neonates with IUGR (n=41), analysis for pH, birthweight and maternal weight, spontaneous vs cesarean section, vein vs artery and for the sex. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, GOT) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, GPT) were measured in normals and IUGR neonates. Neonates with IUGR (n=41) had AST values that were not different from the reference group, but had significantly lower ALT (-1.49, 95% CI -1.98 to -1.00 vs 0.14, 95% CI -0.42-0.13), (pblood were not elevated. Rather, a substantially reduced ALT suggests a down-regulated hepatic activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal study of aortic isthmus Doppler in appropriately grown and small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2012-04-01

    To establish reference ranges using longitudinal data for aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler indices in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses and to document the longitudinal trends in a cohort of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

  13. Ultrasound evaluation of normal and abnormal fetuses: comparison of conventional, tissue harmonic, and pulse- inversion harmonic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Sooah; Yang, Soon Ha; Choi, Moon Hae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik

    2003-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) and pulse-inversion harmonic imaging (PIHI) in the evaluation of normal and abnormal fetuses. Forty-one pregnant women who bore a total of 31 normal and ten abnormal fetuses underwent conventional ultrasonography (CUS), and then THI and PIHI. US images of six organ systems, namely the brain, spine, heart, abdomen, extremities and face were compared between the three techniques in terms of overall conspicuity and the definition of borders and internal structures. For the brain, heart, abdomen and face, overall conspicuity at THI and PIHI was significantly better than at CUS (p < 0.05). There was, though, no significant difference between THI and PIHI. Affected organs in abnormal fetuses were more clearly depicted at THI and PIHI than at CUS. Both THI and PIHI appear to be superior to CUS for the evaluation of normal or abnormal structures, particularly the brain, heart, abdomen and face

  14. An anatomical study of normal variations of circle of Willis in 132 fetus, newborn and adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateni F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have investigated the variations in the anatomy of each segment of circle of Willis whereas a few have addressed the variations of this arterial circle as a whole. In this study the entire circle of Willis and its variations were studied in a cohort of Iranian people and compared with previous reports."n"nMethods: Anatomical variations of the circle of Willis in 132 brains of Iranian cadavers (102 male adults and 30 fetuses and infants were studied. The dissection process was digitally filmed for further studies. Using computer software the external diameters of the vessels were measured and the circle variations were classified. The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were compared with previous studies. "n"nResults: Uni-and bilateral hypoplasia of posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs constituted the most common variation in our study which was similar to previous works. Aplasia of the anterior cerebral artery (A1 and the posterior cerebral artery (P1 were not observed. In 3.3% of fetuses and infants and 3% of adult instances both right and left posterior communicating arteries were absent. There was one case of anterior communicating artery (AcoA aplasia in

  15. Second-trimester IL-15 and IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz-Blok, Dominika; Florjański, Jerzy; Zalewski, Jerzy; Blok, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and 18 (IL-18) in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestations complicated by chromosomal defects in the fetus. Likewise, it has not yet been established whether a fetus with chromosome abnormalities creates its immunity mechanisms in the same way as a fetus with a normal karyotype. The aim of this work was to assess the concentration of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities. The material consisted of 51 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from genetic amniocenteses carried out between the 15th and the 19th weeks of gestation. On the basis of cytogenetic screening, two groups were singled out: Group I--45 fetuses with normal karyotypes, and Group II--6 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes. The concentrations of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid were assessed with ready-made assays and analyzed, and the results from both groups were compared. The differences between the IL-15 levels in the amniotic fluid from Groups I and II proved to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.054). However, the average IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with normal karyotypes were significantly higher than in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with chromosome abnormalities (p = 0.032). Some defense mechanisms in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with chromosome abnormalities may develop in a different way than in fetuses with normal karyotypes.

  16. Evaluation of normalization of cerebro-placental ratio as a potential predictor for adverse outcome in SGA fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Cathy; Flood, Karen; Mullers, Sieglinde; Unterscheider, Julia; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Daly, Sean; Geary, Michael P; Kennelly, Mairead M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; O'Donoghue, Keelin; Hunter, Alison; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerald; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth C; Malone, Fergal D

    2017-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and mortality currently encountered in obstetric practice. The primary goal of antenatal care is the early recognition of such conditions to allow treatment and optimization of both maternal and fetal outcomes. Management of pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction remains one of the greatest challenges in obstetrics. Frequently, however, clinical evidence of underlying uteroplacental dysfunction may only emerge at a late stage in the disease process. With advanced disease the only therapeutic intervention is delivery of the fetus and placenta. The cerebroplacental ratio is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating the at-risk fetus in both intrauterine growth restriction and the appropriate-for-gestational-age setting. The cerebroplacental ratio quantifies the redistribution of the cardiac output resulting in a brain-sparing effect. The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction group previously demonstrated that the presence of a brain-sparing effect is significantly associated with an adverse perinatal outcome in the intrauterine growth restriction cohort. The aim of the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health in Intrauterine Growth Restriction study was to evaluate the optimal management of fetuses with an estimated fetal weight 1.0. Overall, this secondary analysis demonstrated the importance of a serial abnormal cerebroplacental ratio value of <1 within the <34 weeks' gestation population. Contrary to our proposed hypothesis, we recognize that reversion of an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio to a normal ratio is not associated with a heightened degree of adverse perinatal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antenatal Steroids and the IUGR Fetus: Are Exposure and Physiological Effects on the Lung and Cardiovascular System the Same as in Normally Grown Fetuses?

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    Janna L. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  18. Antenatal steroids and the IUGR fetus: are exposure and physiological effects on the lung and cardiovascular system the same as in normally grown fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janna L; Botting, Kimberley J; Soo, Poh Seng; McGillick, Erin V; Hiscock, Jennifer; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I Caroline; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  19. Wobbling phonon excitations, coexisting with normal deformed structures in 163Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.R.; Hagemann, G.B.; Hamamoto, I.; Oedegard, S.W.; Bergstroem, M.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Toermaenen, S.; Wilson, J.N.; Tjoem, P.O.; Spohr, K.; Huebel, H.; Goergen, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Petrache, C.M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.

    2002-01-01

    Wobbling is a rotational mode unique to a triaxial body. The Lu-Hf isotopes with N∼94 at high spin provide a possible region of nuclei with pronounced triaxiality. We have investigated 163 Lu through the fusion-evaporation reaction 139 La( 29 Si,5n) 163 Lu with a beam energy of 152 MeV. Three excited bands decaying into the known, presumably triaxial, superdeformed (TSD) band built on the i 13/2 proton orbital are observed. The electromagnetic properties of the connecting transitions from the two strongest populated excited TSD bands have been investigated. New particle-rotor calculations in which one i 13/2 quasiproton is coupled to the core of triaxial shape produce a variety of bands, whose properties can clearly be interpreted either as 'wobbling' or 'cranking' motion of the core. Evidence for the assignment of the excited TSD bands as one, and possibly even two wobbling phonon modes built on the yrast TSD band in 163 Lu is given. These triaxial bands coexist with bands built on quasiparticle excitations in the normal deformed (ND) minimum for which new data are also presented

  20. CONCANAVALIN-A VARIANTS OF ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FIRST TRIMESTER FETUSES WITH TRISOMY-21 AND WITH NORMAL KARYOTYPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; JANSE, HC; BRANDENBURG, H; DEVRIJ, RW; DEBRUIJN, HWA

    1995-01-01

    Total alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations and proportions of AFP non-reactive with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) were studied in extracellular fluid of 22 first-trimester fetuses. Total AFP concentrations were significantly lower in fetuses with Down's syndrome than in those with

  1. Assessment of cerebral circulation in normal fetuses by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Hérbene José Figuinha; Sá Barreto, Enoch Quinderé de; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Haratz, Karina Krajden; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography (3D power Doppler) vascular indices in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 111 normal pregnancies between 26 and 34 weeks. The MCA, ACA and PCA territories closest to the transducer were scanned and volumes were calculated by using the VOCAL (Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis) program. The 3D power Doppler indices – vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI) were calculated. Scatter graphs, Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used. Results: Only the FI-MCA (r = 0.38 and p < 0.001), VFI-MCA (r = 0.23 and p = 0.016) and FI-PCA (r = 0.191 and p = 0.040) had a low correlation with gestational age. The other 3D power Doppler indices VI-MCA (r = 0.153 and p = 0.150), VI-ACA (r = 0.105 and p = 0.271), FI-ACA (r = 0.154 and p = 0.106), VFI-ACA (r = 0.134 and p = 0.161), VI-PCA (r = 0.105 and p = 0.270) and VFI-PCA (r = 0.126 and p = 0.180) showed no statistically significant correlation with gestational. Conclusion: It was observed a low correlation between gestational age and the FI-MCA, VFI-MCA and FI-PCA.

  2. Sonographic measurement of fetal aortic size: Normative values in a sample of normal fetuses in a Lagos suburb, Southwest Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, C.U.; Ilounoh, C.E.; Irurhe, N.K.; Akpochafor, M.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital anomalies while prenatal ultrasound screening is a necessity even in low risk populations. Aim: To measure fetal ascending aortic diameter (AAD) between 18 and 38 weeks of gestation in order to provide a normal reference data for the population studied. Method: In the prospective cross sectional study, a sample of 300 healthy pregnant women was selected to undergo trans-abdominal echocardiography. Data Collection: Logiq 3 ultrasound machine fitted with a 3.5 MHz–5 MHz variable curvilinear transducer was used for data collection. Results: Mean AAD was 4.59 ± 1.56 mm. There was a linear relationship between AAD and gestational age (GA) while there was a strong positive correlation between AAD and GA (r = 0.9915). Mean AAD for male and female fetuses was 4.60 ± 0.57 mm and 4.58 ± 0.55 mm respectively and the difference in mean AAD was not significant (p = 0.8420) between both sexes. Mean AAD in the study was significantly different from the mean AAD in a European and Asian studies (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Trans-abdominal echocardiography carried out between the 18th and 38th week of gestation appears useful in screening for CHD especially if screening is performed by an experienced sonographer using a high resolution ultrasound machine. - Highlights: • The mean ascending aortic diameter (AAD) in the population is 4.59 ± 1.56 mm. • The mean AAD for male and female fetuses is 4.60 ± 0.57 mm and 4.58 ± 0.55 mm respectively. • No significant difference in mean AAD in the population with respect to sex (p = 0.8420). • Mean AAD in the population is significantly different from European and Asian data (p = 0.001). • Trans-abdominal echocardiography performed for CHD screening appears useful.

  3. Cardiovascular cast model fabrication and casting effectiveness evaluation in fetus with severe congenital heart disease or normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Cao, Hai-yan; Xie, Ming-xing; He, Lin; Han, Wei; Hong, Liu; Peng, Yuan; Hu, Yun-fei; Song, Ben-cai; Wang, Jing; Wang, Bin; Deng, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the application and effectiveness of vascular corrosion technique in preparing fetal cardiovascular cast models, 10 normal fetal heart specimens with other congenital disease (control group) and 18 specimens with severe congenital heart disease (case group) from induced abortions were enrolled in this study from March 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital. Cast models were prepared by injecting casting material into vascular lumen to demonstrate real geometries of fetal cardiovascular system. Casting effectiveness was analyzed in terms of local anatomic structures and different anatomical levels (including overall level, atrioventricular and great vascular system, left-sided and right-sided heart), as well as different trimesters of pregnancy. In our study, all specimens were successfully casted. Casting effectiveness analysis of local anatomic structures showed a mean score from 1.90±1.45 to 3.60±0.52, without significant differences between case and control groups in most local anatomic structures except left ventricle, which had a higher score in control group (P=0.027). Inter-group comparison of casting effectiveness in different anatomical levels showed no significant differences between the two groups. Intra-group comparison also revealed undifferentiated casting effectiveness between atrioventricular and great vascular system, or left-sided and right-sided heart in corresponding group. Third-trimester group had a significantly higher perfusion score in great vascular system than second-trimester group (P=0.046), while the other anatomical levels displayed no such difference. Vascular corrosion technique can be successfully used in fabrication of fetal cardiovascular cast model. It is also a reliable method to demonstrate three-dimensional anatomy of severe congenital heart disease and normal heart in fetus.

  4. SU-E-I-42: Normalized Embryo/fetus Doses for Fluoroscopically Guided Pacemaker Implantation Procedures Calculated Using a Monte Carlo Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G [University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)

  5. SU-E-I-42: Normalized Embryo/fetus Doses for Fluoroscopically Guided Pacemaker Implantation Procedures Calculated Using a Monte Carlo Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)

  6. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive (α4 and β1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28αβ regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28αβ. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  7. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Bellavista, Elena [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Mishto, Michele [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Charite, Berlin (Germany); Santoro, Aurelia [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Fiorentino, Michelangelo [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Capri, Miriam [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca [Unit of General and Transplantation Surgery, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Grigioni, Walter Franco; D' Errico-Grigioni, Antonia [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Franceschi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.franceschi@unibo.it [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  8. Defining the residual risk of adverse perinatal outcome in growth restricted fetuses with normal umbilical artery blood flow.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Vicky

    2014-07-25

    To determine the cause of adverse perinatal outcome in fetal growth restriction(FGR) where umbilical artery Doppler(UA) was normal, as identified from the Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health(PORTO). We compared cases of adverse outcome where UA Doppler was normal and abnormal.

  9. Normal ranges for fetal electrocardiogram values for the healthy fetus of 18-24 weeks of gestation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurmen, Kim M J; Lempersz, Carlijn; Vullings, Rik; Schroer, Christian; Delhaas, Tammo; van Laar, Judith O E H; Oei, S Guid

    2016-08-17

    The fetal anomaly ultrasound only detects 65 to 81 % of the patients with congenital heart disease, making it the most common structural fetal anomaly of which a significant part is missed during prenatal life. Therefore, we need a reliable non-invasive diagnostic method which improves the predictive value for congenital heart diseases early in pregnancy. Fetal electrocardiography could be this desired diagnostic method. There are multiple technical challenges to overcome in the conduction of the fetal electrocardiogram. In addition, interpretation is difficult due to the organisation of the fetal circulation in utero. We want to establish the normal ranges and values of the fetal electrocardiogram parameters in healthy fetuses of 18 to 24 weeks of gestation. Women with an uneventful singleton pregnancy between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation are asked to participate in this prospective cohort study. A certified and experienced sonographist performs the fetal anomaly scan. Subsequently, a fetal electrocardiogram recording is performed using dedicated signal processing methods. Measurements are performed at two institutes. We will include 300 participants to determine the normal values and 95 % confidence intervals of the fetal electrocardiogram parameters in a healthy fetus. We will evaluate the fetal heart rate, segment intervals, normalised amplitude and the fetal heart axis. Three months postpartum, we will evaluate if a newborn is healthy through a questionnaire. Fetal electrocardiography could be a promising tool in the screening program for congenital heart diseases. The electrocardiogram is a depiction of the intimate relationship between the cardiac nerve conduction pathways and the structural morphology of the fetal heart, and therefore particularly suitable for the detection of secondary effects due to a congenital heart disease (hypotrophy, hypertrophy and conduction interruption).

  10. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses and group II (third-trimester fetuses, followed by dissection. Result. (1 Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%. In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2 Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3 Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4 Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position.

  11. Harlequin fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.A.; Ghauri, A. Q.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of harlequin fetus born to the consanguineous parents, She had the typical skin manifestations of thick armour like scales with fissures, complete ectropion and eclabium, atrophic and crumpled ears and swollen extremities with gangrenous digits, Supportive treatment was given but the neonate died on the 4th day. (author)

  12. Senescence-Associated Molecular and Epigenetic Alterations in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultures from Amniotic Fluid of Normal and Fetus-Affected Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Savickienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs are interesting for their multilineage differentiation potential and wide range of therapeutic applications due to the ease of culture expansion. However, MSCs undergo replicative senescence. So far, the molecular mechanisms that underlie fetal diseases and cell senescence are still poorly understood. Here, we analyzed senescence-associated morphologic, molecular, and epigenetic characteristics during propagation of MSCs derived from AF of normal and fetus-affected pregnancy. AF-MSCs cultures from both cell sources displayed quite similar morphology and expression of specific cell surface (CD44, CD90, and CD105 and stemness (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1 markers but had interindividual variability in proliferation capability and time to reach senescence. Within passages 4 and 8, senescent cultures exhibited typical morphological features, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, increased levels of p16, and decreased levels of miR-17 and miR-21 but showed differential expression of p21, p53, and ATM dependently on the onset of cell senescence. These differences correlated with changes in the level of chromatin modifiers (DNMT1 and HDAC1 and polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, and BMI1 paralleling with changes in the expression of repressive histone marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 and stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1. Therefore epigenetic factors are important for AF-MSCs senescence process that may be related with individuality of donor or a fetus malignancy status.

  13. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  14. Fathers and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  15. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  16. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  17. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...

  18. Els fetus pateixen els efectes de la nicotina

    OpenAIRE

    García Algar, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    El consum de tabac durant l'embaràs exposa al fetus a possibles efectes deleteris de la nicotina que poden afectar els resultats perinatals i la salut del nen. La nicotina sembla afectar el desenvolupament neurològic normal del fetus al principi de la vida. A més, s'ha observat que l'exposició del fetus dins de l'úter al consum de tabac per part de la mare podria induir una síndrome d'abstinència neonatal a la nicotina.

  19. Supercooling of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solution at normal and high pressures: Evidence for the coexistence of phase-separated aqueous dimethylsulfoxide solutions of different water structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, H.; Kajiwara, K.; Miyata, K.

    2010-05-01

    Supercooling behavior of aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution was investigated as a function of DMSO concentration and at high pressures. A linear relationship was observed for TH (homogeneous ice nucleation temperature) and Tm (melting temperature) for the supercooling of aqueous DMSO solution at normal pressure. Analysis of the DTA (differential thermal analysis) traces for homogeneous ice crystallization in the bottom region of the TH curve for a DMSO solution of R =20 (R: moles of water/moles of DMSO) at high pressures supported the contention that the second critical point (SCP) of liquid water should exist at Pc2=˜200 MPa and at Tc2pressure of SCP, Tc2: temperature of SCP). The presence of two TH peaks for DMSO solutions (R =15, 12, and 10) suggests that phase separation occurs in aqueous DMSO solution (R ≤15) at high pressures and low temperatures (pressure dependence of the two TH curves for DMSO solutions of R =10 and 12 indicates that the two phase-separated components in the DMSO solution of R =10 have different liquid water structures [LDL-like and HDL-like structures (LDL: low-density liquid water, HDL: high-density liquid water)] in the pressure range of 120-230 MPa.

  20. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  1. Ultrasound evaluation of cortical brain development in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelli, Caterina; de Wit, Charlotte; Visser, Gerard H A; Pistorius, Lourens R

    2014-09-10

    Abstract Objective: We evaluated the ultrasound appearance of brain volume and cortical development in fetuses with early growth restriction and placental insufficiency. Methods: We examined a cohort of 20 fetuses with severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and evidence of placental insufficiency by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound between 24 and 34 weeks. We graded cortical development and measured the supratentorial intracranial volume. The cortical grading and volume were compared to data obtained from a reference population of 28 adequate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses. Results: Ultrasound examinations were performed in 20 fetuses with IUGR. The biometry and brain volume were significantly reduced in IUGR fetuses. There was evidence of accelerated cortical development in IUGR fetuses. Conclusion: This study confirms that the smaller brain volume in IUGR fetuses, with normal or accelerated cortical maturation as previously depicted with postnatal MRI examination, can be demonstrated by prenatal 3D ultrasound.

  2. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  3. Bone metabolism in the fetus and neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2014-05-01

    During embryonic development most of the skeleton begins as a cartilaginous scaffold that is progressively resorbed and replaced by bone. Such endochondral bone development does not cease until the growth plates fuse during puberty. Growth and mineralization of the skeleton are dependent upon the adequate delivery of mineral. During fetal development, the placenta actively transports calcium, magnesium and phosphorus from the maternal circulation. After birth, the role of mineral transport is assumed by the intestines. The limited data currently available on fetal humans are largely based on cord blood samples from normal fetuses and pathological specimens from fetuses which died in utero or at birth. Consequently, much of our understanding of the regulation of fetal mineral and bone homeostasis comes from the study of animal fetuses that have been manipulated surgically, pharmacologically and genetically. Animal and human data indicate that fetal mineral homeostasis requires parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein-but not vitamin D/calcitriol, calcitonin or sex steroids. In the days to weeks after birth, intestinal calcium absorption becomes an active process, which necessitates that the infant depends upon vitamin D/calcitriol. However, even this postnatal function of calcitriol can be bypassed by increasing the calcium content of the diet or by administering calcium infusions.

  4. Fetus in Fetus in the Sacral Sac: Report of Surgical Management Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Berdi Taneh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetus-In-Fetu (FIF is a rare congenital malformation, which consists of a fetus mixed with a distinct tissue that is from the other fetus of twin. FIF is defined as a mass containing a vertebral axis often associated with other organs or limbs around this central axis.Case report: The patient was a two day old girl infant who due to a mass in a sacrum area measuring 8.5 x 12.5 cm with soft consistency containing a normal skin color fluid with blood streaks and hemorrhagic and bruise colored patches since birt, was admitted at the Taleghani children's Pediatric Center of Gorgan. The results of the mother's ultrasound in the fourth month of pregnancy had identified the cyst for the fetus. In the primary results of imaging, the first the diagnosis was type 2 sacrocoxigeal teratoma. However, results of post-birth graphy confirmed the presence of fetal bone structure in the infants's sacrum, so FIF was diagnosed for the infant.Conclusion: In the present study, FIF has been seen in sacrum, which is a very rare case in FIF.

  5. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  6. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Prenatal exome sequencing in anomalous fetuses: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta L; Powell, Bradford; Brandt, Alicia; Strande, Natasha; Hardisty, Emily; Gilmore, Kelly; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Bizon, Chris; Reilly, Jason; Owen, Phil; Powell, Cynthia M; Skinner, Debra; Rini, Christine; Lyerly, Anne D; Boggess, Kim A; Weck, Karen; Berg, Jonathan S; Evans, James P

    2017-11-01

    PurposeWe investigated the diagnostic and clinical performance of exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities with normal karyotype and microarray and, in some cases, normal gene-specific sequencing.MethodsExome sequencing was performed on DNA from 15 anomalous fetuses and from the peripheral blood of their parents. Parents provided consent to be informed of diagnostic results in the fetus, medically actionable findings in the parents, and their identification as carrier couples for significant autosomal recessive conditions. We assessed the perceptions and understanding of exome sequencing using mixed methods in 15 mother-father dyads.ResultsIn seven (47%) of 15 fetuses, exome sequencing provided a diagnosis or possible diagnosis with identification of variants in the following genes: COL1A1, MUSK, KCTD1, RTTN, TMEM67, PIEZO1 and DYNC2H1. One additional case revealed a de novo nonsense mutation in a novel candidate gene (MAP4K4). The perceived likelihood that exome sequencing would explain the results (5.2 on a 10-point scale) was higher than the approximately 30% diagnostic yield discussed in pretest counseling.ConclusionExome sequencing had diagnostic utility in a highly select population of fetuses where a genetic diagnosis was highly suspected. Challenges related to genetics literacy and variant interpretation must be addressed by highly tailored pre- and posttest genetic counseling.

  8. Identification of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations in fetuses with increased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leung, Tak Yeung; Vogel, Ida; Lau, Tze Kin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) is assessed by ultrasound as a screening tool for aneuploidy at 11-13+6 weeks’ gestation. Fetuses with increased NT but apparently normal karyotyping result are still at higher risk of structural abnormality and a range of genetic syndromes, which may be ...

  9. Fetus in Jetu and Teratoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, University of Natal, and Depart- ment of Paediatrics and ... imperfect X-ray films). Since the 1I ... tained a teratoma, with 5 fetiform structures. The latter ... dental rudiments of the fetus have suffered some un- paralleled ...

  10. Activity patterns in malformed fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F; Barr, M

    1982-04-15

    Knowledge of a malformed fetus before the onset of labor would assist the physician in preparing the expectant parents, managing the timing and method of delivery, and preparing for the immediate care of a salvageable infant. This 3-year prospective investigation compared the activity patterns of fetuses who were later found to have major malformation with those of fetuses who had no apparent defects. Fetal motion over prolonged periods was determined by daily charting of fetal movement by the mother. Although not a reliable predictor for all malformations, evidence of fetal inactivity was found to be more common (p less than 0.0001) among fetuses with anomalies (16 of 58 cases, 28%) than among those with no defects (39 of 1,098 cases, 4%). All malformations associated with fetal inactivity were strongly suspected ultrasonographically and included hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, nonimmune hydrops, bilateral renal agenesis, and bilateral dislocation of the hips. Documentation of fetal inactivity is helpful in recognizing certain major malformations and constitutes grounds for more detailed study by ultrasonography.

  11. Exome sequencing for prenatal diagnosis of fetuses with sonographic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Suzanne; Williams, Hywel; Trump, Natalie; Boustred, Christopher; Lench, Nicholas; Scott, Richard H; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-10-01

    In the absence of aneuploidy or other pathogenic cytogenetic abnormality, fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT ≥ 3.5 mm) and/or other sonographic abnormalities have a greater incidence of genetic syndromes, but defining the underlying pathology can be challenging. Here, we investigate the value of whole exome sequencing in fetuses with sonographic abnormalities but normal microarray analysis. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from chorionic villi or amniocytes in 24 fetuses with unexplained ultrasound findings. In the first 14 cases sequencing was initially performed on fetal DNA only. For the remaining 10, the trio of fetus, mother and father was sequenced simultaneously. In 21% (5/24) cases, exome sequencing provided definitive diagnoses (Milroy disease, hypophosphatasia, achondrogenesis type 2, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and Baraitser-Winter Syndrome). In a further case, a plausible diagnosis of orofaciodigital syndrome type 6 was made. In two others, a single mutation in an autosomal recessive gene was identified, but incomplete sequencing coverage precluded exclusion of the presence of a second mutation. Whole exome sequencing improves prenatal diagnosis in euploid fetuses with abnormal ultrasound scans. In order to expedite interpretation of results, trio sequencing should be employed, but interpretation can still be compromised by incomplete coverage of relevant genes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Coexistence between neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Mabagala, R.B.; Mortensen, C A Nieves Paulino

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted under laboratory and screenhouse conditions to study the coexistence between Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, incitants of bacterial speck and bacterial spot diseases of tomato. Results of in vitro studies showed that when mixe...

  13. The assessment of fetal brain function in fetuses with ventrikulomegaly: the role of the KANET test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Amira; Kurjak, Asim; Stanojevic, Milan; Honemeyer, Ulrich; Badreldeen, Ahmed; DiRenzo, Gian Carlo

    2012-08-01

    To assess differences in fetal behavior in both normal fetuses and fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly (VM). In a period of eighteen months, in a longitudinal prospective cohort study, Kurjak Antenatal NeuorogicalTest (KANET) was applied to assess fetal behavior in both normal pregnancies and pregnancies with cerebral VM using four-dimensional ultrasound (4D US). According to the degree of enlargement of the ventricles, VM was divided into three groups: mild, moderate and severe. Moreover fetuses with isolated VM were separated from those with additional abnormalities. According to the KANET, fetuses with scores ≥ 14 were considered normal, those with scores 6-13 borderline and abnormal if the score was ≤ 5. Differences between two groups were examined by Fisher's exact test. Differences within the subgroups were examined by Kruskal-Wallis test and contingency table test. KANET scores in normal pregnancies and pregnancies with VM showed statistically significant differences. Most of the abnormal KANET scores as well as most of the borderline-scores were found among the fetuses with severe VM associated with additional abnormalities. There were no statistically significant differences between the control group and the groups with isolated and mild and /or moderate VM. Evaluation of the fetal behavior in fetuses with cerebral VM using KANET test has the potential to detect fetuses with abnormal behavior, and to add the dimension of CNS function to the morphological criteria of VM. Long-term postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up should confirm the data from prenatal investigation of fetal behavior.

  14. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  15. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  16. [Delivery of the IUGR fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotin, F; Simon, E G; Potin, J; Laffon, M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review available data regarding the management of delivery in intra uterine growth retarded fetuses and try to get recommendations for clinical obstetrical practice. Bibliographic research performed by consulting PubMed database and recommendations from scientific societies with the following words: small for gestational age, intra-uterine growth restriction, fetal growth restriction, very low birth weight infants, as well as mode of delivery, induction of labor, cesarean section and operative delivery. The diagnosis of severe IUGR justifies the orientation of the patient to a referral centre with all necessary resources for very low birth weight or premature infants Administration of corticosteroids for fetal maturation (before 34 WG) and a possible neuroprotective treatment by with magnesium sulphate (before 32-33 WG) should be discussed. Although elective caesarean section is common, there is no current evidence supporting the use of systematic cesarean section, especially when the woman is in labor. Induction of labor, even with unfavorable cervix is possible under continuous FHR monitoring, in favorable obstetric situations and in the absence of severe fetal hemodynamic disturbances. Instrumental delivery and routine episiotomy are not recommended. For caesarean section under spinal anesthesia, an adequate anesthetic management must ensure the maintenance of basal blood pressure. Compared with appropriate for gestational age fetus, IUGR fetus is at increased risk of metabolic acidosis or perinatal asphyxia during delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  18. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorito, Luciano A; Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Vieiralves, Rodrigo; Bernardo, Fabio O; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2017-01-01

    To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS) to normal controls. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5- μ m thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert's solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann-Whitney U test ( p < 0.005). Quantitative analysis documented no differences ( p = 0.4) in number of seminiferous tubules (ST) in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD = 1.59), when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD = 2.99) and no differences ( p = 0.8) in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85  μ m, SD = 1.58) when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17  μ m, SD = 1.55), but we did observe a lower number ( p = 0.0002) of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD = 3.697) when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD = 2.986). Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  19. Mandibular dimensions and growth in 11-to 26-week-old Danish fetuses studied by 3D ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Sundberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present normative data on prenatal mandibular morphology and growth. Material and Methods Fifty-four normal fetuses (Danish Caucasian) were included in the study (gestational age: 11-26 weeks). Fetuses were scanned using a GE Voluson 730 Expert 3D scanner. Scans were visualized and a...

  20. Pathogenesis of cerebral malformations in human fetuses with meningomyelocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Oebele F

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal spina bifida aperta (SBA is characterized by a spinal meningomyelocele (MMC and associated with cerebral pathology, such as hydrocephalus and Chiari II malformation. In various animal models, it has been suggested that a loss of ventricular lining (neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation may trigger cerebral pathology. In fetuses with MMC, little is known about neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and the initiating pathological events. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation occurs in human fetuses and neonates with MMC, and if so, whether it is associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. Methods Seven fetuses and 1 neonate (16–40 week gestational age, GA with MMC and 6 fetuses with normal cerebral development (22–41 week GA were included in the study. Identification of fetal MMC and clinical surveillance of fetal head circumference and ventricular width was performed by ultrasound (US. After birth, MMC was confirmed by histology. We characterized hydrocephalus by increased head circumference in association with ventriculomegaly. The median time interval between fetal cerebral ultrasound and fixing tissue for histology was four days. Results At 16 weeks GA, we observed neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the aqueduct and telencephalon together with sub-cortical heterotopias in absence of hydrocephalus and/or Chiari II malformation. At 21–34 weeks GA, we observed concurrence of aqueductal neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation and progenitor cell loss with the Chiari II malformation, whereas hydrocephalus was absent. At 37–40 weeks GA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation coincided with Chiari II malformation and hydrocephalus. Sub-arachnoidal fibrosis at the convexity was absent in all fetuses but present in the neonate. Conclusion In fetal SBA, neuroepithelial/ependymal denudation in the telencephalon and the aqueduct can occur before Chiari II malformation

  1. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  2. Memory, Conviviality and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman

    2016-01-01

    that postulates cohesion and conflict as rooted in ethnic and religious differences. It suggests ‘conviviality’ as the production of space, by arguing that hard times, tensions as well as sensorial pleasures produce a sense of belonging in a place, through shared ways of living. While memories of ‘coexistence......The article explores the narratives and memories of past diversity and current practices of conviviality to investigate how class, lifestyle and tastes affect the daily interactions between people belonging to different ethno-religious backgrounds. This chapter critiques ‘coexistence’ as a concept......’ emphasize the fragmentation of people into ethnic and religious groups as a consequence of the homogenization process in the post-Ottoman Turkish context, bitter sweet memories of conviviality create a sense of belonging to Burgaz....

  3. Fetus dose estimation in thyroid cancer post-surgical radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mianji, Fereidoun A.; Karimi Diba, Jila; Babakhani, Asad

    2015-01-01

    Unrecognised pregnancy during radioisotope therapy of thyroid cancer results in hardly definable embryo/fetus exposures, particularly when the thyroid gland is already removed. Sources of such difficulty include uncertainty in data like pregnancy commencing time, amount and distribution of metastasized thyroid cells in body, effect of the thyroidectomy on the fetus dose coefficient etc. Despite all these uncertainties, estimation of the order of the fetus dose in most cases is enough for medical and legal decision-making purposes. A model for adapting the dose coefficients recommended by the well-known methods to the problem of fetus dose assessment in athyrotic patients is proposed. The model defines a correction factor for the problem and ensures that the fetus dose in athyrotic pregnant patients is less than the normal patients. A case of pregnant patient undergone post-surgical therapy by I-131 is then studied for quantitative comparison of the methods. The results draw a range for the fetus dose in athyrotic patients using the derived factor. This reduces the concerns on under- or over-estimation of the embryo/fetus dose and is helpful for personal and/or legal decision-making on abortion. (authors)

  4. Anatomohistological characteristics of Meckel's diverticulum in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meckel's diverticulum (MD is the most frequent anomaly of the small intestine. It appears after incomplete obliteration of the omphalomesenteric or viteline duct which normally obliterates and disappears by the 9th week of gestation. The majority of MD do not give rise to any clinical symptoms and are encounted either incidentally, at examination or intervention, or due to complications which may occur (obstruction, hemorrhagy, rupture, and are described in many clinical reports. The aim of the study was to find out the incidence of MD in fetuses when the development of the alimentary tract is already finished. Methods. The investigation was performed on 150 human fetuses of different sex and gastational age, using microdissection method. The cases with MD were photographed, described, their positions and dimensions were registered. The samples of MD taken for histological investigation were dyed with hematoksilin eosin method. Results. Meckel's diverticulum was found in five fetuses (three male and two female; in one case the fibrous band was found. All of them were located on animesenteric margine of the small intestine at the average distance of 92.5 mm from the ileocecal junction. They were of different shape and dimensions, but of the normal constitution of the small intestine. Conclusion. The incidence of MD was 3.3%, and 4% of all the anomalies of the intestines connected to the disappearance of the viteline duct. It was more frequent in the male, located on antimesenteric margine of the small intestine, at the destination which highly correlated to the age of the fetus. Meckel's diverticule were of different shapes and dimensions but of the typical constitution of the small intestine. .

  5. Prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, C J; Clarke, T C; Spencer, R C

    1994-01-01

    A case of postoperative prosthetic hip joint infection due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is described. Difficulties in isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this organism are discussed.

  6. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Delivery Introduction to Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Amniotic Fluid Embolism Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Fetal Distress Inverted Uterus Labor That ...

  7. Study of Testicular Structure in Fetuses with Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the structure of the testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome (PBS to normal controls. Materials and Methods. We studied 6 testes obtained from 3 fetuses with PBS and 14 testes from 7 male fetuses. The testicular specimens were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE, to observe the seminiferous tubules; Weigert’s solution to observe elastic fibers; and picrosirius red to observe collagen. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done with the Image Pro and Image J programs. Means were statistically compared using the Mann–Whitney U test (p<0.005. Results. Quantitative analysis documented no differences (p=0.4 in number of seminiferous tubules (ST in PBS testes (mean = 8.87%, SD=1.59, when compared to the control (mean = 11.4%, SD=2.99 and no differences (p=0.8 in diameter of ST in PBS testes (mean = 52.85 μm, SD=1.58 when compared to the control group (mean = 53.17 μm, SD=1.55, but we did observe a lower number (p=0.0002 of Leydig cells in the PBS testes (mean = 67.03% and SD=3.697 when compared to the control group (mean = 90.1% and SD=2.986. Conclusions. Our study showed a lower concentration of Leydig cells in the triad syndrome fetuses.

  8. Competitive intransitivity promotes species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert A; Schamp, Brandon S

    2006-08-01

    Using a spatially explicit cellular automaton model with local competition, we investigate the potential for varied levels of competitive intransitivity (i.e., nonhierarchical competition) to promote species coexistence. As predicted, on average, increased levels of intransitivity result in more sustained coexistence within simulated communities, although the outcome of competition also becomes increasingly unpredictable. Interestingly, even a moderate degree of intransitivity within a community can promote coexistence, in terms of both the length of time until the first competitive exclusion and the number of species remaining in the community after 500 simulated generations. These results suggest that modest levels of intransitivity in nature, such as those that are thought to be characteristic of plant communities, can contribute to coexistence and, therefore, community-scale biodiversity. We explore a potential connection between competitive intransitivity and neutral theory, whereby competitive intransitivity may represent an important mechanism for "ecological equivalence."

  9. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  10. Widening of the femoral proximal diaphysis--metaphysis angle in fetuses with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Morales-Roselló, J; Morlando, M; Bhide, A; Papageorghiou, A; Thilaganathan, B

    2014-07-01

    It has recently been reported that fetuses with achondroplasia have a wider than expected femoral proximal diaphysis-metaphysis angle (femoral angle). The aim of this case-control study was to investigate this finding. Cases with confirmed achondroplasia (n = 6), small-for-gestational-age fetuses (n = 70) and a group of normal fetuses (n = 377) were included in this study. The ultrasound image of the femur was examined by two independent experienced observers blinded to the diagnosis, who measured the femoral angle. These values were converted into multiples of the expected median (MoM), after adjustment for gestational age and femur length. Prevalence of various prenatal ultrasound signs of achondroplasia was determined in affected fetuses. Intra- and interobserver agreement of measurement of femoral angle was assessed using 95% limits of agreement and kappa statistics. The femoral angle can be measured accurately by ultrasound, and increases with both increasing gestational age and increasing femur length. The femoral angle-MoM was significantly higher in fetuses with achondroplasia than in the control group (1.36 vs 1.00 MoM, P achondroplasia (83.3%), which was the most consistent finding other than shortening of the long bones. The femoral angle is wider in fetuses with achondroplasia. This new ultrasound sign appears promising as an additional discriminatory marker when clinicians are faced with a case of short long bones in the third trimester. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Application of chromosome microarray analysis for fetuses with multicystic dysplastic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feifei; Lei, Tingying; Fu, Fang; Li, Ru; Zhang, Yongling; Jing, Xiangyi; Yang, Xin; Han, Jin; Zhen, Li; Pan, Min; Liao, Can

    2016-12-10

    To explore the genetic etiology of fetuses with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) by chromosome microarray analysis (CMA). Seventy-two fetuses with MCDK were analyzed with conventional cytogenetic technique, among which 30 fetuses with a normal karyotype were subjected to CMA analysis with Affymetrix CytoScan HD arrays by following the manufacturer's protocol. The data was analyzed with ChAS software. Conventional cytogenetic technique has revealed three fetuses (4.2%) with identifiable chromosomal aberrations. CMA analysis has detected pathogenic CNVs in 5 fetuses (16.7%), which included two well-known microdeletion or microduplication syndromes, i.e., 17q12 microdeletion syndrome and Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) and three submicroscopic imbalances at 4q35.2, 22q13.33, and 1p33. PEX26, FKBP6, TUBGCP6, ALG12, and CYP4A11 are likely the causative genes. CMA can identify the submicroscopic imbalances unidentifiable by conventional cytogenetic technique, and therefore has a significant role in prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. The detection rate of pathogenic CNVs in fetuses with MCDK was 16.7% by CMA. 17q12 microdeletion syndrome and WBS are associated with MCDK. Mutations of PEX26, FKBP6, TUBGCP6, ALG12, and CYP4A11 genes may be the causes for MCDK.

  12. Coexisting diseases of moyamoya vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi-Chia; Liu, Chi-Hung; Chang, Ting-Yu; Chin, Shy-Chyi; Chang, Chien-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Lun; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Peng, Tsung-I; Lee, Tsong-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Several coexisting diseases have been reported in patients with moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV), but studies of quasi-moyamoya disease (quasi-MMD) are rare. This study aims to investigate the frequency of known coexisting diseases in patients with quasi-MMD and to compare quasi-MMD with moyamoya disease (MMD). Between 2000 and 2011, we retrospectively screened patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code of 4375 (MMD) in the Health Information System of our hospital. The vascular images of each patient were confirmed by 2 neurologists and 1 neuroradiologist based on the diagnostic criteria of Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare. We excluded the patients with missing images and erroneous diagnosis. Demographics, coexisting diseases, laboratory data, treatment, and recurrent strokes were recorded. The eligible patients were divided into quasi-MMD and MMD groups according to the presence or absence of coexisting diseases. MMV was found in 90 patients including 37 (41.1%) quasi-MMD and 53 (58.9%) MMD. Atherosclerosis (32.4%) and thyroid disease (29.7%) were the leading coexisting diseases in quasi-MMD. Patients with MMD became symptomatic in a bimodal age distribution, whereas patients with quasi-MMD became symptomatic in a single-peak distribution. The prognosis of recurrent strokes was similar between quasi-MMD and MMD based on Kaplan-Meier analysis. A bimodal distribution of onset age was noted in MMD, whereas a single-peak distribution was found in quasi-MMD. Coexisting diseases were usually underevaluated but were more common than expected in patients with MMV. Atherosclerosis and thyroid diseases were the leading coexisting diseases in different preferential age. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal abnormalities in fetuses with Down's syndrome: a radiographic post-mortem study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempfle, N.; Brisse, H.; Huten, Y.; Fredouille, C.; Nessmann, C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate skeletal abnormalities on post-mortem radiographs of fetuses with Down's syndrome. Materials and methods. Biometrical and morphological criteria, which are used for US prenatal detection of trisomy 21, were assessed. Limb long bones, biparietal diameter (BPD)/occipito-frontal diameter (OFD) ratio, ossification of nasal bones and appearance of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit (P2) in 60 fetuses with Down's syndrome were analysed and compared with 82 normal fetuses matched for gestational age (GA) from 15 to 40 weeks' gestation (WG). Results. We observed reduced growth velocity of limb long bones during the third trimester in both groups, but the reduction was more pronounced in the trisomic group. Brachycephaly was found as early as 15 WG in Down's syndrome and continued throughout gestation (sensitivity 0.28, specificity 1). Ossification of the nasal bones, which can be detected in normal fetuses from 14 WG, was absent in one quarter of trisomic fetuses, regardless of GA. The middle phalanx of the fifth digit was evaluated by comparison with the distal phalanx (P3) of the same digit. We found that P2 was not ossified in 11/31 trisomic fetuses before 23 WG, and was either not ossified or hypoplastic in 17/29 cases after 24 WG (sensitivity 0.56, specificity 1). Conclusions. Three key skeletal signs were present in trisomic fetuses: brachycephaly, absence of nasal bone ossification, and hypoplasia of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. All these signs are appropriate to prenatal US screening. When present, they fully justify determination of the fetal karyotype by amniocentesis. (orig.)

  14. [Rapid prenatal genetic diagnosis of a fetus with a high risk for Morquio A syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-bin; Ai, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Jia; Jiang, Wei-ying; Du, Min-lian; Ma, Hua-mei; Zhong, Yan-fang

    2012-04-01

    To provide rapid and accurate prenatal genetic diagnosis for a fetus with high risk of Morquio A syndrome. Based on ascertained etiology of the proband and genotypes of the parents, particular mutations of the GALNS gene were screened at 10th gestational week with amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct DNA sequencing. DHPLC screening has identified abnormal double peaks in the PCR products of exons 1 and 10, whilst only a single peak was detected in normal controls. Amplification of ARMS specific primers derived a specific product for the fetus's gene, whilst no similar product was detected in normal controls. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed that exons 1 and 10 of the GALNS gene from the fetus contained a heterozygous paternal c.106-111 del (p.L36-L37 del) deletion and a heterozygous maternal c.1097 T>C (p.L366P) missense mutation, which resulted in a compound heterozygote status. The fetus was diagnosed with Morquio A syndrome and a genotype similar to the proband. Termination of the pregnancy was recommended. Combined ARMS, DHPLC and DNA sequencing are effective for rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis for fetus with a high risk for Morquio A syndrome. Such methods are particularly suitable for early diagnosis when pathogenesis is clear. Furthermore, combined ARMS and DHPLC are suitable for rapid processing of large numbers of samples for the identification of new mutations.

  15. Shape coexistence in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Cao Zhongbin; Xu Furong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear shape change and shape coexistence in the Selenium isotopes have been investigated by Total-Routhian-Surface (TRS) calculations. It is found that nuclear shapes vary significantly with increasing neutron number. The TRS calculations for the ground states of 66,72,92,94 Se isotopes show that both neutron-deficient and neutron-dripline Selenium isotopes have oblate and prolate shape coexistence. The cranking shell-model calculations for 72,94 Se give that prolate and oblate shape coexistence in low rotational frequency. However, oblate rotational bands disappear and prolate rotational bands become yrast bands with increasing rotational frequency, which is due to the intrusion of the g 9/2 orbitals. (authors)

  16. 78 FR 65960 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Request for Public Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... the USDA South Building, 14th Street and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room.... agriculture increases, so does the importance of managing issues that affect agricultural coexistence, such as... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary [Docket No. APHIS-2013-0047] Enhancing...

  17. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  18. Local coexistance of different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Under intuitively reasonable assumptions it is shown that in two dimensions different phases cannot exist locally. In three dimensions we discuss the possibility of local coexistance of districts with different magnetization for the Heisenberg ferromagnet and show that an interaction that breaks rotational invariance is necessary for this phenomenon. (Author)

  19. Fetus in fetu: A very rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Choudhuri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Fetus in fetu” is a condition seen rarely in the literature, less than 200 cases reported till now. It is a calcified mass or an encapsulated pendunculated tumor thought to be due to unequal division of totipotent cells of a blastocyst, resulting in a small cellular mass in a more mature embryo thus forming a monozygotic, diamniotic twin pregnancy.

  20. Quantitative Folding Pattern Analysis of Early Primary Sulci in Human Fetuses with Brain Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K; Guimaraes, A; Kim, Y; Cottrill, E; Gagoski, B; Rollins, C; Ortinau, C; Yang, E; Grant, P E

    2017-07-01

    Aberrant gyral folding is a key feature in the diagnosis of many cerebral malformations. However, in fetal life, it is particularly challenging to confidently diagnose aberrant folding because of the rapid spatiotemporal changes of gyral development. Currently, there is no resource to measure how an individual fetal brain compares with normal spatiotemporal variations. In this study, we assessed the potential for automatic analysis of early sulcal patterns to detect individual fetal brains with cerebral abnormalities. Triplane MR images were aligned to create a motion-corrected volume for each individual fetal brain, and cortical plate surfaces were extracted. Sulcal basins were automatically identified on the cortical plate surface and compared with a combined set generated from 9 normal fetal brain templates. Sulcal pattern similarities to the templates were quantified by using multivariate geometric features and intersulcal relationships for 14 normal fetal brains and 5 fetal brains that were proved to be abnormal on postnatal MR imaging. Results were compared with the gyrification index. Significantly reduced sulcal pattern similarities to normal templates were found in all abnormal individual fetuses compared with normal fetuses (mean similarity [normal, abnormal], left: 0.818, 0.752; P the primary distinguishing features. The gyrification index was not significantly different between the normal and abnormal groups. Automated analysis of interrelated patterning of early primary sulci could outperform the traditional gyrification index and has the potential to quantitatively detect individual fetuses with emerging abnormal sulcal patterns. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Posterior brain in fetuses with open spina bifida at 11 to 13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Robert; Chaoui, Rabih; Moratalla, Jose; Picciarelli, Gemma; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To measure the changes in the posterior fossa in first-trimester fetuses with open spina bifida (OSB). The brain stem diameter and brain stem to occipital bone (BSOB) diameter were measured in stored images of the mid-sagittal view of the fetal face at 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks from 30 fetuses with OSB and 1000 normal controls. In the control group, the brain stem and BSOB diameter increased significantly with crown-rump length (CRL) and the brain stem to BSOB ratio decreased. In the spina bifida group, the brain stem diameter was above the 95th percentile of the control group in 29 (96.7%) cases, the BSOB diameter was below the 5th percentile in 26 (86.7%) and the brain stem to BSOB ratio was above the 95th percentile in all cases. At 11 to 13 weeks the majority of fetuses with OSB have measurable abnormalities in the posterior brain.

  2. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP. q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  3. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  4. Early Onset Prosthetic Joint Infection and Bacteremia due to Campylobacter fetus Subspecies fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that occasionally causes serious, relapsing, invasive disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of relapsing C. fetus diarrheal illness in a 75-year-old woman which resulted in secondary bacteremia and seeding of the left knee prosthetic joint. Patient responded favorably to debridement and retention of prosthesis in addition to six weeks of meropenem followed by chronic oral doxycycline suppressive therapy.

  5. The effects of serial intravascular transfusions in ascitic/hydropic RhD-alloimmunized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craparo, F J; Bonati, F; Gementi, P; Nicolini, U

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of serial intravascular transfusions on RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion by measuring multiple hematological/biochemical blood variables. Thirty-one singleton pregnancies were referred for management of RhD alloimmunization. Seven fetuses had hydrops on presentation and were transfused immediately. The remainder underwent weekly ultrasound examinations, and fetal blood sampling and transfusion were performed on development of ascites. In the 104 samples collected overall from the 31 fetuses, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase (PCHE), creatine kinase, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and compared with a reference range for non-anemic fetuses. The median gestational age at first transfusion was 26 (range, 18-34) weeks. There were three fetal losses after the first transfusion, two of which were due to procedure-related complications; one further loss occurred. At the first transfusion fetal hematocrit, pO2, total protein, PCHE, creatinine and urea concentrations were significantly decreased compared to reference data, while total and direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, amylase, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations were increased. In all surviving fetuses ascites/hydrops had disappeared by the second transfusion. Fetal pO2, total protein, AST, ALT and PCHE concentrations had normalized by the third transfusion. Correction of fetal anemia did not affect the other variables. RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion had a survival rate of 87%. Alterations of several biochemical fetal blood indices are present at the first sampling/transfusion, but most variables normalize with intravascular transfusions. Copyright 2005 ISUOG.

  6. Management of coexisting Hodgkin's disease and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisce, L.Z.; Tome, M.A.; He, S.; Lee, B.J. III; Kutcher, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The management of pregnant women with active Hodgkin's disease (H.D.) should be individualized depending on the stage, the presence of infradiaphragmatic involvement, and age of gestation. Seventeen women aged 16-31 years with coexisting H.D. and pregnancy were followed between 1969 and 1982. H.D. was diagnosed during pregnancy in 15 patients and two became pregnant while on treatment. Seven women whose pregnancies were allowed to proceed uninterrupted were irradiated to supradiaphragmatic sites to doses of 1500-2000 rad during the second or third trimester; all had full term spontaneous normal deliveries and normal infants. Fetal doses ranged from 2-50 rad. Two patients treated with Vinblastine throughout three pregnancies delivered normal full term infants. Pregnancy was interrupted in six patients at 6-20 weeks of gestation for various reasons. In spite of several months delay in initiation of definitive therapy, the outcome of H.D. was not adversely affected in the majority of uninterrupted pregnancies as evidenced by long term disease-free survivals of 6-11 years in four of seven patients who were irradiated; the children now aged 6-11 years are also alive and reported normal

  7. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Garel, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  8. Can magnetism and superconductivity coexist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent syntheses of rare earth (RE) ternary superconductors such as (RE)Mo 6 X 8 (X=S or Se) and (RE)Rh 4 B 4 have provided the first opportunity to explore the interaction between magnetism and superconductivity in detail owing to their particular crystal structure. The regular sublattice of the rare-earth ions in these new ternary compounds undergoes a ferro- or antiferromagnetic phase transition in the superconducting state. If the transition is antiferromagnetic, the superconductivity is preserved so that true coexistence results. If it is ferromagnetic, on the other hand, the superconductivity eventually gives way to uniform ferromagnetism at low temperatures. However, recent theories predict several possible states of coexistence even in ferromagnetic superconductors. This article reviews aspects of these new phase transitions in ternary superconductors. (author)

  9. Shape coexistence in 153Ho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Dasgupta, Shinjinee; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan, Kshetri, Ritesh; Ray, Indrani; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Ray Basu, M.; Raut, R.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Basu, S. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Banerjee, P.; Goswami, A.

    2016-08-01

    The high-spin states in 153Ho have been studied by the La57(20Ne139,6 n ) reaction at a projectile energy of 139 MeV at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata, India, utilizing an earlier campaign of the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) setup. Data from γ -γ coincidence, directional correlation, and polarization measurements have been analyzed to assign and confirm the spins and parities of the levels. We have suggested a few additions and revisions of the reported level scheme of 153Ho. The RF-γ time difference spectra have been useful to confirm the half-life of an isomer in this nucleus. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, it is found that there are definite indications of shape coexistence in this nucleus. The experimental and calculated lifetimes of several isomers have been compared to follow the coexistence and evolution of shape with increasing spin.

  10. Growth Patterns of Fetal Lung Volumes in Healthy Fetuses and Fetuses With Isolated Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Rodrigo; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sananes, Nicolas; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Deter, Russell L

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate fetal lung growth using 3-dimensional sonography in healthy fetuses and those with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Right and total lung volumes were serially evaluated by 3-dimensional sonography in 66 healthy fetuses and 52 fetuses with left-sided CDH between 20 and 37 weeks' menstrual age. Functions fitted to these parameters were compared for 2 groups: (1) healthy versus those with CDH; and (2) fetuses with CHD who survived versus those who died. Fetal right and total lung volumes as well as fetal observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were significantly lower in fetuses with CDH than healthy fetuses (Pvolume ratios did not vary with menstrual age in healthy fetuses or in those with CDH (independent of outcome). Lung volume rates were lower in fetuses with left-sided CDH compared to healthy fetuses, as well as in fetuses with CDH who died compared to those who survived. The observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were relatively constant throughout menstrual age in fetuses with left-sided CDH, suggesting that the origin of their lung growth abnormalities occurred before 20 weeks and did not progress. The observed-to-expected ratios may be useful in predicting the outcome in fetuses with CDH independent of menstrual age. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  12. A Monocephalus Diprosopus Fetus: Antenatal Sonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Kavak, Salih Burcin; Kavak, Ebru Celik; Coskun, Berna; Ilhan, Rasit; Orak, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Monocephalus Diprosopus is the rarest form of conjoined twins. The etiology of this anomaly is stil obscure. We herein report a monocephalus diprosopus case that was diagnosed in week 19 of pregnancy was presented due to its rarity and the significance of its prenatal diagnosis. Recommended a pregnancy termination since it does not have a definitive treatment today, prenatal diagnosis made for such fetuses at an early stage bears importance in terms of lowering the severity of psychological t...

  13. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  14. Structural study of gubernaculum testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Suelen F; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Favorito, Luciano A

    2015-05-01

    We compared and contrasted the structure of the gubernaculum testis in fetuses with prune belly syndrome and normal controls. We studied a total of 6 gubernacula from 3 male fetuses with prune belly syndrome and a total of 14 from 7 male fetuses without an anomaly. Gubernacular specimens were cut into 5 μm sections and stained with Masson trichrome to quantify connective tissue and smooth muscle cells, with Weigert stain to observe elastic fibers and with picrosirius red with polarization to observe collagen. Immunohistochemical analysis was done with tubulin to observe the nerves. Images were captured with a BX51 microscope and DP70 camera (Olympus®). Stereological analysis was done with Image-Pro and ImageJ (MediaCybernetics®) using a grid to determine volumetric density. Means were statistically compared with the Mann-Whitney test. All tests were 2-sided with p Prune belly syndrome fetuses were at 17 to 31 weeks of gestation and control fetuses were at 12 to 35 weeks of gestation. Quantitative analysis showed no difference in the volumetric density of smooth muscle cells in prune belly syndrome vs control gubernacula (mean 15.70% vs 19%, p = 0.2321). Collagen fiber analysis revealed a predominance of green areas in prune belly syndrome gubernacula, suggesting collagen type III, and a predominance of red areas in control gubernacula, suggesting collagen type I. Elastic fibers were significantly smaller in prune belly syndrome gubernacula than in control gubernacula (mean 14.06% vs 24.6%, p = 0.0190). Quantitative analysis demonstrated no difference in the volumetric density of nerves in prune belly syndrome or control gubernacula (mean 5.200% vs 3.158%, p = 0.2302). The gubernaculum in fetuses with prune belly syndrome had altered concentrations of collagen and elastic fibers. These structural alterations could be one of the factors involved in cryptorchidism in prune belly syndrome. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  16. Importance of Close Follow-Up in the Fetus with Premature Atrial Contractions Accompanied by Atrial Septal Aneurysm: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Yozgat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhythms that derive from parts of atria other than the sinus node are called premature atrial contractions (PACs. Vast majority of fetal PACs are idiopathic. Fetal PACs usually have a good prognosis and disappear spontaneously during pregnancy or after delivery. Development of fetal tachycardia or fetal bradycardia is rarely reported during follow-up of fetuses diagnosed with PACs. To the best of our knowledge, coexistence of tachycardia and bradycardia leading to hemodynamic impairment has not yet been reported. We present a fetus diagnosed with PACs and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA on the 23rd week of gestation proceeding to fetal bradycardia and fetal tachycardia and consequently hemodynamic impairment. We suggest closer follow-up of fetuses with PACs accompanied by ASA.

  17. Prenatal imaging of a fetus with the rare combination of a right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a giant omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ayasa; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kido, Saki; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2014-11-01

    A co-existing right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele is rare. We present images of a fetus diagnosed with this rare combination of anomalies. Early neonatal death occurred immediately after full-term birth due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In this case, disturbance of chest wall development due to the omphalocele rather than the diaphragmatic hernia was considered as the main cause of lung hypoplasia. Our experience suggests that caution should be exercised for severe respiratory insufficiency in a neonate with an omphalocele and diaphragmatic hernia, even in the absence of an intra-thoracic liver, one of the indicators of poor outcome for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (Pheart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  19. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lorenz Franzen

    Full Text Available The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany, is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  20. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens Lorenz; Aurich, Christine; Habersetzer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany), is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  1. VAGINAL DELIVERY OF GIANT FETUS – SHOULDER DYSTOCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Popović

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder dystocia (SD is defined as unpredictable and urgent obstetric complication that happens when the pelvis of a mother is spread sufficiently to deliver fetal head, but insufficiently to deliver fetal shoulders. It is associated with high percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity. Fetal lethality from hypoxia ranges from 2-16%.We observed the case of vaginal delivery in a multiparous woman in the 39th gestational week. Head delivery was performed by using vacuum extraction. Because of the shoulder dystocia, we applied McRoberts’ maneuver with Resnik’s suprapubic pressure and performed one more episiotomy. Since these maneuvers did not give the expected result, we did the aspiration of the upper respiratory paths of the fetus, after which we performed Hibbard’s cord with simultaneous Kristeler’s maneuver. It led to releasing the shoulders and fetal delivery. On delivery, male fetus was 6000 g/60 cm, estimated with Apgar 1. The urgent reanimation was undertaken. After few hours, the baby was transferred to Pediatric Surgical Clinic for further treatment of present pneumotorax and humerus fracture. After many days, the baby being in normal state, was referred to physical rehabilitation treatment. Today, the baby is without sequelae.SD is one of the most difficult, hardly predictable perilous obstetric complications with high percentage of maternal morbidity and fetal morbidity and mortality. It requires caution, training and skills of obstetric-neonatal team. Liberalization of the use of Caesarian section in managing SD decreases the appearance of injuries in both mother and child. However, regardless of very rapid development of perinatology and the use of modern diagnostic-therapeutic protocols, some questions from classical, practical obstetrics remain unanswered.

  2. An unusual coexistence of Addison's disease and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... Case Study: An unusual coexistence of Addison's disease and phaeochromocytoma. 164 ... strongly positive. ... Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey.

  3. Magnetoencephalographic signatures of numerosity discrimination in fetuses and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleger, Franziska; Landerl, Karin; Muenssinger, Jana; Draganova, Rossitza; Reinl, Maren; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Weiss, Magdalene; Wacker-Gußmann, Annette; Huotilainen, Minna; Preissl, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Numerosity discrimination has been demonstrated in newborns, but not in fetuses. Fetal magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive investigation of neural responses in neonates and fetuses. During an oddball paradigm with auditory sequences differing in numerosity, evoked responses were recorded and mismatch responses were quantified as an indicator for auditory discrimination. Thirty pregnant women with healthy fetuses (last trimester) and 30 healthy term neonates participated. Fourteen adults were included as a control group. Based on measurements eligible for analysis, all adults, all neonates, and 74% of fetuses showed numerical mismatch responses. Numerosity discrimination appears to exist in the last trimester of pregnancy.

  4. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & Strategies Peer Review Small Business Programs Training & Career ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share ...

  5. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen supply of the fetus depends on the blood oxygen content and flow rate in the uterine and umbilical arteries and the diffusing capacity of the placenta. Oxygen consumption by the placenta is a significant factor and a potential limitation on availability to the fetus. The relevance...... anaerobic conditions and even the fetus is adapted to a low oxygen environment. Nevertheless, there is a reserve capacity, and during acute hypoxia the fetus can counter a 50% reduction in oxygen delivery by increasing fractional extraction. During sustained hypoxia, on the other hand, fetal growth...

  6. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  7. Phase Coexistence in Insect Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2017-10-01

    Animal aggregations are visually striking, and as such are popular examples of collective behavior in the natural world. Quantitatively demonstrating the collective nature of such groups, however, remains surprisingly difficult. Inspired by thermodynamics, we applied topological data analysis to laboratory insect swarms and found evidence for emergent, material-like states. We show that the swarms consist of a core "condensed" phase surrounded by a dilute "vapor" phase. These two phases coexist in equilibrium, and maintain their distinct macroscopic properties even though individual insects pass freely between them. We further define a pressure and chemical potential to describe these phases, extending theories of active matter to aggregations of macroscopic animals and laying the groundwork for a thermodynamic description of collective animal groups.

  8. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer

    2010-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  9. Maternal Smoking, Obesity and Male Fetal Sex Predispose to a Large Nuchal Translucency Thickness in Healthy Fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer

    2011-01-01

    to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...... an increased OR for a large NT of 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) compared to normal weight women. Obese smokers carrying a male fetus had an OR of 4.2 (95% CI 1.7-10.1) of a MoM(NT) >95th centile compared to normal weight nonsmoking women with a female fetus. The effects of smoking, obesity status and fetal sex were...... independent of each other. Conclusions: Smoking, obesity and male sex are associated to a MoM(NT) >95th centile. This may affect screening performance and entail unnecessary anxiety in these women. Further investigations, including fetuses with adverse outcome, are needed....

  10. Depressed left and right ventricular cardiac output in fetuses of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Winter MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We compared right and left ventricular cardiac output (RVCO and LVCO in fetuses of diabetic mothers (FDM with a large normal cohort. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 264 normal fetuses and 30 FDM. Fetal CO parameters such as semilunar valve velocity time integrals (AVVTI, PVVTI, ventricular outflow diameters (LVOTD, RVOTD and stroke volumes (AVSV, PVSV were measured, and LVCO and RVCO were calculated. These were normalized using non-linear regression to estimated fetal weight (EFW to provide means and standard deviations. Among FDMs, mean Z scores and 95% confidence limits (CL were calculated and compared to zero. Results: LVCO, RVCO and parameters they were calculated from, increased predictably and non-linearly with increasing EFW. In FDM, LVCO was depressed (mean Z −1.679, 95% CL −2.404, −0.955, P < 0.001, and AVVTI, LVOTD and AVSV were significantly lower than normal. Similarly, RVCO (mean Z = −1.119, CL −1.839, −0.400, P = 0.003, RVOTD (mean −2.085, CL −3.077, −1.093, P < 0.001 and PVSV (mean −1.184, CL −1.921, −0.446, P = 0.003 were lower than normal, however, PVVTI was not different (mean Z 0.078, CL −0.552, +0.707, P = 0.803. Conclusion: Normal biventricular stroke volumes and outputs follow a non-linear regression with EFW. FDM have significantly lower right and left heart stroke volumes and outputs for weight than do normal fetuses.

  11. Morphological changes in the kidney of fetuses with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Desogus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of renal and urological abnormalities have been reported in subjects with Down syndrome (DS. With increased longevity, it appears that a growing number of these subjects presents chronic renal failure. Definition of underlying cause of renal failure could lead to the prevention of progressive renal dysfunction in these patients. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the morphological changes that occur in the kidney of fetuses with DS. Methods: To this end, 25 subjects were examined. Kidney sections were stained with H&E and digitally scanned. Subjects were subdivided into two groups: fetuses with DS (DS-fetuses, n = 11 with a gestational age ranging from 13 up to 21 weeks, and healthy fetuses (N-fetuses, n = 14 with a gestational age ranging from 9 up to 22 weeks. Results: DS-fetuses showed slightly larger glomeruli as compared to N-fetuses. Moreover, glomeruli in DS-fetuses group were characterized by an enlarged Bowman’s space as compared to glomeruli in N-fetuses (p = 0.0028. Differences in the nephrogenic zone width were also observed; DS-fetuses showed a greater width of this zone as compared with N-fetuses. Discussion: In conclusion, we found relevant morphological differences, which suggests delayed renal maturation. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in glomerular area and several glomeruli were morphologically abnormal. These harmful changes in the glomerular structure may result in a nephron deficit, which may be associated with development of renal diseases and hypertension later in life.Conclusions: We hypothesize that the observed morphological anomalies could have significant implications for both the short- and long-term renal health of subjects with DS.

  12. Coexistence of cluster structure and superdeformation in 44Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    The nucleus 44 Ti has low-lying levels of various kinds of mutually very different nuclear structure displaying the richness of the nuclear many-body dynamics. It is shown that the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics by the use of the Gogny D1S force reproduces successfully and unifiedly two types of coexistence phenomena in 44 Ti. Namely, on one hand, the coexistence of the mean-field structure and the cluster structure is confirmed by verifying the normally deformed structure of the K π =3 1 - band with a 1-particle-1-hole intrinsic configuration and the α+Ca40 cluster structure of the K π =0 2 - band. The mixed character of the mean-field-like structure and the α+Ca40 cluster structure of the ground band is also shown. On the other hand, the coexistence of the normal deformed mean-field and the superdeformed mean-field is confirmed by verifying the triaxial superdeformation of the K π =0 2 + band and the K π =2 1 + band which has a 4-particle-4-hole intrinsic configuration. Good reproduction of the experimental data is shown for many kinds of quantities including the energy spectra, electric transition rates, alpha spectroscopic factors. Preliminary discussions are given on the existence of hyperdeformed excited states, the relation between superdeformation and clustering and so on

  13. Coexistence of cluster structure and superdeformation in {sup 44}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masaaki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: masaaki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Horiuchi, Hisashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2006-03-06

    The nucleus {sup 44}Ti has low-lying levels of various kinds of mutually very different nuclear structure displaying the richness of the nuclear many-body dynamics. It is shown that the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics by the use of the Gogny D1S force reproduces successfully and unifiedly two types of coexistence phenomena in {sup 44}Ti. Namely, on one hand, the coexistence of the mean-field structure and the cluster structure is confirmed by verifying the normally deformed structure of the K{sup {pi}}=3{sub 1}{sup -} band with a 1-particle-1-hole intrinsic configuration and the {alpha}+Ca40 cluster structure of the K{sup {pi}}=0{sub 2}{sup -} band. The mixed character of the mean-field-like structure and the {alpha}+Ca40 cluster structure of the ground band is also shown. On the other hand, the coexistence of the normal deformed mean-field and the superdeformed mean-field is confirmed by verifying the triaxial superdeformation of the K{sup {pi}}=0{sub 2}{sup +} band and the K{sup {pi}}=2{sub 1}{sup +} band which has a 4-particle-4-hole intrinsic configuration. Good reproduction of the experimental data is shown for many kinds of quantities including the energy spectra, electric transition rates, alpha spectroscopic factors. Preliminary discussions are given on the existence of hyperdeformed excited states, the relation between superdeformation and clustering and so on.

  14. Growth patterns and cerebro-placental hemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, M J; Clur, S A B; Vink, A S; Pajkrt, E; Kalteren, W S; Kooi, E M W; Bos, A F; du Marchie Sarvaas, G J; Bilardo, C M

    2018-05-28

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has been associated with a reduced fetal head circumference (HC). The underlying pathophysiological background remains undetermined. We aimed to define trends in fetal growth and cerebro-placental Doppler flow, and to investigate the association between head growth and cerebro-placental flow in fetuses with CHD. Fetuses with CHD and serial measurements of HC, abdominal circumference (AC), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI), and cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) were included. CHD was categorized into 3 groups based on expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation: normal, mild to moderately reduced, and severely reduced. Trends over time in Z-scores were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. 181 fetuses fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation in CHD was classified as normal in 44, mild to moderately reduced in 84 and severely reduced in 53 cases. HC z-scores showed a tendency to decrease until 23 weeks, then to increase until 33 weeks, followed by a decrease again in the late third trimester. AC increased progressively with advancing gestation. MCA-PI and UA-PI showed significant trends throughout pregnancy, but CPR did not. There were no associations between expected cerebral arterial oxygen saturation and fetal growth. Average trends in MCA-PI were significantly different in the three subgroups (P=0.010), whereas average trends in UA-PI and CPR were similar (P=0.530 and P=0.285). Furthermore, there was no significant association between MCA-PI and HC (P=0.284). Fetal biometry and Doppler flow patterns are within normal ranges in fetuses with CHD, but show trends over time. Fetal head growth is not associated with the cerebral blood flow pattern or placental function and HC is not influenced by the cerebral arterial oxygen saturation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright

  15. Teratogenic study of phenobarbital and levamisole on mouse fetus liver tissue using biospectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtarinezhad, Azadeh; Panahyab, Ataollah; Shaterzadeh-Oskouei, Shahrzad; Khoshniat, Hessam; Mohamadzadehasl, Baharak; Shirazi, Farshad H

    2016-09-05

    Biospectroscopic investigations have attracted attention of both the clinicians and basic sciences researchers in recent years. Scientists are discovering new areas for FTIR biospectroscopy applications in medicine. The aim of this study was to measure the possibility of FTIR-MSP application for the recognition and detection of fetus abnormalities after exposure of pregnant mouse to phenobarbital (PB) and levamisole (LEV) alone or in combination. PB is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with sedative and hypnotic effects. When used by pregnant women, it is known to be a teratogenic agent. LEV is an antihelminthic drug with some applications in immune-deficiency as well as colon cancer therapy. Four groups of ten pregnant mice were selected for the experiments as follows: one control group received only standard diet, one group was injected with 120mg/kg of BP, one group was injected with 10mg/kg of LEV, and the last group was treated simultaneously with both BP and LEV at the above mentioned doses. Drugs administration was performed on gestation day 9 and fetuses were dissected on pregnancy day 15. Each dissected fetus was fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Sections of liver (10μm) were prepared from control and treated groups by microtome and deparaffinized with xylene. The spectra were taken by FTIR-MSP in the region of 4000-400cm(-1). All the spectra were normalized based on amide II band (1545cm(-1)) after baseline correction of the entire spectrum, followed by classification using PCA, ANN and SVM. Both morphological and spectral changes were shown in the treated fetuses as compared to the fetuses in the control group. While cleft palate and C-R elongation were seen in PB injected fetuses, developmental retardation was mostly seen in the LEV injected group. Biospectroscopy revealed that both drugs mainly affected the cellular lipids and proteins, with LEV causing more changes in amide I and lipid regions than PB. Application of

  16. Testing the embryo, testing the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, K; Farsides, B; Williams, C; Scott, Rosamund

    2007-12-01

    This paper stems from an ethnographic, multidisciplinary study that explored the views and experiences of practitioners and scientists on social, ethical and clinical dilemmas encountered when working in the area of PGD for serious genetic disorders. We focus here on staff perceptions and experiences of working with embryos and helping women/couples to make choices that will result in selecting embryos for transfer and disposal of 'affected' embryos, compared to the termination of affected pregnancies following PND. Analysis and discussion of our data led us to consider the possible advantages of PGD and whether a gradualist account of the embryo's and fetus's moral status can account for all of these, particularly since a gradualist account concentrates on the significance of time (developmental stage) and makes no comment as to the significance of place (in-vitro, in-utero).

  17. Spatial Complementarity and the Coexistence of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Jorge; Garrahan, Juan P.; Eichhorn, Markus P.

    2014-01-01

    Coexistence of apparently similar species remains an enduring paradox in ecology. Spatial structure has been predicted to enable coexistence even when population-level models predict competitive exclusion if it causes each species to limit its own population more than that of its competitor. Nevertheless, existing hypotheses conflict with regard to whether clustering favours or precludes coexistence. The spatial segregation hypothesis predicts that in clustered populations the frequency of intra-specific interactions will be increased, causing each species to be self-limiting. Alternatively, individuals of the same species might compete over greater distances, known as heteromyopia, breaking down clusters and opening space for a second species to invade. In this study we create an individual-based model in homogeneous two-dimensional space for two putative sessile species differing only in their demographic rates and the range and strength of their competitive interactions. We fully characterise the parameter space within which coexistence occurs beyond population-level predictions, thereby revealing a region of coexistence generated by a previously-unrecognised process which we term the triadic mechanism. Here coexistence occurs due to the ability of a second generation of offspring of the rarer species to escape competition from their ancestors. We diagnose the conditions under which each of three spatial coexistence mechanisms operates and their characteristic spatial signatures. Deriving insights from a novel metric — ecological pressure — we demonstrate that coexistence is not solely determined by features of the numerically-dominant species. This results in a common framework for predicting, given any pair of species and knowledge of the relevant parameters, whether they will coexist, the mechanism by which they will do so, and the resultant spatial pattern of the community. Spatial coexistence arises from complementary combinations of traits in each

  18. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: managing the mother, fetus, and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  19. The legal status of the fetus: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, John

    2002-08-01

    The article examines the way that courts and legislatures in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada and Australia have answered questions regarding the legal status of a fetus. These questions have arisen in a variety of legal situations: the article deals with succession, criminal, child protection and negligence law. The conclusion offered is that a fetus has a value and an existence that the law should recognise. This does not mean, however, that in all circumstances the law should protect the interests of the fetus. Law-makers will respond differently to claims made on behalf of a fetus, depending on the context. The fetus does not have a uniform value or character in the eyes of the law. The law makes choices as to the situations in which it will take account of actual or threatened antenatal harm.

  20. Two cases of a fetus with sirenomelia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Tsuguhiro; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Tatematsu, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Akiko; Unno, Nobuya

    2005-09-01

    We report two cases of a fetus with sirenomelia sequence which showed oligohydramnios and a single umbilical artery. The first case was of a single fetus with symelia apus and only one leg. Prenatal diagnosis of this case was possible. The second case was of a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy in which one fetus had symelia dipus with two fused lower extremities. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition was not made. In both cases, the fetuses died shortly after birth from respiratory distress due to severe pulmonary hypoplasia. Absence of urinary tract, imperforate anus, and spine deformity were confirmed in both cases. Although prenatal diagnosis of symelia dipus seems difficult, this condition must be considered in a fetus with severe oligohydramnios.

  1. The perception of the fetus in mothers with liver transplantation. Brief communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ambrosini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this brief note we present the preliminary findings of a study of 16 women who underwent liver transplants before becoming pregnant and giving birth. The aim of the study was to show the similarities and differences between ways women experience the transplanted organ (liver and the fetus. Methods. To explore bodily experiences, a semi-structured ad hoc interview was done on a sample of 16 transplanted women who had completed a pregnancy. The interview was designed to explore the possible similarities between their perception of the transplanted organ (liver and of the fetus. Results. The main findings that emerge from our study are the following: a in the post-transplant, pre-pregnancy phase, these women develop a polarized attention on the transplanted organ; b during pregnancy this attention shifts towards the fetus; c after childbirth the hyper-attention on the transplanted organ disappears and the subject resumes a normal relationship with her body. Conclusions. Therefore, pregnancy and childbirth are experiences that can normalize relations between a person who has undergone a transplant and their transplanted organ.

  2. Computer-assisted imaging of the fetus with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, P M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus and to propose future techniques and applications. Institutional review board approved MR images of the fetus were acquired in 66 patients with sonographically suspected fetal abnormalities. Axial, coronal, and sagittal short TR, short TE images were obtained. In addition, 12 studies were performed with rapid scans requiring 700-1200 ms using either GRASS or Spoiled GRASS techniques. Sequential studies demonstrating fetal motion were also performed. Three studies with 3D IR prepped GRASS were performed. These allowed for orthogonal and non-orthogonal reformatted views and 3D display. Normal fetal structures were shown with MRI, including brain, heart, liver, stomach, intestines, and bladder. Gross fetal anomalies could generally be demonstrated with MRI. MRI may give additional information to that of sonography in fetal anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system, and in the detection of fat, blood, and meconium. MRI of the fetus can demonstrate normal and abnormal structures. Newer techniques with faster imaging will allow for greater possibility of computer assisted manipulation of data.

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of serum from pregnant women carrying a fetus with conotruncal heart defect using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD fetus, using proteomic analysis.The study was conducted using a nested case-control design. The 5473 maternal serum samples were collected at 14-18 weeks of gestation. The serum from 9 pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus, 10 with another CHD (ACHD fetus, and 11 with a normal fetus were selected from the above samples, and analyzed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(2D LC-MS/MS. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ were further validated with Western blot.A total of 105 unique proteins present in the three groups were identified, and relative expression data were obtained for 92 of them with high confidence by employing the iTRAQ-based experiments. The downregulation of gelsolin in maternal serum of fetus with CTD was further verified by Western blot.The identification of differentially expressed protein gelsolin in the serum of the pregnant women carrying a CTD fetus by using proteomic technology may be able to serve as a foundation to further explore the biomarker for detection of CTD fetus from the maternal serum.

  4. Interest of the steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence for 3D modeling of the whole fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anquez, J; Angelini, E; Bloch, I; Merzoug, V; Bellaiche-Millischer, A E; Adamsbaum, C

    2007-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gaining interest over the last two decades. Current fast MRI sequences provide imaging data of the whole uterus in less than 20 seconds, avoiding fetal motion related artifacts without any maternal or fetal sedation. MRI has proved to be a useful adjunct to echographic screening for prenatal diagnosis. However, MRI volumetric data is still mainly interpreted on 2D slices and 3D applications remain limited. In this paper, we discuss the qualities of the SSFP MRI sequences to provide adequate data for 3D segmentation and modeling of the fetus. Potential exploitations of 3D segmentation and derived anatomical models cover several domains: biometric and morphologic clinical studies, quantitative longitudinal studies of normal and abnormal fetus developments, direct visualization of the overall fetus body and simulations in different fields (surgery, radiation dosimetry,...).

  5. Shape coexistence in N = 28 isotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, G.; Kaushik, M.; Kumawat, M.; Jain, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Shape coexistence is one of the important nuclear phenomenon which appears throughout the periodic chart from light mass nuclei to superheavy nuclei. The evolution of ground-state shapes in an isotopic or isotonic chain is governed by changes of the shell structure of single-nucleon orbitals. In recent past, evolution of shell structure guiding shape coexistence, has been observed in the N = 20 and N = 28 isotones around proton drip line. In this paper we have investigated shape coexistence phenomenon for N = 28 isotones in the vicinity of proton drip line using Relativistic Mean Field plus BCS approach

  6. Shape coexistence in N = 40 isotones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, G.; Kumawat, M.; Kaushik, M.; Jain, S.K.; Aggarwal, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Recently, shape coexistence in 72 Ge is investigated using projectile multistep Coulomb excitation with GRETINA and CHICO-2 and shape coexistence in the Ge and Se isotopes are studied within the interacting boson model (IBM) with the microscopic input from the self-consistent meanfield calculation based on the Gogny-D1M energy density functional. We investigated the phenomenon of shape coexistence in N = 40 isotones using Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) plus BCS approach with TMA parameter and Nilson Strutinsky (NS) method that includes triaxial shapes also

  7. A Survey of Ofloxacin Histopathological Effect on Fetus Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ofloxacin is an antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone group consisting of broad-spectrum antibiotics widely used in various infectious diseases. Nearly 600 teratogenic factors are known that cause congenital disease in laboratory animals. One of these factors is drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ofloxacin on the development of fetus rat heart. Materials and Methods: In this study, 4-month-old Wistar rats with 300 gram weight were used and were housed in an environmentally controlled room. A group of 3 females were caged with a single male of proven fertility overnight. Finding of vaginal plug on the following morning was regarded as a gestational day 0. Pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups (control and experimental. The first were fed with rodent food and the second with rodent food plus 50 mg/kg ofloxacin every day. After collection of tissue specimen from rat newborns the heart was dissected and prepared for light microscopy. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving ofloxacin, in comparison with the control group, myocardial cells were smaller and contain highly dense nuclei. Conclusion: In conclusion, the results show that the above mentioned drug could be transferred through placenta and affect the normal development of myocardial cells. These changes could have negative effects on the function of the heart after birth.

  8. Coexistence of competing stage-structured populations.

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Masami; Pfeiffer, Georgia; Boggess, May; Day, Sarah; Walton, Jay

    2011-01-01

    -use overlap. The former ratio, which we define as fitness, can be equalized by adjusting organisms' life history strategies, thereby promoting coexistence. We conclude that in addition to niche differentiation among populations, the life history strategies

  9. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, Beatriz N.

    2001-01-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation

  10. Public Spaces - Coexistence and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Anna; Wojtowicz-Jankowska, Dorota

    2017-10-01

    question: who nowadays is a citizen and how to assist in the creation of civil society with a system of public spaces with thoughtful application program. Currently the city, through its scale, deepens the alienation of residents, therefore appears a need for treatments favouring social interaction. The aforementioned spatial actions motivate people to go out and find themselves in the public space. Coexistence is the first necessary step to produce community. This relationship and the specifics of this co-presence may encourage citizens to return to the public space.

  11. Coexistence and sport: the Israeli case

    OpenAIRE

    Yair Galily; Michael Leitner; Pini Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing sports and other recreational activities to foster peaceful relations and coexistence is an idea that has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in Israel. The aim of the current research is to fill a gap in the research literature on the subject of coexistence programming. The Mifalot organization conducts a program called “Get to Know Your Neighbor” in which Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli youth play soccer together. The program, based mainly on the participants’ love...

  12. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  13. [Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus endoaortitis on a Bentall tube prosthesis. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abassade, P; Crémieux, O; Korach, J M; Templier, F; Morette, C; Wolff, M; Baudouy, P Y; Farge, C

    1994-11-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of endocarditis and endoaortitis: the authors believe this to be the second reported case of infection of an intracardiac prosthesis. The patient was a man who had already undergone replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta, and a gastrectomy, which were predisposing factors. The portal of entry was not found. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive blood cultures and transoesophageal echocardiography. The outcome was rapidly fatal despite antibiotic therapy and surgery, because of the seriousness of the lesions (pseudo-aneurysm of the aorta ruptured into the right atrium), the precarity of the terrain and surgical difficulties.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem MRI for thoracic abnormalities in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Thayyil, Sudhin; Addison, Shea; Olsen, Oystein E.; Wade, Angie; Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M.; Scott, Rosemary J.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for non-cardiac thoracic pathology in fetuses and children, compared with conventional autopsy. Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. A total of 400 unselected fetuses and children underwent PMMR before conventional autopsy, reported blinded to the other dataset. Of 400 non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities, 113 (28 %) were found at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) of PMMR for any thoracic pathology was poor at 39.6 % (31.0, 48.9) and 85.5 % (80.7, 89.2) respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) 53.7 % (42.9, 64.0) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.0 % (71.8, 81.4). Overall agreement was 71.8 % (67.1, 76.2). PMMR was most sensitive at detecting anatomical abnormalities, including pleural effusions and lung or thoracic hypoplasia, but particularly poor at detecting infection. PMMR currently has relatively poor diagnostic detection rates for the commonest intra-thoracic pathologies identified at autopsy in fetuses and children, including respiratory tract infection and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The reasonable NPV suggests that normal thoracic appearances at PMMR exclude the majority of important thoracic lesions at autopsy, and so could be useful in the context of minimally invasive autopsy for detecting non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities. (orig.)

  15. Transabdominal amnioinfusion to avoid fetal demise and intestinal damage in fetuses with gastroschisis and severe oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapin, E; Mahieu, D; Borgnon, J; Douvier, S; Carricaburu, E; Sagot, P

    2000-04-01

    Despite dramatic improvement in survival rate for neonates with gastroschisis, significant postoperative morbidity and a low mortality rate still occur. Furthermore, even in recent publications, some fetal death has been reported. Does this mean that antenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis is a missed opportunity? In fact, decreased amniotic fluid (AF) volume is observed in some fetuses with gastroschisis. However, oligohydramnios is associated with an increased risk of fetal suffering. When severe oligohydramnios is observed, intrapartum amnioinfusion, to restore AF volume, may help avoid fetal complications. Two fetuses with gastroschisis and severe oligohydramnios were treated antenatally with amnioinfusion of saline solution. In one case, fetal heart beat decelerations were observed at 27 weeks' gestation among with the oligohydroamnios and serial transabdominal amnioinfusions were performed. In the second case, severe oligohydramnios was observed at 31, weeks and an amnioinfusion was performed. The 2 babies were delivered at 31 and 34 weeks, respectively. In both cases, exteriorized bowel was nearly normal at birth, and primary closure could be performed. Outcome was favorable, and they were discharged home on day 43 and day 54, respectively. Because fetuses with gastroschisis and oligohydramnios are part of a particular high-risk group, serial ultrasound examination and computerized fetal heart beat monitoring are necessary during the third trimester. In selected cases of gastroschisis associated with severe oligohydramnios, serial amnioinfusion may be required.

  16. Significance of lung anomalies in fetuses affected by tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenisch, Estelle; Raboisson, Marie-Josée; Rypens, Françoise; Déry, Julie; Grignon, Andrée; Lapierre, Chantale

    2017-11-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome is a rare form of tetralogy of Fallot with dilatation of large pulmonary arteries. Prognosis is related to the severity of the cardiac malformation and to bronchial tree compression by dilated pulmonary arteries. This study analyses the prenatal echographic lung appearance in fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve and discusses its significance. We carried out a retrospective review of fetal and postnatal files of nine fetuses diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve syndrome in our institution. Correlations of prenatal ultrasound and cardiac imaging findings were obtained with outcome. Abnormal heterogeneous fetal lung echogenicity was detected in eight cases out of nine, always associated with significant lobar arterial dilatation. This aspect was well correlated with postnatal imaging and outcome in the four neonatal cases. The only fetus with normal lung echogenicity also had lower degree of pulmonary artery dilatation in the series. This study demonstrates that a heterogeneous ultrasound appearance of the fetal lungs can be detected in utero in the most severe cases. This aspect suggests an already significant compression of the fetal bronchial tree by the dilated arteries that may have prognostic implications.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem MRI for thoracic abnormalities in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin; Addison, Shea [Imperial College London, Perinatal Neurology and Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Olsen, Oystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie [UCL Institute of Child Health, Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Jones, Rod; Norman, Wendy; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Scott, Rosemary J. [University College London Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Robertson, Nicola J. [UCL Institute for Women' s Health, Academic Neonatology, London (United Kingdom); Chitty, Lyn S. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Genetics and Genomic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); UCLH NHS Foundation Trusts, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, London (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Autopsy Study (MaRIAS) Collaborative Group

    2014-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) specifically for non-cardiac thoracic pathology in fetuses and children, compared with conventional autopsy. Institutional ethics approval and parental consent was obtained. A total of 400 unselected fetuses and children underwent PMMR before conventional autopsy, reported blinded to the other dataset. Of 400 non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities, 113 (28 %) were found at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95 % confidence interval) of PMMR for any thoracic pathology was poor at 39.6 % (31.0, 48.9) and 85.5 % (80.7, 89.2) respectively, with positive predictive value (PPV) 53.7 % (42.9, 64.0) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.0 % (71.8, 81.4). Overall agreement was 71.8 % (67.1, 76.2). PMMR was most sensitive at detecting anatomical abnormalities, including pleural effusions and lung or thoracic hypoplasia, but particularly poor at detecting infection. PMMR currently has relatively poor diagnostic detection rates for the commonest intra-thoracic pathologies identified at autopsy in fetuses and children, including respiratory tract infection and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. The reasonable NPV suggests that normal thoracic appearances at PMMR exclude the majority of important thoracic lesions at autopsy, and so could be useful in the context of minimally invasive autopsy for detecting non-cardiac thoracic abnormalities. (orig.)

  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, ... Institutes of Health and four research institutions. The fetal surgical procedure also increases the chances that a ...

  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  20. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  2. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest follow us on YouTube ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Directory Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest ... on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  4. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  5. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coexistence of competing stage-structured populations.

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Masami

    2011-10-05

    This paper analyzes the stability of a coexistence equilibrium point of a model for competition between two stage-structured populations. In this model, for each population, competition for resources may affect any one of the following population parameters: reproduction, juvenile survival, maturation rate, or adult survival. The results show that the competitive strength of a population is affected by (1) the ratio of the population parameter influenced by competition under no resource limitation (maximum compensatory capacity) over the same parameter under a resource limitation due to competition (equilibrium rate) and (2) the ratio of interspecific competition over intraspecific competition; this ratio was previously shown to depend on resource-use overlap. The former ratio, which we define as fitness, can be equalized by adjusting organisms\\' life history strategies, thereby promoting coexistence. We conclude that in addition to niche differentiation among populations, the life history strategies of organisms play an important role in coexistence.

  8. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  9. Print vs digital the future of coexistence

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are currently confronted by the challenges of managing increasing amounts of electronic information. Print vs. Digital: The Future of Coexistence presents the expert perspectives of eight of America's leading library administrators on ways to effectively manage digital flow and offers strategies to provide a level of coexistence between digital and print information. This excellent overview explores how to best balance print and electronic resources, and explores important issues such as the selection of electronic resources, improving access to digital information for a larger user

  10. Assessment of the ductus arteriosus in fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot and the implication for postnatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Giulia; Volpe, Paolo; Buffi, Davide; De Robertis, Valentina; Marasini, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    To describe the antenatal and neonatal echocardiographic morphology and flow pattern of the ductus arteriosus in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. We included patients with a prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot between January 2006 and December 2012. Among the 52 fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot the severity of right ventricular outflow obstruction was considered mild in 32, moderate in 14, and severe in 6. In the mild right ventricular outflow obstruction group (n = 32) all had normal ductal morphology and flow pattern, eight (25%) elected for termination of pregnancy and two died in the neonatal period from extracardiac causes. In the moderate right ventricular outflow obstruction group (n = 14) the fetuses had a small ductus arteriosus with antegrade but abnormal flow velocity, one (7%) elected for termination of pregnancy. Immediately after birth the ductus arteriosus was very small or already closed at echocardiographic examination. Two out of 13 patients (15%) developed severe hypoxic spells and underwent modified Blalock-Taussig shunt during the neonatal period. Six fetuses were considered to have severe right ventricular outflow obstruction with flow reversal in the ductus arteriosus, three (50%) of whom elected for termination of pregnancy. The other three newborns underwent modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. In fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot, ductal diameter can be reduced even up to prenatal closure. Prenatal ductal morphology assessment may be useful for improving management of patients with moderate right ventricular outflow obstruction and small ductus arteriosus who may become cyanotic at birth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W

    1999-01-01

    one foot was normal. Malformations of the cranial base (the basilar part of the occipital bone or the postsphenoid bone) occurred in five cases, and the vertebral bodies in the lumbar region of the spine were malformed (cleft) in three cases. It is proposed that a skeletal analysis be included...

  13. Shape coexistence in light Xe-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gast, K.F.W.

    1982-01-01

    There are essentially four regions of problems which are discussed in the framework of this thesis. They can be entitled as follows: Backbending and the nature of the S-band, Nuclear softness and shape coexistence, the validity of the IBA-approximation, and the boson cutoff effect. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Introduction to the Issue of Coexistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Philips, P.C.; Smyth, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2016-01-01

    In many ways, the debate about coexistence is about the future of the global food system and its capacity to meet the rapidly growing demand for food and nutrition. Since their commercial introduction in 1995 and 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at

  15. Ecophysiological adaptations of coexisting Sphagnum mosses

    OpenAIRE

    HÁJEK, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    I studied ecological and physiological adaptations of peat misses (Sphagnum species) coexisting along the environmental gradients in mires. Production, decomposition, water relations, desiccation tolerance and nutrient economy of Sphagnum species were evaluates along the hummock-hollow gradient of water table, while the light adaptations were assessed in an open and forested mire

  16. Coexisting tensions between the 'traditionmodernity' and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coexisting tensions between the 'traditionmodernity' and the 'sustainability- integration' approaches to urban development policy and planning practices in Botswana. ... exists at several levels and manifest in urban planning's preoccupation with the physicality of spatial forms, often justified in the embracing of globalization.

  17. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    final diagnosis of HT coexisting with papillary carcinoma and primary NHL (B-cell lineage) was made. Levothyroxine was initiated at 300mcg/day and patient was treated with chemotherapy (R-CHOP regime). Patient tolerated the chemotherapy well and with 12 months of follow-up, no recurrence or metastasis was noted.

  18. Deformation and shape coexistence in medium mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Emerging evidence for deformed structures in medium mass nuclei is reviewed. Included in this review are both nuclei that are ground state symmetric rotors and vibrational nuclei where there are deformed structures at excited energies (shape coexistence). For the first time, Nilsson configurations in odd-odd nuclei within the region of deformation are identified. Shape coexistence in nuclei that abut the medium mass region of deformation is also examined. Recent establishment of a four-particle, four-hole intruder band in the double subshell closure nucleus 96 Zr 56 is presented and its relation to the nuclear vibron model is discussed. Special attention is given to the N=59 nuclei where new data have led to the reanalysis of 97 Sr and 99 Zr and the presence of the [404 9/2] hole intruder state as isomers in these nuclei. The low energy levels of the N=59 nuclei from Z=38 to 50 are compared with recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations that can describe their transition from near-rotational to single closed shell nuclei. The odd-odd N=59 nuclei are discussed in the context of coexisting shape isomers based on the (p[303 5/2]n[404 9/2])2 - configuration. Ongoing in-beam (t,p conversion-electron) multiparameter measurements that have led to the determination of monopole matrix elements for even-even 42 Mo nuclei are presented, and these are compared with initial estimates using IBA-2 calculations that allow mixing of normal and cross subshell excitations. Lastly, evidence for the neutron-proton 3 S 1 force's influence on the level structure of these nuclei is discussed within the context of recent quadrupole-phonon model calculations. (Auth.)

  19. Large Lattice Discretization Effects on the Phase Coexistence of Ionic Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.; Kumar, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the phase behavior of lattice restricted primitive models for integer values of the ratio of ionic diameter to lattice spacing, ξ . For ξ≤2 , there is coexistence between a disordered phase and an antiferromagnetic phase, but no vapor-liquid equilibrium. For ξ≥3 , a region of normal vapor-liquid coexistence is found, with critical temperatures and densities which are very close to their continuous space counterparts. Our findings stress that lattice structure can result in qualitatively different physics from continuous space models, but that the two models converge even for relatively coarsely discretized lattices. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. The definition of harmonious development of fetus by ultrasound method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Sokolovska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a very important problem of determining the harmonious development of the fetus during determining the tactics of delivery breech presentation. The aim of the study was to determine the ratio of the harmonious development of the fetus at different gestational periods. Methods and results. For all study groups determined biparietal, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, shoulder length, thigh length. For all investigated values of the ratio it was uneven and deviates from the standard distribution. Conclusion. Some pregnant women who have not deviations from the standard deviation, or have only one indicator increases with gestational age.

  1. Dose absorbed in the fetus by radioactive drugs prescribed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Di Trano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This work aims to review existing guidelines on the hypothesis that must be taken into account when calculating impact from the dose on the fetus for widely employed radioactive drugs. Recent research is added giving data on placenta transference linked to pregnancy term. The most widely used diagnostic and therapeutic practices are analyzed comparing the dose impact on the fetus with limits internationally accepted. This will allow having the necessary tools to answer questions concerning radiological risks due to the administration of radioactive drugs to pregnant women

  2. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  3. Treatment of Primary Fetal Hydrothorax with OK-432 (Picibanil): Outcome in 14 Fetuses and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brooke; Kesby, Greg; Ogle, Robert; Rieger, Ingrid; Hyett, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Primary fetal hydrothorax (PFHT) is an uncommon condition with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 10,000/15,000 pregnancies. Therapeutic interventions include thoracocentesis, thoraco-amniotic shunting (TAS), and pleurodesis using OK-432. A review of the literature was performed to identify all cases of PFHT treated with TAS and OK-432. All cases of PFHT referred to the Fetal Maternal Unit at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. In the cohort of fetuses treated with OK-432, the main perinatal outcomes evaluated were termination of pregnancy, live birth, neonatal death, and fetal death in utero. Secondary outcomes included gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, GA at treatment, GA at resolution, birth weight, and GA at birth. The development of the children was screened using the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Version 3 (ASQ-3, 2009). Primary hydrothorax was diagnosed in 31 fetuses, of which 14 had treatment with OK-432. One pregnancy terminated after treatment with OK-432. Survival was 85% (11/13): 100% in fetuses treated with OK-432 without hydrops, and 78% in those treated with hydrops. This compares well to the cases of TAS in the literature with an average survival of 63%: 85% in fetuses without hydrops and 55% with hydrops. The mean GA at birth was 36(+4) weeks and mean birth weight 3,007 g. Eight of the 9 children screened with ASQ-3 scored well within the normal range. OK-432 appears to be a valid treatment option in fetuses with PFHT, particularly in those diagnosed at early GAs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Co-existence in multispecies biofilm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng

    of these emergent properties which are relevant to as diverse areas as clinical settings and natural systems. In this thesis, I have attempted to contribute to our knowledge on the multispecies interactions with a special focus on biofilm communities. I was especially interested in how co-existing species affect...... each other and in understanding the key mechanisms and interactions involved. In the introduction of this thesis the most important concepts of multi-species interactions and biofilm development are explained. After this the topic changes to the various ways of examining community interactions...... and production. The analysis was further extended in manuscript 3, in which the effect of social interac-tions on biofilm formation in multispecies co-cultures isolated from a diverse range of environments was examined. The question raised was whether the interspecific interactions of co-existing bacteria...

  5. Phase coexistence properties of polarizable Stockmayer fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyohara, K.; Gubbins, K.E.; Panagiotopoulos, A.Z.

    1997-01-01

    We report the phase coexistence properties of polarizable Stockmayer fluids of reduced permanent dipoles |m 0 * |= 1.0 and 2.0 and reduced polarizabilities α * = 0.00, 0.03, and 0.06, calculated by a series of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations with the histogram reweighting method. In the histogram reweighting method, the distributions of density and energy calculated in Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations are stored in histograms and analyzed to construct the grand canonical partition function of the system. All thermodynamic properties are calculated from the grand partition function. The results are compared with Wertheim close-quote s renormalization perturbation theory. Deviations between theory and simulation results for the coexistence envelope are near 2% for the lower dipole moment and 10% for the higher dipole moment we studied. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Coexistence and sport: the Israeli case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Galily

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing sports and other recreational activities to foster peaceful relations and coexistence is an idea that has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in Israel. The aim of the current research is to fill a gap in the research literature on the subject of coexistence programming. The Mifalot organization conducts a program called “Get to Know Your Neighbor” in which Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli youth play soccer together. The program, based mainly on the participants’ love for football, is a series of activities and lessons designed to prepare children to meet and interact with youth from neighboring communities. The study examines the effects of participation in this program on the attitudes of the Palestinians, Jordanians, and Israelis toward each other.

  7. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an NIH study reported ... Owner Office of Communications Last Reviewed Date 3/9/2011 Contact Us Publications Sitemap Español facebook twitter ...

  8. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digital Media Join NICHD Listservs About NICHD Organization History Accomplishments Leadership & Other Staff Profiles Budget & Appropriations Advisory Groups Jobs at NICHD Partnering & Donating Freedom of Information Act Director's Corner Contact Us Home Newsroom News Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces ...

  9. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  10. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  11. MASA syndrome : ultrasonographic evidence in a male fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomili, G; Donti, GV; Carrozza, LA; Ardisia, C; Servidio, F; Hofstra, RMW; Gilardi, G; Donti, E

    2000-01-01

    The recent identification of a common etiology among MASA syndrome (McKusick 303300), X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS) (McKusick 307000) and other related neurological disorders, which had previously been considered distinct nosological entities, allowed us to diagnose MASA syndrome in a male fetus in

  12. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  13. Strontium-85 in the fetuses of pregnant rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyskowova, Z.; Josifko, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant SPF Wistar rats and ICR/Swiss albino mice were injected in the tail vein with 85 SrCl 2 with 0.05mM inactive carrier (SrCl 2 ) given in volumes of 0.1 ml. The activity in the injected volume.was about 14 MBq per kg of rat and 13 MBq per kg of mouse. The animals were injected on day 3 or 13 of gestation. Activity retained by the fetuses was quantitatively determined at three stages of the fetal intrauterine development: in rats on days 14, 16 and 21 of gestation, in mice on days 14, 16 and 20 of gestation. The activity of fetuses and/or placentas with fetal membranes was measured using a TESLA automatic gamma counter. The results indicate that the fetuses of mice retained a significantly (P<0.01) greater proportion of strontium activity than the fetuses of rats. The highest specific activities (the percentage of total activity retained per gram of fetal tissue) were found in the late pregnancy period on (day 21 of gestation in rats and on day 20 of gestation in mice) in animals that were injected with the radionuclide on day 13 of gestation. (author)

  14. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  15. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Coexisting chondroblastoma and osteochondroma: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardiwala D

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of two different types of benign cartilaginous tumours of bone in the same patient has not been reported in literature. We report a case in which a sixteen-year-old male had a benign chondroblastoma of the proximal left humerus and an osteochondroma of the distal left femur. Both originated at the same time and had a progressive increase in size with growth.

  18. Adrenocortical and Adipose Responses to High-Altitude-Induced, Long-Term Hypoxia in the Ovine Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By late gestation, the maturing hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis aids the fetus in responding to stress. Hypoxia represents a significant threat to the fetus accompanying situations such as preeclampsia, smoking, high altitude, and preterm labor. We developed a model of high-altitude (3,820 m, long-term hypoxia (LTH in pregnant sheep. We describe the impact of LTH on the fetal HPA axis at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, anterior pituitary corticotrope, and adrenal cortex. At the PVN and anterior pituitary, the responses to LTH are consistent with hypoxia being a potent activator of the HPA axis and potentially maladaptive, while the adrenocortical response to LTH appears to be primarily adaptive. We discuss mechanisms involved in the delicate balance between these seemingly opposing responses that preserve the normal ontogenic rise in fetal plasma cortisol essential for organ maturation and in this species, birth. Further, we examine the response to, and ramifications of, an acute secondary stressor in the LTH fetus. We provide an integrative model on the potential role of adipose in modulating these responses to LTH. Integration of these adaptive responses to LTH plays a key role in promoting normal fetal growth and development under conditions of a chronic stress.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with a cryptic translocation 4p;18p and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlschmidt, N; Zielinski, J; Brude, E; Schäfer, D; Olert, J; Hallermann, C; Coerdt, W; Arnemann, J

    2000-02-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is caused by distal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by growth deficiency, mental retardation, a distinctive, 'greek-helmet' facial appearance, microcephaly, ear lobe anomalies, and sacral dimples. We report a family with a balanced chromosomal translocation 4;18(p15.32;p11.21) in the father and an unbalanced translocation resulting in partial monosomy 4 and partial trisomy 18 in one living boy and a prenatally diagnosed male fetus. Both showed abnormalities consistent with WHS and had in addition aplasia of one umbilical artery. Karyotyping of another stillborn fetus revealed a supernumerary derivative chromosome der(18)t(4;18)(p15.32;p11.21) of paternal origin and two normal chromosomes 4. The umbilical cord had three normal vessels. A third stillborn fetus with the same balanced translocation as the father had a single umbilical artery and hygroma colli. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Body size mediated coexistence in swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Ritchie, Mark E; Powell, James A

    2014-01-01

    Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs) and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a) had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b) were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  1. Body Size Mediated Coexistence in Swans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina A. M. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains/costs and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator, a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains; however, trumpeter swans (a had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

  2. Species coexistence in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Bastias, Cristina C; Godoy, Oscar; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

  3. Emergent neutrality drives phytoplankton species coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Angel M.; Calliari, Danilo; Kruk, Carla; Conde, Daniel; Bonilla, Sylvia; Fort, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that drive species coexistence and community dynamics have long puzzled ecologists. Here, we explain species coexistence, size structure and diversity patterns in a phytoplankton community using a combination of four fundamental factors: organism traits, size-based constraints, hydrology and species competition. Using a ‘microscopic’ Lotka–Volterra competition (MLVC) model (i.e. with explicit recipes to compute its parameters), we provide a mechanistic explanation of species coexistence along a niche axis (i.e. organismic volume). We based our model on empirically measured quantities, minimal ecological assumptions and stochastic processes. In nature, we found aggregated patterns of species biovolume (i.e. clumps) along the volume axis and a peak in species richness. Both patterns were reproduced by the MLVC model. Observed clumps corresponded to niche zones (volumes) where species fitness was highest, or where fitness was equal among competing species. The latter implies the action of equalizing processes, which would suggest emergent neutrality as a plausible mechanism to explain community patterns. PMID:21177680

  4. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Mochizuki, Matsuto

    1989-01-01

    The fetus central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for CNS anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. The most considerable disadvantage of MRI in the diagnosis of a fetus CNS anomaly is the poor information about spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US was routinely used, and the multidimensional slices were useful for screening the CNS abnormalies. Some of the fetus brain lesions, such as intracranial hematomas, had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies, each modality has different diagnostic advantages and disadvantages. Improvement can be expected when these diagnostic imaging modalities are complementary, depending upon the nature of the anatomy. (J.P.N.)

  5. Mathematical models for calculating radiation dose to the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of radiation dose from radionuclides inside the body are calculated on the basis of energy deposition in mathematical models representing the organs and tissues of the human body. Complex models may be used with radiation transport codes to calculate the fraction of emitted energy that is absorbed in a target tissue even at a distance from the source. Other models may be simple geometric shapes for which absorbed fractions of energy have already been calculated. Models of Reference Man, the 15-year-old (Reference Woman), the 10-year-old, the five-year-old, the one-year-old, and the newborn have been developed and used for calculating specific absorbed fractions (absorbed fractions of energy per unit mass) for several different photon energies and many different source-target combinations. The Reference woman model is adequate for calculating energy deposition in the uterus during the first few weeks of pregnancy. During the course of pregnancy, the embryo/fetus increases rapidly in size and thus requires several models for calculating absorbed fractions. In addition, the increases in size and changes in shape of the uterus and fetus result in the repositioning of the maternal organs and in different geometric relationships among the organs and the fetus. This is especially true of the excretory organs such as the urinary bladder and the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract. Several models have been developed for calculating absorbed fractions of energy in the fetus, including models of the uterus and fetus for each month of pregnancy and complete models of the pregnant woman at the end of each trimester. In this paper, the available models and the appropriate use of each will be discussed. (Author) 19 refs., 7 figs

  6. Responsiveness of rat fetuses to sibling motor activity: Communication in utero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Michele R; Hoagland, Riana; Truong, Melissa; Robinson, Scott R

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that fetuses detect and respond to extrauterine stimuli such as maternal movement and speech, but little attention has been cast on how fetuses may directly influence and respond to each other in the womb. This study investigated whether motor activity of E20 rat fetuses influenced the behavior of siblings in utero. Three experiments showed that; (a) contiguous siblings expressed a higher frequency of synchronized movement than noncontiguous siblings; (b) fetuses that lay between two siblings immobilized with curare showed less movement relative to fetuses between saline or uninjected controls; and (c) fetuses between two siblings behaviorally activated by the opioid agonist U50,488 also showed less activity and specific behavioral changes compared to controls. Our findings suggest that rat fetuses are directly impacted by sibling motor activity, and thus that a rudimentary form of communication between siblings may influence the development of fetuses in utero. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Detection of a fetus with paternally derived 2q37.3 microdeletion and 20p13p12.2 microduplication using whole genome microarray technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ren, Meihong; Song, Guining; Liu, Xuexia; Wang, Jianliu; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-12-10

    To perform prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with multiple malformations. The fetus was subjected to routine karyotyping and whole genome microarray analysis. The parents were subjected to high-resolution chromosome analysis. Fetal ultrasound at 28+4 weeks has indicated intrauterine growth restriction, left kidney agenesis, right kidney dysplasia, ventricular septal defect, and polyhydramnios. Chromosomal analysis showed that the fetus has a karyotype of 46,XY,der(2),der(20), t(2;20)(q37.3;p12.2), t(5;15) (q12.2;q25) pat. SNP array analysis confirmed that the fetus has a 5.283 Mb deletion at 2q37.3 and a 11.641 Mb duplication at 20p13p12.2. High-resolution chromosome analysis suggested that the father has a karyotype of 46,XY,t(2;20)(q37.3;p12.2),t(5;15)(q12.2;q25), while the mother has a normal karyotype. The abnormal phenotype of the fetus may be attributed to a 2q37.3 microdeletion and a 20p13p12.2 microduplication. The father has carried a complex translocation involving four chromosomes. To increase the chance for successful pregnancy, genetic diagnosis and/or assisted reproductive technology are warranted.

  8. Assessment by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound of cerebral blood flow perfusion in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S; Zhou, J; Peng, Q; Tian, L; Xu, G; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Zhou, Q

    2015-06-01

    To use three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound to investigate cerebral blood flow perfusion in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). The vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) in the total intracranial volume and the main arterial territories (middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA)) were evaluated prospectively and compared in 112 fetuses with CHD and 112 normal fetuses using 3D power Doppler. Correlations between the 3D power Doppler indices and neurodevelopment scores at 12 months of age were assessed in a subset of the CHD group, and values were compared with those of controls. Compared with the controls, the VI, FI and VFI of the total intracranial volume and the three main arteries were significantly higher in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and left-sided obstructive lesions (P power Doppler values in the ACA territory were significantly higher in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries (P power Doppler ultrasound might help to identify cases of brain vasodilatation earlier and inform parental counseling. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined to...

  10. HEMODYNAMIC DOPPLER PARAMETERS IN THE FETUS FETOPLACENTAL UNIT WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTIONWITHIN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Stamenovic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the spectral analysis of Doppler velocity waveform in uteroplacental and fetoplacental circulation, a Doppler parameters diagnostic efficiency was examined in fetus prenatal detection with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR within Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH and their respiratory menace.A prospective analysis was performed in 141 third-trimester pregnancies. The control group included 65 normal pregnancies and the expeimental group included 76 high-risk pregnancies, which was divided into three sub-groups, namely, 31 with IUGR within PIH, 24 with PIH only and 21 with IUGR only. The uterine artery was examined in uteroplacental circulation and umbilical artery was examined in fetoplacental circulation. Perinatal outcome and birth weight were recorded in each case.Uteroplacental circulation analysis showed statistically higer values of Pourcelot resistance index Ri in uterine artery in IUGR within PIH pregnancies. Statistically higher pulsatility index in umbilical artery was recorded in IUGR pregnancies compared to the control group and PIH subgroup. Higher values of pulsatility index were particulary noticed in IUGR within PIH subgroup. Doppler parameters in uteroplacental and fetoplacental circulation showed a significant negative correlation in relation to Apgar score of the newborn.In combination with biophysical profile and CTG, Doppler parameters diagnostic efficiency is increased on the evaluation of the fetus respiratory menace with IUGR and PIH.

  11. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a declared...

  12. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  13. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  14. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  15. Coexistence of Sarcoidosis and Gouty Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Hüseyin; Kobak, Senol

    2017-08-21

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, the involvement of eye and symptoms on the locomotor system. Gouty arthritis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by hyperuricemia, recurrent arthritis attacks and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints and the surrounding tissues. We reported the coexistence of sarcoidosis and gouty arthritis in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. Coexisting typical migraine in familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Thomsen, Lise Lykke; Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to patients with migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO), most patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) do not report migraine-like attacks after pharmacologic provocation with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a donor of nitric oxide. In the present study, we examined...... patients with FHM without known gene mutations and hypothesized that 1) GTN would cause more migraine-like attacks in patients with FHM compared to controls, and 2) GTN would cause more migraine attacks in patients with FHM with coexisting MA or MO compared to the pure FHM phenotype....

  17. Dynamic motion analysis of fetuses with central nervous system disorders by cine magnetic resonance imaging using fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition and parallel imaging: a preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wan-Yuo; Ono, Shigeki; Oi, Shizuo; Shen, Shu-Huei; Wong, Tai-Tong; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu

    2006-08-01

    The authors present a novel cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, two-dimensional (2D) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) technique with parallel imaging. It achieves temporal resolution at less than half a second as well as high spatial resolution cine imaging free of motion artifacts for evaluating the dynamic motion of fetuses in utero. The information obtained is used to predict postnatal outcome. Twenty-five fetuses with anomalies were studied. Ultrasonography demonstrated severe abnormalities in five of the fetuses; the other 20 fetuses constituted a control group. The cine fetal MR imaging demonstrated fetal head, neck, trunk, extremity, and finger as well as swallowing motions. Imaging findings were evaluated and compared in fetuses with major central nervous system (CNS) anomalies in five cases and minor CNS, non-CNS, or no anomalies in 20 cases. Normal motility was observed in the latter group. For fetuses in the former group, those with abnormal motility failed to survive after delivery, whereas those with normal motility survived with functioning preserved. The power deposition of radiofrequency, presented as specific absorption rate (SAR), was calculated. The SAR of FIESTA was approximately 13 times lower than that of conventional MR imaging of fetuses obtained using single-shot fast spin echo sequences. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) Fetal motion is no longer a limitation for prenatal imaging after the implementation of parallel imaging with 2D FIESTA, 2) Cine MR imaging illustrates fetal motion in utero with high clinical reliability, 3) For cases involving major CNS anomalies, cine MR imaging provides information on extremity motility in fetuses and serves as a prognostic indicator of postnatal outcome, and 4) The cine MR used to observe fetal activity is technically 2D and conceptually three-dimensional. It provides four-dimensional information for making proper and timely obstetrical and/or postnatal management

  18. The ethics of abortions for fetuses with congenital abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotkowitz, Alan; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2010-10-01

    Abortion remains a highly contentious moral issue, with the debate usually framed as a battle between the fetus's right to life and the woman's right to choose. Often overlooked in this debate is the impact of the concurrent legalization of abortion and the development of new prenatal screening tests on the birth prevalence of many inherited diseases. Most proponents of abortion support abortion for fetuses with severe congenital diseases, but there has unfortunately been, in our opinion, too little debate over the moral appropriateness of abortion for much less severe congenital conditions such as Down's syndrome, deafness, and dwarfism. Due to scientific advances, we are looking at a future in which prenatal diagnosis will be safer and more accurate, raising the specter, and the concomitant ethical concerns, of wholesale abortions. Herein, we present a reframing of the abortion debate that better encompasses these conditions and offers a more nuanced position. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fetus In Fetu — A Mystery in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Majhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in Fetu (FIF is a rare condition where a monozygotic diamnionic parasitic twin is incorporated into the body of its fellow twin and grows inside it. FIF is differentiated from teratoma by the presence of vertebral column. An eight year old girl presented with an abdominal swelling which by X-ray, ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a fetiform mass containing long bones and vertebral bodies surrounded by soft tissue situated on right lumber region. On laparotomy, a retroperitoneal mass resembling a fetus of 585 gm was removed. It had a trunk and four limbs with fingers and toes, umbilical stump, intestinal loops and abundant scalp hairs but was devoid of brain and heart. Histology showed various well-differentiated tissues in respective sites. FIF is a mystery in reproduction and it is scarce in literature in such well-developed stage.

  20. [Fatal thrombotic microangiopathy in the mother and fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardy, M; Telek, B; Kiss, A; Flóra Nagy, M; Mikó, T; Rák, K

    1990-04-14

    The appearance of thrombotic microangiopathy (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, haemolytic uraemic syndrome) could have been documented in a 23 years old pregnant woman, who had been treated previously for immune-thrombocytolytic purpura. The disturbing anamnestic data caused significant delay in correct diagnosis and in starting of fresh-frozen plasma therapy, so the woman and her fetus (in utero) had been died. The specific histological microangiopathic lesions could have been well documented by the autopsy of the mother, however no such alterations could have been detected in the fetus and placenta. This latter intriguing observation might be remarkable in the evaluation of several concepts dealing with the aetiopathogenesis of thrombotic microangiopathy. The short review of literature of thrombotic microangiopathy in pregnancy and puerperial period is also given.

  1. Discovery of the shape coexisting 0+ state in 32Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of shell structure in exotic nuclei as a function of proton (Z) and neutron (N) number is currently at the center of many theoretical and experimental investigations. It has been realized that the interaction of the last valence protons and neutrons, in particular the monopole component of the residual interaction between those nucleons, can lead to significant shifts in the single-particle energies, leading to the collapse of classic shell closures and the appearance of new shell gaps. The ''Island of Inversion'' around 32 Mg, which is one of the most studied phenomena in the nuclear chart, is a well known example for such changes in nuclear structure. In this region of neutron-rich nuclei around the magic number N=20 strongly deformed ground states in Ne, Na, and Mg isotopes have been observed. Due to the reduction of the N=20 shell gap quadrupole correlations can enable low-lying deformed 2p-2h intruder states from the fp-shell to compete with spherical normal neutron 0p-0h states of the sd-shell. In this situation the promotion of a neutron pair across the N=20 gap can result in deformed intruder ground states. Consequentially the two competing configurations can lead to the coexistence of spherical and deformed 0 + states in the neutron rich nuclei 30,32 Mg. In this work the shape coexistence in 32 Mg was studied by a two neutron transfer reaction at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN). The two neutron transfer reaction with a 30 Mg beam involved for the first time the use of a radioactive tritium target in combination with a radioactive heavy ion beam. Light charged particles emitted from the target were detected and identified by the T-REX particle detector while γ-rays were detected by the MINIBALL Germanium detector array. The shape of the angular distribution of the protons allows to unambiguously determine the angular momentum transfer ΔL of the reaction and thus to identify the 0 + states. The analysis of excitation energies and angular

  2. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivi...

  3. Hobi-like pestivirus in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds.

  4. Fetus -in -fetu in a 6-month-old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur-Rahman L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a malformed parasitic monozygotic diamniotic twin found inside the body of the living child or adult. We report a case of lumbar mass having superficial rudimentary phallus, labioscrotal fold, testes, pedunculated thumb-like digit and rudimentary pelvis in addition to bowel loops in a 6-month-old Nigerian girl. The mass was excised and the baby did well. We propose based on these that dizygotic parasitic foetiform twin could exist.

  5. Two paradigms and Nobel prizes in economics : a contradiction or coexistence?

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Haim; De Giorgi, Enrico; Hens, Thorsten

    2003-01-01

    Markowitz and Sharpe won the Nobel Prize in Economics more than a decade ago for the development of Mean-Variance analysis and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). In the year 2002, Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics for the development of Prospect Theory. Can these two apparently contradictory paradigms coexist? In deriving the CAPM, Sharpe, Lintner and Mossin assume expected utility (EU) maximization following the approach proposed by Markowitz, normal distributions and risk avers...

  6. Coexistence of Phases in a Protein Heterodimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Liwo, Adam; Niemi, Antti J.; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2012-07-01

    A heterodimer consisting of two or more different kinds of proteins can display an enormous number of distinct molecular architectures. The conformational entropy is an essential ingredient in the Helmholtz free energy and, consequently, these heterodimers can have a very complex phase structure. Here, it is proposed that there is a state of proteins, in which the different components of a heterodimer exist in different phases. For this purpose, the structures in the protein data bank (PDB) have been analyzed, with radius of gyration as the order parameter. Two major classes of heterodimers with their protein components coexisting in different phases have been identified. An example is the PDB structure 3DXC. This is a transcriptionally active dimer. One of the components is an isoform of the intra-cellular domain of the Alzheimer-disease related amyloid precursor protein (AICD), and the other is a nuclear multidomain adaptor protein in the Fe65 family. It is concluded from the radius of gyration that neither of the two components in this dimer is in its own collapsed phase, corresponding to a biologically active protein. The UNRES energy function has been utilized to confirm that, if the two components are separated from each other, each of them collapses. The results presented in this work show that heterodimers whose protein components coexist in different phases, can have intriguing physical properties with potentially important biological consequences.

  7. Shape Coexistence In Light Krypton Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, E.; Goergen, A.; Bouchez, E.; Chatillon, A.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Theisen, Ch.; Huerstel, A.; Lucas, R.; Wilson, J.N.; Andreoiu, C.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D.; Jones, G.; Becker, F.; Gerl, J.; Blank, B.; Hannachi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Shape coexistence in the light krypton isotopes was studied in a series of experiments at GANIL using various experimental techniques. A new low-lying 0+ state, a so-called shape isomer, was found in delayed conversion-electron spectroscopy after fragmentation reactions. The systematics of such low-lying 0+ states suggests that the ground states of the isotopes 78Kr and 76Kr have prolate deformation, while states with prolate and oblate shape are practically degenerate and strongly mixed in 74Kr, and that the oblate configuration becomes the ground state in 72Kr. This scenario was tested in experiments performing low-energy Coulomb excitation of radioactive 76Kr and 74Kr beams from the SPIRAL facility. Both transitional and diagonal electromagnetic matrix elements were extracted from the observed γ-ray yields. The results find the prolate shape for the ground-state bands in 76Kr and 74Kr and an oblate deformation for the excited 2 2 + state in 74Kr, confirming the proposed scenario of shape coexistence

  8. Coexistence of bronchiectasis and rheumatoid arthritis: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynska, Maria M; Condliffe, Alison M; McKeon, Damian J

    2013-04-01

    The presence of bronchiectasis (BR) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been recognized for many decades; nevertheless, little research has been undertaken in this area. It is important to recognize that BR coexistent with RA differs from the other types of BR. The purpose of this descriptive review was to delineate the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, pulmonary function testing, imaging, prognosis and management of concomitant BR and RA. To inform our study we searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases, using combinations of the following key words: computed tomography, lung function tests, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchiectasis, biological agents, and interstitial lung disease. The number of published papers covering this topic is limited, but several relevant conclusions can be drawn. Patients with concomitant RA and BR have worse obstructive airways disease, increased susceptibility to recurrent pulmonary infections, faster lung function decline, and higher mortality, compared with subjects with either RA or BR alone. The use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (both biological and non-biological) for RA in RA-BR patients imparts a further challenge in managing these patients. Although there are not any published guidelines on the management of coexisting RA-BR, we have attempted to provide such recommendations, based on the literature review and our experience.

  9. Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome in an 18-week-old fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Caren; Gembruch, Ulrich; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Körber, Friederike; Müller, Annette M

    2012-01-01

    Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome is a very rare condition initially described by Fryns and colleagues in 1995 in a pair of siblings of nonconsanguineous parents. Since that time, only a few cases have been reported, most of them in newborns and young children. Clinical presentation is variable and includes anophthalmia/microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and other facial deformities. Furthermore, skeletal, central nervous system, and endocrine anomalies have been described. We report the case of a male fetus of 18 weeks of gestation with normal karyotype and findings matching Fryns anophthalmia-plus syndrome. Pregnancy was terminated because of sonographically proven facial midline defects and a marked cerebral ventriculomegaly. Macroscopic and histological findings obtained at autopsy showed extreme bilateral microphthalmia, unilateral cleft palate, unilateral nasal deformity, and low-set ears. Skeletal anomalies included 13 pairs of ribs, premature ossification of the calcaneus, and talipes.

  10. A fetus with hemifacial microsomia and sirenomelia. The same mesodermal defect spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Valdez, Jaime Asael; Estrada-Juárez, Higinio; Moreno-Verduzco, Elsa Romelia; Aguinaga-Ríos, Mónica

    2013-04-01

    Sirenomelia is the most severe malformation complex affecting the human caudal pole, although its etiology is unclear, a primary defect of blastogenesis has been proposed. Studies consider sirenomelia as the most severe form of caudal dysgenesis, VACTERL association, or axial mesodermal dysplasia, although others still support the idea of a different pathologic entity. We report the prenatal, clinical, and pathologic features of a fetus with cleft lip and palate, microtia, cardiac, renal and intestinal malformations, radial aplasia, and sirenomelia. Karyotype, chromosomal breakage studies, and SHH sequence analysis were normal. The occurrence of cephalic, midline-paramedial, and caudal malformations in the same patient imply the diagnosis of hemifacial microsomia and sirenomelia. These entities are part of the same mesodermal malformation spectrum and the clinical presentation depends on environmental and genetic interactions in embrionic development. Future clinical and genome wide studies will help to better delineate this spectrum.

  11. Coexistence of Reverse Capgras Syndrome, Subjective Double and Cotard Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mashayekhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Misidentification syndrome is a condition in which the person thinks that familiar persons have been replaced with other one. Coexistence of some types of this syndrome has been reported with other psychiatric syndromes. In this report, we present a 47-year-old married man with coexistence of reverse Capgras and subjective double syndromes with Cotard syndrome. There is no previous report of coexistence of these three forms of delusions in a single case.

  12. The challenges of managing coexistent disorders with phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, A; Ahring, K; Almeida, M F

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The few published case reports of co-existent disease with phenylketonuria (PKU) are mainly genetic and familial conditions from consanguineous marriages. The clinical and demographic features of 30 subjects with PKU and co-existent conditions were described in this multi-centre, re......INTRODUCTION: The few published case reports of co-existent disease with phenylketonuria (PKU) are mainly genetic and familial conditions from consanguineous marriages. The clinical and demographic features of 30 subjects with PKU and co-existent conditions were described in this multi...

  13. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  14. Limits on new forces coexisting with electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloor, H.; Fischbach, E.; Talmadge, C.; Greene, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the limits arising from different electromagnetic systems on the existence of a possible new electromagnetic analogue of the fifth force. Although such a force may have no intrinsic connection to electromagnetism (or gravity), its effects could be manifested through various anomalies in electromagnetic systems, for appropriate values of the coupling strength and range. Our work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges. By combining data from both gravitational and electromagnetic systems, one can eventually set limits on a new force whose range λ extends from the subatomic scale (λ∼10 -15 m) to the astrophysical scale (λ∼10 12 m)

  15. Coexistence of giant cell fibroblastoma and encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Nishat; Shamim, Nida; Jain, Anshu; Soni, Mayank

    2014-04-11

    Giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) is a rare soft tissue tumour that occurs almost exclusively in children younger than 10 years of age and is mostly located in the superficial soft tissues of the back and thighs. We present a rare case of GCF with encephalocele in a 1.5-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the occipital area of the scalp since birth. CT scan suggested encephalocele without any suspicion of a mass lesion. On histopathology, an ill-defined proliferation of fibroblasts in a heavily collagenised and focally myxoid stroma was seen containing numerous multinucleated cells having a floret-like appearance along with mature glial tissue bordering a cystic space. Immunohistochemically, the stromal cells were positive for both, vimentin (diffuse) and CD34 (focal) thereby confirming the histological diagnosis of GCF. This case highlights the unusual coexistence of GCF with congenital defects and its histogenetic resemblance to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

  16. Coexisting principles and logics of elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    2015-01-01

    Healthy and active ageing has become an ideal in Western societies. In the Nordic countries, this ideal has been supported through a policy of help to self-help in elder care since the 1980s. However, reforms inspired by New Public Management (NPM) have introduced a new policy principle of consumer......-oriented service that stresses the wishes and priorities of older people. We have studied how these two principles are applied by care workers in Denmark. Is one principle or logic replacing the other, or do they coexist? Do they create tensions between professional knowledge and the autonomy of older people......? Using neo-institutional theory and feminist care theory, we analysed the articulation of the two policy principles in interviews and their logics in observations in four local authorities. We conclude that help to self-help is the dominant principle, that it is deeply entrenched in the identity...

  17. Immunohistochemical structural pecularities of uterine tube of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Сергеевна Куприянова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim - immunohistochemical detection of structural features of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection.Methods: anthropometric, macroscopic, organometric, histological, immunohistochemical, statistical.Object of research - the uterine tubes of antenatal dead fetuses. The control group consisted of 25 fetuses of healthy mothers; the comparison group is 15 fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Fetal infection confirmed by laboratory methods; the presence of TORCH infections, cytomegalovirus, herpes infection and chlamydial infection is determined.Results: indicators of weight and body length of the fetus of the comparison group were significantly reduced. Unidirectional changes are established in the definition of the mass and the length of the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection. Massive growth of connective tissue in the mucosa, the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of wall of the uterine tube of fetus in the comparison group is shown by histological methods. Violation of collagen formation in the connective tissue in the uterine tubes of fetuses with signs of intrauterine infection is found by immunohistochemistry method.Conclusions: The reduction of anthropometric and organometric indicators in fetuses of comparison group is shown. Sclerosis and atrophy, as well as violations of collagen-synthesizing function are predominated in the main structural components of the wall of the uterine tube of fetuses in the comparison group. The revealed changes in the future ontogenesis may lead to the development of primary infertility

  18. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14% had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  19. Interstitial Pregnancy Resulting in a Viable Infant Coexistent with Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tanaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The objective of this report is to describe a rare case of interstitial pregnancy ultimately resulting in a viable infant coexistent with massive perivillous fibrin deposition (MPFD. Study Design - This study is a case report and literature review. Results - A 35-year-old female patient underwent cesarean section at 32 weeks of gestation due to fetal growth restriction (FGR and breech presentation. During the operation, a diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy was established. There was no evidence of placental separation. We decided to complete surgery without removal of the placenta and waited until the placenta delivered spontaneously. The conservative management was successful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 13. The pathologic examination showed MPFD. Conclusion - If interstitial pregnancies are not diagnosed at an early gestational age, it can result in a viable fetus, but such pregnancies may be associated with FGR or placenta accreta.

  20. The challenges of managing coexistent disorders with phenylketonuria: 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Ahring, K; Almeida, M F; Belanger-Quintana, A; Blau, N; Burlina, A; Cleary, M; Coskum, T; Dokoupil, K; Evans, S; Feillet, F; Giżewska, M; Gokmen Ozel, H; Lotz-Havla, A S; Kamieńska, E; Maillot, F; Lammardo, A M; Muntau, A C; Puchwein-Schwepcke, A; Robert, M; Rocha, J C; Santra, S; Skeath, R; Strączek, K; Trefz, F K; van Dam, E; van Rijn, M; van Spronsen, F; Vijay, S

    2015-12-01

    The few published case reports of co-existent disease with phenylketonuria (PKU) are mainly genetic and familial conditions from consanguineous marriages. The clinical and demographic features of 30 subjects with PKU and co-existent conditions were described in this multi-centre, retrospective cohort study. Diagnostic age of PKU and co-existent condition, treatment regimen, and impact of co-existent condition on blood phenylalanine (Phe) control and PKU management were reported. 30 patients (11 males and 19 females), with PKU and a co-existent condition, current median age of 14 years (range 0.4 to 40 years) from 13 treatment centres from Europe and Turkey were described. There were 21 co-existent conditions with PKU; 9 were autoimmune; 6 gastrointestinal, 3 chromosomal abnormalities, and 3 inherited conditions. There were only 5 cases of parental consanguinity. Some patients required conflicting diet therapy (n=5), nutritional support (n=7) and 5 children had feeding problems. There was delayed diagnosis of co-existent conditions (n=3); delayed treatment of PKU (n=1) and amenorrhea associated with Grave's disease that masked a PKU pregnancy for 12 weeks. Co-existent conditions adversely affected blood Phe control in 47% (n=14) of patients. Some co-existent conditions increased the complexity of disease management and increased management burden for patients and caregivers. Occurrence of co-existent disease is not uncommon in patients with PKU and so investigation for co-existent disorders when the clinical history is not completely consistent with PKU is essential. Integrating care of a second condition with PKU management is challenging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Teratogenic effect of yogurt in mice fetus (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dwisari Dillasamola; Almahdy A; Amirah Desri; Skunda Diliarosta

    2018-01-01

    Yogurt is one of the dairy products made from lactic acid fermentation by using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A study on teratogenic effects of yogurt on the white female mice fetus (Mus musculus) has been carried out. Pregnant mice used were 20 which divided into 4 groups : the control group, D1, D2, and D3. The treatments giveThe mice were Distidelled water (control), 0.52 yogurt (D1), 1.04  yogurt (D2), and 2.08 g yogurt (D3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANO...

  2. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    and screening for fetal malformations is carried out. Our cohort includes all fetuses in Western Denmark (2.9 million inhabitants) screened in between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2013, diagnosed with any structural, non-syndromic congenital heart disease either during pregnancy or up to 6 months after......Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with neuro-developmental disorders. The influence of CHD on the brain may be present in the fetus. We hypothesize that fetal cerebral growth is impaired as early as 2nd trimester. Aim: To investigate if fetal cerebral growth is associated...... birth. Results 276 fetuses with CHD were identified. 114 (41%) were genetically screened primarily by chromosomal microarray analysis (n=82). Fetuses with identified chromosomal abnormalities were excluded as were multiple gestation fetuses and fetuses with major extra cardiac malformations. Data from...

  3. Autopsy and Postmortem Studies Are Concordant: Pathology of Zika Virus Infection Is Neurotropic in Fetuses and Infants With Microcephaly Following Transplacental Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-01-01

    -Pathology studies have been important in concluding that Zika virus infection occurring in pregnant women can result in vertical transmission of the agent from mother to fetus. Fetal and infant autopsies have provided crucial direct evidence that Zika virus can infect an unborn child, resulting in microcephaly, other malformations, and, in some cases, death. -To better understand the etiologic role and mechanism(s) of Zika virus in causing birth defects such as microcephaly, this communication analyzes the spectrum of clinical and autopsy studies reported from fetuses and infants who developed intrauterine Zika virus infection, and compares these findings with experimental data related to Zika virus infection. -Retrospective analysis of reported clinical, autopsy, pathology, and related postmortem studies from 9 fetuses and infants with intrauterine Zika virus infection and microcephaly. -All fetuses and infants examined demonstrated an overlapping spectrum of gross and microscopic neuropathologic abnormalities. Direct cytopathic effects of infection by the Zika virus were confined to the brain; in cases where other organs were evaluated, no direct viral effects were identified. -There is concordance of the spectrum of brain damage, reinforcing previous data indicating that the Zika virus has a strong predilection for cells of the fetal central nervous system following vertical transmission. The occurrence of additional congenital abnormalities suggests that intrauterine brain damage from Zika virus interferes with normal fetal development, resulting in fetal akinesia. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies of Zika virus infection corroborate the human autopsy findings of neural specificity.

  4. Clinical, cytogenetic and molecular investigation in a fetus with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with paternally derived 4p deletion. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Ilona; Fritz, Barbara; Huhle, Dagmar; Simoens, Wouter; Piecha, Ernestine; Rehder, Helga

    2004-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn (4p-) syndrome (WHS), caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, has been extensively described in children and young adults. Knowledge on fetuses with WHS is still limited due to the small number of published cases. We report on a fetus with prenatally diagnosed severe intrauterine growth retardation, reduced thoracal diameter, clubfeet deformity and midface hypoplasia including slight microretrognathia indicative for fetal karyotyping. Chromosome analysis after amniocentesis revealed a de novo terminal deletion of chromosome 4p [karyotype: 46,XX,del(4) (p16)] which was confirmed by FISH. Analyses of a set of polymorphic markers mapping in 4pter->4p15.3 showed absence of paternal haplotypes. These observations corroborate the preferential paternal origin of the de novo 4p deletion in WHS patients. Furthermore, the distal breakpoint could be narrowed to band 4p16.1. At autopsy, the fetus showed typical craniofacial dysmorphic signs of WHS, severe IUGR and delayed bone age. This report suggests the possibility of recognising the particular phenotype of WHS in utero by prenatal ultrasound and emphasises the importance of karyotyping fetuses with severe IUGR, especially when the amount of amniotic fluid is normal. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Coexistence of gout and rheumatoid arthritis in Nairobi, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a widespread belief that gout and RA rarely coexist in the same patient. Given that there is an excess burden of cardiovascular disease in patients with RA, this is compounded by hyperuricemia. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical profiles of patients with coexistent gout and ...

  6. Coexistence of hyperon and π condensation in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isshiki, Akinori

    2000-01-01

    We consider the coexistence of hyperon and π condensation in neutron stars. The coexistence phase may occur because of the strong ΛΣπ coupling. Hyperon can appear under π condensation, because short range repulsion reduce the π-baryon p wave attraction. The system approaches the Fermi gas because of this reduction. (author)

  7. Geometry of coexistence in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P.; Frank, A.; Vargas, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Interacting Boson Model (IBM) with configuration mixing is applied to describe the phenomenon of coexistence in nuclei. The analysis suggests that the IBM with configuration mixing, used in conjunction with a (matrix) coherent-state method, may be a reliable tool for the study of geometric aspects of shape coexistence in nuclei

  8. Coexisting Disorders and Academic Achievement among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…

  9. Trophic position of coexisting krill species: a stable isotope approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Bode, Antonio; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2014-01-01

    Four krill species with overlapping functional biology coexist in Greenland waters. Here, we used stable isotopes to investigate and discuss their trophic role and mode of coexistence. Bulk carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analyses of Thysanoessa longicaudata, T. inermis, T. raschii...

  10. The challenges of managing coexistent disorders with phenylketonuria : 30 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDonald, A.; Ahring, K.; Almeida, M. F.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; Blau, N.; Burlina, A.; Cleary, M.; Coskum, T.; Dokoupil, K.; Evans, S.; Feillet, F.; Gizewska, M.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Lotz-Havla, A. S.; Kamienska, E.; Maillot, F.; Lammardo, A. M.; Muntau, A. C.; Puchwein-Schwepcke, A.; Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; Santra, S.; Skeath, R.; Straczek, K.; Trefz, F. K.; van Dam, E.; van Rijn, M.; van Spronsen, F.; Vijay, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The few published case reports of co-existent disease with phenylketonuria (PKU) are mainly genetic and familial conditions from consanguineous marriages. The clinical and demographic features of 30 subjects with PKU and co-existent conditions were described in this multi-centre,

  11. Facial markers in second- and third-trimester fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Sonek, J; Berg, X; Berg, C; Mallmann, M; Abele, H; Hoopmann, M; Geipel, A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of nasal bone (NB) evaluation (including NB length (NBL)), prenasal thickness (PT) measurement, the PT:NBL ratio and the prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) in the identification of fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome. This was a retrospective study using stored midsagittal two-dimensional images of the facial profile of fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome in the second and third trimesters. For images of acceptable quality, measurements were obtained of NBL (where NB was present), PT, the PT:NBL ratio and PFSR, and these measurements were compared with previously published normal ranges. The search of databases identified 189 fetuses that met the study criteria: 132 (69.8%) with trisomy 18, 40 (21.2%) with trisomy 13, 10 (5.3%) with triploidy and seven (3.7%) with Turner syndrome. The NB was either absent or its measurement was below the 5(th) centile in 67 (50.8%), 20 (50.0%), five (50.0%) and two (28.6%) of the fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, respectively. The PT measurement was above the 95(th) centile in 24 (18.2%), six (15.0%), one (10.0%) and one (14.3%) of the affected fetuses, respectively. The PFSR was abnormal in 72 (54.5%), 29 (72.5%), seven (70%) and four (57.1%) of the cases and the PT:NBL ratio was above the 95(th) centile or the nasal bone was absent in 72 (54.5%), 20 (50.0%), six (60.0%) and four (57.1%) cases, respectively. Although each of the facial markers considered provides some useful information in screening for trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, the performance of none of the markers appears to be as good as that in screening for trisomy 21. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Fate of Motherhood, Fetuses and Neonates in Drug Addicted Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction causes many complications for mother and fetus. Preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, prenatal mortality, placental abruption, preeclampsia, PROM, cesarean delivery and congenital anomalies among the newborns of addicted mothers are increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the final of maternal, fetal and neonatal of drugs addicted pregnant women. Methods: The study is a Cross-Sectional study was done on 236 pregnant women 19-40 years old addicted to drugs and 236 pregnant women non-addicted that referred for delivery to maternity hospitals of Imam Reza(as and Imam Sajjad(as during 2008-2010. Measuring instruments were: observing and checklist includes various sections were related on the aims. Data Analysis was done using SPSS. After ensuring that these values followed the normal distribution, chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare qualitative variables of two groups and for quantitative variables T test was used. Confidence coefficient of 95% was considered. Results: The results showed complication such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, neonatal death in the first three days of birth, weight loss, low circumference head size among infants were born of mothers addicted compared with the control group had shown significant increase. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes serious complications for mother, fetus and newborn.

  13. [The importance of antenatal immunoprophylaxis for prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcević, Mirta; Mataija, Marina; Sović, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Matijević, Ratko; Kukuruzović, Monika

    2011-03-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a consequence of maternal alloimmunization against fetal red blood cell antigens. Alloimmunization against D antigen from Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is particularly important because of its strong immunogenicity. During the last few decades, the introduction of RhD prophylaxis by postpartum administration of anti-D immunoglobulin to RhD negative women, now improved with antenatal prophylaxis, has led to a dramatic decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity from HDFN. However, severe cases have not disappeared, mostly due to prophylaxis failure. In our case, inappropriate prenatal care during the first pregnancy in an RhD negative mother resulted in primary immunization. In the next pregnancy with an RhD positive child, the mother's secondary immune response was extremely strong and led to early development of severe fetal anemia. The fetus survived thanks to the treatment with intrauterine transfusions (IUT), but they caused suppression of erythropoiesis, which lasted for months after birth. The long lasting, late anemia was treated with repeated postnatal red cell transfusions and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Despite the severity of HDFN in our case, the short-term outcome is good. The boy has normal growth until now, but due to the possibility of an adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, this case requires continuous follow up. It also reminds of the fact that RhD alloimmunization remains an actual problem in daily routine. Antenatal prophylaxis is a crucial step in quality care of those who are at a risk of HDFN.

  14. Effects of Cinnamon Extract on Cerebellum Histomorphometry in Diabetic Rats’ Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Rafati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: In pregnant women, maternal diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, so glucose increases in the mother's blood and the blood of the fetus therefore causing many complications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cinnamon on morphometric histologic changes on fetal cerebellum of diabetic rats at days 18 and 20. Methods: In this study, 32 healthy female Wistar rats were prepared and randomly divided into four groups, normal control, diabetic, healthy subjects treated with cinnamon and cinnamon extract-treated diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were subjected by intraperitoneal of streptozotocin. All groups were charged with natural mating and they received a dose of 60 mg/ kg of cinnamon at the first day off pregnancy. After formation of the nervous system, in the eighteenth and twentieth day of pregnancy, the mother of the four mice were anesthetized and the fetus was removed for sampling. The histological slides were prepared and various parameters were studied in the cerebellum. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan test. Results: The thickness of gray matter, and the gray matter white cells in the cerebellum of diabetic rats compared to other groups tested at days of18 and 20 and embryonic cells in the white matter of the cerebellum at day 18 was significantly decreased (p< 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of cinnamon extract reduces mothers’ blood sugar levels therefore preventing the complications of diabetes on the fetal cerebellum. Key words: cinnamon extract, Diabetes, cerebellum, Rat.

  15. Malformations Induced in Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses Treated with Fluconazole and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the synergistic effect of antifungal (fluconazole) treatment and / or g-radiation stress on pregnant mothers and their developing embryos by evaluating the maternal biochemical changes, embryological and histopathological lesions. Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum azole antifungal medication used for the treatment of several types of fungal infections including common forms such as vaginal candidiasis. Fluconazole (50 mg/kg b.wt.) was daily administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats from the 4th to the 13th gestational days during which they were subjected to g-radiation at a dose level of 1 Gy given at the 6th day (post implantation period) and 1 Gy on the 12th day (organogenesis period) of gestation. The animals were dissected and examined on the 20th day of gestation (one day prior to praturation). Fluconazole and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and sodium (Na + ) level accompanied with a decline in potassium (K + ) concentration. The results showed that there was an elevation in the lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and heart tissues of pregnant rats. Meantime, the developing embryos in the uteri showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairments. Moreover, the fluconazole treatment and / or g-radiation harm effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. The examination of the endoskeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the center of vertebrae and appendages. In addition, the embryonic histological examinations revealed heart loss of normal architecture, the interstitial tissues were oedematous and containing necrotic cellular debris together with fibrosis of nerve cells in the brain

  16. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsier, N; Wiart, J; Dahdouh, S; Angelini, E D; Bloch, I; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  17. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of an elastofibroma dorsi coexisting with a high grade spindle cell sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alberghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a pseudotumoral fibroproliferative lesion characterized by polymorphic fiber-like deposits of elastinophilic material. Several theories have been reported explaining the pathogenesis of elastofibroma. Recent cytogenetic studies have demonstrated chromosomal instability in elastofibromas, not normally observed in non-neoplastic tissues. These chromosomal defects are commonly observed in aggressive fibromatosis too. Such clinical observations suggest a multistage pathogenetic mechanism for the onset of elastofibroma. This study, using histochemical, immunohistochemical staining techniques, and ultrastructural examination, describes the detection of an otherwise typical elastofibroma contextual to a high grade sarcoma. Hence, the coexistence of elastofibroma and high-grade sarcoma may suggest a causal link between the two pathological entities. The results obtained suggest that the coexistence of the two pathological entities is conceivably coincidental.

  19. Four stages of hepatic hematopoiesis in human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, D; Angotzi, F; Lai, F; Gerosa, C; Senes, G; Fanos, V; Faa, G

    2018-03-01

    The liver is a major hematopoietic organ during embryonic and fetal development in humans. Its hematopoietic activity starts during the first weeks of gestation and continues until birth. During this period the liver is colonized by undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that gradually differentiate and once mature, enter the circulatory system through the hepatic sinusoids, this process is called hepatic hematopoiesis. The morphology of hepatic hematopoiesis, has been studied in humans through the years, and led to a characterization of all the cell types that make up these phenomena. Studies on murine models also helped to describe the extent of hepatic hematopoiesis at different gestational ages. Using this knowledge, we attempted to describe how hepatic hematopoiesis morphologically evolves as gestation progresses, in human embryos and fetuses. Thus, we observed a total of 32 tissue specimens obtained from the livers of embryos and fetuses at different gestational ages. Basing our observations on the four stages of liver hematopoiesis identified by Sasaki and Sonoda in mice, we also described four consecutive stages of liver hematopoiesis in humans, which resulted to be highly similar to those described in murine models.

  20. Anatomy and variations of palmaris longus in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albay, S; Kastamoni, Yadigar; Sakalli, Büşra; Tunali, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the absence of the palmaris longus, the proportion of the lengths of tendon and muscle belly, the development of the tendon and the belly during the fetal period, look for any difference between sides and gender. Fifty-eight spontaneously aborted human fetuses (26 female, 32 male, 116 upper extremities) were studied. The presence or absence of the palmaris longus was determined. The lengths of the belly and tendon were measured, and belly/tendon length ratio was calculated. Correlation with gestational age, body side and gender were studied. The muscle was absent in 44 forearms (37.93%; 20 right side, 34.48%; 24 left side, 41.38%); being bilateral in 19 of 58 fetuses (32.76%) and unilateral in six (10.34%). The unilateral absence rate was higher on the left side with a statistically significant difference. The absence of palmaris longus was more common in females, and the difference was statistically significant. The belly/tendon length ratio was 1.04 ± 0.35 on the right side and 1.09 ± 0.3 on the left. It did not show any difference according the fetal age. A sound knowledge on the anatomy and variations of palmaris longus is of great importance during surgical interventions; because it is the first choice for tendon grafts, by the virtue of its structure and function. Thus, this study is of academic interest for anatomists and hand surgeons alike.

  1. Complex Trajectories of Brain Development in the Healthy Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andescavage, Nickie N; du Plessis, Adre; McCarter, Robert; Serag, Ahmed; Evangelou, Iordanis; Vezina, Gilbert; Robertson, Richard; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    This study characterizes global and hemispheric brain growth in healthy human fetuses during the second half of pregnancy using three-dimensional MRI techniques. We studied 166 healthy fetuses that underwent MRI between 18 and 39 completed weeks gestation. We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the brain and calculated volumes for left and right cortical gray matter (CGM), fetal white matter (FWM), deep subcortical structures (DSS), and the cerebellum. We calculated the rate of growth for each tissue class according to gestational age and described patterns of hemispheric growth. Each brain region demonstrated major increases in volume during the second half of gestation, the most pronounced being the cerebellum (34-fold), followed by FWM (22-fold), CGM (21-fold), and DSS (10-fold). The left cerebellar hemisphere, CGM, and DSS had larger volumes early in gestation, but these equalized by term. It has been increasingly recognized that brain asymmetry evolves throughout the human life span. Advanced quantitative MRI provides noninvasive measurements of early structural asymmetry between the left and right fetal brain that may inform functional and behavioral laterality differences seen in children and young adulthood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis: the irresistible rise of the 'visible fetus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwy, Ilana

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was developed in the 1970s, a result of a partly contingent coming together of three medical innovations-amniocentesis, the study of human chromosomes and obstetrical ultrasound-with a social innovation, the decriminalization of abortion. Initially this diagnostic approach was proposed only to women at high risk of fetal malformations. Later, however, the supervision of the fetus was extended to all pregnant women. The latter step was strongly favoured by professionals' aspiration to prevent the birth of children with Down syndrome, an inborn condition perceived as a source of suffering for families and a burden on public purse. Experts who promoted screening for 'Down risk' assumed that the majority of women who carry a Down fetus will decide to terminate the pregnancy, and will provide a private solution to a public health problem. The generalization of screening for Down risk increased in turn the frequency of diagnoses of other, confirmed or potential fetal pathologies, and of dilemmas linked with such diagnoses. Debates on such dilemmas are usually limited to professionals. The transformation of prenatal diagnosis into a routine medical technology was, to a great extent, an invisible revolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  4. Syringomyelia coexisting with guillain-barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Lee, Jong Eon; Park, Min Ho; Han, Yoo Jin

    2013-10-01

    Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and syringomyelia are diseases of different entities. GBS is an acute post-infectious autoimmune disease which is mediated by autoantibodies against the myelin of peripheral nerves. Syringomyelia is a chronic disease characterized by a cavity extending longitudinally inside the spinal cord. A 67-year-old man is being hospitalized due to severe numbness and ascending weakness in all limbs. On neurological examination, the motor power of all limbs are decreased and show absence of deep tendon reflexes (DTRs). The patient is being diagnosed with GBS on the basis of the acute clinical course, nerve conduction studies of segmental demyelinating polyneuropathy, and a finding of albuminocytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient is presented with a new set of symptoms thereafter, which composes of sensory changes in the upper extremities, the urinary dysfunction including frequency and residual urine, spastic bilateral lower extremities, and increased reflexes of the knee and the biceps at follow-up examinations. The spinal magnetic resonance imaging in the sagittal section revealed a syrinx cavity between the fifth cervical and the first thoracic vertebral segment in the cord. The somatosensory evoked potential show sensory pathway defects between both the brachial plexus and the brain stem. Thus, this patient is being diagnosed with both GBS and syringomyelia. We report a case of symptomatic syringomyelia coexisting with GBS. Since the GBS is presented with a progressive muscle weakness and reduced DTRs, the muscle weakness and stiffness in the extremities suggests a concurrent syringomyelia might be easily overlooked.

  5. Toxic amebic colitis coexisting with intestinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. C.; Jeon, H. M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, W. W.; Kim, K. W.; Oh, S. T.; Kim, E. K.; Chang, S. K.; Lee, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with a fulminant amebic colitis coexisting with intestinal tuberculosis had a sudden onset of crampy abdominal pain, mucoid diarrhea, anorexia, fever and vomiting with signs of positive peritoneal irritation. Fulminant amebic colitis occurring together with intestinal tuberculosis is an uncommon event and may present an interesting patho-etiological relationship. The diagnosis was proven by histopathologic examination of resected specimen. Subtotal colectomy including segmental resection of ileum, about 80 cm in length, followed by exteriorization of both ends, was performed in an emergency basis. Despite all measures, the patient died on the sixth postoperative day. The exact relationship of fulminant amebic colitis and intestinal tuberculosis is speculative but the possibility of a cause and effect relationship exists. Fulminant amebic colitis may readily be confused with other types of inflammatory bowel disease, such as idiopathic ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, perforated diverticulitis and appendicitis with perforation. This report draws attention to the resurgence of tuberculosis and amebiasis in Korea, and the need for the high degree of caution required to detect it. PMID:11194200

  6. Shape coexistence and evolution in 98Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Krücken, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Sjue, S.; Starosta, K.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E.

    2016-01-01

    Shape coexistence between the strongly deformed ground state and the weakly deformed 02+ state in 98Sr has been a major topic of interest due to the energy difference of 215 keV, which is the smallest in all even-even nuclei. The electric monopole transition strength ρ2(E 0 ) is an important quantity that can relate the deformation difference and the shape mixing between the two 0+ states, which are admixtures of the vibrational (S) and the rotational (D) states in a simple mixing model. In a β -decay spectroscopy experiment, the experimental ρ2(E 0 ) was measured. A value of 0.053(5) is consistent with the previous measurement and was combined with known electric quadrupole transition strengths B (E 2 ) in calculations of a two-state mixing model. Based on a systematic study on neighboring Kr, Zr, and Mo isotopes, the mixing of the 0+ and 2+ states in 98Sr was determined to be 8.6% and 1.3%, respectively, corresponding to deformation parameters βD=0.38 (1 ) and βS=-0.23 (2 ) . These parameters reproduce experimental transition strengths well except for the 41+→21+ transition, which suggests a smaller D-band deformation for J ≥4 .

  7. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  8. Ocular growth in the fetus. 1. Comparative study of axial length and biometric parameters in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, D; Righini, M; Scheiner, C; Volot, F; Boubli, L; Dezard, X; Vola, J; Saracco, J B

    1993-01-01

    The knowledge of ocular growth during fetal life, when compared with other fetal biometric parameters, could not only provide a better definition of malformation syndromes but could also give a better understanding of certain pathological processes in premature babies and in newborns. As the literature concerning prenatal ocular dimensions contains few data, the aim of this study was to measure the axial length of the globe (AL) in fetuses and compare this measurement with their gestational age, weight, height, head circumference (HC) and thoracic circumference (TC) in order to compile a reference table. In the present study, 76 globes from 38 fetuses (18-41 weeks gestational age) from the Department of Pathology (Timone University Hospital, Marseille) were examined. Ultrasonography A and B were used to measure the AL, and a pathological examination determined fetal weight, HC, TC and height. We were interested to find out which of the parameters studied would give the best correlation with ocular growth. Statistical analysis showed that HC remained the most discriminant factor and correlated best with ocular growth. We thus obtained an equation for ocular size according to HC that could serve as a basis for detecting pre- or postnatal ocular defects.

  9. Skeletal and total body volumes of human fetuses: assessment of reference data by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, Pierre M.; Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Lapillonne, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define reference data for skeletal and total body volumes of normal human fetuses. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was used to assess the skeletal and total body volumes of 31 normal human stillborn infants with gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) ranging from 14 to 41.5 weeks and 22 to 3,760 g, respectively. CT scans (slice thickness 2.7 mm, pitch 0.7) were performed within the first 24 h after delivery. Precise bone and soft-tissue windows were defined from analysis of the density along the diaphysis of the fetal long bones and from the measurement of a phantom that mimics soft tissues. Lengths and volumes were obtained from 3D reconstructions. The femur lengths measured from CT images (FLct) were compared with those provided by US studies (FLus). Results: Significant correlations (r>0.9) were found between BW, measured volumes of the entire skeleton or head, long-bone lengths, biparietal diameter and GA. Strong linear correlations (r>0.98) were observed between FLct and FLus. Conclusions: Skeletal and total body volume values obtained using spiral CT were significantly correlated with fetal biometric measurements. These data could complement those obtained in obstetric investigations with US. (orig.)

  10. Homologous Recombination between Genetically Divergent Campylobacter fetus Lineages Supports Host-Associated Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duim, Birgitta; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Zomer, Aldert L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Homologous recombination is a major driver of bacterial speciation. Genetic divergence and host association are important factors influencing homologous recombination. Here, we study these factors for Campylobacter fetus, which shows a distinct intraspecific host dichotomy. Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) and venerealis are associated with mammals, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum (Cft) is associated with reptiles. Recombination between these genetically divergent C. fetus lineages is extremely rare. Previously it was impossible to show whether this barrier to recombination was determined by the differential host preferences, by the genetic divergence between both lineages or by other factors influencing recombination, such as restriction-modification, CRISPR/Cas, and transformation systems. Fortuitously, a distinct C. fetus lineage (ST69) was found, which was highly related to mammal-associated C. fetus, yet isolated from a chelonian. The whole genome sequences of two C. fetus ST69 isolates were compared with those of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus strains for phylogenetic and recombination analysis. In total, 5.1–5.5% of the core genome of both ST69 isolates showed signs of recombination. Of the predicted recombination regions, 80.4% were most closely related to Cft, 14.3% to Cff, and 5.6% to C. iguaniorum. Recombination from C. fetus ST69 to Cft was also detected, but to a lesser extent and only in chelonian-associated Cft strains. This study shows that despite substantial genetic divergence no absolute barrier to homologous recombination exists between two distinct C. fetus lineages when occurring in the same host type, which provides valuable insights in bacterial speciation and evolution. PMID:29608720

  11. The Clinical Value of Prenatal 3D Ultrasonic Diagnosis on Fetus Hemivertebra Deformity- A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yanting; Xiang, Guishuang; Liang, Xiaoqiu; Tong, Xiaoqian

    2018-02-01

    The present study is planned to discuss the clinical value of prenatal 3D ultra-sonic diagnosis on fetus hemivertebra deformity through the retrospective analysis of clinical data of fetus hemivertebra deformity. Selected 9 fetus hemivertebra deformity cases, which have been admitted to our hospital during the period from January, 2010 to January, 2016 as study samples, and analyzed their 2D and 3D ultrasonic examination data. 4 cases of the fetus hemivertebra deformity occurred at lumbar vertebra, 3 cases at thoracic vertebra, and 2 cases at thoracolumbar vertebra. There were scoliosis and opened spine bifida (OSB). In 7 cases, there was absence of ribs in fetus. The 2D ultrasonic image showed that: The echo at the center of fetus vertebral arch lesion was blurred or lost. The coronal section showed the deformity of the spine. There was obvious loss of the ossification center. From the cross section, we could see that the vertebral body of the fetus was shrinking and the edges were relatively blurred. The 3D ultrasonic image showed that: the echo at the ossification center of the fetus vertebra was relatively blurred, or even lost. The image also indicated scoliosis deformity of the spine. The vertebral body lesion could be accurately located. 9 cases of fetus hemivertebra deformity have been detected through examination. Labor inductions have been carried out after getting the permission from the family members. The X-ray examination of the fetus after labor induction showed that the diagnosis was correct. Prenatal ultra-sonic examination holds strong potential for the diagnosis of fetus hemivertebra deformity quite early and deserves further clinical evaluation with large sample size.

  12. Hypothyroidism in utero stimulates pancreatic beta cell proliferation and hyperinsulinaemia in the ovine fetus during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shelley E; De Blasio, Miles J; Davis, Melissa A; Kelly, Amy C; Davenport, Hailey M; Wooding, F B Peter; Blache, Dominique; Meredith, David; Anderson, Miranda; Fowden, Abigail L; Limesand, Sean W; Forhead, Alison J

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of growth and maturation before birth, although the extent to which their actions are mediated by insulin and the development of pancreatic beta cell mass is unknown. Hypothyroidism in fetal sheep induced by removal of the thyroid gland caused asymmetric organ growth, increased pancreatic beta cell mass and proliferation, and was associated with increased circulating concentrations of insulin and leptin. In isolated fetal sheep islets studied in vitro, thyroid hormones inhibited beta cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, while high concentrations of insulin and leptin stimulated proliferation. The developing pancreatic beta cell is therefore sensitive to thyroid hormone, insulin and leptin before birth, with possible consequences for pancreatic function in fetal and later life. The findings of this study highlight the importance of thyroid hormones during pregnancy for normal development of the fetal pancreas. Development of pancreatic beta cell mass before birth is essential for normal growth of the fetus and for long-term control of carbohydrate metabolism in postnatal life. Thyroid hormones are also important regulators of fetal growth, and the present study tested the hypotheses that thyroid hormones promote beta cell proliferation in the fetal ovine pancreatic islets, and that growth retardation in hypothyroid fetal sheep is associated with reductions in pancreatic beta cell mass and circulating insulin concentration in utero. Organ growth and pancreatic islet cell proliferation and mass were examined in sheep fetuses following removal of the thyroid gland in utero. The effects of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), insulin and leptin on beta cell proliferation rates were determined in isolated fetal ovine pancreatic islets in vitro. Hypothyroidism in the sheep fetus resulted in an asymmetric pattern of organ growth, pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia, and elevated plasma insulin and leptin concentrations. In pancreatic

  13. [Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, C; Crespo-Eguílaz, N; Alcázar, J L; Narbona, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to knowledge of the normal spontaneous motor behavior of the human fetus during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study focuses on five patterns of spontaneous fetal movement: startle (S), axo-rhizomelic rhythmia (ARR), axial stretching (AS), general movement (GM), and diaphragmatic contraction (DC). A cohort of 13 subjects was followed up using 2D obstetrical ultrasound images at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of gestation. As inclusion criteria, neonatal neurological examination and general movements after eutocic delivery at term were normal in all of the subjects, and their neuromotor and cognitive development until the end of pre-school age were also normal. All these five motor patterns are present at the beginning of the 2(nd) gestational trimester, but their quantitative and qualitative traits are diverse according to gestational ages. The phasic, isolated or rhythmically repeated movements, S and ARR, are prominent at 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, and then their presence gradually diminishes. By contrast, tonic and complex AS and GM movements increase their presence and quality at 20 and 24 weeks. RAR constitute a particular periodic motor pattern not described in previous literature. Moreover, the incidence of DC is progressive throughout the trimester, in clusters of 2-6 arrhythmic and irregular beats. Fetal heart rate increases during fetal motor active periods. All five normal behavioral patterns observed in the ultrasounds reflect the progressive tuning of motor generators in human nervous system during mid-pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  15. Manejo del embarazo gemelar cuando muere uno de los fetos Conservative management of twin gestation after death of one fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar Armando Méndez Gallo

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Normal">Se presenta un caso de embarazo gemelar manejado en forma conservadora después de la muerte de uno de los fetos. Con base en él, y en una revisión bibliográfica, se hacen recomendaciones para el seguimiento y el manejo del gemelo sobreviviente y énfasis sobre las posibles complicaciones materno-fetales.

    Normal">We report on the case of a twin gestation that was conservatively managed after the death of one of the fetuses. Based on this experience and on a bibliographic review on the subject, we make recommendations for the follow-up and the care of these situations, with emphasis on maternal and fetal complications.

  16. Chromosome damage and clinical manifestation in a fetus and the mother after accidental 60Co exposure in Xinzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiajing; Mu Ying; Wang Shanmi

    1995-01-01

    The authors present the clinical effect and chromosome damage sustained by a fetus and the four months pregnant mother in an accidental 60 Co exposure in November of 1992 in Xinzhou, Shanxi Province. The mother suffered from a moderate acute radiation sickness with ratardation of fetal development. After delivery, the infant's body length, body weight and head circumference were all lowered by three percentiles compared with the normals. Four months after the exposure, the assay of the mother's peripheral lymphocytes showed a chromosome aberration rate of 36%, while concomitant examination of the baby failed to reveal any chromosome abnormality although the sister chromatid exchange rate was remarkably higher than that of the mother and the normal control

  17. Study on modification of radiation effects in mammalian fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kiyoto; Kawamata, Akitoshi; Goto, Toshifumi (Asahi Univ., Hozumi, Gifu (Japan). School of Dentistry) (and others)

    1990-10-01

    In searches for the potential application of mouse whole-embryo culture, combined effects of x radiation and cadmium or hyperthermia were examined with cultures of 8-day and 11-day mouse embryos. Combination of x radiation and cadmium had synergistic action on both in vitro and in vivo teratogenesis of mouse embryos. When irradiation was given 30 minutes before and after the administration of cadmium in 11-day mouse embryos, interaction factor values for cleft palate were 8.53 and 9.09, respectively. This revealed that the order of giving radiation and cadmium was independent of synergistic action. When low doses of radiation was combined with non-teratogenic hyperthermia, synergistic action occurred in vitro. This was more noticeable when combined with lower doses of x radiation. Low doses of x radiation are of great concern to human embryos or fetuses who may sustain potential exposures to them. (N.K.) 96 refs.

  18. Early diagnosis of hygroma cervicis in a fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Kenjiro; Nagai, Toru; Sera, Kyoko

    1986-01-01

    A fetus was diagnosed as having hygroma cervicis (HC) with sonography. Sonographic features at 23 weeks of gestation were symmetrical echo free spaces of the head suggestive of a giant solid tumor (HC) and single umbilical artery. When umbilical circulation of the single umbilical artery was examined using pulsed Doppler echography, high S/D ratios were seen. MRI clearly visualized a mass surrounding the head as an abnormal signal intensity. Pregnancy was terminated in the second trimester. A male stillborn baby weighing 1,440 g had multiple anomalies associated with cervical lymphangioma. Elevated amniotic and intracystic levels of AFP were not seen. A review of the literature shows the relationship between HC and Turner syndrome. However, because the present case was a male baby, hereditary disease may be related to the occurrence of HC. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Study on modification of radiation effects in mammalian fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kiyoto; Kawamata, Akitoshi; Goto, Toshifumi

    1990-01-01

    In searches for the potential application of mouse whole-embryo culture, combined effects of x radiation and cadmium or hyperthermia were examined with cultures of 8-day and 11-day mouse embryos. Combination of x radiation and cadmium had synergistic action on both in vitro and in vivo teratogenesis of mouse embryos. When irradiation was given 30 minutes before and after the administration of cadmium in 11-day mouse embryos, interaction factor values for cleft palate were 8.53 and 9.09, respectively. This revealed that the order of giving radiation and cadmium was independent of synergistic action. When low doses of radiation was combined with non-teratogenic hyperthermia, synergistic action occurred in vitro. This was more noticeable when combined with lower doses of x radiation. Low doses of x radiation are of great concern to human embryos or fetuses who may sustain potential exposures to them. (N.K.) 96 refs

  20. Neuropharmacology of drugs and alcohol in mother and fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Irina

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that an adverse prenatal environment can have profound long-term health consequences throughout postnatal life. This chapter discusses the underlying mechanisms implicated in the consumption of mood-altering recreational drugs and teratogenicity in the fetus. The way metabolic parameters in pregnancy influence the pharmacokinetic characteristics of drugs and alcohol and the developmental stage of neurotoxicity are reviewed. The general underlying mechanisms that link multifaceted interactions between drug characteristics, gene polymorphisms, dietary deficiencies, changed endocrine indices and fetal programming are outlined, with specific examples throughout the text. As developmental injury is of significant social concern, the final section questions whether society provides adequate support for making appropriate and informed lifestyle choices to alleviate preventable transgenerational harm.

  1. A Fetus with Iniencephaly Delivered at the Third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cinar Tanriverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iniencephaly is an uncommon neural tube defect, having retroflexion of the head without a neck and severe distortion of the spine. Iniencephaly is classified into two groups, iniencephaly apertus (with encephalocele and iniencephaly clausus (without encephalocele. Incidence ranges from 0.1 to 10 in 10.000 pregnancies and it is seen more frequently in girls. Most of the fetuses with this defect die before birth or soon after birth, while those with the milder forms may live through childhood. Recurrence risk is around 1–5%. Family should be offered termination to reduce maternal risks and counseled for folic acid supplementation before the next planned pregnancy. Here we present a rare case of iniencephaly clausus which was diagnosed at 18th week of gestation by ultrasonography and delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy due to rejection of termination.

  2. Genetic Relationships among Reptilian and Mammalian Campylobacter fetus Strains Determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingle, K.E.; Blaser, M.J.; Tu, Z.C.; Pruckler, J.; Fitzgerald, C.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Lawson, A.J.; Owen, R.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reptile Campylobacter fetus isolates and closely related strains causing human disease were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. They shared similar to 90% nucleotide sequence identity with classical mammalian C. fetus, and there was evidence of recombination among members of these two

  3. Outcome for Fetuses with Prenatally Detected Congenital Heart Disease and Cardiac Arrhythmias in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Mou Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Outcome for fetuses with prenatally detected CHD remains poor, with the prognosis negatively influenced by the presence of complex heart defects as well as extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies. However, prognosis is good for fetuses with cardiac arrhythmia, except with long QT syndrome or hydrops fetalis.

  4. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  5. Biophysical profile in the treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satinder; Picconi, Jason L; Chadha, Rati; Kruger, Michael; Mari, Giancarlo

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biophysical profile (BPP) usefulness in the prediction of cord pH, base excess, and guidance regarding the timing of delivery in preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses. A BPP was performed daily in 48 IUGR fetuses and was considered abnormal when it was 2/10 on 1 single occasion or 4/10 on 2 consecutive occasions 2 hours apart. The median gestational age and fetal weight for the total population was 27.6 weeks and 632 g, respectively. In 13 fetuses with a BPP of 6, there were 3 deaths, and 7 fetuses were acidemic. In 27 fetuses with a BPP of 8, there were 3 deaths, and 12 fetuses were acidemic. BPP alone is not a reliable test in the treatment of preterm IUGR fetuses, because of high false-positive and -negative results. The common notion of a good BPP providing reassurance for at least 24 hours is not applicable in severely preterm IUGR fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

  6. Aberrant lymphatic development in euploid fetuses with increased nuchal translucency including Noonan syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Y.M. de; Akker, N.M. van den; Bekker, M.N.; Bartelings, M.M.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Gittenberger-de Groot, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency in the human fetus is associated with aneuploidy, structural malformations and several syndromes such as Noonan syndrome. In 60-70% of the Noonan syndrome cases, a gene mutation can be demonstrated. Previous research showed that aneuploid fetuses with

  7. Detection of recurrent transmission of 17q12 microdeletion by array comparative genomic hybridization in a fetus with prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and multicystic kidney, and variable clinical spectrum in the family

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Ping Chen; Shuenn-Dyh Chang; Tzu-Hao Wang; Liang-Kai Wang; Jeng-Daw Tsai; Yu-Peng Liu; Schu-Rern Chern; Peih-Shan Wu; Jun-Wei Su; Yu-Ting Chen; Wayseen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed at detection of recurrent transmission of the 17q12 microdeletion in a fetus with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Materials and Methods: A 35-year-old woman was referred to the hospital at 20 weeks' gestation because of hydronephrosis in the fetus. The mother was normal and healthy. Her second child was a girl who had bilateral dysplastic kidneys that required hemodialysis, and died at the age of 5 years. During this pregnancy, the woma...

  8. Intrauterine insulin resistance in fetuses of overweight mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jian-Ming; Voss, Courtney; Xiao, Huan-Yu; Sheng, Wei-Yang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal overweight and fetal insulin resistance. Nineteen overweight and 30 lean pregnant women were recruited in the present study. Maternal and fetal insulin resistance were determined by measuring sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in maternal venous or umbilical cord serum, respectively. Maternal age, gestational age, height, pre-gravidity weight, pre-partum weight, as well as fetal gender, birth weight, birth height, and head circumference were collected as clinical data. Fetuses of overweight mothers had larger birth weight (3.58±0.55kg vs 3.32±0.42, adjusted P=0.006) and lower SHBG concentrations (26.64±3.65 vs 34.36±7.84, adjusted P=0.007) than those of lean mothers after values were adjusted for potential cofactors. Fetal SHBG level was negatively correlated with pre-gravidity body mass index (R=-0.392, adjusted P=0.025) and weight gain during pregnancy (R=-0.332, adjusted P=0.026) even with adjustment for potential cofactors. Among the 29 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, the overweight mothers had higher H1AC levels than their lean counterparts (6.47±0.44 vs 5.74±0.52, adjusted P=0.004). Intrauterine insulin resistance is more prominent in fetuses of overweight mothers, an effect that is decreased by weight gain control during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Quantification of maceration changes using post mortem MRI in fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaldo, P.; Addison, S.; Oliveira, V.; Lally, P. J.; Taylor, A. M.; Sebire, N. J.; Thayyil, S.; Arthurs, O. J.

    2016-01-01

    Post mortem imaging is playing an increasingly important role in perinatal autopsy, and correct interpretation of imaging changes is paramount. This is particularly important following intra-uterine fetal death, where there may be fetal maceration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes seen on a whole body fetal post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) correspond to maceration at conventional autopsy. We performed pre-autopsy PMMR in 75 fetuses using a 1.5 Tesla Siemens Avanto MR scanner (Erlangen, Germany). PMMR images were reported blinded to the clinical history and autopsy data using a numerical severity scale (0 = no maceration changes to 2 = severe maceration changes) for 6 different visceral organs (total 12). The degree of maceration at autopsy was categorized according to severity on a numerical scale (1 = no maceration to 4 = severe maceration). We also generated quantitative maps to measure the liver and lung T 2 . The mean PMMR maceration score correlated well with the autopsy maceration score (R 2 = 0.93). A PMMR score of ≥4.5 had a sensitivity of 91 %, specificity of 64 %, for detecting moderate or severe maceration at autopsy. Liver and lung T 2 were increased in fetuses with maceration scores of 3–4 in comparison to those with 1–2 (liver p = 0.03, lung p = 0.02). There was a good correlation between PMMR maceration score and the extent of maceration seen at conventional autopsy. This score may be useful in interpretation of fetal PMMR

  10. Amnion as a surrogate tissue reporter of the effects of maternal preeclampsia on the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masako; Maekawa, Ryo; Patterson, Nicole E; Reynolds, David M; Calder, Brent R; Reznik, Sandra E; Heo, Hye J; Einstein, Francine Hughes; Greally, John M

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia, traditionally characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria, is a common pregnancy complication, which affects 2-8 % of all pregnancies. Although children born to women with preeclampsia have a higher risk of hypertension in later life, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been studied as a mediator of cellular memory of adverse exposures in utero. Since each cell type in the body has a unique DNA profile, cell subtype composition is a major confounding factor in studies of tissues with heterogeneous cell types. The best way to avoid this confounding effect is by using purified cell types. However, using purified cell types in large cohort translational studies is difficult. The amnion, the inner layer of the fetal membranes of the placenta, is derived from the epiblast and consists of two cell types, which are easy to isolate from the delivered placenta. In this study, we demonstrate the value of using amnion samples for DNA methylation studies, revealing distinctive patterns between fetuses exposed to proteinuria or hypertension and fetuses from normal pregnancies. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR (HELP)-tagging, on 62 amnion samples from the placentas of uncomplicated, normal pregnancies and from those with complications of preeclampsia or hypertension. Using a regression model approach, we found 123, 85, and 99 loci with high-confidence hypertension-associated, proteinuria-associated, and hypertension- and proteinuria-associated DNA methylation changes, respectively. A gene ontology analysis showed DNA methylation changes to be selecting genes with different biological processes in exposure status. We also found that these differentially methylated regions overlap loci previously reported as differentially methylated regions in preeclampsia. Our findings support prior observations that preeclampsia

  11. Developmental abnormalities of the vitreous in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, S; Yuguchi, S; Majima, A [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained. 1. Developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were observed in 23 fetuses, and unilateral cases were 15 of 23 fetuses. In 31 eyes with these abnormalities, much more abundant mesenchymal tissue of components of primary vitreous was found in the retrolental vitreous cavity than in the normal eyes. 2. The above 31 eyes were also accompanied by a variety of ocular abnormalities such as microphthalmia, faulty closure of the fetal fissure, aplasia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve, goniodysgenesis, and corneolenticular adhesion. Complications observed to be associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were lens abnormalities, retinal traction and fold, fibrovascular anastomosis between mesenchymal tissues of the chamber angle and vitreous cavity, retinal rosette, and anomalies of the optic nerve head. 3. The histological findings of 17 eyes corresponded to anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) encountered clinically, those of 3 eyes to posterior PHPV, those of 6 eyes to mixed type of both anterior and posterior types, and those of 5 eyes to PHPV of the optic nerve head. In 3 bilateral cases, the type was different for either eye. 4. From these results, it was considered that the pathogenesis of PHPV of Reese and congenital retinal fold of Mann consists of the maldevelopment of the components of the primary vitreous, and that the type of defect depends on the portion involved and the degree depends on the time at which the maldevelopment occurs.

  12. Morphofunctional characteristics of endocrine pancreatic damage exposed to imbalanced food with excess nutrients on mother – fetus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Nikolayeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. The study is devoted to the mechanisms of pancreatic damage by exploring of its morphofunctional state as the result of imbalanced diet with an excess of nutrients on the mother – fetus system. Materials and Methods. Before pregnancy and during pregnancy the female rats were fed with an increased amount of carbohydrates. The control group of animals was maintained in standard vivarium conditions with normal balanced diet. Morphological processing included a set of histological and histochemical methods. Assessment of the secretory activity of the pancreas and hormones-substratum relationships was examined using biochemical method. Statistical investigation included a univariate dispersіon analysis. Results. We have defined the options of the pancreatic dysfunction (hyperpancreatism, hypopancreatism, dispancreatism in rats under the action of high fat and carbohydrates diet on the mother-fetus system. Also, high level of insulin combined with hypercorticosteronemia (in rats and hypocorticosteronemia (in some offspring was revealed, which probably had a compensatory character and caused the activation of catabolic processes. This is evidenced by hyperglycemia, mild hypoproteinemia, insignificant increased level of fatty acids and significant increased level of ketone bodies. We have found that the rats, as well as their mothers, are exposed to marked violation of morphology and function of the pancreas (we have found out the compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia, a sufficiently high morphofunctional activity in the structural components of the pancreas while strengthening the dystrophic and sclerotic processes, which persist in the first two months of postnatal life, despite the physiological conditions of existence and balanced diet. We have clarified the mechanism of pancreas damage in rats as a result of an imbalanced diet on the mother – fetus system. Conclusions. The results of the study indicate that the

  13. Observation and quantitative analyses of the skeletal and central nervous systems of human embryos and fetuses using microimaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Kohei; Yamada, Shigehito; Tsuchiya, Maiko; Nakajima, Takashi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogihara, Naomichi; Katayama, Kazumichi; Kose, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    High resolution images have been available to trace the organogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS) and crania of human embryo and fetus with microimaging techniques of CT, novel MR microscopy and episcopic fluorescence image capture (EFIC). The helical CT was conducted for Kyoto University's stock specimens of 31 fetuses at gestational stages 8-24 weeks to observe the skeletal development of neuro- and viscero-cranium in 2D and 3D view. Sixty seven landmarks were defined on the images at outer surface and lumen of the skull to analyze the morphological development. Increase of cranial length was found significant relative to width and height in fetus, confirming the faster development of neurocranium than viscero-region. Next, 1.5/2.34 T MR microscopic imaging was conducted for fixed specimens of >1000 embryos at 4-8 weeks after fertilization. For this, a newly developed contrast optimization by mapping the specimen with the relaxation time had been performed to acquire the highest resolution in the world of 80-120 micrometer, which enabled to image primordia of the inner embryonic structures like brain, spinal cord, choroid plexus, skeletons of skull and spinal column. The finding was thought helpful for analysis and diagnosis of their early development. EFIC of embryos was conducted firstly in the world, where spontaneous fluorescence of their cross section was captured by the fluorescent microscope with the resolution as high as <10 micrometer to reconstruct 2D/3D images. EFIC was found to give images of embryonic CNS, ventricular system, layering structures of brain and spinal cord without staining, and to give sequential changes of their volumes quantitated during the development. The reported microimaging techniques were concluded useful for analysis of normal and abnormal early development of CNS and skull in humans. (T.T.)

  14. Developmental abnormalities of the vitreous in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio

    1980-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained. 1. Developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were observed in 23 fetused, and unilateral cases were 15 of 23 fetuses. In 31 eyes with these abnormalities, much more abundant mesenchymal tissue of components of primary vitreous was found in the retrolental vitreous cavity than in the normal eyes. 2. The above 31 eyes were also accompanied by a variety of ocular abnormalities such as microphthalmia, faulty closure of the fetal fissure, aplasia and hypoplasia of the optic nerve, goniodysgenesis, and corneolenticular adhesion. Complications observed to be associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were lens abnormalities, retinal traction and fold, fibrovascular anastomosis between mesenchymal tissues of the chamber angle and vitrious cavity, retinal rosette, and anomalies of the optic nerve head. 3. The histological findings of 17 eyes corresponded to anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) encountered clinically, those of 3 eyes to posterior PHPV, those of 6 eyes to mixed type of both anterior and posterior types, and those of 5 eyes to PHPV of the optic nerve head. In 3 bilateral cases, the type was different for either eye. 4. From these results, it was considered that the pathogenesis of PHPV of Reese and congenital retinal fold of Mann consists of the maldevelopment of the components of the primary vitreous, and that the type of defect is depends on the portion involved and the degree depends on the time at which the maldevelopment occurs. (author)

  15. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.L.; Byrd, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and also to the postpartum offspring. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excrete essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation

  16. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.L.; Byrd, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    The transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and to the postpartum offspring has been studied. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excreted essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation

  17. CINR Performance of Downlink Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16e Deployed Using Coexistence Cellular Terrestrial and HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iskandar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deploying WiMAX through High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS system is a new means of wireless delivery method and thus attracting much the attention in a telecommunication society. However delivering WiMAX through the terrestrial network has already been started a few years ago. Therefore, we need to look at the scenario of coexistence system both of HAPS and terrestrial in delivering WiMAX services. This paper evaluates the performance of coexistence system between cellular HAPS and terrestrial for the downlink scenario when they are transmitting WiMAX mobile 802.16e services. Our evaluation is based on the performance simulation of coexistence model using two methods. First method is a footprint exchange between the two systems.The second method is a combination of footprint exchange and HAPS footprint enhancement. The proposed methodsare then evaluated by computer simulation in terms of carrier to interference plus noise ratio (CINR performance. In general, both methods resulting performance enhancement in CINR quality compared with coexistence deployment with normal scenario of the cell configuration used by HAPS and terrestrial. The method of combining footprint exchange and HAPS footprint enhancement is able to improve CINR more than 10 dB compared with the normal footprint configuration for all users location inside the coverage.

  18. Coexistence of surface and cave amphipods in an ecotone environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luštrik, R.; Turjak, M.; Kralj-Fišer, S.; Fišer, C.

    2011-01-01

    Interspecific interactions between surface and subterranean species may be a key determinant for species distributions. Until now, the existence of competition (including predation) between these groups has not been tested. To assess the coexistence and potential role of interspecific interactions

  19. Contemporary Multi religious and Peaceful Coexistence of Islam in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary Multi religious and Peaceful Coexistence of Islam in Nigeria's State. ... in a multicultural society tend to lead to the violation of universal human rights, ... religio-phobic, religio-centric and terrorist behaviours among adherents in ...

  20. The dilemma of over and under nutrition coexistence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dilemma of over and under nutrition coexistence among western Kenya children. ... that might have existed in this target group, particularly the school age children. ... It is also known that childhood obesity and/or overweight have positive ...

  1. HARMONIC INCLUSION FROM EDUCATION FOR PEACE AND COEXISTENCE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Genoveva Guerrero-Arce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article of reflection shown below is an analysis of how inclusion schemes change from a positive perspective from the peace studies and planning coexistence, considering elements of relevance as the conceptualization of discrimination, learned disabilities, public policies that attempt to include from the exclusion and the role of planning in the harmonic coexistence inclusion not only in school settings but socially, as an alternative that promotes respect for differences and consider redesigning programs rather than promote inclusion, wear combating discrimination and exclusion, resulting in more emerging preventive and educational actions. It is considering the need for listing proposals from a new paradigm that considers differences as elements that enrich the school environment and allow peaceful coexistence through diversity, which it is directly linked to that observed in the planning of coexistence that is taking place in schools in School Education of the State of Mexico inclusive education.

  2. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Magnetic nesting and co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesin, V.F.; Kapaev, V.V.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of providing for the magnetic nesting conditions of the electron spin dispersion law the co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is possible by any high magnetization. The co-existence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the layered cuprate compounds of the RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 -type is explained on this basis, wherein due to the nonstrict provision of the magnetic nesting condition there exists the finite but sufficiently high critical magnetization [ru

  4. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H

    2017-01-01

    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  5. HARMONIC INCLUSION FROM EDUCATION FOR PEACE AND COEXISTENCE PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Genoveva Guerrero-Arce; Eduardo Pérez-Archundia

    2016-01-01

    This article of reflection shown below is an analysis of how inclusion schemes change from a positive perspective from the peace studies and planning coexistence, considering elements of relevance as the conceptualization of discrimination, learned disabilities, public policies that attempt to include from the exclusion and the role of planning in the harmonic coexistence inclusion not only in school settings but socially, as an alternative that promotes respect for differences an...

  6. Coexistence of Cluster Structure and Mean-field-type Structure in Medium-weight Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Masaaki

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the coexistence of cluster structure and mean-field-type structure in 20Ne and 40Ca using Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD) + Generator Coordinate Method (GCM). By energy variation with new constraint for clustering, we calculate cluster structure wave function. Superposing cluster structure wave functions and mean-field-type structure wave function, we found that 8Be-12C, α-36Ar and 12C-28Si cluster structure are important components of K π = 0 3 + band of 20Ne, that of normal deformed band of 40Ca and that of super deformed band of 40Ca, respectively

  7. Normal anatomy and MR findings of fetal main organs at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liming; Zou Mingli; Feng Dingyi; Hu Junwu; Qi Jianpin; Wang Chengyuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate normal anatomy and MR findings of fetal main organs. Methods: Forty-seven fetus underwented fast MR imaging, SSFSE sequence was used, the normal anatomy and MR findings of fetal main organs was observed in different gestational age. The organs included: brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, urinary collecting systems, bladder, bones, spine, and subcutaneous fat. Results: Results of MR in 47 fetus showed that the main organs had developed by 20-week-old fetus, about 20 weeks gestation, cerebral cortical surface was smooth, no cortical gyri and sulci, then cortical gyri and sulci developed slowly. The lungs, trachea, bronchus, gastrointestinal tract, renal collecting system and bladder showed high signal intensity; the heart, great vessels, liver, spleen, bones and muscles appeared hypointense; the kidneys appeared isointense, the spine had developed and subcutaneous fat was seen in 20-week-old fetus, the subcutaneous fat increased with fetus maturating. Conclusion: Normal anatomy and MR findings of fetal main organs were clearly showed by fast MR imaging, and they are different from the newborns. (authors)

  8. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  9. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  10. Rare case of massive congenital bilateral chylothorax in a hydropic fetus with true mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonini, Giorgio; Poggi, Alice; Capucci, Roberta; Vesce, Fortunato; Patella, Alfredo; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Fetal congenital chylothorax is a rare condition that occurs sporadically or can be associated with abnormal karyotype or structural chromosomal anomalies. We report a unique case of fetal congenital bilateral chylothorax associated with mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX. A female fetus affected by massive bilateral hydrothorax and ascites was diagnosed at 34(+1) weeks of gestation. Previous ultrasonographic exams were completely normal. Immune causes of hydrops were excluded. Elective cesarean section was performed soon after bilateral thoracocentesis. The analysis of drained pleural fluid revealed its lymphatic nature. The fetal karyotyping, performed on chorionic villi at the 11th week, had shown mosaicism 47,XXX/46,XX, later confirmed in the newborn's blood. We hypothesized that chylothorax may be part of the phenotypic spectrum of 47 XXX karyotype and we suggest an ultrasound follow-up of the fetus at closer intervals than the routine timing for this condition, even if it is not usually characterized by severe phenotypic features. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Doppler changes as the earliest parameter in fetal surveillance to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is estimated that 3-10% of infants are growth restricted. Growth disturbances may have long-term issues. Doppler allows insight into the fetal response to intrauterine stress. Objective. The aim of this study was to detect fetal compromise in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR fetuses by means of biophysical profile (BPP vis-а-vis Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery, and to find out which of the two is a better and earlier predictor of fetal compromise. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on a total of 50 singleton pregnancies with IUGR between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation. Study patients were managed expectantly with nonstress testing and amniotic fluid assessment, BPP and Doppler velocimetry studies of the fetal umbilical artery. Results. Fetal outcome was poor in 5/50 (10% of the fetuses, defined as presence of all of the following: poor Apgar test score, neonatal intensive care unit stay, necrotizing enterocolitis, and low birth weight. Of the four with abnormal BPP, 50% had poor fetal outcomes. Out of 46 with normal BPP, 6.5% had poor fetal outcomes. Conclusion. Inference drawn from the study is that the Doppler technology provides us the opportunity for repetitive noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring in IUGR pregnancies.

  12. Melatonin for women in pregnancy for neuroprotection of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Shepherd, Emily; Wallace, Euan M

    2016-03-29

    Melatonin is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Animal studies have supported a fetal neuroprotective role for melatonin when administered maternally. It is important to assess whether melatonin, given to the mother, can reduce the risk of neurosensory disabilities (including cerebral palsy) and death, associated with fetal brain injury, for the preterm or term compromised fetus. To assess the effects of melatonin when used for neuroprotection of the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2016). We planned to include randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing melatonin given to women in pregnancy (regardless of the route, timing, dose and duration of administration) for fetal neuroprotection with placebo, no treatment, or with an alternative agent aimed at providing fetal neuroprotection. We also planned to include comparisons of different regimens for administration of melatonin. Two review authors planned to independently assess trial eligibility, trial quality and extract the data. We found no randomised trials for inclusion in this review. One study is ongoing. As we did not identify any randomised trials for inclusion in this review, we are unable to comment on implications for practice at this stage.Although evidence from animals studies has supported a fetal neuroprotective role for melatonin when administered to the mother during pregnancy, no trials assessing melatonin for fetal neuroprotection in pregnant women have been completed to date. However, there is currently one ongoing randomised controlled trial (with an estimated enrolment target of 60 pregnant women) which examines the dose of melatonin, administered to women at risk of imminent very preterm birth (less than 28 weeks' gestation) required to reduce brain damage in the white matter of the babies that were born very preterm.Further high-quality research is needed and research

  13. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, I. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, B.F. [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital (Denmark); Keeling, J.W. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibin, Lazar; Anquez, Jeremie; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle [Telecom ParisTech, CNRS UMR 5141 LTCI, Institut TELECOM, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  15. Application of the multitracer technique. Transport of various elements in the pregnant rats and the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2003-01-01

    The placenta functions as a barrier between fetus and mother, providing regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. There is limited information on the transport of trace elements from the mother to the fetus. Transfer of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus rats was examined by the multitracer technique, which can be used to evaluate the behavior of many elements under the same experimental condition. In this experiment, the multitracer solution contained the following elements: Be, Na, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc and Ru. We examined the time courses of uptake of various elements in the placenta and the fetus. From these results, we observed a significant difference in time dependency between each element. The elements were divided into three groups. Based on the results, it was considered that the placenta is highly selective because essential elements are readily transported across placenta/membranes to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals hardly penetrated the placental barrier that protects the fetus from toxic effects. (author)

  16. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  17. Hybrid 3D pregnant woman and fetus modeling from medical imaging for dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibin, Lazar; Anquez, Jeremie; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations studying the interactions between radiations and biological tissues require the use of three-dimensional models of the human anatomy at various ages and in various positions. Several detailed and flexible models exist for adults and children and have been extensively used for dosimetry. On the other hand, progress of simulation studies focusing on pregnant women and the fetus have been limited by the fact that only a small number of models exist with rather coarse anatomical details and a poor representation of the anatomical variability of the fetus shape and its position over the entire gestation. In this paper, we propose a new computational framework to generate 3D hybrid models of pregnant women, composed of fetus shapes segmented from medical images and a generic maternal body envelope representing a synthetic woman scaled to the dimension of the uterus. The computational framework includes the following tasks: image segmentation, contour regularization, mesh-based surface reconstruction, and model integration. A series of models was created to represent pregnant women at different gestational stages and with the fetus in different positions, all including detailed tissues of the fetus and the utero-fetal unit, which play an important role in dosimetry. These models were anatomically validated by clinical obstetricians and radiologists who verified the accuracy and representativeness of the anatomical details, and the positioning of the fetus inside the maternal body. The computational framework enables the creation of detailed, realistic, and representative fetus models from medical images, directly exploitable for dosimetry simulations. (orig.)

  18. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in single-crystal ErRh4B4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Mook, H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and resistivity measurements on single crystals of ErRh 4 B 4 have revealed that both superconductivity and ferromagnetic order coexist in this material between 0.71 and 1.2 0 K. In this intermediate phase, a linear polarized modulated structure with a wavelength of approximately 100 A is observed. The modulated moment increases faster than the ferromagnetic moment down to 0.71 K and then disappears suddenly, with loss of superconductivity and a transition to a normal ferromagnetic state. This transition is accompanied by temperature hysteresis of about 60 mK. The same hysteresis, in the inverse sense, is exhibited by the ferromagnetic component. We interpret the intermediate phase as being one of coexisting normal ferromagnetic domains and superconducting sinusoidally ordered domains. Evidence of a small percentage of small ferromagnetic regions of size approx. 100 A is also seen in both the intermediate and ferromagnetic phases. 3 figures

  20. Target genes of myostatin loss-of-function in muscles of late bovine fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-François

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin, a muscle-specific member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta family, negatively regulates muscle development. Double-muscled (DM cattle have a loss-of-function mutation in their myostatin gene responsible for the hypermuscular phenotype. Thus, these animals are a good model for understanding the mechanisms underpinning muscular hypertrophy. In order to identify individual genes or networks that may be myostatin targets, we looked for genes that were differentially expressed between DM and normal (NM animals (n = 3 per group in the semitendinosus muscle (hypertrophied in DM animals at 260 days of fetal development (when the biochemical differentiation of muscle is intensive. A heterologous microarray (human and murine oligonucleotide sequences of around 6,000 genes expressed in muscle was used. Results Many genes were found to be differentially expressed according to genetic type (some with a more than 5-fold change, and according to the presence of one or two functional myostatin allele(s. They belonged to various functional categories. The genes down-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly those encoding extracellular matrix proteins, slow contractile proteins and ribosomal proteins. The genes up-regulated in DM fetuses were mainly involved in the regulation of transcription, cell cycle/apoptosis, translation or DNA metabolism. These data highlight features indicating that DM muscle is shifted towards a more glycolytic metabolism, and has an altered extracellular matrix composition (e.g. down-regulation of COL1A1 and COL1A2, and up-regulation of COL4A2 and decreased adipocyte differentiation (down-regulation of C1QTNF3. The altered gene expression in the three major muscle compartments (fibers, connective tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue is consistent with the well-known characteristics of DM cattle. In addition, novel potential targets of the myostatin gene were identified (MB, PLN, troponins, ZFHX1B

  1. Dose estimation in embryo or fetus in external fields; Estimacion de dosis en embrion o feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, Beatriz N [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    The embryo or the fetus can be irradiated as result of radiological procedures of diagnosis of therapy in where the beam effects directly on the same one or in tissues or peripherical organs. Some authors have suggested that in the first stages of the pregnancy the dose in ovaries can be the good estimated of the dose in embryo or fetus. In advanced conditions of the development, probably also in the early stage, is more appropriated to specify the dose in the embryo or fetus equal of the uterus. The dose in the uterus is a good estimated so much for external irradiation as for radionuclides incorporation.

  2. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    . The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene......, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes...

  3. Teratogenic effect of yogurt in mice fetus (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwisari Dillasamola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt is one of the dairy products made from lactic acid fermentation by using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A study on teratogenic effects of yogurt on the white female mice fetus (Mus musculus has been carried out. Pregnant mice used were 20 which divided into 4 groups : the control group, D1, D2, and D3. The treatments giveThe mice were Distidelled water (control, 0.52 yogurt (D1, 1.04  yogurt (D2, and 2.08 g yogurt (D3. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test. Results showed that administration of yogurt during pregnancy could affect mother body weight of mice (P 0,05. Observations with Alizarin solution did not show skeletal defects in comparison to the control group. Observations with Bouin’s solution showed defective visceral cleft palate in fetal mice yogurt group D3. This study conclude that yogurt is safe to consume in groups D1 and D2. Yogurt has the potential to cause fetal teratogenic in group D3

  4. The Effect of Ecstasy Administration during Pregnancy on Mice Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mostafavi Pour-Manshadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ecstasy or 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA is a psychotropic and addictive substance that young people tend to use it to reduce their psychological and social tensions. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of ecstasy consumption on the fetus of pregnant mice during the second and third weeks of pregnancy. Methods: 20 adult female mice were randomly selected(5 for control group and 15 for experimental group. Two intraperitoneal injections of ecstasy(5mg/Kg was used in the experimental group, on 7th and 14th days of pregnancy, while, in the control group, only distilled water was injected intraperitoneally. On 18th day of pregnancy, mice were placed in separate cages. The condition of palate, skull, external ear, eye, fingers and toes and sindactily, weight, and fertility potentials of newborn mice were studied using stereo microscope. Results: From 163 newborn mice in two groups, no abnormalities were observed in the skull and the external ear. There wasn’t any significant difference between male and female sex ratio between two groups (p=.08. Hypoplasia of the fingers was significantly different between the two groups(p<0.001. The frequency of sindactily was not significantly different between two groups(p=0. 11. Female fertility potential was significantly different between two groups(p<0.001. Conclusion: Adminstration of ecstasy during pregnancy may affect the organogenesis and fertility potential of newborn mice. Therefore, more studies are needed in this regard.

  5. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Radiologie, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Besnard, Marianne [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Reanimation Neo-natale, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service d' Obstetrique, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Jouannic, Jean-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Medecine Foetale, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2016-06-15

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  6. Echobiometrics kidney and renal artery triplex doppler of canine fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sogographic parameters and biometry of canine fetal kidneys using the B mode, and to determinate the vascular index of the fetal renal arteries using the Doppler Triplex. Twenty four Shi-tzu and Pug, weighting between 4 and 10kg, aging between 4 and 6 years old were evaluated. The B mode, the fetal renal echobiometry and regularity of the renal surface, echotexture and cortex:medular ratio were evaluated during the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. At the same time point of the B mode evaluation, the Doppler Triplex was carried out to assess the sistolic peak velocity (SPV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, vascular resistive (RI and pulsatility index (PI. B mode revealed no fetal renal abnormalities and echobiometry showed important measurements during fetal development (P0.05. B mode and Doppler Triplex were important tools for the assessment of fetal renal development, using echobiometry and renal arterial index in canie fetuses.

  7. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections.

  8. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  9. The Carotid Body and Arousal in the Fetus and Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  10. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jankovic-Raznatovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1 shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2 shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction.

  11. Shape coexistence of light, even A mercury isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the studies of the decay of thallium isotopes establish the coexistence and crossing of two bands in the mercury isotopes. The two bands are built on states of different deformation. The band built upon the ground state has an associated small negative β value (oblate shape) while the second band has a large positive β value (prolate shape). The band heads for the deformed bands in the 184 186 188 Hg isotopes are established as 0 + levels at 375.2, 523.8, and 824.5 keV respectively. A comparison between the experimental results and the predictions of calculations based upon the coexistence of two different nuclear deformations has been made. The presence of two different deformations as described by two minima in the nuclear potential energy curve is termed ''shape coexistence.'' The good agreement of the calculations with the experimental results adds further support to the coexistence interpretation. The coexistence and crossing of two bands of different deformation explains the unusual behavior of the yrast level spacing that is referred to as 'backbending' when discussing moment of inertia versus rotational frequency plots based on the yrast levels. The studies of the 186 188 Pt levels have established the lower members of the ground state band and of a rotation-alignment band. The experimental results confirm the rotation-alignment explanation of backbending in the platinum cases discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Assisted Reproduction Technologies Alter Steroid Delivery to the Mouse Fetus During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunig, Jefferey M.; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A.; Collier, Abby C.

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies (ART) include in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and are common treatments for infertility. Although generally successful, ART warrant further investigations due to emerging perinatal issues, especially low birth weight. Herein we extend our previous work demonstrating higher steroid clearance in murine ART placentas by examining steroid biosynthesis and the directional flow of steroids in the maternal-placental-fetal units. The activities of the major steroidogenic enzymes 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and Cytochrome P450 17-αhydroxylase (CYP17) were assessed in maternal liver and ovaries and fetal livers as were levels of cholesterol, progesterone, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) in the maternal, placental and fetal units. No structural abnormalities were found in placentas from ART. Although ART increased 3β-HSD activity in maternal livers, there were no other changes in 3β-HSD- or CYP17-mediated steroidogenesis. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in maternal livers of ICSI pregnancies and in placentas from both IVF and ICSI pregnancies but not altered in the fetal livers. Progesterone levels were higher in maternal and fetal livers in IVF and ICSI, respectively, but were significantly lowered in ICSI placentas, compared to normal fertilization. For estrogenic hormones, no differences in E1 or E2 levels were observed in maternal livers but ICSI significantly increased both E1 and E2 levels in placentas while both IVF and ICSI significantly lowered E1 but raised E2 levels in fetal livers. In summary, while steroid production was normal, steroid diffusion/flow from mother to fetus was altered in murine pregnancies conceived by ART. This appears to occur, at least in part; through placental mechanisms. Impaired cholesterol and steroid transfer may affect correct regulation of fetal growth and development. PMID:21193037

  13. Interspecies chimera between primate embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos: monkey ESCs engraft into mouse embryos, but not post-implantation fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simerly, Calvin; McFarland, Dave; Castro, Carlos; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Redinger, Carrie; Jacoby, Ethan; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn; Orwig, Kyle; Mills, Parker; Ahrens, Eric; Navara, Chris; Schatten, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Unequivocal evidence for pluripotency in which embryonic stem cells contribute to chimeric offspring has yet to be demonstrated in human or nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, rhesus and baboons ESCs were investigated in interspecific mouse chimera generated by aggregation or blastocyst injection. Aggregation chimera produced mouse blastocysts with GFP-nhpESCs at the inner cell mass (ICM), and embryo transfers (ETs) generated dimly-fluorescencing abnormal fetuses. Direct injection of GFP-nhpESCs into blastocysts produced normal non-GFP-fluorescencing fetuses. Injected chimera showed >70% loss of GFP-nhpESCs after 21 h culture. Outgrowths of all chimeric blastocysts established distinct but separate mouse- and NHP-ESC colonies. Extensive endogenous autofluorescence compromised anti-GFP detection and PCR analysis did not detect nhpESCs in fetuses. NhpESCs localize to the ICM in chimera and generate pregnancies. Because primate ESCs do not engraft post-implantation, and also because endogenous autofluorescence results in misleading positive signals, interspecific chimera assays for pluripotency with primate stem cells is unreliable with the currently available ESCs. Testing primate ESCs reprogrammed into even more naïve states in these inter-specific chimera assays will be an important future endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Defining the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rustum, Reem S; Ziade, M Fouad; Abu-Rustum, Sameer E

    2012-09-01

    Our study aims at investigating the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus. This is a retrospective pilot study where three-dimensional and four-dimensional stored data sets were manipulated to retrieve eight anatomic planes starting from the midsagittal plane of the fetus. Standardization of volumes was performed at the level of the transverse abdominal circumference plane. Parallel shift was utilized and the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes were established. The median and the range were calculated for each of the planes, and they were evaluated as a function of the fetal crown-rump length. P planes were found to adhere to normal distribution curves, and most of the planes were in a definable relationship to each other with statistically significant correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the possible spatial relationships between eight two-dimensional anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus, utilizing a standardized approach. Defining these spatial relationships may serve as the first step for the potential future development of automation software for fetal anatomic assessment at 11+6 to 13+6 weeks. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Beyond peaceful coexistence the emergence of space, time and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Beyond Peaceful Coexistence: The Emergence of Space, Time and Quantum brings together leading academics in mathematics and physics to address going beyond the 'peaceful coexistence' of space-time descriptions (local and continuous ones) and quantum events (discrete and non-commutative ones). Formidable challenges waiting beyond the Standard Model require a new semantic consistency within the theories in order to build new ways of understanding, working and relating to them. The original A. Shimony meaning of the peaceful coexistence (the collapse postulate and non-locality) appear to be just the tip of the iceberg in relation to more serious fundamental issues across physics as a whole.Chapters in this book present perspectives on emergent, discrete, geometrodynamic and topological approaches, as well as a new interpretative spectrum of quantum theories after Copenhagen, discrete time theories, time-less approaches and 'super-fluid' pictures of space-time.As well as stimulating further research among establis...

  16. Thermal expansion of coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Nobukuni; Konno, Rikio

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of thermal expansion of coexistence of ferromag-netism and superconductivity below the superconducting transition temperature T cu of a majority spin conduction band is investigated. Majority spin and minority spin superconducting gaps exist in the coexistent state. We assume that the Curie temperature is much larger than the superconducting transition temperatures. The free energy that Linder et al. [Phys. Rev. B76, 054511 (2007)] derived is used. The thermal expansion of coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is derived by the application of the method of Takahashi and Nakano [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 521 (2006)]. We find that we have the anomalies of the thermal expansion in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperatures.

  17. Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Explanatory Coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Busch, Justin T A; Legare, Cristine H

    2015-10-01

    Natural and supernatural explanations are used to interpret the same events in a number of predictable and universal ways. Yet little is known about how variation in diverse cultural ecologies influences how people integrate natural and supernatural explanations. Here, we examine explanatory coexistence in three existentially arousing domains of human thought: illness, death, and human origins using qualitative data from interviews conducted in Tanna, Vanuatu. Vanuatu, a Melanesian archipelago, provides a cultural context ideal for examining variation in explanatory coexistence due to the lack of industrialization and the relatively recent introduction of Christianity and Western education. We argue for the integration of interdisciplinary methodologies from cognitive science and anthropology to inform research on explanatory coexistence. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and Mucocele of the Appendix: An Unusual Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalogiannidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucocele is a rare clinical entity, which is however quite often associated with mucinous ovarian tumor. The coexistence of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and endometrial adenocarcinoma has not been reported before. A 49-year-old woman presented to our clinic with postmenopausal bleeding and no other symptom. Endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type (grade I. Preoperative CT scanning revealed an appendiceal mucocele, and a colonoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy. The final histopathological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. The coexistence of appendiceal mucocele and female genital tract pathology is rare. However, gynecologists should keep a high level of suspicion for such possible coexistence. Both the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic management should be multidisciplinary, most importantly with the involvement of general surgeons.

  19. Dystocia Due to Relative Oversized Fetus and fetal maldisposition in a Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Vasishta

    Full Text Available A primiparous Murrah graded buffalo suffering with dystocia due to relative oversize fetus and fetal maldisposition and its successful management following laparohysterotomy has been described. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 569-570

  20. Mosaic male fetus of Turner syndrome with partial chromosome Y: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dan; Cao, Dong-Hua; Mu, Kai; Lv, Yuan; Yang, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Turner syndrome, characterized by the presence of a monosomy X cell line, is a common chromosomal disorder. Patients with Turner syndrome are usually phenotypically female, and male cases are rarely reported. Here, we report a fetus with a mosaic karyotype: mos 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as female with Turner syndrome by both noninvasive prenatal testing and cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid and was subsequently found to have male anatomy by antenatal ultrasonography at 24 weeks gestational age. Through single nucleotide polymorphism-array and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing, we found that there was a truncated Y chromosome with sex-determining region Y (SRY) present in some cells of the fetus, which caused the male features in the fetus. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Correlation between Doppler flow patterns in growth-restricted fetuses and neonatal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, J. C.; Boelen, M. R.; Schmitz, D. M.; Casarella, L.; van der Laan, M. E.; Bos, A. F.; Bilardo, C. M.

    Objectives To investigate whether prenatal Doppler parameters in growth-restricted fetuses are correlated with neonatal circulatory changes. Methods In 43 cases of suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR), serial Doppler measurements of umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA)

  2. Modification of radiation hazards to the adult and its fetus from nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of perchlorate on the quantitative distribution patterns of /sup 99m/Tc intravenously administered as pertechnetate in the human adult and its fetus were studied in a variety of situations and are summarized. Perchlorate, when administered shortly before /sup 99m/Tc, suppresses concentration in the adult thyroid gland, stomach, and urine; but tends to increase intestinal localization; and prolongs disappearance from the blood. It also inhibits concentration in the placenta and fetus. The greatest reductions in fetal concentrations occur in the femur, spleen, stomach, and thyroid. The estimated radiation absorbed doses to the human fetus are about 80 mrad/mCi for /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate alone, and around 30 mrad/mCi if pretreatment with perchlorate is used. Previously localized /sup 99m/Tc may be released by perchlorate from the thyroid gland and stomach, but not from the placenta and fetus

  3. Radiation dose estimates for the fetus from intakes of gallium citrate by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    Information about the distribution and retention of Ga 67 in the pregnant woman is limited and must be extrapolated from animal data. Studies have shown that gallium administered as citrate crosses the placenta into the fetus; however, the concentration in the placenta appears to be considerably greater than that in the fetus. Little is known about the retention of gallium in the fetus and placenta. In this paper, available data on the concentrations in the placenta and fetus are combined with data on the biokinetics of gallium in the woman to provide a model for dose calculation. The absorbed fractions calculated from the pregnant woman models developed by the Radiopharmaceutical Internal Dose Information Center will be used to provide dose estimates for the radioisotopes of gallium. (author)

  4. Prenatal detection of microtia by MRI in a fetus with trisomy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, Andrea; Blaser, Susan; Robinson, Ashley; Viero, Sandra; Halliday, William; Winsor, Elizabeth; Toi, Ants; Thomas, Micki; Chitayat, David

    2006-01-01

    Trisomy 22 is a rare chromosomal abnormality infrequently detected prenatally. External ear abnormalities, in particular microtia, are often associated with trisomy 22, but prenatal detection of microtia has not been reported in association with trisomy 22. We report a fetus with trisomy 22, with fetal MRI findings of microtia, craniofacial dysmorphism, and polygyria. Fetal MRI is a useful tool for auricular assessment and might have utility in the prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities, especially among fetuses with structural anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiangdong.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs

  6. Coexistence of a General Elliptic System in Population Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a strongly-coupled elliptic system representing a competitive interaction between two species. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions. An example is also given to show that there is a coexistence of a steady state if the cross-diffusion......This paper is concerned with a strongly-coupled elliptic system representing a competitive interaction between two species. We give a sufficient condition for the existence of positive solutions. An example is also given to show that there is a coexistence of a steady state if the cross...

  7. Coexistence and Survival in Conservative Lotka-Volterra Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Johannes; Krüger, Torben; Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin

    2013-04-01

    Analyzing coexistence and survival scenarios of Lotka-Volterra (LV) networks in which the total biomass is conserved is of vital importance for the characterization of long-term dynamics of ecological communities. Here, we introduce a classification scheme for coexistence scenarios in these conservative LV models and quantify the extinction process by employing the Pfaffian of the network’s interaction matrix. We illustrate our findings on global stability properties for general systems of four and five species and find a generalized scaling law for the extinction time.

  8. Coexistence of morphea and granuloma annulare: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Ağırgöl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Localized scleroderma (morphea is characterized by fibrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue. Granuloma annulare is a relatively common disease that is characterized by dermal papules and arciform plaques. CASE REPORT: Here, we present the case of a 42-year-old woman who developed granuloma annulare on the dorsum of her feet and abdominal region, and morphea on the anterior side of her lower limbs. We also discuss the etiological and pathogenetic processes that may cause the rare coexistence of these two diseases. CONCLUSION: Only a few cases in the literature have described coexistence of morphea and granuloma annulare.

  9. Shape coexistence and phase transitions in the platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Irving O.; Frank, Alejandro; Vargas, Carlos E.; Isacker, P. Van

    2008-01-01

    The matrix coherent-state approach of the interacting boson model with configuration mixing is used to study the geometry of the platinum isotopes. With a parameter set determined in previous studies, it is found that the absolute minimum of the potential for the Pt isotopes evolves from spherical to oblate and finally to prolate shapes when the neutron number decreases from N=126 (semi-magic) to N=104 (mid-shell). Shape coexistence is found in the isotopes 182,184,186,188 Pt. A phase diagram is constructed that shows the coexistence region as a function of the number of bosons and the strength of the mixing parameter

  10. Training in Values to Strengthen Social and Civic Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present significantly values training to strengthen social and citizen considering that the coexistence of human beings has not been entirely easy, but so far they have managed to relate many of their problems with how to relate and interact with the environment, especially with the social environment. This study was conducted with a literature review which is the basis for targeted strengthening coexistence and citizenship therefore falls from a descriptive research training documentary. In conclusion, the importance of the subject since doors for values, dialogues, reflections, quality of life, among others that reflect the actions of teachers based on principles axiological open.

  11. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jeong Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days, the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days, the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days. In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days, the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB and the posterior cranial base (PCB was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  12. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the HR diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briquet, M.; Hubrig, S.; Cat, P. de; Aerts, C.C.; North, P.; Schöller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods: We carry out a comparative study

  14. Ectogenesis, abortion and a right to the death of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Joona

    2017-11-01

    Many people believe that the abortion debate will end when at some point in the future it will be possible for fetuses to develop outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, would make possible to reconcile pro-life and pro-choice positions. That is because it is commonly believed that there is no right to the death of the fetus if it can be detached alive and gestated in an artificial womb. Recently Eric Mathison and Jeremy Davis defended this position, by arguing against three common arguments for a right to the death of the fetus. I claim that their arguments are mistaken. I argue that there is a right to the death of the fetus because gestating a fetus in an artificial womb when genetic parents refuse it violates their rights not to become a biological parent, their rights to genetic privacy and their property rights. The right to the death of the fetus, however, is not a woman's right but genetic parents' collective right which only can be used together. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to multiple maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kara Beth; Rossi, Karen Q; Nagaraja, Haikady N; O'Shaughnessy, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether women with combinations of red blood cell antibodies are more likely to develop significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn than those with single antibodies. A retrospective exposure cohort study was conducted of pregnant women with red blood cell antibodies. The development of significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was then compared between patients with single antibodies and those with multiple antibodies. Data analysis was limited to pregnancies delivering since the year 2000. Thirteen percent of the patients referred to our program had multiple red blood cell antibodies. Odds of developing significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn for patients with anti-Rh(D) combined with at least 1 additional red blood cell antibody were 3.65 times the odds for women with anti-Rh(D) antibodies in isolation (95% confidence interval, 1.84-7.33). In the setting of multiple antibodies including anti-Rh(D), Rh-positive fetuses/neonates have an increased odds of developing significant hemolytic disease even if the fetus is negative for the other corresponding red blood cell antigen. Women with multiple red blood cell antibodies are more likely to develop significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn than those with a single antibody especially in the presence of anti-(Rh)D. This pathophysiology may suggest a more aggressive immune response in women who develop more than 1 red blood cell antibody. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seven novel mutations of the SMPD1 gene in four Chinese patients with Niemann-Pick disease type A and prenatal diagnosis for four fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Li, Xiyuan; Liu, Yupeng; Hua, Ying; Song, Jinqing; Wang, Liwen; Li, Mengqiu; Qin, Yaping; Yang, Yanling

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by acid sphingomyelinase deficiency. Only a few cases have been documented in mainland China, and prenatal diagnosis has not been performed to date. In this study, the clinical and laboratory features of four Chinese patients with early-onset NPD-A were summarized. Four patients with NPD-A were the firstborns of non-consanguineous parents from four unrelated Chinese families. Bone marrow analysis, acid sphingomyelinase assay and genetic studies were performed. SMPD1 gene studies on amniocytes were performed for the prenatal diagnosis of four fetuses from three families. Four patients were admitted at the age of 1-10 months due to jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and psychomotor retardation. Liver histopathological analysis revealed glucolipid accumulation. Massive foamy histiocytes were found in the bone marrow. Acid sphingomyelinase activities of peripheral blood leukocytes were significantly decreased (4.05-21.9 nmol/h/mg protein, normal range 216.1-950.9 nmol/h/mg protein). Seven novel mutations (c.518-519insT, c.562_563insC, c.792Gdel, c.949G>A, c.1487_1499delACCGTGTGTACCA, c.1495T>C and c.1670T>C) of the SMPD1 gene were identified in four patients. Only one fetus had two mutations of the SMPD1 gene of amniocytes. The results suggested that the fetus was affected by NPD-A. The mother chose artificial abortion. The other three fetuses were not affected by NPD-A. No mutation of the SMPD1 gene was detected in the cultured amniocytes from the mothers. Postnatal genetic analysis and normal development of the three infants confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Seven novel mutations associated with NPD-A were identified in the Chinese population. Prenatal diagnosis for four fetuses of three families was successfully performed by amniocyte gene analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    -sufficiency of bilateral relations and excessive influence of third countries. Any efforts to normalize bilateral relations will be meaningless until the weight of bilateral relations really increases to each of the party.

  18. Fetus in fetu in the scrotal sac of newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scrotal ultrasound showed a well-defined fetiform mass measuring 3 Â 2 cm, which showed bone elements resembling ... were evident as a part of the mass. A tiny atrophied testis ... normal skin; (c) have grossly recognizable anatomic parts;.

  19. Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Qin, Hao; Alléaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of continuous variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) in dense-wavelength-division multiplexing networks (DWDM), where QKD will typically have to coexist with several co-propagating (forward or backward) C-band classical channels whose launch power is around 0 dBm. We have conducted experimental tests of the coexistence of CV-QKD multiplexed with an intense classical channel, for different input powers and different DWDM wavelengths. Over a 25 km fiber, a CV-QKD operated over the 1530.12 nm channel can tolerate the noise arising from up to 11.5 dBm classical channel at 1550.12 nm in the forward direction (9.7 dBm in backward). A positive key rate (0.49 kbits s −1 ) can be obtained at 75 km with classical channel power of respectively −3 and −9 dBm in forward and backward. Based on these measurements, we have also simulated the excess noise and optimized channel allocation for the integration of CV-QKD in some access networks. We have, for example, shown that CV-QKD could coexist with five pairs of channels (with nominal input powers: 2 dBm forward and 1 dBm backward) over a 25 km WDM-PON network. The obtained results demonstrate the outstanding capacity of CV-QKD to coexist with classical signals of realistic intensity in optical networks. (paper)

  20. Coexistence of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    There is a selective review of the literature concerning the coexistence of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on the principles of serological tests towards coeliac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and metabolic control measures as a result of a gluten-free diet.

  1. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  2. Species coexistence: macroevolutionary relationships and the contingency of historical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rachel M; Weir, Jason T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-30

    Evolutionary biologists since Darwin have hypothesized that closely related species compete more intensely and are therefore less likely to coexist. However, recent theory posits that species diverge in two ways: either through the evolution of 'stabilizing differences' that promote coexistence by causing individuals to compete more strongly with conspecifics than individuals of other species, or through the evolution of 'fitness differences' that cause species to differ in competitive ability and lead to exclusion of the weaker competitor. We tested macroevolutionary patterns of divergence by competing pairs of annual plant species that differ in their phylogenetic relationships, and in whether they have historically occurred in the same region or different regions (sympatric versus allopatric occurrence). For sympatrically occurring species pairs, stabilizing differences rapidly increased with phylogenetic distance. However, fitness differences also increased with phylogenetic distance, resulting in coexistence outcomes that were unpredictable based on phylogenetic relationships. For allopatric species, stabilizing differences showed no trend with phylogenetic distance, whereas fitness differences increased, causing coexistence to become less likely among distant relatives. Our results illustrate the role of species' historical interactions in shaping how phylogenetic relationships structure competitive dynamics, and offer an explanation for the evolution of invasion potential of non-native species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. On the coexistence of the magnetic phases in chromium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.

    1969-01-01

    Detailed neutron diffraction investigations have been performed on Cr-Re alloys in order to explain the several observations in Cr alloys of the coexistence of a commensurable and an oscillatory magnetic phase. It is concluded that the individual magnetic phases probably occur in separate domains....

  4. Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venus, Thomas Johann

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and

  5. Interference Mitigation for Coexistence of Heterogeneous Ultra-Wideband Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haitao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ultra-wideband (UWB specifications, that is, direct-sequence (DS UWB and multiband-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM UWB, have been proposed as the candidates of the IEEE 802.15.3a, competing for the standard of high-speed wireless personal area networks (WPAN. Due to the withdrawal of the standardization process, the two heterogeneous UWB technologies will coexist in the future commercial market. In this paper, we investigate the mutual interference of such coexistence scenarios by physical layer Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal that the coexistence severely degrades the performance of both UWB systems. Moreover, such interference is asymmetric due to the heterogeneity of the two systems. Therefore, we propose the goodput-oriented utility-based transmit power control (GUTPC algorithm for interference mitigation. The feasible condition and the convergence property of GUTPC are investigated, and the choice of the coefficients is discussed for fairness and efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate that GUTPC improves the goodput of the coexisting systems effectively and fairly with saved power.

  6. Coexistence of structured populations with size-based prey selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Martin; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending on the ma......Abstract Species with a large adult-offspring size ratio and a preferred predator–prey mass ratio undergo ontogenetic trophic niche shift(s) throughout life. Trophic interactions between such species vary throughout life, resulting in different species-level interaction motifs depending...... on the maximum adult sizes and population size distributions. We explore the assembly and potential for coexistence of small communities where all species experience ontogenetic trophic niche shifts. The life-history of each species is described by a physiologically structured model and species identity...... there is a large scope for coexistence of two species, the scope for coexistence of three species is limited and we conclude that further trait differentiation is required for coexistence of more species-rich size-structured communities....

  7. Practices that support coexistence: A survey of Alfalfa growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa industry has worked hard to foster the coexistence of genetically-engineered (GE) and conventional alfalfa production by developing a set of best management practices that aim to limit adventitious-presence (AP) of GE traits in conventional seed. The general goal is to minimize transgene...

  8. [School coexistence and learning in adolescence from a gender perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aguado Jalón, María José; Martín Seoane, Gema

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews recent research about academic learning and school coexistence in adolescence from a gender perspective. It focuses on the research developed by the Preventive Psychology research group (UCM), specially the results from the Spanish National Study of School Coexistence using a sample of 22,247 secondary school students. Research shows that girls are overrepresented in positive indicators whereas boys are in negative indicators, not only in academic adjustment but also in school coexistence. Girls' better academic achievement can be explained by their higher tendency to overcome sexism: they identify with traditional masculinity values (such as success orientation) without giving up traditional femininity values (such as empathy). Based on this, the following conclusions are reached: 1) to extend the advantages of equality also to men; 2) to emphasize that sharing academic contexts and activities is necessary but sufficient to construct equality; and lastly, 3) to improve school coexistence, it is necessary to adopt a integrative gender approach to prevent any kind of violence, including violence against women.

  9. Beyond Coexistence: Toward a More Reflective Religious Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblith, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    If a pluralistic democratic state such as the United States wishes to move beyond coexistence and toward a more reflective religious pluralism, then public schools must take epistemic issues seriously. Taking a cue from multicultural education, many have called for including the study of religion from a cultural perspective. I argue instead that,…

  10. Energy density functional analysis of shape coexistence in 44S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z. P.; Yao, J. M.; Vretenar, D.; Nikšić, T.; Meng, J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of low-energy collective states in the neutron-rich nucleus 44 S is analyzed using a microscopic collective Hamiltonian model based on energy density functionals (EDFs). The calculated triaxial energy map, low-energy spectrum and corresponding probability distributions indicate a coexistence of prolate and oblate shapes in this nucleus.

  11. Synchronization in Coupled Oscillators with Two Coexisting Attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han-Han, Zhu; Jun-Zhong, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics in coupled Duffing oscillators with two coexisting symmetrical attractors is investigated. For a pair of Duffing oscillators coupled linearly, the transition to the synchronization generally consists of two steps: Firstly, the two oscillators have to jump onto a same attractor, then they reach synchronization similarly to coupled monostable oscillators. The transition scenarios to the synchronization observed are strongly dependent on initial conditions. (general)

  12. Hinges of Correlation: Spatial Devices of Social Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates the coexistence of and the correlation between the inhabitants within my apartment building, using artistic practices and my own lived experience. These everyday spaces form the primary interface between the individual and the larger social entity of the city. Consciously...

  13. Possible coexistence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in the Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhaobin; Dong Jinming; Yu Lu; Shen Juelian

    1988-01-01

    The Hubbard model in the nearly half-filled case was studied in the mean field approximation using the effective Hamiltonian approach. Both antiferromagnetic order parameter and condensation of singlet pairs were considered. In certain parameter ranges the coexistence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity is energetically favourable. Relevance to the high temperature superconductivity and other theoretical approaches is also discussed. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  14. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  15. Coexisting Situs Inversus Totalis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Kemal; Altintoprak, Fatih; Uzunoğlu, Mustafa Yener; Dikicier, Enis; Zengin, İsmail; Yağmurkaya, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital abnormality with mirror symmetry of mediastinal and abdominal organs. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is an autoimmune disease with destruction of thrombocytes. This paper is presentation of surgical approach to a case with coexistence of these two conditions.

  16. Coexisting Situs Inversus Totalis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Gundogdu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital abnormality with mirror symmetry of mediastinal and abdominal organs. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is an autoimmune disease with destruction of thrombocytes. This paper is presentation of surgical approach to a case with coexistence of these two conditions.

  17. Tunable two-phase coexistence in half-doped manganites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our recent work on half-doped manganites builds on those ideas to explain our data showing continuously tunable phase coexistence of FM and AFM states. Macroscopic hysteresis across transitions is often used to assert their first-order nature, and this has also been done in the case of half-doped manganites [6]. Kuwa-.

  18. Advanced Cancer Of The Cervix Coexisting With Multiple Fibroids In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a 47 year old nulliparous woman with advanced cervical cancer coexisting with uterine fibroid is presented. The nulliparity and the presence of Fibroids presented diagnostic challenges especially because epidemiologically the factors present are not commonly associated. Diagnosis was assisted by a thorough ...

  19. A rare challenging case of co-existent craniopharyngioma, acromegaly and squamous cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Fountas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Co-existence of craniopharyngioma and acromegaly has been very rarely reported. A 65-year-old man presented with visual deterioration, fatigue and frontal headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar heterogeneous, mainly cystic, 1.9 × 2 × 1.9 cm mass compressing the optic chiasm and expanding to the third ventricle; the findings were consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Pituitary hormone profile showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, mildly elevated prolactin, increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and normal thyroid function and cortisol reserve. The patient had transsphenoidal surgery and pathology of the specimen was diagnostic of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Post-operatively, he had diabetes insipidus, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency. Despite the hypopituitarism, his IGF-1 levels remained elevated and subsequent oral glucose tolerance test did not show complete growth hormone (GH suppression. Further review of the pre-operative imaging revealed a 12 × 4 mm pituitary adenoma close to the right carotid artery and no signs of pituitary hyperplasia. At that time, he was also diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the left upper lung lobe finally managed with radical radiotherapy. Treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogue was initiated leading to biochemical control of the acromegaly. Latest imaging has shown no evidence of craniopharyngioma regrowth and stable adenoma. This is a unique case report of co-existence of craniopharyngioma, acromegaly and squamous lung cell carcinoma that highlights diagnostic and management challenges. Potential effects of the GH hypersecretion on the co-existent tumours of this patient are also briefly discussed.

  20. The coexistence of species La coexistencia de especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALEB E. GORDON

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a critical literature review on the topic of the coexistence of similar species within ecological communities. A conceptual framework is provided for dividing coexistence studies and concepts into three distinct time scales. The first six sections deal primarily with ecological-scale, or mesoscale coexistence, defined as coexistence in the classic sense of the competitive exclusion principle and Lotka-Volterra models, wherein interacting populations have had enough time to reach equilibrium. The first four sections briefly review resource partitioning studies and competitive coexistence models, and discuss the relative contributions of, and interaction between empirical and theoretical approaches to the problem of ecological-scale coexistence. The next two sections discuss the importance of biological trade-offs and the role of competition in structuring ecological communities. Based on compelling empirical evidence on both sides of the competition debate, a view of competition's role in structuring communities is proposed wherein the effects of competition are important but incomplete. The next section briefly reviews coexistence as it has been incorporated into habitat selection models, which represents coexistence at a finer time scale generated by the behavioral decisions of individual organisms. Linkages between this type of coexistence and mesoscale coexistence are discussed. Finally, a larger scale of coexistence is explored in which the assumptions of fixed niches, habitats, and species pools in communities are relaxed. This section links global and evolutionary species diversity literature to mesoscale ecological coexistence, focusing on the effects of ecosystem productivity and province size. Factors that govern diversity at large scales may be used to calibrate expectations and make predictions about mesoscale coexistence within particular communities. The study of diversity dynamics at geologic time scales suggests some

  1. Impact on obstetric outcome of third-trimester screening for small-for-gestational-age fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callec, R; Lamy, C; Perdriolle-Galet, E; Patte, C; Heude, B; Morel, O

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the performance of screening for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses by ultrasound biometry at 30-35 weeks' gestation, and to determine the impact of screening on obstetric and neonatal outcomes. For this prospective cohort study, pregnant women were recruited from two French university maternity centers between 2003 and 2006. Performance measures of third-trimester biometry for the prediction of SGA, defined as estimated fetal weight third-trimester ultrasound had a sensitivity of 29.0% (95% CI, 22.5-36.6%) and specificity of 94.2% (95% CI, 93.0-95.2%). Positive and negative predictive values were 30.8% (95% CI, 23.9-38.7%) and 93.7% (95% CI, 92.5-94.8%), respectively. One hundred and ten SGA neonates went undiagnosed at ultrasound. Compared to the TN neonates considered as of normal weight at ultrasound, planned preterm delivery (before 37 weeks) and elective Cesarean section for a fetal growth indication were 2.4 (P = 0.01) and 2.85 (P = 0.003) times more likely to occur, respectively, in the FP group of non-SGA neonates, diagnosed incorrectly as SGA during the antenatal period. There was no statistically significant difference in 5-min Apgar score third-trimester ultrasound screening for SGA seems poor, as it misses the diagnosis of a large number of SGA neonates. The consequences of routine screening for SGA in a low-risk population may lead to unnecessary planned preterm deliveries and elective Cesarean sections in FP pregnancies, without improved neonatal outcome in the FN pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age. The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r=0.91, p<0.001 between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x and indirect (y methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias.

  3. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Dombek, Małgorzata; Szpinda, Anna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.91, p hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. PMID:26413551

  4. Engineering muscle tissue for the fetus: getting ready for a strong life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Joseph Christ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations frequently involve either skeletal, smooth or cardiac tissues. When large parts of those tissues are damaged, the repair of the malformations is challenged by the fact that so much autologous tissue is missing. Current treatments require the use of prostheses or other therapies and are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, affected children have generally good survival rates and mostly normal schooling. As such, new therapeutic modalities need to represent significant improvements with clear safety profiles. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the treatment of any disease or disorder involving a lack of viable tissue. With respect to congenital soft tissue anomalies, the development of, for example, implantable muscle constructs would provide not only the usual desired elasticity and contractile proprieties, but should also be able to grow with the fetus and/or in the postnatal life. Such an approach would eliminate the need for multiple surgeries. However, the more widespread clinical applications of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies require identification of the optimal indications, as well as further elucidation of the precise mechanisms and best methods (cells, scaffolds/biomaterials for achieving large functional tissue regeneration in those clinical indications. In short, despite some amazing scientific progress, significant safety and efficacy hurdles remain. However, the rapid preclinical advances in the field bode well for future applications. As such, translational researchers and clinicians alike need be informed and prepared to utilize these new techniques for the benefit of their patients, as soon as they are available. To this end, we review herein, the clinical need(s, potential applications, and the relevant preclinical studies that are currently guiding the field toward novel

  5. Parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy and risks to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2017-03-15

    Parvovirus B19 infects 1 to 5% of pregnant women, generally with normal pregnancy outcomes. During epidemics, the rate of infection is higher. Major congenital anomalies among offspring of infected mothers are rare, as the virus does not appear to be a significant teratogen. However, parvovirus B19 infection may cause significant fetal damage, and in rare cases, brain anomalies and neurodevelopmental insults, especially if infection occurs in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 is also an important cause of fetal loss, especially in the second half of pregnancy when spontaneous fetal loss from other causes is relatively rare. Parvovirus B19 infection may affect many fetal organs and can cause severe anemia, following fetal erythroid progenitor cells infection and apoptosis, especially in fetuses, that have shortened half-life of erythrocytes. Severe anemia may cause high output cardiac failure and nonimmune hydrops fetalis. In addition, parvovirus B19 may directly infect myocardial cells and produce myocarditis that further aggravates the cardiac failure. Intrauterine fetal transfusion is commonly used for the treatment of severe fetal anemia with survival rates of 75 to 90% and significant reduction of fetal morbidity. Only 66 cases were evaluated neurodevelopmentally, of which 10 (16%) had slight or severe neurodevelopmental problems. Because parvovirus B19 infection can cause severe fetal morbidity and mortality, it should be part of the routine work-up of pregnant women who have been exposed to the virus or of pregnancies with suspected fetal hydrops. Assessment for maternal infection during pregnancy is especially important during epidemics, when sero-conversion rates are high. Birth Defects Research 109:311-323, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of Pulsed Doppler-Versus Tissue Doppler-Derived Tei Index of Right and Left Ventricle in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Amoozgar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The myocardial performance index (MPI, also known as the Tei index, was introduced by Tei et al. to evaluate cardiac function in adults with dilated cardiomyopathy. This index is defined as the sum of isovolumic contraction time (ICT and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT, divided by ejection time (ET. Objectives: To determine the correlation between pulsed Doppler (PD- and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI-derived Tei indices in fetuses. Patients and Methods: Right and left ventricle PD and TDI echocardiographic data were obtained from 59 fetuses (11 pregnant women who were positive for anti-SSA-Ro or anti-SSB-La antibodies, 18 women who were referred due to dysrhythmia, and 30 women who had normal clinical findings. Results: Mean fetal gestational age was 27 ± 6.4 weeks. Mean PD Tei index of the mitral and tricuspid valve was 0.58 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively. Mean TDI indices for the mitral and tricuspid valve were 0.56 ± 0.09 and 0.55 ± 0.08, respectively. There were no significant differences between mitral and tricuspid PD- and TDI-derived Tei indices (P = 0.87, P= 0.21, but the Bland-Altman diagrams showed no fine agreement between the indices (the mean difference ± 1 standard deviation of the right ventricular PD- and TDI-derived Tei indices was 0.24 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.04 for the left ventricle. There were no significant differences in PD- and TDI-derived Tei indexes between groups of evaluated fetuses (Mitral valve: PD-Tei P=0.69, TDI-Tei P=0.49; Tricuspid valve: PD-Tei P=0.41, TDI-Tei P=0.36. Conclusions: Although the mean values of the two indices did not differ significantly, the TDI-derived and PD-derived Tei indices did not have fine agreement.

  7. SU-F-T-222: Dose of Fetus and Infant Following Accidental Intakes of I-131 by the Mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Hu, P [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the calculation of absorbed dose to the fetus and infants from intakes of I-131 by the mother. Thus provide some advice to the radioprotection of radioactive accident. Methods: In this clinical case, a staff of nuclear medicine accidently intake I-131 during (10–12 weeks) and after pregnancy. The infant was born at full term, but both lobes of the thyroid gland were found to be absent (bilobar thyroid agenesis). It was suspected that the fetal thyroid agenesis may be related with mother’s contamination of I-131 during pregnancy. Urine samples for 24h were collected at different times after administered and radioactivity were measured to calculate the dose of intake I-131. Calculate the intake I-131 by the results of personal TLD dosimeter. We adopted the mean of two calculated results as the I-131 intake. According to the dose of intake I-131 by the mother, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for mother, fetus and infant were calculated. Results: The intake of I-131 was estimated for 8.18 mCi. I-131 intake was calculated for 7.9 mCi based on data of TLD dosimeter. We adopted the mean of two results as the I-131 intake. The final result was 8.0 mCi. Effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for mother were 7.3Sv and 164 Gy, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for fetus were 2.035 Sv and 40.7 Gy, effective dose and absorbed dose of thyroid for infant were 16.25 Sv and 355Gy. Conclusion: The intake during pregnancy was about 1mCi. The absorbed dose of thyroid of the mother was 19.5Gy, whereas the effective of infant was estimated for 40.7Gy. The function of the mother’s thyroid was normal after diagnosis. But the infant was diagnosed as bilobar thyroid agenesis.

  8. A rare challenging case of co-existent craniopharyngioma, acromegaly and squamous cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountas, Athanasios; Chai, Shu Teng; Ayuk, John; Gittoes, Neil; Chavda, Swarupsinh; Karavitaki, Niki

    2018-01-01

    Co-existence of craniopharyngioma and acromegaly has been very rarely reported. A 65-year-old man presented with visual deterioration, fatigue and frontal headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar heterogeneous, mainly cystic, 1.9 × 2 × 1.9 cm mass compressing the optic chiasm and expanding to the third ventricle; the findings were consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Pituitary hormone profile showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, mildly elevated prolactin, increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and normal thyroid function and cortisol reserve. The patient had transsphenoidal surgery and pathology of the specimen was diagnostic of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Post-operatively, he had diabetes insipidus, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency. Despite the hypopituitarism, his IGF-1 levels remained elevated and subsequent oral glucose tolerance test did not show complete growth hormone (GH) suppression. Further review of the pre-operative imaging revealed a 12 × 4 mm pituitary adenoma close to the right carotid artery and no signs of pituitary hyperplasia. At that time, he was also diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the left upper lung lobe finally managed with radical radiotherapy. Treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogue was initiated leading to biochemical control of the acromegaly. Latest imaging has shown no evidence of craniopharyngioma regrowth and stable adenoma. This is a unique case report of co-existence of craniopharyngioma, acromegaly and squamous lung cell carcinoma that highlights diagnostic and management challenges. Potential effects of the GH hypersecretion on the co-existent tumours of this patient are also briefly discussed. Although an extremely rare clinical scenario, craniopharyngioma and acromegaly can co-exist; aetiopathogenic link between these two conditions is unlikely.Meticulous review of unexpected

  9. 10 CFR 35.3047 - Report and notification of a dose to an embryo/fetus or a nursing child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report and notification of a dose to an embryo/fetus or a... MATERIAL Reports § 35.3047 Report and notification of a dose to an embryo/fetus or a nursing child. (a) A licensee shall report any dose to an embryo/fetus that is greater than 50 mSv (5 rem) dose equivalent that...

  10. The main regularities of 90Sr migration in mother-fetus biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Complex investigations into levels of 90 Sr administration into the organism of child-bearing women and levels of its buildup in the skeleton of the developing fetus are carried out. Investigations are aimed at finding out quantitative regularities of 90 Sr transition from mother organism to the fetus during its womb development. Parents of children studied had no contact with ionizing radiation. 90 Sr content in the bone tissue of the fetus in the period from 4 to 10 moon months is shown to increase ten-fold. 90 Sr buildup occurs unevenly. 90 Sr is most actively accumulated in bones at the early stages of pregnancy, as well as in the last month before child bearing. In all parts of the mother-fetus biological chain 90 Sr is accompanied by its chemical analogue - calcium. Results of calculations using the example of stable strontium show that certain strontium discrimination takes place at earlier pregnancy stages. Strontium and calcium come to the bone tissue of the fetus in the same correlations as they come in mother blood

  11. Effects of low-density feeding on elk–fetus contact rates on Wyoming feedgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Tyler G.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Henningsen, John C.; Creel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    High seroprevalance for Brucella abortus among elk on Wyoming feedgrounds suggests that supplemental feeding may influence parasite transmission and disease dynamics by altering the rate at which elk contact infectious materials in their environment. We used proximity loggers and video cameras to estimate rates of elk-to-fetus contact (the primary source of brucellosis transmission) during winter supplemental feeding. We compared contact rates during high-density and low-density (LD) feeding treatments that provided the same total amount of food distributed over different areas. Low-density feeding led to >70% reductions in total number of contacts and number of individuals contacting a fetus. Proximity loggers and video cameras provided similar estimates of elk–fetus contact rates. Elk contacted fetuses and random control points equally, suggesting that elk were not attracted to fetuses but encountered them incidentally while feeding. The modeled relationship between contact rate and disease prevalence is nonlinear and LD feeding may result in large reductions in brucellosis prevalence, but this depends on the amount of transmission that occurs on and off feedgrounds.

  12. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo da C, E.; Ribeiro da R, L. A.; Santos B, D. V.

    2014-08-01

    Each year a considerable amount of pregnant women needs to be submitted to radiotherapeutic procedures to combat malignant tumors. Radiation therapy is often a treatment of choice for these patients. It is possible to use shielding and beam positioning such that the potential dose to the fetus can be minimized. In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. The patient was simulated by an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated using micro-rod TLD-100 detectors in two conditions, namely protecting the patients abdomen with a 7 cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the abdomen protection in reducing the fetus absorbed dose. Irradiations were performed with a Trilogy linear accelerator using x-rays of 6 MV. A total dose of 50 Gy to the target volume was delivered. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and (0.88±0.052) c Gy, corresponding to a dose reduction of 59%. The dose (0.52±0.039) c Gy is within the zone of biological tolerance for the fetus. (Author)

  13. HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN (HDFN – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bricl

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN develops because of the passage of maternal erythrocyte alloantibodies through the placenta. These antibodies cause a reduction of the erythrocyte life span in the fetus and newborn. This severe form of the disease is most commonly caused by anti-D antibodies. Besides those, the hemolytic disease can also be caused by anti-K, anti-c, anti-E, anti-A, anti-B and some other antibodies.Methods and material. A case of a pregnant woman who has been pregnant four times is presented. During the first pregnancy, she developed anti-D erythrocyte antibodies, and after the third pregnancy also additional anti-C antibodies. During the first pregnancy, hemolytic disease of fetus led to the intrauterine death of the fetus. The second child died one day after birth. The third and fourth fetuses required several intrauterine exchange transfusions due to high titers and great hemolytic activity of anti-D antibodies. In both newborns, exchange transfusions had to be performed after birth, and both received additional transfusions of concentrated erythrocytes because of anemia.Conclusions. HDFN is a severe disorder that can be successfully prevented with appropriate legalized measures.

  14. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  15. Radiation dose to the embryo/fetus: Draft Regulatory Guide DG-8011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Section 20.1208 of 10 CFR Part 20, ''Standards for Protection Against Radiation,'' requires that each licensee ensure that the dose to an embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, from occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 rem (5 mSv). Paragraph 20.1208(b) requires the licensee to make efforts to avoid substantial variation above a uniform monthly exposure rate to a declared pregnant woman that would satisfy the 0.5 rem limit. The dose to the embryo/fetus is to be the sum of (1) the deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman (10 CFR 10.1208(c)(1)) and (2) the dose to the embryo/fetus from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman (10 CFR 20.1208(c)(2)). This guide is being developed to provide guidance on calculating the radiation dose to the embryo/fetus

  16. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo da C, E.; Ribeiro da R, L. A.; Santos B, D. V., E-mail: etieli@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria / CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Each year a considerable amount of pregnant women needs to be submitted to radiotherapeutic procedures to combat malignant tumors. Radiation therapy is often a treatment of choice for these patients. It is possible to use shielding and beam positioning such that the potential dose to the fetus can be minimized. In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. The patient was simulated by an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated using micro-rod TLD-100 detectors in two conditions, namely protecting the patients abdomen with a 7 cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the abdomen protection in reducing the fetus absorbed dose. Irradiations were performed with a Trilogy linear accelerator using x-rays of 6 MV. A total dose of 50 Gy to the target volume was delivered. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and (0.88±0.052) c Gy, corresponding to a dose reduction of 59%. The dose (0.52±0.039) c Gy is within the zone of biological tolerance for the fetus. (Author)

  17. Targeted ultrasound examination and DNA testing for Noonan syndrome, in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Pajkrt, E.; Mathijssen, I. B.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define sonographic criteria that may improve the prenatal diagnosis of Noonan syndrome by targeted DNA testing. METHODS: We searched our Fetal Medicine Unit records for all cases with a final diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. A literature review was undertaken to identify the sonographic

  18. Targeted ultrasound examination and DNA testing for Noonan syndrome, in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Merel; Pajkrt, E.; Mathijssen, I. B.; Bilardo, C. M.

    Objective To define sonographic criteria that may improve the prenatal diagnosis of Noonan syndrome by targeted DNA testing. Methods We searched our Fetal Medicine Unit records for all cases with a final diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. A literature review was undertaken to identify the sonographic

  19. Stable coexistence of genetically divergent Atlantic cod ecotypes at multiple spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per Erik; Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    Coexistence in the same habitat of closely related yet genetically different populations is a phenomenon that challenges our understanding of local population structure and adaptation. Identifying the underlying mechanisms for such coexistence can yield new insight into adaptive evolution...

  20. Nuclear shape coexistence and the study of nuclei far from stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The systematic features of shape coexistence are briefly outlined. The most useful spectroscopic fingerprints for identifying shape coexistence far from stability are presented. Directions for future work are discussed

  1. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Tøssebro, Jan; Teittinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    toward larger group homes and congregations, inequality across municipalities, marketization, and new public management, but also an increasing emphasis on consumer rights and the use of the personal assistance scheme in services for people with ID. The authors conclude that diverging trends coexist...

  2. Community assembly and coexistence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vályi, Kriszta; Mardhiah, Ulfah; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are asexual, obligately symbiotic fungi with unique morphology and genomic structure, which occupy a dual niche, that is, the soil and the host root. Consequently, the direct adoption of models for community assembly developed for other organism groups is not evident. In this paper we adapted modern coexistence and assembly theory to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We review research on the elements of community assembly and coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, highlighting recent studies using molecular methods. By addressing several points from the individual to the community level where the application of modern community ecology terms runs into problems when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are concerned, we aim to account for these special circumstances from a mycocentric point of view. We suggest that hierarchical spatial structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities should be explicitly taken into account in future studies. The conceptual framework we develop here for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is also adaptable for other host-associated microbial communities.

  3. On channel selection and shape co-existence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.

    1993-08-01

    Ambivalence with respect to a favoured shape is emerging as a ubiquitous phenomenon in nuclei. Multiple minima in the nuclear potential well occur because of the delicate balance in nuclei between the long and short-range properties of the nuclear force and the contribution specific particle orbitals make in forcing the nucleus to a decision. Exploration of the dependence of the resulting shape co-existence on particle number and orbital is a prominent area of research. Experimental aspects of spectroscopy studies using heavy ion fusion, evaporation reactions and channel selection are discussed, with focus on shape co-existence in the light Os-Pt-Hg-Pb region. 42 refs., 8 figs

  4. Education for a Culture of Peace and Co-Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Guetta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Education is a key and fundamental tool required to achieve social change, especially regarding social cohesion and co-existence. Education affects the most critical issues facing humanity, including the proliferation of various forms of violence, environmental degradation, and annihilation of cultures. I argue that the impact of education is equal to that of economics, politics, and technological advances. Therefore, if we wish to see change, educational reform has to be designed to operate in a global-human context, empowering and allowing people to achieve their potential. It should instil in individuals and groups respect for others with whom they interact, in a global as well as local sense. The article draws on the theories of Edgar Morin, Reuven Feuerstein, and Jerome Bruner, and their contributions to the development of educational approaches that encourage a culture of responsible, participatory, and creative coexistence. .

  5. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma/praganglioma and renal artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Sarathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal artery stenosis (RAS often coexists with pheochromocytoma (Pheo/paraganglioma (PGL and often alters the management of patients with Pheo/PGL. We have studied the prevalence of RAS in our Pheo/PGL patients. The study included 70 consecutive, histopathologically proven Pheo/PGL patients from a tertiary health care center. In 60 patients, tumors were limited to adrenal glands (54 unilateral and 6 bilateral while other 10 patients had extra-adrenal abdominal tumors. Five patients had RAS with an overall prevalence of 14%. Only two out of 60 patients with Pheo had RAS with a low prevalence of 3.3% while three out of 10 patients with extra-adrenal abdominal PGL had RAS with a prevalence of 30%. To conclude, RAS commonly coexists with Pheo/PGL, more often with extra-adrenal PGL.

  6. Hierarchical-control-based output synchronization of coexisting attractor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Zhong, Song; Yi-Fa, Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of hierarchical-control-based output synchronization of coexisting attractor networks. Within the new framework, each dynamic node is made passive at first utilizing intra-control around its own arena. Then each dynamic node is viewed as one agent, and on account of that, the solution of output synchronization of coexisting attractor networks is transformed into a multi-agent consensus problem, which is made possible by virtue of local interaction between individual neighbours; this distributed working way of coordination is coined as inter-control, which is only specified by the topological structure of the network. Provided that the network is connected and balanced, the output synchronization would come true naturally via synergy between intra and inter-control actions, where the Tightness is proved theoretically via convex composite Lyapunov functions. For completeness, several illustrative examples are presented to further elucidate the novelty and efficacy of the proposed scheme. (general)

  7. Issues On Religious Coexistence Tolerance In Albania 1912-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kalaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The religious tolerance is one of the rarest values of the tradition of the Albanian people. It is widely accepted that Albanian people are well known about these values about an excellent coexistence among the believers of different religious communities that are in Albania mainly Muslims and Christians. In this study we bring the essentials of this phenomenon promotional roots of these values while viewed from a previously untreated point of view and in an attempt to answer the questions Where does it stem from the religious coexistence in Albania What are the main promoters of this phenomenon What has been the attitude of the religious clergy in Albania Have they been and are the imams and priests the promotion of tolerance and religious coexistence in Albania These are some of the questions answered in this modest study focusing on how nice and with how much delicacy the lectures of the Clergy have addressed this issue to the faithful or to the world in general. Since they enjoyed undisputable reputation and influence in the majority of the population in the most critical moments of national history the leaders of Muslims believers not only have promoted tolerance and religious coexistence but they have considered the believers of other faiths as brothers preaching this conviction in front of their Muslim believers. These preachings were firstly begun by VehbiDibra who was the first Chairman of the Muslims and all clerics without exception to this day. Also unforgettable are the sermons of priests like Fr. GjergjFishta Fr. ShtjefnGjeovi or Metropolitan VisarionXhuvani to conclude with pearls of Orthodox priest Fan S. Noli who amazed the world with his three speeches in front of world leaders the League of Nations being representative of all Albanians although Orthodox believers were only 20 of the population.

  8. [Central aleolar choroidal dystrophy in sibilings coexisting with alopecia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Dróbecka-Brydak, Ewa; Paćkowska, Maria; Kecik, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Central areolar choroidal dystrophy is localized in macular region and is characterized by atrophy of pigment epithelium, photoreceptors and choriocapillaris. This paper presents the history of two sibilings at the age of 23 and 30, with central aleolar choroidal dystrophy coexisting with alopecia. The results of erg, eog and fluorescein angiography are presented. The results of therapy for glaucoma associated with the Sturge-Weber syndrome are often disappointing.

  9. Coexistence of reef organisms in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica M Lins de Barros

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The first study on coexistence of reef benthic organisms in Brazilian coral reefs was done in three localities of the Abrolhos Archipelago. Organisms were recorded in concentric circle samples (10 and 20 cm in diameter randomly laid on transects. Type and frequency of "coexistence events" between pairs of organisms were determined. Most frequent organisms (massive and branched coralline algae, Favia gravida, and Agaricia agaricites also had many significant positive coexistence events. These results might be related to the abundances of these organisms. The most frequent coral (Siderastrea stellata, however, exhibited only a few significant coexistence events (9% of 32 tests. Since the great majority of events were positive, and since there was high variation in the species/groups involved in significant events in different localities, benthic communities of Abrolhos Archipelago may well be structured primarily by abiotic rather than biotic factors.Se hizo el primer estudio de coexistencia de organismos bénticos de arrecifes brasileños en tres localidades del Archipiélago de Abrolhos, registrando la presencia de organismos en círculos de 10 y 20 cm de diametro, distribuidos al azar en transectos. La mayoría de los organismo frecuentes (algas coralinas macizas y ramificadas, Favia gravida y Agaricia agaricites mostraron la más alta "coexistencia positiva", tal vez por su abundancia. El coral más frecuente (Siderastrea stellata, sin embargo, mostró apenas algunos eventos de coexistencia significativos (9% de 32 ensayos. Debido a que la mayor parte de los eventos fue positiva, y considerando que existe una alta variabilidad en las interacciones significativas en diferentes localidades, las comunidades bénticas del Archipiélago de Abrolhos pueden haber sido estructuradas principalmente por factores abióticos, mas que por factores bióticos.

  10. Shape coexistence in 72Kr at finite angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almehed, Daniel; Walet, Niels R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate shape coexistence in a rotating nucleus. We concentrate on the case of 72 Kr which exhibits an interesting interplay between prolate and oblate shaped states as a function of angular momentum. The calculation uses the local harmonic version of the method of self-consistent adiabatic large-amplitude collective motion. We analyse how the collective behaviour of the system changes with angular momentum and we focus on the role of non-axial shapes

  11. Coexistence of pairing gaps in three-component Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummi, O H T; Kinnunen, J J; Toermae, P

    2011-01-01

    We study a three-component superfluid Fermi gas in a spherically symmetric harmonic trap using the Bogoliubov-deGennes method. We predict a coexistence phase in which two pairing field order parameters are simultaneously non-zero, in stark contrast to studies performed for trapped gases using local density approximation. We also discuss the role of atom number conservation in the context of a homogeneous system.

  12. Noncanonical quantization-on the coexistence of particles and ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saller, H.

    1988-01-01

    Local interactions of quantized fields are sometimes parametrized with the aid of ghostlike degrees of freedom, e.g., in non-Abelian gauge theories. These ghosts do not necessarily lead to eigenstates of energy. Such a situation requires a discussion of the asymptotic boundary condition for the ghosts, leading to ghost propagation only for timelike distance. Coexisting particle and ghost degrees of freedom in one basic field operator allow the formulation of interactions for such a field without local ambiguities

  13. Shape coexistence and mixing in N ∼ 20 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuno, Yutaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Spherical-deformed shape coexistence in the N ∼ 20 region is studied with the Monte Carlo shell model calculation. We focused upon the role of the configuration mixing in its description, and found that the deformed state is not correctly positioned until the mixing is treated in a proper way. It is also mentioned that the intruder component in 33 Al is accessible through the measurement of the magnetic moment

  14. Coexistence induced by pollen limitation in flowering-plant species.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, R; Higashi, M

    2001-01-01

    We report a novel mechanism for species coexistence that does not invoke a trade-off relationship in the case of outbreeding flowering plants. Competition for pollination services may lead to interspecific segregation of the timing of flowering among plants. This, in turn, sets limits on the pollination services, which restrain the population growth of a competitively superior species, thereby allowing an inferior species to sustain its population in the habitat. This explains the often-obser...

  15. Coexistence of Schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zafer Subasi

    2014-01-01

    With this case, it is aimed to present a patient who was followed up with a diagnosis of schizophrenia nearly 30 years, had personality and behaviour changes added to clinical course for the last 4-5 years, had diagnostic confusion and was finally diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia superimposed on schizophrenia.Neurodegenerative diseases should be considered as either differential diagnosis or coexistence in case of symptoms such as cognitive decline or personality and behavior changes oc...

  16. Lethal Congenital Malformations in Fetuses-Antenatal Ultrasound or Perinatal Autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sumit; Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Arora, Kamaldeep

    2017-06-01

    Congenital malformations (CMF) are major causes of fetal demise which can be detected antenatally by Ultrasonography (USG). We studied 100 perinatal autopsies for CMF. Sensitivity of USG was determined and accuracy of USG with that of autopsy was compared. At Autopsy 134 individual CMF were seen in 40 cases. The sensitivity of USG in detecting major CMF was 54.47%. A complete agreement between autopsy and USG findings was seen in 13/40 (32.5%) and partial agreement in 17/40 (42.5%) fetuses while autopsy completely changed antenatal diagnosis in 10/40 (25%) fetuses. Major findings were added in all 17 fetuses with partial agreement. In 2 cases, CMF suspected on USG were not detected on autopsy due to fetal maceration. Autopsy significantly adds to the prenatal USG diagnosis and may help in predicting the probability of recurrence, and thus counseling the affected couple to prevent any such future event.

  17. The assessment of fetus in distress using MRI and 1H MRS - based on performed observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowska-Matwiejczuk, K.; Tarasow, E.; Walecki, J.; Lemancewicz, A.; Kubas, B.; Urban, R.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxia is one of the basic factor that cause lesions and intrauterine fetus' death. This is why the recognition of early changes before the appearance of irreversible damages should be the main aim of the assessment and monitoring of a fetus. Apart from the methods of the assessment of a fetus' state that have been applied so far, a new non-invasive imaging technique in obstetrics as MR has appeared. This method makes it possible to assess morphologic structures of a brain, and metabolic processes with use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The study was carried out in 20 pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension (11 cases), chronic hypertension (2 cases), gestational diabetes (6 cases) and IUGR (6 cases). The cardiotocography color Doppler flow assessment of umbilical artery and medial cerebral artery were performed. In cases of abnormal cardiotocography, and Doppler examinations suggested ischemic lesions 5 cases of focal ischemic areas in MR and 6 abnormal MRS spectra were demonstrated. (author)

  18. Short-term memory functions of the human fetus recorded with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotilainen, Minna; Kujala, Anu; Hotakainen, Merja; Parkkonen, Lauri; Taulu, Samu; Simola, Juha; Nenonen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Matti; Näätänen, Risto

    2005-01-19

    Studies in fetuses and in prematurely born infants show that auditory discriminative skills are present prior to birth. The magnetic fields generated by the fetal brain activity pass the maternal tissues and, despite their weakness, can be detected externally using MEG. Recent studies on the auditory evoked magnetic responses show that the fetal brain responds to sound onset. In contrast, higher-level auditory skills, such as those involving discriminative and memory functions, were not so far studied in fetuses with MEG. Here we show that fetal responses related to discriminating sounds can be recorded, implicating that the auditory change-detection system is functional. These results open new views to developmental neuroscience by enabling one to determine the sensory capabilities as well as the extent and accuracy of the short-term memory system of the fetus, and, further, to follow the development of these crucial processes.

  19. Monitoring the progressive increase of the longest episode of spontaneous movements in Guinea pig fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the duration of spontaneous movements in the guinea pig fetus after the appearance of its first movements. Every day from the 25th to the 35th gestation day, one fetus from each of twenty pregnant animals was examined by ultrasound. Fetal movements were observed for 5 min. The episode with the longest period of movement was taken into consideration and was recorded as: 3 s. Days 25 and 26 were characterized by episodes lasting 3 s (χ2 = 140.51 p <0.05. Tracking the dynamics of progressive increases in the longest episode of spontaneous movement could be a useful factor in estimating the maturity and condition of a fetus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175006/2011

  20. OPPORTUNITIES OF TRANSVAGINAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY FOR EARLY PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF INBORN HEART DISEASES IN FETUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Shevchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature data, transvaginal echocardiography (Echocg is the method, used for the doppler diagnostics in early terms of pregnancy (if principles of safety are observed. This method allows detecting about 70–97% of all prognostic cally significant inborn heart diseases in fetus, beginning at 12 week of pregnancy. a scheme of research includes estimation of four chamber cut of fetus heart, and study of state of its main arteries. This is an expert investigation, because it needs special grounding of specialist, high resolution ultrasonic equipment, and considerable expense of time. Wile parameters are estimated, it is necessary to use normative rates of sizes of ventricles and main arteries of fetus, developed by Russian experts, taking into account individual variations.Key words: transvaginal echocardiography, diagnosis, inborn heart disease.

  1. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    methods were attributed to methodological differences used in various laboratories. Conclusion Our results indicate that misidentification of C fetus in routine diagnostic laboratories may be relatively common. The PCR assay evaluated gave rapid and reproducible results and is thus a valuable adjunctive......Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme...... by traditional phenotypic methods and the PCR assay was found to be 80.8%. The polymerase chain reaction proved to be a reliable technique for the species and subspecies identification of C fetus; equivocal results were obtained in only two instances. Initial misidentifications by conventional phenotyping...

  2. Coexistence of Cushing syndrome from functional adrenal adenoma and Addison disease from immune-mediated adrenalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Randall; Jimenez, Rafael E; Farrar, William; Malgor, Ramiro; Kohn, Leonard; Schwartz, Frank L

    2012-06-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with an incidental adrenal adenoma and physical examination findings that included moderate obesity, a slight cervicothoracic fat pad ("buffalo hump"), increased supraclavicular fat pads, and white abdominal striae. Biochemical workup revealed elevated levels of 24-hour urinary free cortisol but normal serum morning cortisol and suppressed levels of corticotropin, suggestive of adrenal-dependent Cushing syndrome. The resected adrenal gland revealed macronodular cortical hyperplasia with a dominant nodule. Other findings included an absent cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation, presence of serum anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies, and mononuclear cell infiltration--consistent with adrenalitis. The findings represent, to the authors' knowledge, the first known case of a patient with coexistent functional cortisol-secreting macronodular adrenal tumor resulting in Cushing syndrome and immune-mediated adrenalitis resulting in Addison disease.

  3. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  4. Digital Ecology: Coexistence and Domination among Interacting Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2015-05-01

    The overwhelming success of Web 2.0, within which online social networks are key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of Web 2.0 services has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns for the first time. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at the system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of multiple digital services naturally raises questions concerning which conditions these services can coexist under. Analogously to the case of population dynamics, the digital world forms a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. The fitness of each network depends on its capacity to attract and maintain users’ attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits stable coexistence of several networks as well as the dominance of an individual one, in contrast to the competitive exclusion principle. Interestingly, our theory also predicts that the most probable outcome is the coexistence of a moderate number of services, in agreement with empirical observations.

  5. Education of Coexistence as Technē Tou Biou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kačerauskas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with education of coexistence as training of life art (technē tou biou. The major thesis is the following: our existence has been educated in the life environment together with other agents of life world (Lebenswelt, while the latter are educated in the background of our existential project to be realized during our life. This major thesis presupposes the minor ones developed in the article: existential education means the change of the roles between the agents of life enwironment; existential education covers an ironic relationship between the teacher and a disciple; the teacher educates an unique combination of the disciple’s charachteristics to be nourished in his (her existential perspective instead of forcing the equal way for everybody; every community has been educated while an individual changes life environment by realization of his (her existential utopia; education is a kind of existential tradition’s transfer through the new communicative channels; philosophy of education based on existential phenomenology stresses the aspects of responsible coexistence in the life-world to be created; education is the training of our life’s art as responsible creation inseparable from becoming of life-world as the environment of our coexistence; education deals with a miracle of breaking educational circle while a disciple excels the teacher and changes the educational environment. By analysing the problems of existential education the author uses the approaches of both existential phenomenology and cultural regionalistics. 

  6. EGFR and KRAS mutation coexistence in lung adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manuel Leitão de Sousa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer deaths. The development of EGFR targeted therapies, including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors have generated an interest in the molecular characterization of these tumours. KRAS mutations are associated with resistance to EGFR TKIs. EGFR and KRAS mutations have been considered as mutually exclusive. This paper presents three bronchial-pulmonary carcinomas, two adenocarcinomas and one pleomorphic sarcomatoid carcinoma, harboring EGFR and KRAS mutations. Case 1 corresponded to an adenocarcinoma with EGFR exon 21 mutation (L858R and KRAS codon 12 point mutation (G12V; case 2, a  mucinous adenocarcinoma expressed coexistence of EGFR exon 21 mutation (L858R and KRAS codon 12 point mutation (G12V; and case 3 a sarcomatoid carcinoma with EGFR exon 19 deletion – del 9bp and KRAS codon 12 point mutation (G12C - cysteine. Based on our experience and on the literature, we conclude that EGFR and KRAS mutations can indeed coexist in the same bronchial-pulmonary carcinoma, either in the same histological type or in different patterns. The biological implications of this coexistence are still poorly understood mainly because these cases are not frequent or currently searched. It is therefore necessary to study larger series of cases with the two mutations to better understand the biological, clinical and therapeutic implications.

  7. Quantitative description of the morphology and ossification center in the axial skeleton of 20-week gestation formalin-fixed human fetuses using magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabert, Steren; Villalobos, Manuel; Ulloa, Patricia; Salas, Rodrigo; Tejos, Cristian; San Martin, Sebastian; Pereda, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Human tissues are usually studied using a series of two-dimensional visualizations of in vivo or cutout specimens. However, there is no precise anatomical description of some of the processes of human fetal development. The purpose of our study is to develop a quantitative description of the normal axial skeleton by means of high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) images, collected from six normal 20-week-old human fetuses fixed in formaldehyde. Fetuses were collected after spontaneous abortion and subsequently fixed with formalin. They were imaged using a 1.5 T MR scanner with an isotropic spatial resolution of 200 µm. The correct tissue discrimination between ossified and cartilaginous bones was confirmed by comparing the images achieved by MR scans and computerized axial tomographies. The vertebral column was segmented out from each image using a specially developed semi-automatic algorithm. Vertebral body dimensions and inter-vertebral distances were larger in the lumbar region, in agreement with the beginning of the ossification process from the thoracolumbar region toward the sacral and cephalic ends. In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of using MR images to study the ossification process in formalin-fixed fetal tissues. A quantitative description of the ossification centers of vertebral bodies and arches is presented. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Appearance of Abnormal Cardiothoracic Ratio of Fetuses with Hemoglobin Bart's Disease: Life Table Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Luewan, Suchaya; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Tongsong, Theera

    2017-10-01

    Objective  To determine the timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's disease. Materials and Methods  A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart's disease. Sonographic markers including cardiothoracic (CT) ratio and middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) were serially assessed and recorded from the first trimester. The definite diagnosis of fetal Hb Bart's disease based on DNA analysis (CVS), or fetal Hb typing (HPLC; cordocentesis) was performed at the first appearance of an increased CT ratio. Results  Of 275 pregnancies at risk, 64 fetuses were finally proven to be affected and life table analysis was performed. Most affected fetuses showed an increased CT ratio in late first trimester and early second trimester, with median time of the first appearance at 13 weeks and all affected fetuses were detected at 23 weeks or less. The CT ratio yielded a sensitivity of 100 % at a gestational age of 23 weeks with a false-positive rate of 8 %. MCA-PSV appeared later than CT ratio. Only 9.4 % of affected cases developed abnormal MCA-PSV before an increased CT ratio. Conclusion  The timeline of the first appearance of an increased CT ratio of fetuses with Hb Bart's disease was established. This may help us identify Hb Bart's disease among fetuses at risk in earlier gestation and proper schedules for serial ultrasound could be made more effectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Physiological Changes in Ewes Conceived Single or Twins Fetuses Related with Survivability of Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of 239 (137 in year 2009 and 102 in 2010) pregnant ewes with the same age and average live body weight were used in the present study. The experimental does reared under same conditions during May to September in 2009 and August to December in 2010, respectively. The available data for each animal were obtained from the recodes. The classified of breeds and total numbers used in this study were (Ossimi =49, Barki =47, Rahmani =60 and crossbred =83). Season of lambing started in October to November in 2009 and January and February in 2010. After parturition, the does were classified according to litter size into two groups. The ewes in the 1st and 2nd groups were labor single or twins lamb, respectively. The results showed that progressed pregnancy stages related with decreases in concentrations of immunity function (total proteins, albumin and globulin), cholesterol, glucose and calcium in serum of pregnant ewes. On the other hand, enzymes activities of liver functions (GOT, GPT and γGT), creatinine, triglycerides and phosphorus increased in serum of pregnant ewes with progressed pregnancy stages. Progesterone and parathormone concentrations showed opposite trends to those obtained levels with progressed pregnancy stages. Comparison between ewes conceived single or twins fetuses showed that most blood components values are related with survivability of lambs. In ewes conceived single fetus recorded higher values of total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose and calcium than ewes conceived twins fetuses. On the other hand, GOT, GPT and γGT, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea and phosphorus concentrations were lower in ewes conceived single fetus than in ewes conceived twins fetuses. On the opposite, progesterone and parathormone concentrations were lower in single than in twins fetuses

  10. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Meyerhof, D.; Vlahovich, S.

    2004-01-01

    A problem of concern in radiation protection is the exposure of pregnant women to ionising radiation, because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. External neutron exposure is of concern when pregnant women travel by aeroplane. Dose assessments for neutrons frequently rely on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. While neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for adults are recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection publications and International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements reports, conversion coefficients for embryos and fetuses are not given in the publications. This study undertakes Monte Carlo calculations to determine the mean absorbed doses to the embryo and fetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. A new set of mathematical models for the embryo and fetus has been developed at Health Canada and is used together with mathematical phantoms of a pregnant female developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Monoenergetic neutrons from 1 eV to 10 MeV are considered in this study. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO) geometries. At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the fetal brain and body are calculated; for the embryo at 8 weeks and the fetus at 3, 6 or 9 months. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients are derived for the four age groups. Neutron fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given for the AP irradiations which yield the highest radiation dose to the fetal body in the neutron energy range considered here. The results indicate that for neutrons <10 MeV more protection should be given to pregnant women in the first trimester due to the higher absorbed dose per unit neutron fluence to the fetus. (authors)

  11. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Meyerhof, Dorothy; Vlahovich, Slavica

    2004-01-01

    A problem of concern in radiation protection is the exposure of pregnant women to ionising radiation, because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. External neutron exposure is of concern when pregnant women travel by aeroplane. Dose assessments for neutrons frequently rely on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. While neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for adults are recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection publications and International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements reports, conversion coefficients for embryos and fetuses are not given in the publications. This study undertakes Monte Carlo calculations to determine the mean absorbed doses to the embryo and fetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. A new set of mathematical models for the embryo and fetus has been developed at Health Canada and is used together with mathematical phantoms of a pregnant female developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Monoenergetic neutrons from 1 eV to 10 MeV are considered in this study. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO) geometries. At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the fetal brain and body are calculated; for the embryo at 8 weeks and the fetus at 3, 6 or 9 months. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients are derived for the four age groups. Neutron fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given for the AP irradiations which yield the highest radiation dose to the fetal body in the neutron energy range considered here. The results indicate that for neutrons <10 MeV more protection should be given to pregnant women in the first trimester due to the higher absorbed dose per unit neutron fluence to the fetus.

  12. Bi-iliac distance and iliac bone position compared to the vertebral column in normal fetal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, U B; Fischer Hansen, B; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    Prenatal standards of bi-iliac width were not found in the literature based on autopsy investigations, nor was the caudo-cranial position of the ilia compared to the vertebral column. The first purpose of the present study was to establish normal standard values for the bi-iliac distance in fetal...... life, the second to evaluate the level of the iliac bones proportional to the ossified vertebral column. Whole body radiographs in antero-posterior projections from 98 human fetuses (36 female and 44 male fetuses, as well as 18 fetuses on which the sex had not been determined) were analyzed...... caliper. The caudo-cranial position of the iliac bones was evaluated. The present study shows that in normal fetal development there is a continuous linear enlargement of the pelvic region in the transverse and vertical planes. The upper iliac contour stays at the level of the first sacral vertebral body...

  13. Swiss cheese ventricular septal defect with myocarditis - A rare coexistence in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Saboo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocarditis is defined as acute inflammation of the myocardium, usually following a non-specific flu-like illness, and encompasses a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from mild or subclinical disease to heart failure. We report a 12-day-old healthy full-term neonate who presented with abrupt onset of congestive cardiac failure (CCF following a viral prodrome. Examination revealed persistent sinus tachycardia, lymphocytosis, gross cardiomegaly, nonspecific electrocardiogram changes with echocardiography showing Swiss cheese ventricular septal defect (VSD. VSD alone very rarely presents as early-onset cardiac failure in the absence of other precipitating factors like anemia, sepsis, hypoglycemia etc. Myocarditis, however, can mimic VSD and can present as fulminant cardiac failure in an otherwise healthy newborn. Myocarditis is usually diagnosed based on circumstantial evidence such as a recent viral infection and the sudden onset of cardiac dysfunction while ruling out other diagnostic possibilities. Elevated troponin T level is one of the most crucial noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Several trials have concluded that levels >0.055 ng/ml are statistically significant for diagnosing myocarditis in children. In our case an abrupt onset of cardiac failure following a viral prodrome and markedly elevated cardiac troponin T without sepsis and in the presence of normal coronary anatomy clinched the diagnosis of myocarditis. An early and aggressive treatment for CCF along with regular long-term follow-up plays a key role in the management of myocarditis. Role of high-dose Intravenous immunoglobulin in myocarditis has been studied by many trials with different outcomes. This is the first case report showing coexistence of VSD with myocarditis in a neonate presenting as early-onset acute cardiac failure. The report highlights the importance of screening for myocarditis in all previously normal babies presenting primarily with cardiogenic

  14. Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in poultry reared under different management systems in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekeye, J O; Abdu, P A; Bawa, E K

    1989-01-01

    Cloacal swabs from 487 live birds in 36 flocks and 70 poultry carcasses were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. It was isolated from 12.3% of the birds in 19 flocks. Chickens, turkeys, and guinea fowl differed from one another in isolation rates of the organism. Management system affected its occurrence, and only 7.1% of eviscerated carcasses yielded it. It was concluded that bird species, management system, and immersing slaughtered poultry in boiling water before dressing affect recovery of C. fetus subsp. jejuni from live birds and carcasses.

  15. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyn, I B; Baker, L K

    1992-04-01

    Practicing cardiovascular nurses are aware that significant differences exist in the cardiac anatomy and physiology of children and adults. Generally, the younger the child the greater these differences are. The cellular anatomy and physiology are markedly different in the fetus, neonate, and infant. As development progresses, cardiac function begins to more closely approximate that of an adult. This article describes the anatomical and physiologic development of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent. The developmental differences in preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate are summarized.

  16. Risks of fetus irradiation in X-ray and radioisotope examinations in early stages of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Wiedermann, M.; Susila, M.; Ryznar, V.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation burden is discussed of the fetus in pregnancy. During organogenesis the fetus is not capable of repairs; irradiation causes growth inhibition and malformations. In the last trimestre, irradiation causes disturbances in the somatic growth, leukemia is found in greater incidence in newly-borns. Doses are tabulated from commonest X-ray examinations and the applications of radiopharmaceuticals. The said doses are only valid for the first five weeks of pregnancy; when the thyroid starts functioning, the total dose retained in the thyroid after the application of radiopharmaceuticals may be higher. (H.S.)

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in the second-trimester human fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kryger-Baggesen, N; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is considered to be important in mammalian neonatal growth and development. In order to clarify its developmental role, we have investigated, by immunohistochemistry, the localization of EGF and the time of its first appearance in various organs from a series of 25...... midtrimester human fetuses with a gestational age ranging from 13 to 22 weeks. The first detectable EGF immunoreactivity occurred in week 15-16 fetuses in the placenta, the skin, the distal tubules of the kidney, the surface epithelium of the stomach, and the tips of the small intestinal villi, as well...

  18. Sonographic Examination of The Fetus Vis-à-Vis Shoulder Dystocia: A Vexing Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Morgen S; Al-Hafez, Leen; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2016-12-01

    Since antepartum and intrapartum risk factors are poor at identifying women whose labor is complicated by shoulder dystocia, sonographic examination of the fetus holds promise. Though there are several measurements of biometric parameters to identify the parturient who will have shoulder dystocia, none are currently clinically useful. Three national guidelines confirm that sonographic measurements do not serve as appropriate diagnostic tests to identify women who will have shoulder dystocia with or without concurrent injury. In summary, biometric measurements of the fetus should not be used to alter clinical management with the aim of averting shoulder dystocia.

  19. Morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia (experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kaluzhina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system in newborns with chronic hypoxia is affected in 40–70%. Aim. To investigate morphological state of aorta in the fetuses and newborns suffered from chronic intrauterine hypoxia. Methods and results. Aortic wall was investigated with modern morphological methods in 34 laboratory animals in order to identify the morphological features of the fetuses and newborns’ vessel affected by this pathogenic factor. It was established that chronic hypoxia leads to endothelial trophics deterioration, its flattening, dystrophic processes with following cells desquamation, density reduction of smooth muscle cells, thickening of the intima-media. Conclusion. It shows alterative-sclerotic changes in aorta in cases with chronic hypoxia influence.

  20. Similarity law for Widom lines and coexistence lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuti, D T; Raju, M; Ihme, M

    2017-05-01

    The coexistence line of a fluid separates liquid and gaseous states at subcritical pressures, ending at the critical point. Only recently, it became clear that the supercritical state space can likewise be divided into regions with liquidlike and gaslike properties, separated by an extension to the coexistence line. This crossover line is commonly referred to as the Widom line, and is characterized by large changes in density or enthalpy, manifesting as maxima in the thermodynamic response functions. Thus, a reliable representation of the coexistence line and the Widom line is important for sub- and supercritical applications that depend on an accurate prediction of fluid properties. While it is known for subcritical pressures that nondimensionalization with the respective species critical pressures p_{cr} and temperatures T_{cr} only collapses coexistence line data for simple fluids, this approach is used for Widom lines of all fluids. However, we show here that the Widom line does not adhere to the corresponding states principle, but instead to the extended corresponding states principle. We resolve this problem in two steps. First, we propose a Widom line functional based on the Clapeyron equation and derive an analytical, species specific expression for the only parameter from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. This parameter is a function of the acentric factor ω and compares well with experimental data. Second, we introduce the scaled reduced pressure p_{r}^{*} to replace the previously used reduced pressure p_{r}=p/p_{cr}. We show that p_{r}^{*} is a function of the acentric factor only and can thus be readily determined from fluid property tables. It collapses both subcritical coexistence line and supercritical Widom line data over a wide range of species with acentric factors ranging from -0.38 (helium) to 0.34 (water), including alkanes up to n-hexane. By using p_{r}^{*}, the extended corresponding states principle can be applied within

  1. Campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with eating habits of raw meat and raw liver in a healthy patient: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Etaro; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Harumi

    2018-01-01

    Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C. fetus meningitis.

  2. A girl of Klippel-Trenaunay Weber syndrome coexistence of recurrent bloody vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Mehmet; Kavukçu, Salih; Çakmakci, Handan; Soylu, Alper; Aktan, Sebnem; Çağan, Yeliz

    2010-09-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay Weber syndrome (KTWS) is the coexistence of capillary vascular malformations, varicose veins, dilated arteries and arteriovenous fistulas, soft tissue and/or bone hypertrophy. We present a girl of KTWS associated with hypertrophied left kidney, enlargement in venous structures of the left kidney, recurrent bloody vaginal discharge and angiokeratomas. A 6-year-old girl was admitted to our department with complaints of recurrent bloody vaginal discharge and swelling in the left inguinal region. Physical examination revealed hypertrophy of the left lower extremity. Vaginoscopy and cystoscopy revealed normal findings. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an enlarged left kidney. Enlargement in the venous structures of the hypertrophied left kidney was detected by abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, and arteriovenous fistulas were revealed by conventional angiography. The patient was diagnosed KTWS. Ophthalmic examination was normal. Galactosidase A (GLA) level was found to be at the lower limit of the normal range, and mutation was not detected in the GLA gene. In conclusion, we have emphasized that the girls with recurrent vaginal discharge might be KTWS. Angiokeratoma may be considered as a dermatological finding of KTWS. KTWS may also have enlarged kidney and enlargement in venous structures of the kidney in hypertrophied side.

  3. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  4. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  5. First reported case of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome in a female fetus diagnosed prenatally with chromosomal microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støve, Heidi Kristine; Becher, Naja; Gjørup, Vibike

    2017-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked syndrome. Female carriers may have mild manifestations. Macrosomia, polyhydramnios, and kidney and urinary tract anomalies are common findings in male fetuses. We present the first case of a severely affected female fetus with stigmata...

  6. Coexistent Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy and Myasthenia Gravis Associated with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Amanda C.; Black, Bonnie K.; Raj, Satish R.; Donofrio, Peter; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 55 year old man with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent radiation, chemotherapy with carbotaxol and paclitaxel, and left upper lobe removal two years prior to evaluation. He was referred for disabling orthostatic hypotension (113/69 supine, 66/47 mmHg standing after 10 minutes without a compensatory heart rate increase (57 to 59 bpm), fatigue, and constipation with episodes of ileus. Clinical examination showed mild ptosis bilaterally, fatiguable neck flexor weakness and hip flexor weakness. Blood pressure response to Valsalva maneuver was abnormal with absence of phase 4 overshoot and a Valsalva heart rate ratio of 1.04, The plasma norepinephrine level was low (79 pg/ml supine to 330 pg/ml standing). Single fiber EMG of the right extensor digitorum communis revealed normal mean MCD (jitter) but several pairs exceeded a jitter of 100 µs. Antibodies against muscle acetylcholine receptor [(AChR) 0.66 nmol/L, normal <0.02] and ganglionic AChR (0.34 nmol/L, normal <0.02) were present. Treatment with plasma exchange normalized responses to standing posture (105/68 supine to 118/82 mmHg standing, 66 to 79 bpm), to Valsalva (normal blood pressure overshoot, HR ratio 1.47), norepinephrine (194 pg/ml supine, 763 standing), and jitter measurements. We conclude that autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy and myasthenia gravis can coexist and suggest that the latter should be excluded in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy who complain of fatigue that is improved with non-supine rest. PMID:19882640

  7. Renal responses to prolonged (48 h) hypoxemia without acidemia in the late-gestation ovine fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    The effect of sustained moderate hypoxia on renal blood flow and renal function was studied in the ovine fetus (123-129 days). The experiments consisted of 48 h of isocapnic hypoxia, not resulting in acidemia, but sufficient to produce redistribution of blood flow in favor of the brain at the

  8. Prenatally Diagnosis and Outcome of Fetuses with Cardiac Rhabdomyoma – Single Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramush Bejiqi

    2017-03-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac rhabdomyoma are benign from the cardiovascular standpoint in most affected fetuses. An early prenatal diagnosis may help for an adequate planning of perinatal monitoring and treatment with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Large tumour size, the number of tumours and localisation may cause hydrops, and they are significantly associated with poor neonatal outcome.

  9. Guidance for Thyroid Assays in Pregnant Animals, Fetuses and Postnatal Animals, and Adult Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study may be done in place of a rat DNT study for thyroid disrupting chemicals. This special study is intended to provide LOAEL or NOAEL to derive RfDs to be protective of thyroid development in pregnant women, fetuses or newborns.

  10. Terminating the pregnancy of a brain-dead mother: Does a fetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent Texas case of Munoz v. John Peter Smith Hospital, the court granted a husband an order for the removal of life support from his brain-dead pregnant wife whose body was decaying, after a hospital had tried to keep her on 'life support' until the fetus was born. In South Africa the court would have issued a similar ...

  11. Severe X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata in nine new female fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Mathilde; Dufernez, Fabienne; Bruel, Ange-Line; Gonzales, Marie; Aral, Bernard; Saint-Onge, Judith; Gigot, Nadège; Desir, Julie; Daelemans, Caroline; Jossic, Frédérique; Schmitt, Sébastien; Mangione, Raphaele; Pelluard, Fanny; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Labaune, Jean-Marc; Bigi, Nicole; D'Olne, Dominique; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Toutain, Annick; Blesson, Sophie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Thevenon, Julien; El Chehadeh, Salima; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Joyé, Nicole; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Rigonnot, Luc; Rousseau, Thierry; Vabres, Pierre; Hervé, Philippe; Lamazière, Antonin; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Laurent, Nicole; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2015-07-01

    Conradi-Hünermann-Happle [X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2)] syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant skeletal dysplasia usually lethal in men while affected women show wide clinical heterogeneity. Different EBP mutations have been reported. Severe female cases have rarely been reported, with only six antenatal presentations. To better characterize the phenotype in female fetuses, we included nine antenatally diagnosed cases of women with EBP mutations. All cases were de novo except for two fetuses with an affected mother and one case of germinal mosaicism. The mean age at diagnosis was 22 weeks of gestation. The ultrasound features mainly included bone abnormalities: shortening (8/9 cases) and bowing of the long bones (5/9), punctuate epiphysis (7/9) and an irregular aspect of the spine (5/9). Postnatal X-rays and examination showed ichthyosis (8/9) and epiphyseal stippling (9/9), with frequent asymmetric short and bowed long bones. The X-inactivation pattern of the familial case revealed skewed X-inactivation in the mildly symptomatic mother and random X-inactivation in the severe fetal case. Differently affected skin samples of the same fetus revealed different patterns of X-inactivation. Prenatal detection of asymmetric shortening and bowing of the long bones and cartilage stippling should raise the possibility of CPDX2 in female fetuses, especially because the majority of such cases involve de novo mutations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Changing tactics in the abortion argument: does a fetus feel pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, N W

    1997-12-10

    The 30th anniversary of the passing of the abortion law in England sparked off yet another skirmish in the continuing struggle. Not only the Catholic Church but also anti-lobby groups have protested against the abortion law. Anti-lobby groups consider abortion as an evil that must be fought. To further explain their point, the anti-lobby groups used the conclusions on pediatric anesthetic practice to change their tactics in combating the abortion issue from the emotional point of view to the apparently rational. A group of pediatricians, anesthetists, bioethicists and neuroanatomists has considered the problem of when the fetus may first be able to feel pain. They have decided that the fetus cannot feel pain before the 26th week and recommended that the fetus be given an anesthetic for any abortion later than the 24th week. The anti-lobby groups say that this view limits the perception of pain to the cerebral cortex and that the thalamus is well enough developed by the 10th week for the growing embryo to feel the pain. However, as to the question of fetal pain, one can never know whether fetuses feel pain, because they can never tell.

  13. Radiation doses to the embryo and fetus following intakes of radionuclides by the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.; Phipps, A.; Khursheed, A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987 the International Commission on Radiological Protection set up a Task Group of Committee 2 charged with the responsibility for calculating radiation doses from incorporated radionuclides for all age groups in the population. This includes the development of models for calculating doses to the embryo and fetus following intakes of radionuclides by the mother. The development of models for calculating doses to the embryo and fetus is complex. Particular problems that have had to be addressed are the limited amount of human data available and the consequent need to use both the results of animal studies and chemical analogies; the varying rate of tissue and organ development in different species; the lack of detailed information on the distribution and retention of radionuclides in tissues of the embryo and fetus following intakes by the mother, either before or during gestation, and the radiation sensitivity of tissues of the embryo and fetus. In the development of dosimetric models for specific elements, human data have been used as far as is possible. Where this has not been available a generic modelling approach has been adopted. The models are being used to calculate doses to both mother and offspring for acute and chronic intakes, both before conception and at various times during gestation. Committed doses are being calculated as well as doses to birth. The results of preliminary dose calculations are considered. (author)

  14. Deficiency of the vestibular spine in atrioventricular septal defects in human fetuses with down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Nico A.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Wenink, Arnold G. C.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the morphogenesis of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) in Down syndrome are lacking to support molecular studies on Down syndrome heart critical region. Therefore, we studied the development of complete AVSD in human embryos and fetuses with trisomy 21 using 3-dimensional graphic

  15. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane; Rouse, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. Objectives To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. Search strategy We

  16. Current understanding of the toxicological risk posed to the fetus following maternal exposure to nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wu, Junrong; Feng, Xiaoli; Wang, Ruolan; Chen, Aijie; Shao, Longquan

    2017-12-01

    With the broad use of nanotechnology, the number and variety of nanoparticles that humans can be exposed to has further increased. Consequently, there is growing concern about the potential effect of maternal exposure to various nanoparticles during pregnancy on a fetus. However, the nature of this risk is not fully known. Areas covered: In this review, materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles through the placenta is described. Both prenatal and postnatal adverse effects, such as fetal resorption, malformation and injury to various organs in mice exposed to nanoparticles are reviewed. The potential mechanisms of toxicity are also discussed. Expert opinion: The toxicology and safe application of recently developed nanoparticles has attracted much attention in the past few years. Although many studies have demonstrated the toxicology of nanoparticles in various species, only a small number of studies have examined the effect on a fetus after maternal exposure to nanoparticles. This is particularly important, because the developing fetus is especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of nanoparticles during fetal development due to the unique physical stage of the fetus. Nanoparticles may directly or indirectly impair fetal development and growth after maternal exposure to nanoparticles.

  17. Fatty acid oxidation in the human fetus: implications for fetal and adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, Nadia A.; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2006-01-01

    Studies in the last few years have shown a remarkably high activity of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) enzymes in human placenta. We have recently shown mRNA expression as well as enzymatic activity of long-chain FAO enzymes in the human embryo and fetus. In this study we show activity of the FAO enzymes

  18. SULF 1 gene polymorphism, rs6990375 is in significant association with fetus failure in IVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Taghizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfatase 1 (SULF1 function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics. Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF technique. Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05 regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls. Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.

  19. A new look at the fetus: Thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Mittermayer, Christoph; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50 mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1 s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4 mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images

  20. abdominal pregnancy with a full term live fetus:case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    A. Y. Isah, Y. Ahmed, E. I. Nwobodo and B. A. Ekele. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria ... and two units of blood were transfused intra operatively. The fetus weighed 3.20kg with Apgar scores of 7 and 8 in the 1st and 5th minutes respectively.

  1. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  2. Gender-specific heart rate dynamics in severe intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2013-06-01

    Management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major issue in perinatology. The objective of this paper was the assessment of gender-specific fetal heart rate (FHR) dynamics as a diagnostic tool in severe IUGR. FHR was analyzed in the antepartum period in 15 severe IUGR fetuses and 18 controls, matched for gestational age, in relation to fetal gender. Linear and entropy methods, such as mean FHR (mFHR), low (LF), high (HF) and movement frequency (MF), approximate, sample and multiscale entropy. Sensitivities and specificities were estimated using Fisher linear discriminant analysis and the leave-one-out method. Overall, IUGR fetuses presented significantly lower mFHR and entropy compared with controls. However, gender-specific analysis showed that significantly lower mFHR was only evident in IUGR males and lower entropy in IUGR females. In addition, lower LF/(MF+HF) was patent in IUGR females compared with controls, but not in males. Rather high sensitivities and specificities were achieved in the detection of the FHR recordings related with IUGR male fetuses, when gender-specific analysis was performed at gestational ages less than 34 weeks. Severe IUGR fetuses present gender-specific linear and entropy FHR changes, compared with controls, characterized by a significantly lower entropy and sympathetic-vagal balance in females than in males. These findings need to be considered in order to achieve better diagnostic results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concomitant Craniorachischisis Andomphalocele in a Male Fetus: Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: Prenatal MRI is able to provide a clear whole-body image of the fetus and its relationship with the placenta. Prenatal MRI is very useful in the differential diagnosis of concomitant craniorachischisis and omphalocele from amniotic band sequence, limb body–wall complex with craniofacial defect and Disorganization human homologue.

  4. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Kamali; HesamAdin Seifi; Ahmad Reza Movassaghi; Gholam Reza Razmi; Zahra Naseri

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the extent to which abortion in dairy cows was associated with of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and to determine the risk factors of neosporosis in dairy farms from 9 provinces in Iran. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was used to detect Neospora infection in the brain of 395 bovine aborted fetuses from 9 provinces of Iran. In addition, the brains of aborted fetuses were taken for histopathological examination. To identify the risk factors associated with neosporosis, data analysis was performed by SAS. Results: N. caninum was detected in 179 (45%) out of 395 fetal brain samples of bovine aborted fetuses using PCR. Among the PCR-positive brain samples, only 56 samples were suited for histopathological examination. The characteristic lesions of Neospora infection including non-suppurative encephalitis were found in 16 (28%) of PCR-positive samples. The risk factors including season, parity of dam, history of bovine virus diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in herd, cow’s milk production, herd size and fetal appearance did not show association with the infection. This study showed that Neospora caused abortion was significantly more in the second trimester of pregnancy than other periods. In addition, a significant association was observed between Neospora infection and stillbirth. Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  5. Human fetuses do not register chromosome damage inflicted by radiation exposure in lymphoid precursor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ohtaki, K.; Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Itoh, M.; Awa, A.A.; Cologne, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Human fetuses are generally thought to be highly sensitive to radiation exposure since diagnostic, low-dose X rays (5-50 mSv) have been suggested to increase the risk of childhood leukemia by about 50%. In contrast, animal studies generally did not demonstrate a high radiosensitivity of fetuses and the underlying causes for the discrepancy are not understood. Here, we examined atomic-bomb survivors exposed in utero for translocation frequency in blood lymphocytes at 40 years of age. Contrary to our expectation of higher radiosensitivity in fetuses than in adults, the frequency did not increase with dose except for a small, but statistically significant increase (<1%) at doses below 0.1 Sv. Although an upward convex, humped dose response has been observed in other instances, the peak usually lies at doses above a few Gy, and few examples are known showing the peak response at such low doses. We interpret the results as indicating that fetal lymphoid and/or their precursor cells are sensitive to elimination through apoptosis when damaged. Our results provide a biological basis to resolve the long-standing controversy that substantial risk of childhood leukemia is implicated in human fetuses exposed to low-dose diagnostic X rays whereas animal studies composed mainly of exposures to higher doses consistently fail to confirm it

  6. A Case of Enlarged Intracranial Translucency in a Fetus with Blake’s Pouch Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Iuculano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intracranial translucency (IT is a recently introduced marker of open spina bifida (OSB. In this study, we describe a case of a fetus affected by Blake’s pouch cyst which showed alterations of BS/BSOB ratio at the first trimester screening.

  7. Fetus in fetu in the scrotal sac of newborn | Khope | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetus in fetu (FIF) in the scrotal sac is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of other scrotal swellings in infants and children. Unlike teratoma, FIF is a benign disorder. Scrotal FIF is extraordinarily rare and has been reported only twice in the international literature. We describe the case of a 15-day-old neonate who ...

  8. Severe Neurologic Disorders in 2 Fetuses with Zika Virus Infection, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Reyes, Jorge; Navarro, Edgar; Herrera, Maria José; Goenaga, Eloina; Ospina, Martha L; Parra, Edgar; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Beltran, Mauricio; Gunturiz, Maria Luz; Pardo, Lissethe; Valencia, Catalina; Huertas, Sandra; Rodríguez, Jorge; Ruiz, Germán; Valencia, Diana; Haddad, Lisa B; Tinker, Sarah C; Moore, Cynthia A; Baquero, Hernando

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of pathologic examinations of 2 fetuses from women in Colombia with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that revealed severe central nervous system defects and potential associated abnormalities of the eye, spleen, and placenta. Amniotic fluid and tissues from multiple fetal organs tested positive for Zika virus.

  9. A new look at the fetus: Thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Mittermayer, Christoph [Department of Neonatology and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Neuroradiology, University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50 mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1 s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4 mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images.

  10. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  11. A model for the transfer of alkaline earth elements to the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.; Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    A biokinetic model has been developed for the transfer of calcium, strontium, barium and radium to the human fetus. For the mother, ICRP models were adapted for pregnancy to include increases in gastrointestinal absorption, urinary excretion and bone turnover rates. The fetus was modelled with blood, soft tissue and bone compartments. Fetal requirements for Ca were determined by skeletal calcification, and recycling between fetal and maternal blood was included. Daily transfer of Sr, Ba and Ra to the fetus was taken to be lower than for Ca by factors of 0.6 for Sr and 0.4 for Ba and Ra. For acute intakes in late pregnancy at 35 weeks after conception, when maximum transfer occurs, the model predicts whole-body fetus:mother concentration ratios (C F :C M ) of 18 for Ca, 8 for Sr and 2 for Ba and Ra, respectively. Estimates of committed equivalent doses to the red bone marrow of offspring, including in utero and postnatal dose, after maternal ingestion in late pregnancy, were greater than corresponding doses in adults by factors of 20-30 for 45 Ca, 2-3 for 90 Sr and 3-4 for 226 Ra but slightly lower (0.8-0.9) for 133 Ba. (author)

  12. Coexistência de hipotiroidismo e polimiosite Coexistence of hypothyroidism and polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maize Fernanda Bonim Singh

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com hipotiroidismo freqüentemente apresentam sintomas músculo-esqueléticos e aumento de enzimas musculares, como a creatinaquinase (CK. Com o tratamento hormonal adequado é incomum ocorrer grandes aumentos de CK e manutenção de queixas musculares. Este trabalho relata o caso de uma paciente com hipotiroidismo, queixa de fraqueza muscular proximal e aumento de CK, sem melhora clínica com uso de levotiroxina. O diagnóstico de polimiosite foi confirmado por eletroneuromiografia e biópsia muscular. Após tratamento com prednisona e metotrexato, além de adequação da dose de levotiroxina, houve melhora clínica significativa e normalização da CK.Patients with hypothyroidism frequently present with musculoskeletal complaints and elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes, like creatine kinase (CK. With adequate hormonal treatment, the maintenance of high values of CK and muscle symptoms are uncommon. This work reports a 47-year-old woman with hypothyroidism, proximal muscle weakness and increased CK, who didn't improved with levothyroxine treatment. The diagnosis of polymyositis was based on electromyography and muscle biopsy. After treatment with prednisone plus methotrexate and increase of the levothyroxine dose, there were a clinical improvement and a normalization of CK values.

  13. Unexpected Coexisting Myocardial Infarction Detected by Delayed Enhancement MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gerbaud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unexpected coexisting anterior myocardial infarction detected by delayed enhancement MRI in a 41-year-old man following a presentation with a first episode of chest pain during inferior acute myocardial infarction. This second necrotic area was not initially suspected because there were no ECG changes in the anterior leads and the left descending coronary artery did not present any significant stenoses on emergency coronary angiography. Unrecognised myocardial infarction may carry important prognostic implications. CMR is currently the best imaging technique to detect unexpected infarcts.

  14. An IBM description of coexistence in the platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, M.; Tang, K.T.; Van Isacker, P.

    1996-06-01

    The low-energy spectra of the platinum isotopes show evidence for the presence of two types of configurations: one which involves only excitations of the valence nucleons and another which includes proton excitations across the Z = 82 shell gap. A schematic description is presented of the coexistence and mixing of both configurations in the context of the interacting boson model and energies, electromagnetic transition rates and moments, and radii are studied. The analysis shows that a simultaneous description of both configurations puts constraints on the possible range of model parameters. Isotope and isomer shifts are shown to be sensitive to the mixing of both configurations. (author)

  15. Thermophysical properties of hydrogen along the liquid-vapor coexistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, S. M.; Sulaiman, N.; Bahaa Khedr, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present Theoretical Calculations for the Liquid-Vapor Coexistence (LVC) curve of fluid Hydrogen within the first order perturbation theory with a suitable first order quantum correction to the free energy. In the present equation of state, we incorporate the dimerization of H2 molecule by treating the fluid as a hard convex body fluid. The thermophysical properties of fluid H2 along the LVC curve, including the pressure-temperature dependence, density-temperature asymmetry, volume expansivity, entropy and enthalpy, are calculated and compared with computer simulation and empirical results.

  16. New interpretation of shape coexistence in 99Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhersonneau, G.; Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Oinonen, M.; Penttilae, H.; Persson, J.R.; Peraejaervi, K.; Savelius, A.; Wang, J.C.; Aeystoe, J.

    1997-01-01

    Levels in 99 Zr populated by β decay of on-line mass separated 99 Y have been studied by γ-ray spectroscopic methods, including γ-γ coincidences recorded with an array of ten Ge detectors and level-lifetime measurements. The formerly reported strongly collective character of the 53-keV transition turns out to be questionable. This implies a revision of the experimental evidence for shape coexistence in 99 Zr. Transition rates and γ-ray branching ratios make a new level at 679 keV with t 1/2 =9 ns another candidate for a deformed state. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Coexistence of collapse and stable spatiotemporal solitons in multimode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.

  18. Coexistence of three specialist aphids on common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Mooney, K A; Agrawal, A A

    2008-08-01

    Coexistence of host-specific herbivores on plants is believed to be governed by interspecific interactions, but few empirical studies have systematically unraveled these dynamics. We investigated the role of several factors in promoting coexistence among the aphids Aphis nerii, Aphis asclepiadis, and Myzocallis asclepiadis that all specialize on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Competitive exclusion is thought to occur when interspecific competition is stronger than intraspecific competition. Consequently, we investigated whether predators, mutualists, or resource quality affected the strength of intra- vs. interspecific competition among aphids in factorial manipulations of competition with exposure to predation, ants, and variable plant genotypes in three separate experiments. In the predation x competition experiment, predators reduced aphid per capita growth by 66%, but the strength of intra- and interspecific competition did not depend on predators. In the ants x competition experiment, ants reduced per capita growth of A. nerii and M. asclepiadis (neither of which were mutualists with ants) by approximately one-half. In so doing, ants ameliorated the negative effects of these competitors on ant-tended A. asclepiadis by two-thirds, representing a novel benefit of ant-aphid mutualism. Nevertheless, ants alone did not explain the persistence of competitively inferior A. asclepiadis as, even in the presence of ants, interspecific competition remained stronger than intraspecific competition. In the plant genotype x competition experiment, both A. asclepiadis and M. asclepiadis were competitively inferior to A. nerii, with the strength of interspecific competition exceeding that of intraspecific competition by 83% and 23%, respectively. Yet these effects differed among milkweed genotypes, and there were one or more plant genotypes for each aphid species where coexistence was predicted. A synthesis of our results shows that predators play little or no role in

  19. Coexistence facilitates interspecific biofilm formation in complex microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Røder, Henriette Lyng; Russel, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions in which bacteria respond to one another by modifying their phenotype are central determinants of microbial communities. It is known that interspecific interactions influence the biofilm phenotype of bacteria; a phenotype that is central to the fitness of bacteria. However......, the underlying role of fundamental ecological factors, specifically coexistence and phylogenetic history, in biofilm formation remains unclear. This study examines how social interactions affect biofilm formation in multi-species co-cultures from five diverse environments. We found prevalence of increased...

  20. Microscopic theory of coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkenazi, J.; Kuper, C.G.; Ron, A.

    1983-01-01

    A theory of the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism is presented. We study the role of the ''diagonal'' exchange coupling between magnetic ions and conduction electrons, using Eliashberg's formalism. This coupling generates a spatial displacement of the Cooper-paired states, and thus reduces the pairing strength. The reduction is linear in the exchange integral and the staggered magnetization. The theory agrees well with experiment for Dy/sub 1.2/Mo 6 S 8 and Tb/sub 1.2/Mo 6 S 8

  1. New challenge: the development of social competition for peaceful coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ramírez Ibagon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes the experiences obtained from the initiation of the Basic Development for Reconstruction of Social Abilities with Emphasis on Peaceful Co-Existence Programme. The programme includes young people who have enrolled in the National Reinsertion Programme to obtain their Secundary school Degree. It offers a profile of the population, a recount of the reasons why children and young people participate in armed conflict and also describes the reasons that influence their return. Finally, the paper makes mention of the alms and achievements of said experiences. 

  2. Exhaustible natural resources, normal prices and intertemporal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the classical theory of normal prices to an n-commodity economy with exhaustible natural resources. The central idea is developed by two analytical steps. Firstly, it is assumed that a given flow of an exhaustible resource in short supply is combined with the coexistence of two methods of production using that resource. Sraffa’s equations are reinterpreted by adopting the concept of effectual supply of natural resources and avoiding the assumption of perfec...

  3. Morphological characterization of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and its association to pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Gabriel Moreira FALCI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nasopalatine region is composed of structures such as the vomeronasal organ and nasopalatine duct. The nasopalatine duct may provide the communication of the mouth to the nasal cavity in human fetuses and can be obliterated in an adult human. Knowledge on the development of the nasopalatine region and nasopalatine duct in humans is necessary for understanding the morphology and etiopathogenesis of lesions that occur in this region. Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the morphological aspects of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and correlate these aspects with the development of pathologies in this region. Material and Methods Five human fetuses with no facial or palatine abnormalities were used for the acquisition of specimens from the nasopalatine region. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed. Histological cuts were stained with methylene blue to orient the cutting plane and hematoxylin-eosin for the descriptive histological analysis. Results The age of the fetuses was 8.00, 8.25, 9.00 and 9.25 weeks, and it was not possible to determine the age in the last one. The incisive canal was observed in all specimens as an opening delimited laterally by the periosteum and connecting oral and nasal cavity. The nasopalatine duct is an epithelial structure with the greatest morphological variation, with either unilateral or bilateral occurrence and total patent, partial patent and islet forms. The vomeronasal organ is a bilateral epithelized structure located alongside the nasal septum above the incisive canal in all the fetuses. Conclusions The incisive canal, nasopalatine duct and vomeronasal organ are distinct anatomic structures. The development of nasopalatine duct cysts may occur in all forms of the nasopalatine duct.

  4. Postmortem cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses and children: a masked comparison study with conventional autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew M; Sebire, Neil J; Ashworth, Michael T; Schievano, Silvia; Scott, Rosemary J; Wade, Angie; Chitty, Lyn S; Robertson, Nikki; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2014-05-13

    Perinatal and pediatric autopsies have declined worldwide in the past decade. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with conventional autopsy and histopathology assessment in fetuses and children. We performed postmortem magnetic resonance imaging in 400 fetuses and children, using a 1.5-T Siemens Avanto magnetic resonance scanner before conventional autopsy. A pediatric CMR imager reported the CMR images, masked to autopsy information. The pathologists were masked to the information from CMR images. The institutional research ethics committee approved the study, and parental consent was obtained. Assuming a diagnostic accuracy of 50%, 400 cases were required for a 5% precision of estimate. Three cases were excluded from analysis, 2 with no conventional autopsy performed and 1 with insufficient CMR sequences performed. Thirty-eight CMR data sets were nondiagnostic (37 in fetuses ≤24 weeks; 1 in a fetus >24 weeks). In the remaining 359 cases, 44 cardiac abnormalities were noted at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of CMR was 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%) for detecting any cardiac pathology, with positive and negative predictive values of 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%), respectively. Higher sensitivity of 92.6% (76.6-97.9%), specificity of 99.1% (97.4-99.7%), positive predictive value of 89.3% (72.8-96.3%), and negative predictive value of 99.4% (97.8-99.8%) were seen for major structural heart disease. Postmortem CMR imaging may be a useful alternative to conventional cardiac autopsy in fetuses and children for detecting cardiac abnormalities. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01417962.

  5. Histological characteristics of the gonads of pig fetuses and their relationship with fetal anatomical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontelo, Thais Preisser; Miranda, José Rafael; Felix, Matheus Augusto Rodrigues; Pereira, Barbara Azevedo; da Silva, William Eduardo; Avelar, Gleide Fernandes; Mariano, Flávia Cristina Martins Queiroz; Guimarães, Gregório Corrêa; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the histomorphometric characteristics of the testis and ovaries of pig fetuses at different gestational ages, as well as their correlation with some fetus measurements. Forty-four fetuses were separated for gender (male and female) and gestational age (50, 80 and 106days of gestation). After slaughter, fetuses had their body length, head and thoracic perimeters measured and their gonads submitted to histomorphometric analyses. The gonadal characteristics at different gestational ages were statistically compared, correlations with the fetal measurements were performed and equations to predict the gonadal characteristics from the fetal measurements were obtained. The testis weight logarithmically increased along pregnancy, whereas ovary weight increased in a linear manner. The cordonal length and number of Sertoli cells were positively correlated with the fetal measurements, being higher at 106days gestation, while the nuclear volume of these cells were negatively correlated. The total number of follicles was higher at day 80 and 106 of pregnancy. The number of oogonia decreased along the pregnancy, however, their nucleus size was increased. The number of follicles and volume of oogonia were positively correlated with the fetal measurements, while the number of oogonia was negatively correlated. Equations were obtained for the prediction of gonadal characteristics of fetuses. We concluded that in pigs testis cell proliferation, ovary development and histological organization was more pronounced during the final third of pregnancy. Fetal weight and size were strongly related to gonadal development, and can be used to estimate the histological characteristics of gonads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal cerebral biometry: normal parenchymal findings and ventricular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garel, C.

    2005-01-01

    Assessing fetal cerebral biometry is one means of ascertaining that the development of the fetal central nervous system is normal. Norms have been established on large cohorts of fetuses by sonographic and neurofetopathological studies. Biometric standards have been established in MR in much smaller cohorts. The purpose of this paper is to analyse methods of measuring a few parameters in MR [biparietal diameter (BPD), fronto-occipital diameter (FOD), length of the corpus callosum (LCC), atrial diameter, transverse cerebellar diameter, height, anteroposterior diameter and surface of the vermis] and to compare US and MR in the assessment of fetal cerebral biometry. (orig.)

  7. Discovery of the shape coexisting 0{sup +} state in {sup 32}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Kathrin

    2010-08-16

    The evolution of shell structure in exotic nuclei as a function of proton (Z) and neutron (N) number is currently at the center of many theoretical and experimental investigations. It has been realized that the interaction of the last valence protons and neutrons, in particular the monopole component of the residual interaction between those nucleons, can lead to significant shifts in the single-particle energies, leading to the collapse of classic shell closures and the appearance of new shell gaps. The ''Island of Inversion'' around {sup 32}Mg, which is one of the most studied phenomena in the nuclear chart, is a well known example for such changes in nuclear structure. In this region of neutron-rich nuclei around the magic number N=20 strongly deformed ground states in Ne, Na, and Mg isotopes have been observed. Due to the reduction of the N=20 shell gap quadrupole correlations can enable low-lying deformed 2p-2h intruder states from the fp-shell to compete with spherical normal neutron 0p-0h states of the sd-shell. In this situation the promotion of a neutron pair across the N=20 gap can result in deformed intruder ground states. Consequentially the two competing configurations can lead to the coexistence of spherical and deformed 0{sup +} states in the neutron rich nuclei {sup 30,32}Mg. In this work the shape coexistence in {sup 32}Mg was studied by a two neutron transfer reaction at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN). The two neutron transfer reaction with a {sup 30}Mg beam involved for the first time the use of a radioactive tritium target in combination with a radioactive heavy ion beam. Light charged particles emitted from the target were detected and identified by the T-REX particle detector while {gamma}-rays were detected by the MINIBALL Germanium detector array. The shape of the angular distribution of the protons allows to unambiguously determine the angular momentum transfer {delta}L of the reaction and thus to identify the 0{sup

  8. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  9. Physical layer simulation study for the coexistence of WLAN standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlader, M. K. [Marquette Univ., 222 Haggerty Hall, P. O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Keiger, C. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, 9111 Cross Park Drive, Knoxville, TN 37923 (United States); Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, MS-6006, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Govan, T. V. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, MS T-10-D20, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the performance of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices in the presence of interference from other wireless devices. To understand the coexistence of these wireless protocols, simplified physical-layer-system models were developed for the Bluetooth, Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), and Zigbee devices, all of which operate within the 2.4-GHz frequency band. The performances of these protocols were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations under various interference and channel conditions. The channel models considered were basic additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh fading, and site-specific fading. The study also incorporated the basic modulation schemes, multiple access techniques, and channel allocations of the three protocols. This research is helping the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) understand the coexistence issues associated with deploying wireless devices and could prove useful in the development of a technical basis for guidance to address safety-related issues with the implementation of wireless systems in nuclear facilities. (authors)

  10. Death and cannibalism in a seasonal environment facilitate bacterial coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Daniel E; Philippe, Nadège; Arjan de Visser, J; Lenski, Richard E; Schneider, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial populations can evolve and adapt to become diverse niche specialists, even in seemingly homogeneous environments. One source of this diversity arises from newly 'constructed' niches that result from the activities of the bacteria themselves. Ecotypes specialized to exploit these distinct niches can subsequently coexist via frequency-dependent interactions. Here, we describe a novel form of niche construction that is based upon differential death and cannibalism, and which evolved during 20 000 generations of experimental evolution in Escherichia coli in a seasonal environment with alternating growth and starvation. In one of 12 populations, two monophyletic ecotypes, S and L, evolved that stably coexist with one another. When grown and then starved in monoculture, the death rate of S exceeds that of L, whereas the reverse is observed in mixed cultures. As shown by experiments and numerical simulations, the competitive advantage of S cells is increased by extending the period of starvation, and this advantage results from their cannibalization of the debris of lysed L cells, which allows the S cells to increase both their growth rate and total cell density. At the molecular level, the polymorphism is associated with divergence in the activity of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, with S cells displaying no detectable activity, while L cells show increased activity relative to the ancestral genotype. Our results extend the repertoire of known cross-feeding mechanisms in microbes to include cannibalism during starvation, and confirm the central roles for niche construction and seasonality in the maintenance of microbial polymorphisms.

  11. Water Resources Management. Coexistence and Conflict in Semiarid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira Dias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes water management in the Brazilian semiarid region with emphasis on aspects of coexistence and conflicts over access in rural areas. Experiences of social coexistence in semiarid technologies from the joint to the Brazilian semiarid (ASA and water conflicts from cases of irrigated areas in the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte are explained. For this purpose, we used a qualitative approach through the use of primary and secondary data. The cases provide concrete actions that articulate civil society and the State in favor of the common good. The results indicate that the policy articulated by the ASA there is a governance process in which there are links between the forums of civil society and the interfaces in the planning and implementation of public policies in building public agenda that can bridge the gap between planning, deployment, management and improvement of this policy. In the second case the policy is implemented exclusion and allocation of those communities, placing them on the margins of development, scrapping its links with the territory. The water is not seen from the perspective of the common good and the communities are perceived as an obstacle to “development”. Finally, it outlines themselves from the cases under study, with the idea that limiting access to water in the semiarid region, reflects the precarious welfare and perpetuation of relations of dependency, paternalism and clientelism high proportion of the population rural Brazilian semiarid.

  12. Physical layer simulation study for the coexistence of WLAN standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlader, M. K.; Keiger, C.; Ewing, P. D.; Govan, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the performance of wireless local area network (WLAN) devices in the presence of interference from other wireless devices. To understand the coexistence of these wireless protocols, simplified physical-layer-system models were developed for the Bluetooth, Wireless Fidelity (WiFi), and Zigbee devices, all of which operate within the 2.4-GHz frequency band. The performances of these protocols were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations under various interference and channel conditions. The channel models considered were basic additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), Rayleigh fading, and site-specific fading. The study also incorporated the basic modulation schemes, multiple access techniques, and channel allocations of the three protocols. This research is helping the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) understand the coexistence issues associated with deploying wireless devices and could prove useful in the development of a technical basis for guidance to address safety-related issues with the implementation of wireless systems in nuclear facilities. (authors)

  13. Explosive synchronization coexists with classical synchronization in the Kuramoto model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, Michael M., E-mail: michael.danziger@biu.ac.il; Havlin, Shlomo [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Moskalenko, Olga I.; Kurkin, Semen A. [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya, 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politehnicheskaya, 77, Saratov 410054 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Xiyun [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Boccaletti, Stefano [CNR-Institute of Complex Systems, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); The Italian Embassy in Israel, 25 Hamered Street, 68125 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2016-06-15

    Explosive synchronization has recently been reported in a system of adaptively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, without any conditions on the frequency or degree of the nodes. Here, we find that, in fact, the explosive phase coexists with the standard phase of the Kuramoto oscillators. We determine this by extending the mean-field theory of adaptively coupled oscillators with full coupling to the case with partial coupling of a fraction f. This analysis shows that a metastable region exists for all finite values of f > 0, and therefore explosive synchronization is expected for any perturbation of adaptively coupling added to the standard Kuramoto model. We verify this theory with GPU-accelerated simulations on very large networks (N ∼ 10{sup 6}) and find that, in fact, an explosive transition with hysteresis is observed for all finite couplings. By demonstrating that explosive transitions coexist with standard transitions in the limit of f → 0, we show that this behavior is far more likely to occur naturally than was previously believed.

  14. Wi-Fi Coexistence with Duty Cycled LTE-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of Wi-Fi and LTE-Unlicensed (LTE-U technologies has drawn significant concern in industry. In this paper, we investigate the Wi-Fi performance in the presence of duty cycle based LTE-U transmission on the same channel. More specifically, one LTE-U cell and one Wi-Fi basic service set (BSS coexist by allowing LTE-U devices to transmit their signals only in predetermined duty cycles. Wi-Fi stations, on the other hand, simply contend the shared channel using the distributed coordination function (DCF protocol without cooperation with the LTE-U system or prior knowledge about the duty cycle period or duty cycle of LTE-U transmission. We define the fairness of the above scheme as the difference between Wi-Fi performance loss ratio (considering a defined reference performance and the LTE-U duty cycle (or function of LTE-U duty cycle. Depending on the interference to noise ratio (INR being above or below −62 dbm, we classify the LTE-U interference as strong or weak and establish mathematical models accordingly. The average throughput and average service time of Wi-Fi are both formulated as functions of Wi-Fi and LTE-U system parameters using probability theory. Lastly, we use the Monte Carlo analysis to demonstrate the fairness of Wi-Fi and LTE-U air time sharing.

  15. The Ecohydrologic Role of Coexistence and Competition in Semiarid Hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanjalili, M. J.; Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Through its influence on runoff and erosion-deposition processes, vegetation remarkably regulates different aspects of landscape dynamics. Here, the influence of different plant functional traits on the coexistence of different species in arid and semi-arid regions with patchy vegetation is investigated using an ecohydrology model. The model simulates coevolving changes in biomass patterns for two species, as well as overland flow and soil moisture dynamics. Vegetation patterns emerge as a result of facilitation (shading and infiltration) and competition mechanisms as well as varying seed dispersal strategies. The results show that the survival of only one species or the coexistence of both species not only strongly depends on environmental stresses, but also on differences in hillslope micro and macro topography. These vegetation patterns have very different hydrologic signatures and the potential to trigger remarkably different geomorphic responses. Based on these results we establish new hypothesis that will be used to further investigate the role of plant interspecific and intraspecific feedbacks on landscape coevolution processes.

  16. Autonomy and responsibility as key values for the elaboration of rules of coexistence in the ESO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Pérez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 150 860 Universidad de Salamanca 7 1 1056 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Some of the themes set out in the article are the following: are pupils capable of organising behaviour and coexistence in the classroom? Are they able to elaborate their own rules? Or is it only a theoretical approach that is unviable to put into practise? In any case, what level of responsibility and autonomy are they able to assume in the functioning of the classroom? The learning of rules in the classroom constitutes a real experience, very close to the experience and the interests of the pupils, that permits them to work on values such as: responsibility, respect, participation, dialogue and democracy. At the same time, it teaches them to participate in class meetings, work in small groups, formulate proposals and arrive to a consensus through dialogue and negotiation. The experimental research in this field has demonstrated on numerous occasions that when the teacher generates opportunities to reflect on coexistence in the classroom and involve their pupils, it produces a clear tendency to decrease disruptive behaviour.

  17. Cognitive radio networks medium access control for coexistence of wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Kaigui; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of the medium access control (MAC) principles in cognitive radio networks, with a specific focus on how such MAC principles enable different wireless systems to coexist in the same spectrum band and carry out spectrum sharing.  From algorithm design to the latest developments in the standards and spectrum policy, readers will benefit from leading-edge knowledge of how cognitive radio systems coexist and share spectrum resources.  Coverage includes cognitive radio rendezvous, spectrum sharing, channel allocation, coexistence in TV white space, and coexistence of heterogeneous wireless systems.   • Provides a comprehensive reference on medium access control (MAC)-related problems in the design of cognitive radio systems and networks; • Includes detailed analysis of various coexistence problems related to medium access control in cognitive radio networks; • Reveals novel techniques for addressing the challenges of coexistence protocol design at a higher level ...

  18. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Verne; Fry, Rebecca C.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Rager, Julia E.; Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Stýblo, Miroslav; Drobná, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses

  19. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses

  20. The Epigenetic Effects of a High Prenatal Folate Intake in Male Mouse Fetuses Exposed In Utero to Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Verne; Fry, Rebecca C.; Niculescu, Mihai D.; Rager, Julia E.; Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Stýblo, Miroslav; Drobná, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses

  1. Development of computational pregnant female and fetus models and assessment of radiation dose from positron-emitting tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    /fetus presents a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Therefore, estimation of the radiation dose delivered to the embryo/fetus and pregnant patients from PET examinations to assess potential radiation risks is highly praised. Methods: We constructed eight embryo/fetus models at various gestation periods......Purpose: Molecular imaging using PET and hybrid (PET/CT and PET/MR) modalities nowadays plays a pivotal role in the clinical setting for diagnosis and staging, treatment response monitoring, and radiation therapy treatment planning of a wide range of oncologic malignancies. The developing embryo...

  2. Coexisting chaotic attractors in a single neuron model with adapting feedback synapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Chen Guanrong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the nonlinear dynamical behavior of a single neuron model with adapting feedback synapse, and show that chaotic behaviors exist in this model. In some parameter domain, we observe two coexisting chaotic attractors, switching from the coexisting chaotic attractors to a connected chaotic attractor, and then switching back to the two coexisting chaotic attractors. We confirm the chaoticity by simulations with phase plots, waveform plots, and power spectra

  3. CT analysis of lung cancer and coexistent emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Kyung Hee; Chung, Myung Hee; Sung, Mi Sook; Yoo, Won Jong; Son, Kyung Myung; Son, Jung Min; Park, Seog Hee

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the relation of the location and cell type of lung cancer to the location and degree in coexistent emphysema on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Ninety-eight of 209 lung cancer patients having HRCT scans were retrospectively analyzed to assess the total lung emphysema and peritumoral regional emphysema. Single and primary lung cancers were included. The clinical data, including sex, age, smoking history and the pathologic cancer subtype, were recorded to correlate with the HRCT findings. The lobar distribution, central-peripheral predominance, surrounding parenchymal abnormality for cancer, cephalocaudal predominance, and subtype for emphysema were analyzed on HRCT. Using a CT scoring method, we scored the whole lung emphysema and peritumoral emphysema, and correlated the grading of emphysema with pulmonary functional values. Sixty-nine of 98 patients with lung cancer (71%) had emphysema. Lung cancer with emphysema was significantly higher in men than in women, and was significantly related to smoking. The mean age of cancer patients without emphysema was significantly lower than that of cancer patients with emphysema (68 yrs vs. 61 yrs, p= 0.0006). Emphysema of grade I (0-25%) was found in 52 cases, grade II (25-50%) in 15, and grade III (50-75%) in 2. Total emphysema score was paralleled to peritumoral emphysema score in 64.3%, while the remaining patients had a higher peritumoral emphysema score (grade II or III) than total emphysema score (grade 0 or I). There was no statistical correlation in the developmental location between the emphysema and the lung cancer (significant correlation was only noted in grade II group of total emphysema score). The incidence of non-small cell carcinoma tended to be higher than that of small cell carcinoma in the two groups. The possibility of lung cancer in patients with pulmonary nodule, coexisting emphysema, and especially in elderly patients having a history of smoking must be clarified on HRCT

  4. Coexistence of Obesity and Anemia in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Michaels-Obregon, Alejandra; Wong, Rebeca

    2011-12-08

    INTRODUCTION: Developing countries in Latin America (LA) are experiencing rapid aging as a result of advances in medical interventions. This rapid aging has not occurred with comparable improvements in standards of living. Chronic conditions are becoming highly prevalent while exposure to infectious communicable diseases is very common. This unique situation where communicable and non-communicable diseases coexist in the presence of low socioeconomic status place countries in LA in a unique epidemiological situation. Mexico presents a very good example where the impact of this situation on health warrants further analysis. METHODS: We use data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut 2006), a cross-sectional study representative of all urban and rural areas of Mexico. A total of 5,605 adults older than 60 years of age with valid values for Body Mass Index and Hemoglobin were analyzed. We first included a descriptive analysis of the coexistence of anemia and obesity by age, gender and characteristics of the living environment. We reported the weighted percentages for each covariate by each of four nutritional condition categories (obese and anemic, only-obese, only-anemic, not obese and not anemic). We used multinomial logit regressions to determine the association of socioeconomic characteristics, health status and the living environment with the presence of the three nutritional condition categories. RESULTS: In the ENSANut cohort 10.3% of older adults are anemic, 25.0% are obese and 2.6% are both anemic and obese. Approximately 62% has neither anemia nor obesity. Within the 38% that fall in the three nutritional condition categories, the co-existence of obesity & anemia appears to be associated with metropolitan area residence, living alone, being male, having relatively high wealth, and reporting two or more chronic health conditions. Analyzing the effect of the covariates to distinguish between outcome categories, living environment, age

  5. Coexistence: Threat to the Performance of Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neetu; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2010-11-01

    Wireless technology is gaining broad acceptance as users opt for the freedom that only wireless network can provide. Well-accepted wireless communication technologies generally operate in frequency bands that are shared among several users, often using different RF schemes. This is true in particular for WiFi, Bluetooth, and more recently ZigBee. These all three operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band, also known as ISM band, which has been key to the development of a competitive and innovative market for wireless embedded devices. But, as with any resource held in common, it is crucial that those technologies coexist peacefully to allow each user of the band to fulfill its communication goals. This has led to an increase in wireless devices intended for use in IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless personal area networks (WPANs), both of which support operation in the crowded 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Despite efforts made by standardization bodies to ensure smooth coexistence it may occur that communication technologies transmitting for instance at very different power levels interfere with each other. In particular, it has been pointed out that ZigBee could potentially experience interference from WiFi traffic given that while both protocols can transmit on the same channel, WiFi transmissions usually occur at much higher power level. In this work, we considered a heterogeneous network and analyzed the impact of coexistence between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b. To evaluate the performance of this network, measurement and simulation study are conducted and developed in the QualNet Network simulator, version 5.0.Model is analyzed for different placement models or topologies such as Random. Grid & Uniform. Performance is analyzed on the basis of characteristics such as throughput, average jitter and average end to end delay. Here, the impact of varying different antenna gain & shadowing model for this

  6. Coexistence of different vacua in the effective quantum field theory and multiple point principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volovik, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    According to the multiple point principle our Universe in on the coexistence curve of two or more phases of the quantum vacuum. The coexistence of different quantum vacua can be regulated by the exchange of the global fermionic charges between the vacua. If the coexistence is regulated by the baryonic charge, all the coexisting vacua exhibit the baryonic asymmetry. Due to the exchange of the baryonic charge between the vacuum and matter which occurs above the electroweak transition, the baryonic asymmetry of the vacuum induces the baryonic asymmetry of matter in our Standard-Model phase of the quantum vacuum [ru

  7. External cephalic version of the term breech baboon (Papio sp.) fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, Breton F; Joiner, Laura Lee Rihl; Jimenez, Joe B; Leland, M Michelle

    2007-06-01

    Breech presentation in baboons may be associated with head entrapment and stillbirth during vaginal delivery. For this reason, pregnant dams at our institution typically undergo cesarean delivery for known breech presentation, leading to problems with maternal-infant bonding and increased nursery utilization. This paper describes a simple, non-invasive technique called external cephalic version (ECV) that effectively converts the baboon breech fetus into a cephalic presentation. ECV was successful in each of seven attempted cases, with the consistent development of contractions and vaginal bleeding leading to the delivery of a healthy liveborn infant within 72 hours. ECV may offer a safe and effective alternative to cesarean section for delivery of the breech baboon fetus.

  8. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mibu (Japan); Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Mibu (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  9. MR imaging appearance of laryngeal atresia (congenital high airway obstruction syndrome): unique course in a fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwashima, Shigeko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Kaji, Yasushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Suzumura, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome. Most cases are diagnosed prenatally by US. We report a fetus with this syndrome that showed a unique course revealed on MRI. Ultrasonography at 22 weeks demonstrated that the fetus had ascites and bilaterally enlarged hyperechoic lungs. Congenital infection, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation or CHAOS was suspected. Subsequent MRI performed at 24 weeks demonstrated bilaterally enlarged high-signal lungs, dilated bronchi, massive ascites, subcutaneous oedema and polyhydramnios. MRI confirmed the diagnosis of CHAOS. A second MRI at 35 weeks showed that the bilateral lung enlargement, ascites, oedema and polyhydramnios had resolved, but that the appearance of the airway was unchanged. The infant was delivered by caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation and immediate tracheostomy was performed. This spontaneous regression was explained by a tracheo-oesophageal fistula that may have decreased the intrathoracic pressure. (orig.)

  10. Pregnant x-ray technologist: providing adequate radiation safety for the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprio, M.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The human embryo-fetus is highly radiosensitive and must be protected from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The maximum permissible dose equivalent for the developing embryo-fetus is set at 0.5 rem per year - the MPD level for members of the general public. Methods by which supervisory personnel can limit the fetal dose incurred by the occupational exposure of the mother are presented. It is recommended that supervisory personnel attempt to limit occupational exposure to the current non-occupational MPD levels for all x-ray technologists, thereby, insuring that the fetal dose limits are not surpassed and providing an added safety factor for personnel by keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable

  11. Review of NCRP radiation dose limit for embryo and fetus in occupationally-exposed women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of the current review, the NCRP has decided to make no change in the current recommendation of its radiation dose limit to the unborn. The NCRP recommendation is restated here as follows: During the entire gestation period, the maximum permissible dose equivalent to the embryo-fetus from occupational exposure of the expectant mother should be 0.5 rem. Since the preparation of the 1971 report there has been no new evidence concerning teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of irradiation of the embryo-fetus that would justify a change in the limit in either direction. It is implicit in this position and recommendation that women who can reasonably be expected to be pregnant should not, in certain instances, be exposed to the same radiation environment as women who are not considered fertile or as men. This applies particularly to conditions where radiation workers can receive dose equivalents of 0.5 rem or more in short periods

  12. Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn due to Intravenous Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kara B; Scrape, Scott R; Prasad, Mona; Rossi, Karen Q; O'Shaughnessy, Richard W

    2016-03-01

    Objectives The objective is to present a pregnancy complication associated with intravenous drug use, namely, that of red blood cell alloimmunization and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Methods An observational case series is presented including women with red blood cell alloimmunization most likely secondary to intravenous drug abuse Results Five pregnancies were identified that were complicated by red blood cell alloimmunization and significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, necessitating intrauterine transfusion, an indicated preterm birth, or neonatal therapy. Conclusions As opioid abuse continues to increase in the United States, clinicians should be aware of the potential for alloimmunization to red blood cell antibodies as yet another negative outcome from intravenous drug abuse.

  13. Anterior segment developmental anomalies in a 33-week-old fetus with MIDAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Martina C; Loeffler, Karin U; Gembruch, Ulrich; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Müller, Annette M

    2014-01-01

    We report anterior segment abnormalities in both eyes of a 33-week-old fetus endorsing the diagnosis of MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome. After abortion, the fetus was examined by a standard pediatric autopsy that included macroscopic and microscopic examination of both eyes. Postmortem findings included craniofacial stigmata (such as hypertelorism, a flat nose and low-set ears) and an agenesis of the corpus callosum. Array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome (region Xp22.2 to p22.32). Ophthalmopathologic examination of the eyes revealed microphthalmia with anterior segment developmental anomalies, in particular sclerocornea and Peters' anomaly, respectively. General pathology findings plus the ocular findings allowed the diagnosis of MIDAS syndrome. A discussion of differential diagnoses is provided. This case report indicates that ophthalmopathologic investigation of fetal eyes can be of great value for the further classification of syndromes.

  14. Rhesus-D zygosity and hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloimmunization against the Rhesus-D (RhD antigen still remains as a major cause of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. Determination of paternal RhDzygosity is performed by molecular testing and is valuable for the management of alloimmunized pregnant women. A 30-year-old pregnant woman with AB negative blood group presented with two consecutive abortions and no history of blood transfusion. By application of the antibody screening, identification panel, and selected cells, she was found to be highly alloimmunized. RhDzygosity was performed on her partner and was shown to be homozygous for RhD. The sequence- specific priming-polymerase chain reaction used in this report is essential to establish whether the mother requires an appropriate immunoprophylaxis or the fetus is at risk of HDFN.

  15. Targeted Gene Sequencing and Whole-Exome Sequencing in Autopsied Fetuses with Prenatally Diagnosed Kidney Anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M; Sunde, L; Nielsen, M L

    2018-01-01

    Identification of fetal kidney anomalies invites questions about underlying causes and recurrence risk in future pregnancies. We therefore investigated the diagnostic yield of next-generation sequencing in fetuses with bilateral kidney anomalies and the correlation between disrupted genes and fetal...... phenotypes. Fetuses with bilateral kidney anomalies were screened using an in-house-designed kidney-gene panel. In families where candidate variants were not identified, whole-exome sequencing was performed. Genes uncovered by this analysis were added to our kidney-panel. We identified likely deleterious...... of nephronophthisis. Exome sequencing identified ROBO1 variants in one family and a GREB1L variant in another family. GREB1L and ROBO1 were added to our kidney-gene panel and additional variants were identified. Next-generation sequencing substantially contributes to identifying causes of fetal kidney anomalies...

  16. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  17. Coexistence and transition between shear zones in slow granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Robabeh; Shaebani, M Reza; Maleki, Maniya; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    We report experiments on slow granular flows in a split-bottom Couette cell that show novel strain localization features. Nontrivial flow profiles have been observed which are shown to be the consequence of simultaneous formation of shear zones in the bulk and at the boundaries. The fluctuating band model based on a minimization principle can be fitted to the experiments over a large variation of morphology and filling height with one single fit parameter, the relative friction coefficient μ(rel) between wall and bulk. The possibility of multiple shear zone formation is controlled by μ(rel). Moreover, we observe that the symmetry of an initial state, with coexisting shear zones at both side walls, breaks spontaneously below a threshold value of the shear velocity. A dynamical transition between two asymmetric flow states happens over a characteristic time scale which depends on the shear strength.

  18. Coexistence of bilateral first and second branchial arch anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, J S; Shekar, Vidya; Saluja, Manika; Mohindroo, N K

    2013-01-01

    Branchial arch anomalies are one of the most common congenital anomalies that are usually unilateral and bilateral presentation is rare. The simultaneous presence of bilateral second branchial arch anomalies along with bilateral first arch anomalies is extremely rare, with only three such cases reported in the literature. We present two non-syndromic cases of coexisting bilateral first and second arch anomalies. Developmental anomalies of the branchial apparatus account for 17% of all paediatric cervical masses and are the most common type of congenital cervical mass. They usually present in the paediatric age group. About 96–97% of these anomalies are unilateral. Bilateral presentation is seen in 2–3% having a strong familial association. Congenital syndromes also have been associated with first and second branchial arch anomalies. Thorough clinical examination and investigations should be done to rule out these syndromes. PMID:23580675

  19. Liquid-vapor coexistence by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, Andras; Cummings, Peter T.

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple and consistent molecular dynamics algorithm for determining the equilibrium properties of a bulk liquid and its coexisting vapor phase. The simulation follows the dynamics of the two systems simultaneously while maintaining the volume and the number of particles of the composite system fixed. The thermostat can constrain either the total energy or the temperature at a desired value. Division of the extensive properties between the two phases is governed by the difference of the corresponding intensive state variables. Particle numbers are continuous variables and vary only in virtual sense, i.e., the real sizes of the two systems are the same and do not change during the course of the simulation. Calculation of the chemical potential is separate from the dynamics; thus, one can replace the particle exchange step with other method if it improves the efficiency of the code. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Species Coexistence in Nitrifying Chemostats: A Model of Microbial Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Dumont

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the two nitrifying functions (ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB or nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB of a nitrification reactor—operated continuously over 525 days with varying inputs—were assigned using a mathematical modeling approach together with the monitoring of bacterial phylotypes. Based on these theoretical identifications, we develop here a chemostat model that does not explicitly include only the resources’ dynamics (different forms of soluble nitrogen but also explicitly takes into account microbial inter- and intra-species interactions for the four dominant phylotypes detected in the chemostat. A comparison of the models obtained with and without interactions has shown that such interactions permit the coexistence of two competing ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and two competing nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in competition for ammonium and nitrite, respectively. These interactions are analyzed and discussed.